Automatic Seed Sowing Machine

CHAPTER 1

ABSTRACT
India is widely known in the world for its agricultural activities. Farming is one of the important commercial businesses. Still in our country enough importance is not given to the improvements in the agricultural field. The traditional methods of farming are not able to satisfy all the need of the farmers effectively. The current growth in the agriculture sector is not very satisfactory as compared to other sectors. The farmers are much dependant on bullocks or tractors and are unable to bear up with its increasing cost. Hence we can see large number of suicide cases of farmers now days. Thus there is need to mechanize this sector with the least possible cost. This project attempts to introduce a modern technology that can be proved to be effective in seed sowing operation. It is observed that the conventional method requires bullock and skilled operator during peak season for sowing the seed in the right quantity at right distance. Thus, the necessity of skilled operator increases the overall cost of this operation. Hence we are developing a “Low Cost Manually Operated Seed and Fertilizer Drill for Sorghum ”; as in the Belgaum district Rabi Sorghum is taken on the large scale. Sowing, planting and transplanting are basic and one of the most important farming operations. The placement of seed and fertilizer at proper depth in the soil and placement of fertilizer is very important as far as germination of seed is concerned. Here fertilizer should not be placed over the seed to avoid chemical injury to the seed which affects its germination. It is also essential to keep

Department of Mechanical Engineering K.B.N. College Of Engineering, Gulbarga

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Automatic Seed Sowing Machine
the plant population optimum in the field to have maximum yield. To achieve the maximum output, it is necessary to place seeds at desired spacing and depth by avoiding the wastage of the seeds by using it in right quantity.

CHAPTER 2

INTRODUCTION
2.1 Sorghum cultivation in India
Sorghum is the most important crop in Karnataka occupying the highest area of 55 lakh hectares with 36 per cent of the total cropped area under cultivation. Sorghum is grown both in Kharif and Rabi seasons. There is more area in Rabi season (about 32 lakh hectares than in Kharif about 23 lakh hectares). Sorghum popularly known as Sorghum is the most important food and fodder crop of dry land agriculture. In India, sorghum is eaten by human either by breaking the grain and cooking it in the same way as rice or by grinding it into flour and preparing ‘Bhakaries’. Generally the colour of Sorghum grains is pearly white and very attractive Bhakari (Bread) prepared from Sorghum grains is very tasty and relished by rural people, particularly by the farming community. It is good for health also. Sorghum fodder is also nutritious and commonly fed to farm and dairy animals. This grain is also fed to cattle, poultry and swine. Sorghum grain contains about 10-12 per cent protein, 3 per cent fat and 70 per cent carbohydrates; therefore, it can satisfactorily replace other grains in the feeding programme for dairy cattle, poultry and swine. Its industrial use has tremendous scope. Cultivation of Sorghum is

Department of Mechanical Engineering K.B.N. College Of Engineering, Gulbarga

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Automatic Seed Sowing Machine
mainly concentrated in peninsular and central India. Maharashtra, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh (the Bundelkhand region) and Tamil Nadu are the major Sorghum-growing states. Other states grow sorghum in small areas primarily for fodder.

2.2 Season
Sorghum can be grown under a wide range of climatic conditions although ideally it requires warm climate. It is grown from sea level to as high as 1500 meters. Sorghum plants can tolerate high temperatures throughout their life cycle better than any other cereal crop. It can tolerate drought conditions very well because it remains dormant during moisture stress conditions but resumes growth when favorable conditions reappear. It has a low transpiration ratio and a large number of fibrous roots. It can also tolerate waterlogging conditions better than any other cereal except rice. Therefore, sorghum can be grown successfully in areas having an average annual rainfall between 600 and 1000 mm. It is grown as a kharif crop in northern India. In western and southern parts of the country it is grown as a rabbi crop. The minimum temperature for the germination of sorghum seeds is 7-10 Degree Celsius. It needs about 26-30 Degree Celsius temperature for its optimum growth. Sorghum is a short day plant. Flowering is hastened by short days and delayed by long days. The time of heading in sorghum is influenced by temperature as well as photo-period. Sorghum varieties vary in their sensitivity to both temperature and photo-period.

2.3 Soils
Department of Mechanical Engineering K.B.N. College Of Engineering, Gulbarga
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Automatic Seed Sowing Machine
Sorghum is grown in a variety of soils in India. Soils with clay loam or loam texture, having good water retention capacity are best suited for sorghum cultivation. It does not thrive in sandy soils but does better on heavier soils. It does well in pH range of 6.0-8.5 as it tolerates considerable salinity and alkalinity. The black cotton soils of Central India are very good for its cultivation.

Department of Mechanical Engineering K.B.N. College Of Engineering, Gulbarga

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Automatic Seed Sowing Machine

2.4 Cultivation
Sorghum seed should be drilled in a well prepared seedbed free from weeds. The first ploughing should be done with soil turning plough so that 20-25 centimeter deep soil may become loose. It should be followed by two to three harrowings or three to four inter-crossing ploughings with country plough. Thereafter planking should be done to break the clods and to level the field. In black cotton soil area, if the land is badly infected with weeds, ploughing followed by harrowings is usually practiced, but where land is free from weeds or with few weeds, the land is cultivated only with bakhar (blade harrow).The seed should be purchased from a reliable source. It is advisable to always use certified seed. If seed is not already treated, it should be treated with chemicals like Thiram or Agro-san G. N. at the rate of 3 gm per kg seed. In case of hybrids, new hybrid seeds should be used every year.

2.5 Sowing
8-16 kg seed per hectare is considered sufficient to ensure a good stand. There should be 1, 11,000 plants per hectare to attain maximum yield. The seed should be sown in rows 45 centimeter apart. Plant to plant distance should be 20 centimeter. Seed should be sown at a depth of 3-4 centimeters. It should not be sown more than 5 centimeters deep in any case. In Northern India sorghum is sown either by broadcasting or in rows behind the plough. Seeds of new hybrids and varieties should always be sown in lines for obtaining higher yield. Sowing in rows is common in black cotton soil. In northern India sorghum is sown only in Kharif season. In irrigated areas, first week of July has been found most suitable for sowing of most hybrids, and improved varieties. Under un-irrigated conditions, sowing should be done preferably within one week of the onset of first monsoon showers. Timely planted crop escapes the damages due to shoot fly and midge. Late planting may not fit well in multiple rotations.Rabi sowing is done mainly in Maharashtra,

