FICTION __________________________________________________________________________________ Genres: - the novel - the short story - narrative poems - folk tales - allegories - romances - satires

Verisimilitude lifelikeness (how closely it imitates reality Novel: - emerged in 18th century in England/Europe - precursors: o ancient epics (Aeneid, Odyssey, Illiad) o medieval Dante s Divina Commedia o modern epics such as Faerie Queene, Paradise Lost o early romances - centre is on a hero who fulfils a number of tasks - worldview (a view with which everybody agrees - Weltanschaung) changed with the modern novel, which brought individualism and individualistic perspective of the world - Novels that mark beginning of the new genre and replaced the epic: o Cervantes: Don Quixote revolutionary, puts an end to chivalric romance o Fielding: Joseph Andrews - parody and synthesis of traditional genres, a comic romance/epic (almost a novel) o Defoe: Robinson Crusoe o Richardson: Pamela, Clarisa o Sterne: Tristram Shandy Subgenres of the novel: - picaresque novel the experience of a rogue who is in conflict with the society, episodic narrative (normally chronological); Defoe: Moll Flanders - Bildungs roman (a novel of education), development of a protagonist from childhood to maturity; Joyce: A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man - epistolary novel (a novel in letters), first person narrative; Richardson: Pamela - historical novel actions that take place in realistic historical situations; Scott: Waverly - New Journalism reworks true events in a new way, partly related to the historical novel; Capote: In Cold Blood - satirical novel Swift: Gulliver s Travels - utopia/dystopian novel and science fiction novel alternative world to criticize the sociopolitical situation; Orwell: 1984 - gothic novel macabre scenery; Stoker: Dracula - detective novel Christie: Murder on the Orient Express

Short story: - concise form of prose, - its precursors are ancient satire, romance (also medieval and early narrative cycles Decameron, Canterbury tales) - emerged as an individual work in magazines, newspapers (18th century, also novels were published in magazines at that time Comparison Novel vs. Short story - novel is longer, has more characters, different settings, a number of perspectives, characters are detailed - short story gives us impression of unity (read in one sitting), plot is highly selective (short), focuses on one central action, accelerated with different techniques, action starts close to the climax (in medias res), plot is reconstructed with flashbacks, more suggestive, only one perspective (Joyce uses more) Plot: -


a balance must be broken by a conflict for a plot to begin conflict can be either internal (within the protagonist) or external (protagonist is opposed by some outside forces) oppositions can be: human vs. human (antagonist), human vs. nature, human vs. society conflicts can be combined (Eveline) 5 stages: o exposition (the necessary background information) o complication (develops, intensifies the conflict) o crisis (the moment of greatest emotional intensity) o falling action (the tension subsides) o resolution/conclusion (reveals the outcome, establishes balance) highly plotted works, such as detective novels, follow this pattern; we say the plot thickens epiphany sudden revelation, recognition of the state of affairs; more than one stage is merged into one sentence in media res exposition and complication can be omitted, crisis might be the last moment a plotless story representation of a character or idea (Waiting for Godot) plot can be ordered in episodes or a series of episodes (more loosely), flashbacks can be introduced to break the temporal sequence

Setting -

a certain time and place It encompasses the physical location, time of the year, historical conditions... it creates an illusion of life (verisimilitude) it might be significant presented with many details in long passages, or insignificant just mentioned We might see (vivid descriptions, details), or feel (rendering on emotions) the setting

Function of Setting: - a background for an action every action has a background setting, normally there is no connection character - setting - antagonist it influences characters in some way - atmosphere it prepares the reader, arouses his expectations - revealing character how character perceives the setting, reacts to it - a means of reinforcing theme a very specific setting enables the theme to develop and pushes the plot forward Methods of Characterization: - Telling (diagetic) o done by the author o use of names gives us clues about character s traits o description of appearance is never coincidental, always for a purpose o character s age, emotional, physical state Showing (mimetic) o dialogue, action, tone, intonation, context of a dialogue o we find out about the character gradually not immediately o character analysis is shifted from author onto reader o more difficult for the reader: some characters use irony, indirect speech, conceal themselves, some are candid and tell how they feel o speaker s idiolect and tone is important o more significant are the dialogues that take place at night and in more private setting

Characterization - character portrayal (relationship between plot and character is vital) - protagonist: a central figure, his faith is in the centre, both his positive and negative traits are revealed - antagonist: can be more difficult to identify (especially when he is not a human being) - anti-hero: protagonist that does not possess the traits of a traditional hero, does not act as we would expect him to - Flat characters those who embody just a single characteristic or a very limited number of them, normally side characters, do not grow, are used to shed light on the main characters; caricature: when this characteristic is distorted to evoke a humorous effect on a reader, common with stock characters (they appear again and again) - Round characters embody many different traits; they are complex, multidimensional, o a considerable intellectual and emotional capacity and can change; change can be subtle or wildly, can go on for a number of pages or happen in a moment (Joyce s Artist)

Stream of consciousness and Interior monologue Stream of consciousness: - written in FID reveals character's thoughts and feelings from a point of view of a 3rd p. narrator double perspective - refers to any lengthy passages of introspection in literature - written as a normal text, it can be understood - more organized and coherent Interior monologue: - written in FDD, always in present - It denotes a narrative entirely in a wandering, introspective style. - random flow of associations through the character s mind - rarely coherent and organized - lack of commas, pauses, punctuation marks a spontaneous overflow of thinking Narrative perspective / point of view: - story and storyteller who produces narrative voice (real, implied) - point of view colours and shapes the story Omniscient (exterior, unspecified) narrator: - 3rd person, refers to the characters - all knowing, God-like perspective - allows easy changes of setting, time - readers have more information than the characters can go back and forth in time, provides exact info about characters 1st person narrator: - sees the action through the eyes of a character participating in the action - can adopt the narration of a protagonist or of a minor figure - reader knows as much as the narrator knows - can only refer back in time, no insight into the future Figural narrative (through characters) - the narrator moves into the background, plot is revealed through the actions of the characters - we still feel the narrator s leading hand in the background but we get the feeling that everything comes from the characters - no insight into characters minds - involves a number of points of view - reader can judge actions without narrator's influence Homodiegetic narrator is the one who actively participates in the plot, heterodiegetic does not.

