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- PhysRevE_72_051920_2005
- 2004__GDI__Physica A 341 (2004) 547 – 555

**Pattern formation in a fractional reaction–diffusion system
**

V.V. Gaﬁychuk

a,Ã

, B.Yo. Datsko

b

a

Institute of Computer Modeling, Cracow University of Technology, ul. Warszawska 24, Cracow 31-155, Poland

b

Institute for Applied Problems of Mechanics and Mathematics, National Academy of Sciences, Naukova St, 3b, Lviv 79601, Ukraine

Received 28 June 2005; received in revised form 13 September 2005

Available online 18 October 2005

Abstract

We investigate pattern formation in a fractional reaction–diffusion system. By the method of computer simulation of the

model of excitable media with cubic nonlinearity we are able to show structure formation in the system with time and space

fractional derivatives. We further compare the patterns obtained by computer simulation with those obtained by

simulation of the similar system without fractional derivatives. As a result, we are able to show that nonlinearity plays the

main role in structure formation and fractional derivative terms change the transient dynamics. So, when the order of time

derivative increases and approaches the value of 1.5, the special structure formation switches to homogeneous oscillations.

In the case of space fractional derivatives, the decrease of the order of these derivatives leads to more contrast dissipative

structures. The variational principle is used to ﬁnd the approximate solution of such fractional reaction–diffusion model.

In addition, we provide a detailed analysis of the characteristic dissipative structures in the system under consideration.

r 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Fractional reaction–diffusion equations; Self-organization; Pattern formation; Dissipative structures; Traveling pulse

1. Introduction

Pattern formation in evolutionary dynamics has been studied as an example of phenomena inherent to

many natural systems. It is well known that the reaction–diffusion models are used to study self-organization

phenomena in physical, chemical and biological systems (see, for example, Refs. [1–4]). The interest in self-

organization phenomena dynamics as a means to explore diversity of the phenomena in nonlinear dissipative

systems far from equilibrium has grown exponentially over the past decade. There are several approaches that

we use to ﬁnd solutions for nonlinear dissipative systems. Computer simulation of the nonlinear systems is the

most widely used method of investigating system dynamics. The variational method has been developed to

yield approximate solutions of the reaction–diffusion system. By this method, having obtained the nonlinear

solutions from the computer simulation, it is possible to ﬁnd the analytical approximate solutions using the

variational principle [5–9]. As a result, we obtain an analytical expression for parameters approximating these

solutions. Such an approach was successfully used for the investigation of self-organization phenomena in

ARTICLE IN PRESS

www.elsevier.com/locate/physa

0378-4371/$ - see front matter r 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

doi:10.1016/j.physa.2005.09.046

Ã

Corresponding author.

E-mail address: viva@pancha.lviv.ua (V.V. Gaﬁychuk).

different reaction–diffusion systems and many new nonlinear phenomena were revealed by application of a

variational method [8,9].

In the recent years there has also been a great deal of interest in fractional diffusion models [10–14]. These

models are obtained by replacing in the classical diffusion equations the partial derivatives with respect to

space and time by integro-differential operators, namely by derivatives of noninteger order, in such a way that

the resulting Green function can still be interpreted as a probability density evolving in time differently from

the Gaussian type [15]. The diffusion processes of such type of behavior are called anomalous. The article [16]

provides a thorough review of the recent developments in the framework of fractional dynamics and its

applications.

In this paper, we study pattern formation in the fractional reaction–diffusion system with model

nonlinearity of cubic type and analyze peculiarities of this formation with respect to the corresponding system

with regular derivatives. We consider the situation with enhanced diffusion usually met in biological systems

and turbulent plasma [16], poly-crystals and heterogeneous media [10], etc.