Department of Mechanical Engineering K.B.N. College Of Engineering, Gulbarga

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6 Fertilizer Management As sorghum removes nutrients in heavy amount from the soil it requires heavy doses of fertilizers. Rabi sowing should be done from the second fortnight of September to the middle of October.N. 2. In light soils top dressing should be done in two splits. The basal dressing can be done with the help of fertilizer-cum-seed drill. Gulbarga 6 .Automatic Seed Sowing Machine Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh.The quantity of fertilizers to be applied varies according to the fertility status of the soil. Summer crop of sorghum is sown in the month of January and February in irrigated areas of Tamil Nadu. when soil tests data are not available. If fertiseed drill is not available fertilizer mixture may be spread uniformly in the field and mixed thoroughly in the soil with the help of a harrow or cultivator. Manure and fertilizers both play important roles in the sorghum cultivation. However. The fertilizer should be placed 3-5 centimeter to the side and 3-5 centimeters below the seed. besides providing essential nutrients to the crop. In the rain fed areas. College Of Engineering. Andhra Pradesh and some areas of Karnataka. application of farm yard manure or compost at the rate of 10 to 15 tones per hectare improves the water holding capacity and microbial activities in the soil. In case of rain-fed crop. Farm yard manure or compost should be added in the field at the time of last ploughing. The remaining half quantity of nitrogen should be top dressed after 30-35 days of sowing. 50 kg P2O5 and 40 kg K2O per hectare for hybrids and improved varieties of sorghum under irrigated condition. Half dose of nitrogen and total amount of phosphorus and potash should be applied at the time of sowing. quantity of fertilizer should be reduced to half of the irrigated and the entire quantity should be applied 10 cm deep in soil at the time of sowing. apply 100-120 kg nitrogen. Department of Mechanical Engineering K. Half of the above dose should be applied in case of local varieties for better results.B.

8 Water Management Usually. be provided whenever. thinning is very important operation for maintaining desired plant populations. 2. At the time of flowering and grain filling stages.9 Harvesting and Threshing Most of the high yielding sorghum hybrids and varieties take about 100-115 days to mature. At no stage. 12-15 centimeter plantto-plant spacing in a row by thinning out extra plants at two stages should be ensured. Some clay soils in low rainfall areas lose plant food elements much more slowly than sandy soils. College Of Engineering. The crop should be harvested Department of Mechanical Engineering K. 2. sorghum is grown as a rain fed crop.B. 2. All disease and insect infested plants should be removed while thinning.N. Suitable drainage conditions should be provided for the removal of excess rainwater from the field. If enough moisture is not there in the soil at the time of flowering and grain filling. The irrigation should. when crop is 20-25 days old. Gulbarga 7 . the plants should be allowed to wilt.7 Thinning In sorghum cultivation. rains are not received. however.Automatic Seed Sowing Machine Fertilizers are required where soils are deficient in plant food elements. thinning should be done 10-15 days after emergence and second. plant food elements are reduced and yields of crops are lowered. Sandy soils loose plant food elements rapidly because these are leached out by heavy rainfall or applications of irrigation water. it should be irrigated at once. When land is planted to crops over a long period of years. It is now recognized that higher yields can be expected from most soils in all areas if the right type of fertilizer is properly applied. First. the crop requires more water.

B.3 8.9 6 727 806 12 1.4 855 833 7.5 1.9 .04 7. 727 10. In the areas where there is danger of rain at the time of harvesting. It is advised not to wait for stalks and leaves to dry because plants of hybrid sorghum appear green even after the crop is mature.3 0.75 20.1 3.2 TAMIL NADU UTTAR PRADESH OTHERS ALL-INDIA 0.1 MAHARASHTRA RAJASTHAN 5.5 100 0.Automatic Seed Sowing Machine immediately after it is mature.98 4.9 2.5 100 882 .9 732 K.4 687 476 7. The threshed grain should be cleaned and dried in sun for about a week to bring the moisture content down to 13-15 per cent for safe storage.2 KARNATAKA 1. Harvesting is done by cutting the entire plant or removing the ear heads first and cutting down the plants later on.98 Department of Mechanical Engineering 4.4 9.0 8 .9 MADHYA PRADESH 0.55 0. College Of Engineering.10 Area under cultivation for Sorghum in India STATE-WISE AREA.9 2. PRODUCTION AND YIELD OF SORGHUM 2005-06 STATE AREA (M. Gulbarga 3.63 0. 2.3 0.8 0. the mature ear heads should be harvested first and plants cut and heaped later on. 7.HECTS) % OF TOTAL AREA PRODUCTION (M.23 5 6.7 5.5 0.39 4. Threshing is done with the help of threshers or by beating the ear heads with sticks or by trampling bullocks.8 0.1 5.4 3.28 3 6.38 0.34 0. The right stage for harvest is when grains have become hard having less than 25 per cent moisture.76 0.TONNES) % OF TOTAL PRODUCTION YIELD (KGS/H ECT) % COVERAGE UNDER IRRIGATION 1 ANDHRA PRADESH GUJARAT 2 0.9 17.27 47.78 0.53 0.6 4 0.2 0.N.56 50.17 10.2 1.

B.N.10 Department of Mechanical Engineering K. 2. College Of Engineering. Gulbarga 9 .Automatic Seed Sowing Machine Table no.

It is used to sow grass.grains.Automatic Seed Sowing Machine 2. The earliest type of row-crop planter was perhaps a wooden peg with holes around the centre to permit seeds to drop out.11 Varieties of Sorghum The different varieties of sorghum are as follows: Variety No of seeds per pound Sooner milo Feterita Atlas sorgo Pink kafir Early kalo Early sumac 12600 15900 20900 22400 23200 33400 Table No. 2.B.N. Gulbarga 10 . Pennock of East Marlboro. Pennsylvania.g. College Of Engineering. was the first to start manufacturing grain drills. This method is used where other methods are not applicable.12 Past Trends Broadcasting seeds over the broken soil and covering them with some type of harrow was the common method of planting until about 1840. William T. In this method the seeds sown are not spread uniformly either over the field surface or in depth. . Later on man realized the potential of animals for carrying out agricultural activities and then bullocks were primarily used for agricultural Department of Mechanical Engineering K. E.11 2. although the first patent was granted to Eliakim in 1799. rice and other crops.

which are connected to furrow opener at the bottom.B. The compartment of fertilizer is larger than that of seeds (i. One for fertilizer and other for seeds. 3 kg of seeds capacity and 6 kg of fertilizers).5cm in soil. College Of Engineering.5 acres with use of a pair of bullocks. The dependency on the bullocks is to be completely eliminated because there is severe scarcity of bullocks in peak seasons. Gulbarga 11 . This has significantly reduced the quantity of seeds as well as fertilizers. Approximately 0. It was possible to cover an area of 2. The chain placed below mechanism helps in covering the seeds and fertilizers by soil. a low cost. A single person can easily operate this seed-sowing machine.3 to 0.4 hectares (ha) of land Department of Mechanical Engineering K.Automatic Seed Sowing Machine operations in order to increase the yield. The bevel gear transmits power from wheels to the indexing plate as well as motor gives power to the wheels through chain and sprocket mechanism. Accordingly. seeds and fertilizers are carried along the pipes. The seeds should be placed at or sowed at 15-20 cm from each other along with depth up to 2. which has slots for seeds as well as fertilizers. Hence. CHAPTER 3 PROPOSED PROJECT WORK The major focus of the project is to minimize the cost of sowing operation. single person driven handy machinery is developed. Moreover the cost of various agricultural equipments is also increasing at an alarming rate.e. The use of the indexing mechanism in agricultural machinery for a human operated machine is an innovative concept applied in this vast sector of agriculture. The furrow opener helps in loosening of the soil.N. It consists of bucket with two compartments.