_________________________________________________________________________________ NRA Narrative Report of Act - naked facts of situation, environment, event, - John hit Mary. - just a fact, objective description - NP: narrator; F: narrator NRDA - Narrative Report of Discourse Act - describing thinking or feeling; narrator talking about how character perceives the world - John swore at Mary - swore = describing speech - verb of "speaking"; verb of thinking, feeling, speaking, perception, hearing... must be used; feel, hear, notice, recognize, smell, taste... - NP: narrator; F: narrator DD Direct Discourse - what character literally says - direct speech - He said, "I like Mary." - direct speech - NP: character; F: character ID Indirect Discourse - reported speech - narrator reports what the character said - He said he liked Mary - NP: narrator; F: narrator FID Free Indirect Discourse - narrator uses character's words, simple language, some words are repeated in same sentence - reveals character's thoughts and feelings from a point of view of a 3rd p. Narrator; stream of consciousness - present or past - NP: narrator; F: character FDD Free Direct Discourse - interior monologue - Home! Escape! - what character is thinking, but without inverted commas - gives us character's thoughts through the character's eyes - present tense; 1st person - NP: character; F: character _________________________________________________________________________________

Poetry __________________________________________________________________________________ Poetic Language and Form The whereabouts of the poet: poet is the protagonist or he resides outside; persona: imaginative person through which the poet reveals himself The addressee the implied readership of the poem The status of the poem in relation to society is the poem critical or does it support the current state of affairs The status of the poem in relation to tradition it can follow the tradition or it can oppose it (Spenser s Amoretti 15 vs. Shakespeare s Sonnet 130)

Poetic language Especially When October Wind - personification action or trait reserved for humans is used with an inanimate noun (wind punishes) - sonority sounding nice - alliteration - consonance repetition of the same final consonant in the accented syllables of neighbouring words - assonance consonance with vowels - euphony combination of words that sounds pleasantly - cacophony combination of words that sounds harsh, unpleasantly (dark vowels are used) - onomatopoeia - non standard collocation two words used together that would normally not be used in such way (crabbing sun, busy heart, syllabic blood) The Red Wheelbarrow - enjambment a rhetoric device which denotes semantic or grammatical extension in the following line (principal rhetorical device in The Red Wheelbarrow - inter-dependence every line depends on another line(people depend on each other) a - metonymy - one thing is expressed by another (sword violence) - simile connects 2 different items with like or as o tenor part that is being compared o vehicle part after as/like o tertium comparationis - the feature that binds the two o direct address/apostrophe (fair creature of the hour...)

Poetic Metre monometer dimeter trimeter tetrameter pentameter hexameter heptameter octameter iamb U trochee U spondee pyrrhic UU dactyl UU anapaest UU amphibrach U U

acatalectic all feet are whole catalectic one missing unaccented syllable (an extra accented syllable forms a foot) hypercatalectic one extra unaccented syllable (no foot when we have only unaccented syllable) intonation is either falling ( - U) or raising (U -)

Traditional verse forms: - blank verse - unrhymed iambic pentameter (in Shakespeare s plays) - couplet smallest stanzaic form, 2 lines o closed couplet complete thought in 2 lines o epigram short, witty poem consisting of only 1 couplet - tercet 3 line stanza o triplet all 3 lines rhyme o terza rima used by Dante (aba bcb cdc...) - quatrain 4 line stanza; most common in English poetry, 1st and 3rd line are tetrameters, 2nd and 4th are trimetres; used in ballads - quintets 5 line stanza - sestet 6 line stanza; rhyme is ababcc - septet 7 line stanza o rhyme royal : ababbcc (Shakespeare s Rape of Lucrece) - octet (octava) 8 line stanza o ottava rima (abababcc) Byron s Don Juan - 9-line (Spenserian stanza) most intricate; 8 lines of iambic pentameter + final line of iambic hexameter (Alexandrine) abab bcbc c Irony: used to avoid being pathetic, emphatic, sympathetic, to keep a distance from the subject and be objective a contrast between appearance and reality dramatic irony the state of affairs known to the reader is the reverse of what is supposed to be situational irony a set of circumstances is reverse to what is expected


verbal irony most common, a contrast between what is literally said and what is meant (denotative and commutative meaning) exaggeration/hyperbole/overstatement tells too much understatement/litotes/meiosis tells too little bathos a descent from elevated to the low intertextuality a link to another source ambiguity the use of a word or a phrase that produces 2 or more competing meanings; can achieve an ironic effect a pun/wordplay ambiguity is achieved with a homonym (same spelling. different meaning) a paradox wordplay that plays on ideas; a statement that is somehow true, even though it appears contradictory and absurd at first o oxymoron a paradox in 2 words (a little giant)


Intertextuality: - a complex inter-relationship between a text and other texts - to understand a text fully we need to understand some other text - Yeats Auden Brotzky - Hleaney