The characteristic feature of fractional reaction–diffusion models is that not only can we not analyze

nonlinear solutions analytically, but also the linear theory of instability of uniform distributions of the

variables is not completely developed [11,17]. In this case, the computer simulation of the model under

consideration is difﬁcult to overestimate. To study the self-organization phenomena, we consider the following

model that describes an excitable medium in terms of fractional reaction–diffusion equations

0

D

b

t

u ¼ l

2

D

a

x

u Àqðu; v; AÞ, (1)

0

D

b

t

v ¼ L

2

D

a

x

v ÀQðu; v; AÞ. (2)

Here l; L are the characteristic lengths of variations of u and v, respectively; ; A are certain parameters. The

general view of the reaction–diffusion equations is the same as considered in Refs. [1,2]; the only difference is

the form of the time and spatial operators. The operators on the left-hand side of Eqs. (1), (2), instead of time

derivatives, are the Caputo fractional derivatives in time, of the order 1obo2 [18],

0

D

b

t

f ðx; tÞ ¼

1

Gð2 ÀbÞ

t

0

q

2

t

f ðx; tÞ

ðt ÀtÞ

aÀ1

dt. (3)

The operators D

a

x

on the right-hand side of Eqs. (1), (2) are Riemman–Liouville fractional derivatives, and

they can be represented in the left and right form respectively, as Ref. [18]:

D

a

x

u

0

D

a

x

f ðx; tÞ ¼

1

GðmÀaÞ

q

m

x

x

0

f ðy; tÞ

ðx ÀyÞ

aþ1Àm

dy, (4)

D

a

x

u

x

D

a

L

x

f ðx; tÞ ¼

ðÀ1Þ

m

GðmÀaÞ

q

m

x

L

x

x

f ðy; tÞ

ðy ÀxÞ

aþ1Àm

dy, (5)

where mÀ1oaom with m being a positive integer, and we consider the system for 1oao2 on the interval

[0; L

x

].

This system is a subject to periodic boundary conditions uð0; tÞ ¼ uðL

x

; tÞ; vð0; tÞ ¼ vðL

x

; tÞ; u

x

ðx ¼ 0; tÞ ¼

u

x

ðx ¼ L

x

; tÞ; v

x

ðx ¼ 0; tÞ ¼ v

x

ðx ¼ L

x

; tÞ.

The speciﬁc form of the ‘‘sources’’, chosen here, is [6,7,19,20]:

q ¼ Àu þu

3

=3 þv; Q ¼ v Àu ÀA. (6)

Nullclines of these nonlinearities presented in Fig. 1(a) are the same as in the FitzHugh–Nagumo equations.

The variables u and v are the scalar real ﬁelds representing the activator and inhibitor, respectively. Depending

on the parameter A of the nullcline Q ¼ 0 the model (1), (2) has different solutions which we will try to ﬁnd by

computer simulation. The reaction–diffusion system (1), (2) has a spatially homogeneous state u

0

; v

0

, which at

certain value of the parameter A is unstable. The type of this instability in the case of regular derivatives

(a ¼ 2; b ¼ 1) is very well known [1,2] and can lead to Turing or Hopf bifurcation. In fact, for the standard

reaction–diffusion system (a ¼ 2; b ¼ 1) with sources (6) when l=L51 the homogeneous state is unstable

under certain conditions ðÀ

1

3

oAo

1

3

Þ with respect to the wave numbers k

0

’ ðlLÞ

À1=2

ðq

0

y

Q

0

Z

ÀQ

0

y

q

0

Z

Þ

1=4

(Turing

ARTICLE IN PRESS

V.V. Gaﬁychuk, B.Y. Datsko / Physica A 365 (2006) 300–306 301

bifurcation). At the same values of the parameter A ðÀ

1

3

oAo

1

3

Þ the homogeneous distribution u

0

; v

0

is

unstable with respect to homogeneous (k ¼ 0) ﬂuctuations o

0

’

À1=2

ðq

0

y

Q

0

Z

ÀQ

0

y

q

0

Z

Þ

1=2

if 51 (Hopf

Bifurcation).

In the case of fractional derivatives, we cannot implement such simple linear analysis of the system (1), (2)

[11,17] and there is a question about the possible patterns formation.