N.B. College Of Engineering. Gulbarga 12 .Automatic Seed Sowing Machine can be covered in single working day of 8 hours of operation with automatic speed sowing machine about 1. Department of Mechanical Engineering K.5 kmph.

Automatic Seed Sowing Machine Fig.B. College Of Engineering. No. Gulbarga 13 . 3 Department of Mechanical Engineering K.N.

1Frame The frame is usually made of steel angle.B. College Of Engineering. The seed box is carried above while the furrow openers are suspended below. Major Components of the Human Operated Seed Sowing Machine 4.1. It is necessary that the frame should be strong enough to prevent sagging and to hold the parts in alignment. Roller bearings are usually used on each end of the axle.Automatic Seed Sowing Machine CHAPTER 4 DIFFERENT TYPE SEED SOWING MACHINE  Manual seed sowing system  Tractor seed sowing system  Automatic seed sowing system 4. they are placed on stub jackshaft to elevate the drill to its regular height. well braced and reinforced at the corners.1. as all parts are connected to the frame.2Wheel Most grain drills are equipped with rubber tubeless tyred wheels. 4. Gulbarga 14 .N. When smaller rubber tyred wheels are used on this equipment. The axle is carried beneath. These wheels are placed on the main axle of the drill. so that the same drawbars and pressure rods and springs Department of Mechanical Engineering K.1. with the wheels on each end of it.

4.3.1 Seed Compartment It should have a large capacity. It is having two compartments4. The bevel gears are having the module 2. Gulbarga 15 .1.1. A tight fitting lid should be provided to keep out rain.3. Use of this material reduces the friction between moving plate and fixed plate. 4. Department of Mechanical Engineering K. 4. College Of Engineering. It is having a capacity of 4 Kg.5 and velocity ratio as unity. 4.4 Indexing Plate: (moving plate) Indexing plate serves the purpose for the dropping of seed and fertilizer. The implement tire size for grain drills is usually 6. The bevel gear shaft is extended and serves the purpose of agitator which loosens the fertilizer. It is provided with stirrer for agitation or loosening of the fertilizer.N. It is made up of Bakelite (Xylem) material.1. The power is given to the stirrer through bevel gear mechanism from the driving wheels of the machine.2 Fertilizer Compartment It is having a capacity of 7 Kg.1.Automatic Seed Sowing Machine can be used with either type of wheels.7×15. The operator’s manual should be studied to determine if a correction factor should be used in setting the seedling rate.3Bucket Bucket holds the seed and fertilizer.1.B.5 Bevel Gears: Bevel gears are used for transmission of the power from wheels to the indexing plate.

It is made up of cast iron.S. and placed at the bottom of the bucket. 4.N. Gulbarga 16 . The axle is fitted with wide wheels having very low soil pressure. It is fixed to the frame of the machine. College Of Engineering. earth breaking) along with preparing a seedbed. Then harrowing in with harrow-in equipment follows. The base of the sowing machine is its share frame comprising of three rows of arrow (duck-foot) shares. With folding side frames the machine will not exceed 3 m width when in the transport position. aggregated into the tractor arms complete with braking transport axle.B. While in its operating position the machine moves along rubber rollers that enable fair contouring & deep guiding of the shares even on uneven land.6 Furrow Opener: Furrow opener is at the centre of the machine is the medium through which the seed and fertilizer drops. There is a massive bed bearer fitted in front of the face roller to level the land & to crush big clods of earth. 4. The aforementioned rubber roller and arrow shares carry out further soil cultivation (stiffening.1. SEED SOWING MACHINE COUPLED WITH TRACTOR The sowing machine is semi-mounted. It first loosens the soil by going into required depth after which actual sowing and fertilizing is carried out.2.1. The axle location allows for full use of the tractor’s small scrub radius (minimization of time losses when turning at headland).Automatic Seed Sowing Machine 4.7 Fixed Plate: Fixed plate is rectangular plate of M. Seed is laid behind the shares under a stream of cut soil. You can control the height Department of Mechanical Engineering K.

4.2 Electronic system monitors the following Department of Mechanical Engineering K.2.1 Electronic systems enable the following  Formation of track rows & their marking via an hydrauliccontrolled marker Seeding amount control upon work ride performance Additional fertilizing control and monitoring Control of all the machine’s hydraulic functions Semi-automatic control of the hydraulic functions normally applied when in operation (marker control.N.) 4. Gulbarga 17 . Each tensioned has been equipped with a scale to ensure simple & exact adjustment. The roller adjustment can be changed via the tensionless to accommodate the working depth. machine lifting)     The Electronic system offers maximum comfort for operators along with high operating performance (shorter time required for turning at the headlands. College Of Engineering. For the maximum operating efficiency the control panel is inside the tractor cab offering comfortable control of all the machine’s functions.Automatic Seed Sowing Machine (pressure) of the harrow-in equipment and the slope.50 m filling height. The Machine is fitted with a spacious seed hopper of ca 2.2. etc. The sowing machine is equipped with electronic monitoring & control systems. The Seed-metering device has electronic control of seeding amounts when in use. The surface soil is then firmed by a rear rubber roller. When in the operating position the machine moves along the rollers freely contouring the soil surface in lateral & longitudinal planes.B.