We perform numerical simulation of the system (1), (2) for establishing characteristic features of pattern

formation of the system under consideration. As a result, we show that the generated patterns in the case of

fractional derivatives are similar to the pattern we usually get from the regular reaction–diffusion system. The

obtained results conﬁrm that the nonlinear mechanism, which is responsible for pattern formation, is mainly

the same as for the standard reaction–diffusion system. Fractional derivatives inﬂuence the dynamics of

pattern formation and their form. In this case, transient processes of pattern formation are different depending

on the value of the derivative.

Let us consider two different cases. In the ﬁrst case, time derivatives are fractional and space derivatives are

integers. In the second case, time derivatives are integers and space derivatives are fractional.

2. The time fractional reaction–diffusion system

First of all we start with consideration of the reaction–diffusion equations (1), (2) provided that time

derivatives are fractional

0

D

b

t

u ¼ l

2

u

xx

þu Àu

3

=3 Àv, (7)

0

D

b

t

v ¼ L

2

v

xx

Àv þu ÀA. (8)

Now the original set of Eqs. (7), (8) will be the subject of numerical simulation. Using the classical expression

for the form of the second space derivative and the fractional differential scheme for the Grunwald–Letnikov

operator [21], which includes the initial condition, we developed numerical algorithms similar to [22]. In fact,

in a boundary—initial problem we deﬁne two kinds of grids: spatial and temporal. The spatial domain ½0; L

x

is divided into the uniform mesh with N þ1 nodes x

i

¼ ih for i ¼ 0; N, where h ¼ L

x

=N. We used a classical

expression for the approximation of the second derivatives in the right-hand side of the system. The time-

interval ½0; T is divided into F subintervals where the sub-interval length equals dt ¼ T=F and the time-nodes

are t

f

¼ f Âdt for f ¼ 0; F. In case where a is a fractional number the discrete forms of fractional derivatives

is exactly the same as derived in the article [22].

Here we present the results of computer simulation for the following characteristic examples. In Fig. 1(b) we

plotted the stationary distribution of the activator (variable u) and inhibitor (variable v) for b sufﬁciently close

to unity for two different values of the parameter l. In this case such distribution corresponds to the

distribution we usually obtain by the computer simulation of the regular system (b ¼ 1). This fact conﬁrms

that the computation schema is reliable, while stationary distributions, when they exist, do not depend on the

parameter b. The ﬁgure shows that the proﬁle of the dissipative structures is mainly inﬂuenced by the diffusion

ARTICLE IN PRESS

Fig. 1. (a) Nullclines of the system under consideration and (b) solutions at A ¼ 0. Solid lines correspond to variable u for b ¼ 1:1; l

2

¼

0:01; L ¼ 1; L

x

¼ 2:8 (black line) and for b ¼ 1:1; l

2

¼ 0:05; L ¼ 1 (gray line). Dotted line corresponds to variable v.

V.V. Gaﬁychuk, B.Y. Datsko / Physica A 365 (2006) 300–306 302

lengths l; L. Fig. 2 shows the kinetics of dissipative structures formation for the case A ¼ 0. The system was

simulated by changing the parameter b. For b approaching 1 the dynamics is quite similar to the case b ¼ 1.

Increasing the value b leads to the generation of small oscillations at the beginning of the structure formation,

and the transient process is not monotonic. Nevertheless, the dissipative structures emerge, and as a result we

have steady state dissipative structures when the parameter b ¼ 1:45. At some value near b ¼ 1:5, instead of

steady state dissipative structure formation, we have oscillations of the homogeneous state (Fig. 2d).

At A ¼ 0 we get u ¼ v ¼ 0 for homogeneous distributions given by (7), (8). In the linear limit the variables

u; v are correlated and the linear stage can be approximately represented by a single oscillator equation

0

D

b

t

u þu ¼ 0

which has recently been investigated in Ref. [23] and the solution of such oscillator for uð0Þ ¼ d; u

0

ð0Þ ¼ 0 is

given by the formula

uðtÞ ¼

d

p

1

0

e

Àrt

r

bÀ1

sinðpbÞ dr

r

2b

þ1 þ2r

b

cosðpbÞ

þ

d

p

2

b

e

t cosðp=bÞ

cos t sin

p

b

¸

. (9)

As it was analyzed in detail in Ref. [23], the solution represents damping oscillations when b41. These

oscillations are at initial stages of their paths of the order of d and that is probably the reason why the

nonhomogeneous dissipative structures are unstable at the increase of the parameter b.

We have also studied the dependence of such structures formation on the bifurcation parameter A. The

computer simulation shows that in all the region where nullcline q ¼ 0 is a growing function, the dissipative

structures exist and have the form presented in Figs. 1(b) and 2. It should be noted that the width (the distance

between two opposite walls on Fig. 1(b) of the structures decreases with the decrease of the parameter A, and

ARTICLE IN PRESS

Fig. 2. Kinetics of dissipative structure formation for different values of b: (a) b ¼ 1:01; (b) b ¼ 1:35; (c) b ¼ 1:45; (d) b ¼ 1:5. All other

parameters are: A ¼ 0; l

2

¼ 0:02; L ¼ 1; L

x

¼ 4.

V.V. Gaﬁychuk, B.Y. Datsko / Physica A 365 (2006) 300–306 303

increases when A increases. The kinetics in structure formation is practically the same for the whole region of

the existing dissipative structures ðÀ

1

3

oAo

1

3

Þ.

The next section serves to illustrate the qualitative features of the system under consideration when special

derivatives are of the fractional order.

3. The space fractional reaction–diffusion system

Let us investigate pattern formation features that emerge from considering the spatial fractional derivatives.

More precisely, we focus on the nonlinear fractional reaction–diffusion system:

u

t

¼ l

2

D

a

x

u þu Àu

3

=3 Àv, (10)

v

t

¼ L

2

D

a

x

v Àv þu ÀA. (11)

Numerical simulation of the system (10), (11) is based on the well-known technique for solving parabolic type

partial differential equations, namely, the methods of lines. For this Riemman–Liouville fractional derivatives

(at space) are represented at every point of the interval by corresponding difference convolution integrals,

while the derivatives along the time axis are untouched [24]. The system of partial differential equations is

thereby transformed into a system of ordinary differential equations (ODE) and then integrated in time using

an ODE software [25]. The choice of the value of discretization and the local error of integration were made so

that the necessary accuracy of the desired solution and the stability of calculations were ensured.

Some of the results of the computer simulation of the system are presented in Figs. 3 and 4. In the case when

¼ 1 we can get a stationary dissipative structures, the form of which is a little bit different from the structures

of the standard reaction–diffusion system. Dissipative structures have practically the same parameters (like the

same width), but exhibit much more contrast. The fact is that dispersion inﬂuenced by space fractional

derivatives is smaller than dispersion given by second order derivatives. Changing the parameter A changes the

general form of these structures, but almost does not change the region of their existence (Fig. 3).

It should be noted that in this case the effective way of investigation of the patterns is the use of variational

principles [5–7]. The matter is that contrasting distributions of the fast variable u and smooth distributions of

the variable v show that the variational principle is much more applicable than in the case of the standard

reaction–diffusion model (a ¼ 2). Such an approach makes it possible to ﬁnd the approximate analytical

solution of dissipative structures. Let us write down the variational principle in the form [5–7]:

D ¼

1

2

1

À1

½ð

_

y Àl

2

D

a

x

y þqÞ

2

þð_ Z ÀL

2

D

a

x

Z þQÞ

2

dx. (12)

As an example, we will show how such a variational principle (12) can be used to ﬁnd the solutions of Eqs. (1),

(2). To do this we consider the solution of the system for ¼ l=L51 of the ﬁelds y and Z as the combination of

sharp and smooth pieces for the distribution of y and smooth structures for Z at the interval ½0; L

x

=2. In

ARTICLE IN PRESS

Fig. 3. Stationary state for a ¼ 1:5 (solid line): (a) A ¼ 0:2 and (b) A ¼ 0. All other parameters are: ¼ 1; l

2

¼ 0:01; L ¼ 1; L

x

¼ 2:8.