2 4. filter.2. On the excellent. pump. The seed is embed along the furrow Department of Mechanical Engineering K.2. The system consists of a tank with overhead or bottom fillings.B. 6. Gulbarga 18 . College Of Engineering.N. 8 & 9 machines the system is electronically controlled as per a set dose. and of special shares with blades fitted with sintered carbide tips. The operator can alter the dose from the cab while driving.Automatic Seed Sowing Machine     Fan speed Seeds passing through seed tubes Number of hectares actually worked Seed level in the hopper Fig no 4.3 Additional Fertilization The machine has the option to be equipped with liquid fertilizer “fixed underneath”. manifold complete with safety drip valves. The fertilizer dosage is fed into a furrow formed by the share blade 4 cm below the seed level. control system.

so as to accomplish accurate shaping of the furrow with low energy demands. The share blades make a furrow 15 mm wide. 4.B.2.even when the stiffening of the soil across the entire Department of Mechanical Engineering K.2.2.N. Gulbarga 19 . College Of Engineering.4 Sowing after ploughing 4.Automatic Seed Sowing Machine sides to form strips.4 Application Options     Seeding straight into uncultivated soil Seeding into shallow loosened soil Seeding into deeply loosened soil Seeding into ploughed land Direct sowing Sowing in the stubble ploughed under or in cultivated soil Fig no 4.5 Major Technological Advantages  While in the operating position the machine moves along the rollers .

the front skid levels larger troughs. the seed is embedded on the solid bed and then covered by loose soil. the machine does not sink even when in deeply loosened (ploughed) soils. The excellent is therefore capable of carrying out high quality sowing even in poorly cultivated land. weed killing Perfect soil surface leveling . a harrow levels the surface while fine soil gets to the seed with clods remaining on the soil surface.the special rubber segments are self-cleaning so no soil clogging occurs when the ground is sticky. Seedbed . College Of Engineering. Sowing shares then operate at an exact depth with the seed embedded on the seedbed created.with the machine in operation a perfect plane is created.B.compacted.      Department of Mechanical Engineering K. Gulbarga 20 . Soil cultivation while sowing .soil gets stiffened appropriately . Clod breaking and major leveling .N. Rollers do not get clogged with wet soil .  Land stiffening . This is very important for instance when sowing Soya that requires absolutely flat land.soil stiffened by thee front roller gets cut with seed share. optimal conditions created for soil water capillary rise towards the seed. with its weight distributed (60% on front roller. and together with the front roller breaks the clods properly. disintegration of clods due to resilient deformation of special rubber segments when rolling aside. 40% on rear roller) has a lower weight on the rollers compared to rival manufacturers. minor unevenness are leveled without affecting the accuracy of the drilling depth. the rear roller flattens the surface with soil the remaining porous.Automatic Seed Sowing Machine engagement width.the soil gets cultivated within the depth of drilling.

Application within all technologies . Gulbarga 21 .        Department of Mechanical Engineering K. additional fertilizing shares fitted with sintered carbide tips.15 k. Low energy demand .h. grasses.The excellent is capable of operating in shallow loosened soils as well as in deeply loosened or ploughed land with no land packing required.very low relative energy demand compared to the number of operations the machine is able to carry out. College Of Engineering. Wide range of operating speed (8 . Ideal when seeding at small depth (1 .sowing shares are guided firmly within a precise depth.p.m. oil bearing crops.sowing of cereals.Automatic Seed Sowing Machine  Arbitrary depth of presowing soil loosening .general purpose machine designed for companies using various land cultivation technologies.) .N. Seedbeds can always be made complete with precise depths of drilling. Accurate guide of the shares . Variation in seeding shares . which guarantees low energy consumption with the possibility of adapting operating speed to land conditions. no oscillation occurs. Sowing of all kinds of crops . the depth of drilling precisely controlled.10 cm.B.the machine operates trouble-free from 8 kmph. corn (broadways or in rows 75 cm – no accurate sowing is involved). legumes. clovers.2 cm).shares made of hardened boron steel of high quality. Soil conditions may alter even with the same piece of land. Depth of drilling 0 .you can opt between wide (allarea cultivation) or narrow shares (row cultivation). High lifetime of shares .

Automatic Seed Sowing Machine  Additional fertilizing available .use the additional fertilizing system to apply liquid fertilizer to so called “under bottom” in the course of seeding Department of Mechanical Engineering K. Gulbarga 22 .B.N. College Of Engineering.

so that the same drawbars and pressure rods and springs can be used with either type of wheels. 4. The seed box is carried above while the furrow openers are suspended below. with the wheels on each end of it. The axle is carried beneath. A tight fitting lid should be provided to keep out rain. These wheels are placed on the main axle of the drill.1Frame The frame is usually made of steel angle. When smaller rubber tired wheels are used on this equipment. Department of Mechanical Engineering K.Major Components of Automatic Seed Sowing Machine 4.B.3 .3. 4. they are placed on stub jackshaft to elevate the drill to its regular height.3. It is having two compartments4. 3.3.2 Wheels Most grain drills are equipped with rubber tubeless tyred wheels.3 Bucket Bucket holds the seed and fertilizer. It is necessary that the frame should be strong enough to prevent sagging and to hold the parts in alignment.3.Automatic Seed Sowing Machine 4. as all parts are connected to the frame. Gulbarga 23 .N. Roller bearings are usually used on each end of the axle.7×15. The operator’s manual should be studied to determine if a correction factor should be used in setting the seedling rate. College Of Engineering.1 Seed CompartmentIt should have a large capacity. It is having a capacity of 4 Kg. well braced and reinforced at the corners. The implement tire size for grain drills is usually 6.

3.3. Department of Mechanical Engineering K.5 Bevel Gears Bevel gears are used for transmission of the power from wheels to the indexing plate.2 Fertilizer Compartment It is having a capacity of 8 Kg. It is provided with stirrer for agitation or loosening of the fertilizer. 4. 4. The bevel gear shaft is extended and serves the purpose of agitator which loosens the fertilizer. Gulbarga 24 . The power is given to the stirrer through bevel gear mechanism from the driving wheels of the machine.Automatic Seed Sowing Machine 4.B. The bevel gears are having the module 2.5 and velocity ratio as unity. College Of Engineering.4 Indexing Plate: (moving plate) Indexing plate serves the purpose for the dropping of seed and fertilizer.3.N.3. Use of this material reduces the friction between moving plate and fixed plate. It is made up of Bakelite (Xylem) material.

B.3.5 Department of Mechanical Engineering K.Automatic Seed Sowing Machine Fig.N. No. College Of Engineering. 4. Gulbarga 25 .

4.3.9 Motor The main function of motor is to produce power using battery and to transfer its own power to chain through gear And which has rating power is 60RPM. Department of Mechanical Engineering K. 4. Gulbarga 26 . and placed at the bottom of the bucket. 4.7 Fixed Plate Fixed plate is rectangular plate of M.3. which flexible in nature.3.3.B.3.10 Battery The main function battery is to supply power to the motor .Automatic Seed Sowing Machine 4. It is made up of cast iron.6 Furrow Opener Furrow opener is at the centre of the machine is the medium through which the seed and fertilizer drops.8 Chain and Sprocket The main function of chain and sprocket to transfer motor power to wheel up MS. It is fixed to the frame of the machine. shaft and which made 4. Runs on 12 volt battery . College Of Engineering. It first loosens the soil by going into required depth after which actual sowing and fertilizing is carried out.S.And capacity of battery is 12volt.N.