Dotted line corresponds to standard reaction–diffusion system.

V.V. Gaﬁychuk, B.Y. Datsko / Physica A 365 (2006) 300–306 304

particular, we assume that the model solutions have the form [5–7]

y ¼

1

~

ðx ÀxÞ; jx Àxjp~ ;

y

h

; x þ ~ pxpL

x

=2;

Ày

h

; 0pxpx À ~ :

(13)

Z ¼ Z

0

¼ const. (14)

Substituting (13), (14) into (12) then we can determine their parameters by writing the following system of

equations of motion:

dD

d

_

x

¼ 0;

dD

d

_

y

h

¼ 0;

dD

d_ Z

0

¼ 0. (15)

Performing calculation we have, up to small quantities ~ ¼ l=L51, the following equations for the variables x,

Z

0

and y

h

:

_

x À ~ Z

0

¼ 0,

_ Z

0

þZ

0

ÀA À

L

2

Z

0

Gð2 ÀaÞð1 ÀaÞ

2

ðL

x

=2Þ

Àa

þy

h

2x ÀL

x

=2

L

x

=2

¼ 0,

_

y

h

þ

y

3

h

3

Ày

h

ÀZ

0

2x ÀL

x

=2

L

x

=2 À2~

¼ 0,

from which it follows for A ¼ 0, ~ ¼ l=L51 (Fig. 3) the stationary state of the original system is:

Z

0

¼ 0; y

h

¼

ﬃﬃﬃ

3

p

; x ¼ L

x

=4 (16)

and the solution (13), (14) corresponds to the one represented on the Fig. 3.

We illustrate also the existence of traveling structures which are presented at A ¼ 1:1 and A ¼ 0:5. At the

small value of , the classic reaction–diffusion system has a traveling pattern solution. In particular, for L ¼ 0

the reaction–diffusion model is known as the FitzHugh–Nagumo model. The results of computer simulation

of such model with fractional derivatives is presented in Fig. 4 a,b. The stimulated traveling pulses in this case

are not so wide and have a smaller velocity. Nevertheless, the main features of these traveling pulses are the

same as in the regular case.

4. Conclusion

The reaction–diffusion system has been extended in order to take into account fractional derivatives. It has

been demonstrated by computer simulation that dissipative structures, inherent to the standard system, exist

ARTICLE IN PRESS

Fig. 4. Traveling pulses for a ¼ 1:5 (solid line): (a) A ¼ 1:0, for (b) A ¼ 0:5. All other parameters are: ¼ 0:02; l

2

¼ 0:01;

L ¼ 0:0; L

x

¼ 8. Dotted line corresponds to standard reaction–diffusion system.

V.V. Gaﬁychuk, B.Y. Datsko / Physica A 365 (2006) 300–306 305

for this more general model also. We performed investigation of the kinetics of the structure formation

provided the order of the time derivatives increases bX1. We were able to show that at certain value of b, the

formation of dissipative structures switches to formation of homogeneous oscillations.

In the case of space fractional derivatives we investigated the form of the stationary and traveling structures

when the order of the derivatives decreases (ap2). Despite the fact that the form of the obtained structures is

different and the structures are much more contrast, they possess similar nonlinear properties. The obtained

steady state and traveling dissipative structures in the zeroth approximation represent the combination of

sharp walls and smooth distribution of variables. We used generalized Gauss variational principal to ﬁnd an

analytical expression for approximate solution of the steady state dissipative structures.

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V.V. Gaﬁychuk, B.Y. Datsko / Physica A 365 (2006) 300–306 306

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