2 Furrow opener It is the soil working component of a seed drill / planter that penetrates the soil and a furrow is opened in which the seeds and fertilizer are placed.10 CHAPTER 5 GENERAL COMPONENTS OF SEED DRILL The major component of the seed drill or fertilizer drill and their functions are as- 5.B. In same planters individual seed and fertilizer hoppers are provided for each row. The role of the furrow openers is very important in a seed. fertilizer drill so far as placement of seed and fertilizer in the soil is concerned.3. No. 5.Automatic Seed Sowing Machine Fig. College Of Engineering.N.  Horizontal plates with cells. Seed beet and fertilizer beet are attached behind the furrow opener to which the seed and fertilizer tubes are connected. Gulbarga 27 . Fertilizers may be placed:  Agitator with adjustable gate.1 Hopper The hopper contains seed and fertilizer.  Fluted roller  Roller with cells Vertical roller or plate with cells. There may be individual hopper for seed and fertilizer or a common hopper may have compartments for seed and fertilizer. The seed should be placed in moist soil and covered for proper germinations. The metering unit is attached to the hopper. They help in proper placement of seed and fertilizer in the soil. 4. Department of Mechanical Engineering K.

N. It may be simple dog clutch. locking pin or by lifting the ground wheel from soil.5 Power cut-off system The power to the metering system may be disconnected by the power cut-off system. turning at the need land or idle running the power is cut-off from the Department of Mechanical Engineering K.2.2 Metering unit It is the functional unit in a seeding machine which determines and drops the desired amount of seed and fertilizer in the field.3 Ground Drive Wheel As the name suggests the ground drive wheel drive power from the ground for transmitting power to the metering unit. 5.1 Seed and Fertilizer tubes Seed and fertilizer tubes carry the seeds and fertilizer from the metering units to the furrow opener.2.2. They may be simple transparent plastic/ polythene tubes or flexible metallic tubes.Automatic Seed Sowing Machine  Inclined plate with cells. Gulbarga 28 .  Cup feed type metering.B. crank mechanism or a combination of two or more of the above system.2. During transport. It may be a chain and sprocket system. The former is preferred because of low cost and visibility of seeds and fertilizer dropping through them. 5.4 Power Transmission system The power from the ground wheel is transmitted to the metering unit through the transmission system. College Of Engineering.  Pneumatic metering system- 5.2. belt drive. 5. 5. jaw clutch. gear system.

7 Metering System The most important functional component of a seed cum fertilizer drill is its metering system.7. The function of the metering is to drop the desired amount of seed and fertilizer in the field with uniform distribution pattern. The rollers may be made from wood. 5.6 Agitator with Adjustable Gate Agitators over an adjustable gate or opening provide simple metering system for seed and fertilizer.B. The horizontal plates with cells are used in same seed fertilizer drills. The important and commonly used metering systems are: Different crop systems are different according to seed size. plastic.2. The weight may be of diamond shape with one fixed diamond and one sliding diamond gate so to provide an adjustable opening size to vary the seed or fertilizer rate. Gulbarga 29 .N. for seeds and metal for fertilizer. College Of Engineering.1 Cup Feed Metering Department of Mechanical Engineering K. The agitator is usually a circular disc of rubber-impregnated canvas. However for close growing crop this system may be suitable. aluminum or other metal. A rate with caries of holes of different sizes may also be provided for varying the seed or fertilizer rates.2. It is inexpensive device and widely used for fertilizer seed distribution pattern by an agitator system is not of good uniformity. The rollers with cells or the vertical plates with cells are often used for planting of widely spaced crop seeds.Automatic Seed Sowing Machine ground drive wheel so that seed and fertilizer do not fall through the metering unit. 5. The inclined plate with cells is a very good metering system for drilling and planting of seeds.2. 5.

B. A suction pump is employed for the purpose. Gulbarga 30 . This unnecessarily consumes more time causing ultimate reduction in the yield.7. the seeds are picked up by suction through orifice/nozzle one by one and dropped through an outlet part when the suction is cut-off. much of the time is saved and the purpose of the dropping of fertilizer as per the requirement is also fulfilled. which is not exactly possible with the conventional methods. The system is suitable for drilling and planting of small and bold seeds. so as to avoid the chemical injury to the seed. Also the requirement is that the seed and fertilizer should be nearly 2 cm offset to each other.2 Pneumatic Metering System In pneumatic metering system. College Of Engineering. which may be driven by tractor or by a small engine. 5. The seeds picked up by spoons are dropped through funnel to reach to the furrow opener.2.N. The metering system is very accurate and seed are picked up one by one. a number of spoons are fitted over a disc which picks up seeds from the hopper while rotating. The required depth of the seed to be sown is achieved by modifying the outlet opening of the seed tube that is both these outlets are spaced Department of Mechanical Engineering K.2. By developing the concept of combining sowing and fertilizing in a single operation.Automatic Seed Sowing Machine In thus type of metering. The size of the spoons is varied for different seeds. 5. Precision drills and planters employ this metering system.8 Concept of Combining Seed Sowing and Fertilizing As far as traditional methods are considered the sowing and the dropping the fertilizer operations are carried out separately. Cup feed type metering provide uniform seed distribution pattern and is suitable for drilling and planting of seeds.

Gulbarga 31 .B. The procedure of calibration is as follows:  Theoretical calculation is made to know how much seed or fertilizer should drop for 50 revolutions (or known number of revolutions) of the ground drive wheel at the desired seed. which is known as calibration of a seed drill. CHAPTER 6 CALIBRATION OF SEED DRILL A seed cum fertilizer drill is adjusted for desired seed and fertilizer rates in the laboratory before it is taken to the field.N. College Of Engineering.Automatic Seed Sowing Machine in such a way that the distance between these two openings is maintained at an offset of 2 cm. Department of Mechanical Engineering K.

CHAPTER 7 DESIGN OF COMPONENTS 7.No 1 matches the value at Sr. i. College Of Engineering.B. in 1 complete revolution linear distance covered by the machine will be 1600 mm.  The individual samples are weighed and the weight of total sample is also noted. Department of Mechanical Engineering K.N.Automatic Seed Sowing Machine  Seed and fertilizer hoppers are filled with the desired seed and fertilizer and sampling bags are tied with each seed/fertilizer tubes.No 5 then the machine is calibrated for the particular seed.. Thus it is a trial and error method.  If the calculated value as at Sr. Gulbarga 32 .  The ground drive wheel is manually rotated for 50 revolutions in the forward direction with a speed of approximately that of the operating speed of the machine disc on the field.  The machine is lifted up so that ground drive wheel is above ground drive wheel is above ground and is free to rotate.1 Design of Indexing Plate Diameter of the wheel = 508 mm Circumference of the wheel = πD = 1600 mm.e. If the observed value is less than calculated then discharge rate is increased and the process is repeated until the two value matches.

B. Diameter of indexing plate is taken as 220 mm. Hence at a radius of 40 mm from the center 4 holes are drilled for fertilizer & at a radius of 90 mm from the centre 4 holes are drilled for seeds.2 Design of Bevel Gears Calculation of power required: Speed of Pinion = Speed of gear= 11 rpm.. 1.5 mm. in order to drop 2 seeds the diameter is taken to be 4 mm & the hole diameter for fertilizer is 8 mm. Teeth on pinion= Teeth on gear= 20 Intersecting angle between shafts=90° Hardness of Gear pair= 230 BHN Effort required for single row human 1operated seed sowing machine is 200N. having allowable static strength as 260 N/mm². Gulbarga 33 .N. Hence. The diameter of Sorghum seed is approx.Automatic Seed Sowing Machine Since seeds are at a distance of 400 mm apart.e. i.4 holes are placed at (360/4) = 90˚ apart from each other on moving indexing plate.I. No of holes on indexing plate = (160/40) = 4. Department of Mechanical Engineering K. 7. College Of Engineering. Material selected for gear pair is C.

Power = Force × Velocity =200 × r × ω =200× 0.5 mm Hence. College Of Engineering.51 Watt Formative number of teeth on pinion or gear Z’p= Z’g= (Zp/cosθp) or (Zg/cosθg) = (20/cos45) Z’p = 28.) ‫־‬ = tan1) 1) ‫־‬ θp = 45° Pitch angle for gear= θg= 90.R. Gulbarga 34 .254× (2×π×11)/60 Power =58. Diameter dmp= (ID+OD)/2 = (28+50)/2 dmp= 39 mm.B.28 We also have.θp Pitch angle for gear= 45° We have.Automatic Seed Sowing Machine Pitch angle for pinion=θp= tan1) 1/V. rmp= [dp-(b×sin45)]/2 dp = 39+(16×sin45) Pitch Circle Diameter = Department of Mechanical Engineering K. Mean pitch rmp= 19.N.

484-(2. Sw= (b×Q’×dp×K×0.67 Sb= 883.31 = m×20 m= 2. Module of Gear = 2.87/Z’p)] = [0.31×K×0. We have Lewis Beam Strength Equation as Sb= m×b×σb×y’p×0.75/cos 45) But K for C. College Of Engineering. dp =m×Zp 50.3825 Since gear pairs are made of same material hence pinion is weaker than gear.I gear pair is taken as Department of Mechanical Engineering K.Automatic Seed Sowing Machine 50.3825×0.75/ cosγp) = (161×50. Gulbarga 35 .9 N Now.5 mm.5×16×86.5 mm.28)] y’p = 0.67 =2.87/28.67×0.484-(2.31 mm But.N. So our design is based on pinion.B. y’p= [0. Lewis form factor y’ considering 20° full depth involute tooth system.

Now.25 & Cv= [6/(6+V)] = 0. We have.31×1. Department of Mechanical Engineering K.21× (230/100) ^2 K=1. Pteff= (Cs×Pt/Cv) Pt= 200N Cs=1.75/cos 45) Sw= 942.B. Sw= (16×1×50.Automatic Seed Sowing Machine K= 0.S But.21× (BHN/100) ^2 = 0. Hence we have to design the pinion against bending failure.11 09 Hence.63 N Since.955 Hence. College Of Engineering.1109×0. Gulbarga 36 . Sb<Sw so pinion is weaker in bending. Sb= Pteff× F.N.

B.955) Pteff= 261.9= 261.67×F.Automatic Seed Sowing Machine Pteff= (1. Gulbarga 37 .3 Design of Shaft Pr Pt Pa 120 mm 300 mm Torque exerted by shaft is given by T= P/ω = [58.S F.51×60/(2×π×11)] T = 50780 Nmm Department of Mechanical Engineering K.67 N.25×200/0. Sb= 261.67×F.S= 3. College Of Engineering.N.37 Since desired Factor of Safety (F.S) is greater than assumed one.S 883. Hence our design is safe 7.

Mean velocity Vm=(π×0.78 N For designing the shaft we have to consider the two planes namely as horizontal and vertical plane.78 N Axial Force Pa = 53.78 N Axial Force Pa = Pt×tanΦ×sinγp = 208.Automatic Seed Sowing Machine We have.96×tan 20×sin45 Pa = 53. Gulbarga 38 .96 N Radial Force Pr = Pt×tanΦ×cosγp = 208.N.502×11)/60 Vm = 0. College Of Engineering. Department of Mechanical Engineering K.78 N Forces on pinion: Tangential Force Pt = 208.B.96 N Radial Force Pr = 53.289 m/s Tangential Force Pt =P/Vm Pt = 208.96× tan20×cos45 Pr = 53.

Automatic Seed Sowing Machine 7.01 N Now.4 BENDING MOMENT DIAGRAM Taking moment about A. Gulbarga 39 .78×19.5 + Rb2×300 53.N. taking summation of all vertical components equal to zero.B. Pr×120= Pa×19.01 Ra2 = Department of Mechanical Engineering K.2 N-mm D 3241.78×120=3.4 Horizontal Plane Pr Pa 19. no 7. Pr = Ra2 + Rb2 53.5 mm Ra1 A C 120 mm 300 mm Ra2 C 4291.78 = Ra2 +18.8 N-mm Rb2 B A B Fig. College Of Engineering.5 + Rb2×300 Rb2 = 18.

Automatic Seed Sowing Machine 35. College Of Engineering.N.01× 180= 3241. Pt×120= Rb1×300 208.5 BENDING MOMENT DIAGRAM Taking moment about A.2 N-mm Rb1 B A B Fig.8 N-mm & also Bending moment at C = 18.78 N Bending moment at C =35. Pa = Ra1 = 53. Gulbarga 40 .B.96×120= Rb1×300 Rb1 = 80 N Department of Mechanical Engineering K.76 N Now.5 Vertical Plane Pt A 120 mm C 300 mm Ra1 C 15475. no 7.76× 120= 4291.8 N-mm 7. taking summation of all horizontal components equal to zero.

Automatic Seed Sowing Machine Now. Department of Mechanical Engineering K. College Of Engineering.69² + 50780²) Te = 73462. Equivalent torque is given by Te = Square root of (M² + T²) = Square root of (53085.96× 120= 15475.69 Nmm Hence.N.96 N Bending moment at C = 128.69 N-mm. Pt = Ra1 + Rb1 208.27 N.27 N-mm Hence.mm 56 N/mm².27 N-mm But. Now.96 = Ra1 + 80 Ra1 = 128. taking summation of all vertical components equal to zero. Gulbarga 41 . Equivalent torque = 73462.2 N-mm Equivalent bending moment can be obtained by Me = Square root of (50780² + 15475. the Maximum Permissible Shear Stress is Te = (π×Fs×d³)/16 = (π×56×d³)/16 = 73462. Te = (π×Fs×d³)/16 Where.B. Equivalent Bending Moment = 53085. Fs = Maximum Permissible Shear Stress & d = Diameter of the shaft For the shaft without keyway allowance.2²) Me = 53085.

81 T1 .B. Approximately Total wt.81) P= 60 x 1000 P = 1. = 35kg Required rpm= 30 2π NT P= 60 2π x 30 x (35 x 9. (1KW=1. Gulbarga 42 .34HP) Department of Mechanical Engineering K.Automatic Seed Sowing Machine d = 17. P1 = P2 1.446 hp.0786 kW P = 1. College Of Engineering.83 mm ~ 18 mm Hence.0786 = P2 1440 N2 30 = T2 N1 = T2 35 x 9.N.6 lower motor selection Consider weight of the upper part of machine= 15kg Weight of the seed= 5kg Total Frame weight = 10kg. Diameter of Shaft = 18 mm 7.

8 gear motor selection We selected spur gear ratio 1: 3 P1 P2 1.N.616 Watt Department of Mechanical Engineering K.= ------ P2 = 0.T2=16023N-m 7. College Of Engineering.7 design of lower motor shaft F σb = ---A 35 x 9.= P2 N1 N2 60 -------20 -----. Gulbarga 43 .Automatic Seed Sowing Machine P2=51.B.8 320 = -----------π d2 /4 d = 1.177hp .85 --------.1688 mm 7.

Desired seed rate = (R× 1000)/10000 g/m^2. Weight of seed/fertilizer for 50 revolutions of ground drive wheel = w× g . Now. Distance moved for one revolution of the ground drive wheel = πD cm.B.Automatic Seed Sowing Machine P2 = 8. College Of Engineering.26 x 10-4 hp CHAPTER 8 CALCULATION Say. Diameter of ground drive wheel = D cm. Gulbarga 44 . Area covered for 50 revolutions of the ground drive wheel of the machine (100× 100) m^2. Desired row spacing = W cm. = (50× ∏× D× N× W)/ Department of Mechanical Engineering K. (50× N× W× R)/100000 = (D× N× W× R)/2000. Desired seed/fertilizer rate = R kg/ha.N. No. Distance traveled for 50 revolutions of the round drive wheel = (50× ∏× D)/100m. of rows in the machine = N. Amount of seed that should drop in the field for 50 revolutions of the ground drive wheel = (A× R× 1000)/10000 g. Working width of the machine = (N× W)/100 m.

1 is equal to the observed value W at Sr.N.No.Automatic Seed Sowing Machine If the calculated value as at Sr. Department of Mechanical Engineering K. 5 then the machine are calibrated.B. Gulbarga 45 .No. College Of Engineering.

N.5×142) = 355 mins.4167 m/s. 1 acre is equivalent to a land of area 4000 m² (64×64 m²) The no of rows = 6400/45 = 142 rows. Knowing radius of wheel = 25. Here. Hence. time taken by the machine to cover a distance of 64 m = 2. i.B. it covers 16 revolutions per minute. The distance between two adjacent rows should be 45 cm.4cm. the machine will take (2. a machine requires 2. 1 row is of 64 m length. Distance covered in 1 minute = 16×160 = 2560 cm = 25.Automatic Seed Sowing Machine 8.1 Numerical calculations The agricultural requirement for seed sowing is that the distance between two seeds has to be maintained as 20 cm & the fertilizer should be 2.5 mins to cover a single row. Hence for 1 acre land.254× ((2×π×N)/60) N = 16 rpm. Assuming average speed of the human to be 1. On an average we will get 12 seeds per revolution of the wheel & the quantity of fertilizer dropped is 8 gm per revolution.4167=0.56 kmph= 0.e.6 m Since. Gulbarga 46 . Department of Mechanical Engineering K. College Of Engineering. v= r × ω 0.i.5 cm apart from each seed.e.5 minutes. i. 6 hours.e.

B.5 Kg of seeds are required.Medium soil Soil Depth: .56 hectares.24%  Plot area=58 m²  Average depth of sowing= 5.45 cm Moisture content: . College Of Engineering. Kondi.5 cm  Required depth of sowing= 6-7 cm  Speed of operation= 0.40-50 cm Row Spacing: . Gulbarga 47 . the land covered by machine in 1 day = 0.  Required seed rate= 10 kg per hectare  Fertilizer applied 58m² of land consumes 906. CHAPTER 9 RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS 9. Soil type: .33 hrs  Seed rate obtained= 58m² of land consumed 1015 seeds Assuming 1 kg contains approximately 16000 seeds Hence 63 gms corresponds to 1015 seeds Hence 63 gms of seeds are required for 58m² of land.N. hubali. 1 acre= 4000m² 1 hectare = 10000 m² For 1 hectare land 10.Automatic Seed Sowing Machine Considering 1 working day of 8 hours.Londhe Farm.7-4-07 Location: .25 gms of fertilizer Department of Mechanical Engineering K.28 m/s = 1 Kmph  Duration of test= 0.1 Field trials of machine Date: .

7 m² of land takes 1 hour.B.N.312/0. Hence for 392. So for 1 acre 10. Gulbarga 48 .86 min for sowing. College Of Engineering.Automatic Seed Sowing Machine For 1 acre land 64 Kg of fertilizer is required.78 acres =0.  Required fertilizer applied= 264 kg per hectare  Effective field capacity(ha/hr) Time of start= 6 PM Time of stop= 6:20 PM Area covered= 58 m² 58m² of land requires 8. Hence Fertilizer applied per hectare= 160 Kg.7% Department of Mechanical Engineering K.56) × 100 Field Efficiency= 55.312 hectares  Theoretical Field Capacity= 0.56 hectares per day  Field Efficiency= (Effective Field Capacity/ Theoretical Field Capacity)× 100 = (0. Land covered in one day of 8 working hrs= 0.3 hrs are required for sowing.

College Of Engineering.B.Automatic Seed Sowing Machine Department of Mechanical Engineering K. Gulbarga 49 .N.

N. College Of Engineering.5 Acres 4 Acres 1. 10 Department of Mechanical Engineering K.B. PARAMETERS BULLOCK OPERATED TRACTOR OPERATED AUTOMATIC OPERATED AREA 1 COVERED PER DAY SEED 2. Gulbarga 50 .Automatic Seed Sowing Machine CHAPTER 10 ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF SOWING METHODS Sr.N o.5 Acres 2 REQUIRED PER ACRE FERTILIZER 5 Kg 5 Kg 2Kg 3 REQUIRED PER ACRE COST OF SEED 105 Kg 105 Kg 64 Kg 4 SOWING PER ACRE Rs 260 Rs 500 Rs 73 Table No.

B.Automatic Seed Sowing Machine Automatic Seed Sowing Machine Department of Mechanical Engineering K. College Of Engineering. Gulbarga 51 .N.

College Of Engineering.N.Automatic Seed Sowing Machine CHAPTER 11 MANUFACTURING ASPECTS OF SEED CUM FERTILIZER DRILL Department of Mechanical Engineering K. Gulbarga 52 .B.

B.S. Rubber 2 2 915 Milling Dimensio n (mm) 300×350 25×30×2 Φ 20 40 320×40 Φ 30 SKF 6205 Φ 19 Φ 220 Drg No06 M. Rim 2. M. 14 Battery 460 270 & Φ 5 53 ------C.S. No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Subassembl y Main frame Fixed Plate Stirrer shaft with pin Furrow opener Seed tubes Bush bearing Gripper Indexing plate Bevel gear Name of part --1.S. M. Gulbarga TOTAL 11000/- .Automatic Seed Sowing Machine CHAPTER 12 Sr. Tubeless 11 Stand Tires -300 & Φ 4 12 13 Chain Motor -Shaft. C. Manufacturin g methods Welding Casting Turning -Welding -Turning -Std component Milling/ hobbing Turning Department of Mechanical Engineering -------230×40 Plastic 2 1500 K.S. 1 400 Material s M.S.I. Plastic Brass Rubber Bakelite C.Pinion Shaft 10 Wheel 1.N. Pins -----1.S. bearing.I.S. M. College Of Engineering. 1 2 250 1800 --------M.I.Gear Pair 2.S. 8 Kg 1 1 5 1 2 2 2 1 1 500 5435 Qty Cost Rs. 1 200 -Drg No07 Φ 508 M. M.Shaft 2.

13.  Maintain accurate equal distance between two seed.N.  Seed and fertilizer can be sowing at same time.B.  Any kind of seed can sowing by using different type funnel.  Single man can be easily handle. Department of Mechanical Engineering K.Automatic Seed Sowing Machine ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES 12. College Of Engineering.  It is a mobile system.2 disadvantage:  Area covered by this machine is less than tractor method  It is used only for small sectors.  Maintains cost also relatively low.  The depth of furrow can be adjusted as compare to traditional system. Gulbarga 54 .1 Advantage:  Reduces labor cost.

B.Here using sun light we can run seed sowing machine.  As far as ergonomic considerations are concerned. College Of Engineering. Also an acre meter can be placed on the top of handle so that area coverage can be known. the bar of handle of the machine can be made to slide in a slot as per the height of the operator. semiconductor row Department of Mechanical Engineering K. Gulbarga 55 . more even than the first. the required depth of the seeds to be sown is to be increased about 8 cm.N. the scope for the further work is  For better and strong germination of the seeds. sowing wheel at the center which will improve the . Thus by employing a different type of furrow opener having more width can be used for obtaining the proper seed depth which ultimately increases the yield.  For avoiding the uneven sowing when proper leveled land is not available . employing the third small . the stability of the machine can be improved by .  Solar plate: .Automatic Seed Sowing Machine CHAPTER 13 SCOPE FOR FURTHER WORK After carrying out the field trials and observing the results. which consists of solar plate.  For avoiding the wastage of seeds and fertilizer during the turning of the machine some mechanism can be employed which locks the dropping of seeds and fertilizer during turning. ( more ups & downs) . thereby increasing the yield.

Automatic Seed Sowing Machine cell as silicon and supporting base plate when sun light fall on silicon plate and sun energy converted into a electrical energy. College Of Engineering.N. Gulbarga 56 . Department of Mechanical Engineering K. And these energy use for operation of seed sowing machine.B.

Gulbarga 57 . it can be proved to be beneficial to poor farmers. Thus. The low cost of the machine as well as its ability to carry out sowing & fertilizing simultaneously. It results in almost 60 % saving in operational cost and 15% saving in seed requirements. If the machine is commercially exploited. There is hardly any problem of manpower in rural areas where the average size of the family is large. they are tempted to hire them at an increased cost. College Of Engineering.N. Hence. Farmers face the problem of non-availability of bullocks as well as tractors during the peak period of sowing. The economy is the most highlighting feature of this machine as it does not require any electric power & is independent of tractor or bullocks which are unaffordable to poor farmers. By making use of automatic operated seed cum fertilizer drill. is certainly a boon to the farmers thereby saving much of their time. Department of Mechanical Engineering K. this seed and fertilizer drill is able to satisfy most of them effectively during the peak season. the yield loss can be substantially decreased.B. the area coverage can be increased. As far as most of the farmers requirements are considered.Automatic Seed Sowing Machine CHAPTER 15 CONCLUSION Easily driven by a single person with a motor power . if 2 to 3 people are employed for the sowing operations.

New Delhi. Technical Prakashan.Klenin. Amerind Publishing Co. Pvt.N.New Delhi.  5)” Farm Machinery And Equipments” by Harris Smith. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co.Promersberger & Donald. Lambert Wilkes.New Delhi  “Machine Design-3” by R.B. Gulbarga 58 .F.Nakra.Hopfen.Popov. Tata McGraw Hill Publication .  “Design of Machine Elements” by V. Patil. I.J. Dhanapat Rai Publication Pvt Ltd.Ltd.W.B. College Of Engineering.A. Third Edition Department of Mechanical Engineering K.I.Pvt. J .Priebe.Sakun.  “Farm Implements” by H.Automatic Seed Sowing Machine CHAPTER 16 REFERENCES  “Agricultural Machines” by N.P. Pune  “Modern Farm Power” by William. V.Tata McGraw Hill Publication New Delhi  “Farm Machines and Equipments” by C. Bhandari .B. Ltd.