Global Navigation Satellite Systems

Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS)
 Aviation relies very heavily on navigation and the systems we currently have that help us get from A to B as accurately as possible.  Some of the systems we still use everyday in aviation are more than 50 years old. So we are constantly looking for more up to date, and even more accurate means of navigation that are also reliable.  Satellite navigation is now in use around the world, whether it may be for navigating a car, or a large transport aircraft. It has widely became the most used form of world-wide navigation because of its accuracy and reliability available 24 hours a day.  Satellite navigation was originally invented for military use only.

Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS)
 Two completed systems in operation:
 Navstar Global Positioning System (GPS) USA  Global Orbiting Navigation Satellite System (GLONASS) RUSSIA

 Also another 2 are currently being completed:
 Galileo is the European version which is still under development and should be operational by 2020 EUROPE  Compass is the Chinese satellite navigation system which is also still under development, there are only 5 satellites currently in orbit, with another 30 proposed.

Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS)
 The main Satellite navigation system which is used around the world, is the American NAVSTAR GPS.

As this system is a product of the US Army, they are still in control of its operation. So... They can switch it off when they want.



Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS)
 The GPS constellation is made up of several satellites continuously orbiting the Earth.  These satellites orbit the earth within a circular orbital plane. There are currently 6 circular orbital planes at 55° to the equator. • Each orbital plane consists of 4-6 satellites which orbit the earth at a height of 20,200km (10,900nm) once every twelve hours. 5-8 satellites will always be in line of sight range of a receiver at any one time and any position on the Earth. The original GPS constellation had 24 satellites but currently has 31.


A satellite is not considered 'visible' until it is more than 5º above the horizon. this is called the mask angle. coverage is global.Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) Satellite ground tracks only go up to 55º North and South but. because of their height. PTC – PILOT TRAINING COLLEGE 6 .

These satellites orbit once every 12 hours at an angle of 60° to the earths equator. • • • • The two systems have a 650nm change in height to avoid any collision.250 nm). We have only looked at 2 different Satellite Navigation systems and we already have nearly 60 satellites orbiting the earth already. 21 are active satellites and 3 spares.Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) • The GLONASS constellation also has 24 satellites. PTC – PILOT TRAINING COLLEGE 7 . GLONASS orbits at a height of 19.000km (10.

Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) PTC – PILOT TRAINING COLLEGE 8 .

This Pseudo Range is used at the receiver to calculate the users location.  The GPS receiver (in the aircraft) tracks multiple satellites and determines a Pseudo Range measurement. PTC – PILOT TRAINING COLLEGE 9 .  The satellites transmit signals down to the receiver which contains information regarding the satellites being tracked.Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS)  The satellites within the GPS constellation broadcast signals that are used by receivers to determine precise position fixes anywhere in the world.

Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS)  Each GPS Satellite transmits data on 2 frequencies.  L1 Frequency 1575. and Satellite Time and are superimposed onto L1 and L2 frequencies. Satellite Ephemeris Data.60MHz  The data sent on these frequencies is in the for of Pseudorandom Noise Codes (PN Codes).  The PN codes also consist of Satellite Status.42MHz  L2 Frequency 1227. PTC – PILOT TRAINING COLLEGE 10 .

 The system actually gave better than expected position fixes so the DoD added Selective Availability (S/A) which denies full system accuracy to unauthorised users.Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS)  The measured travel times of these signals from the Satellites to the Receivers are used to compute Pseudo Ranges. It is transmitted on the L1 frequency.  The C/A code is the standard service which can be used for General Aviation use. PTC – PILOT TRAINING COLLEGE 11 .  Two modulations are used on these frequencies:  Coarse Acquisition (C/A) is also known as the Standard Position Service (SPS).

Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS)  Precision (P code) is known as the Precise Position Service (PPS) which is transmitted on L1 and L2 frequencies.  To use this type of modulation it requires authorisation from the DoD. PTC – PILOT TRAINING COLLEGE 12 .  There is no Selective Availability function on this type of signal modulation.  It was created to safe guard a signal from being corrupted or jammed from the GPS and gives the most accurate position fix.

 Unfortunately the clock on board our aircraft GPS equipment is not an atomic clock. PTC – PILOT TRAINING COLLEGE 13 . which are monitored by atomic clocks maintained by a Master Control Station on the Earth. but an electronic one. So there will be some error between the timings which is taken into account.Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS)  The timing of each satellite has to be very accurate and is controlled by four on board atomic clocks.

 The digital signals contain a unique satellite identifier and a timing message. is invariably inaccurate. This unique signal repeats every millisecond and is called the pseudo random noise (PRN) code. called a pseudo range.Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS)  Each orbiting satellite transmits a radio signal modulated on the L1 frequency. Remember the clock in the aircraft is less accurate than the atomic clock in the satellite. The initial range. an error known as receiver clock bias.  The receiving equipment then uses its internal clock to measure how long the message took and calculates the delay into a distance from the satellite.  Three satellites are only able to give a 2D fix.  Four satellites enables a 3D fix. PTC – PILOT TRAINING COLLEGE 14 .  There is one problem.

PTC – PILOT TRAINING COLLEGE 15 . The Pseudo-Ranges are then fed to a computer on the receiver equipment where it is corrected for such thing as the timing error.Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) The Pseudo-Range includes the time error for the signal to travel and the receivers clock bias error. any distortion of the signal etc.

 But. 4 satellites are required. their ephemeris has to be know. PTC – PILOT TRAINING COLLEGE 16 . Ephemeris: is the known position of an object at a particular time  The Ephemeris data for each satellite is sent in the signals transmitted from the satellites. The Almanac data can be used for fast identification of a visible satellite.Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS)  So to correct for the receiver clock bias. for these satellites to actually be used.  These expected positions are stored in receiver memory as an almanac.

PTC – PILOT TRAINING COLLEGE 17 .  This is superimposed on the L1 frequency in five sub-frames.  There are 25 frames in all. to send the entire almanac takes a total of 12½ minutes.Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS)  In addition to the Psuedo-Random Noise code the satellite also sends a data stream called the NAV message with correction factors and information to update the receiver almanac.  Each set of five sub-frames make up a frame lasting 30 seconds.

 GNSS uses a common model of the Earth. PTC – PILOT TRAINING COLLEGE 18 . The World Geodetic Survey of 1984 (WGS-84) was selected as the appropriate model for GPS. These are all presented on the WGS84. and all GPS positions were referenced using this model. The WGS84 is an Ellipsoid.Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS)  When all of this data has been received it is calculated to work out the satellites position in 3 axes relative to the centre of the Earth.

Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS)  GPS Segments.  The Control Segment – comprises of MCS and monitoring stations and ground antenna.  The User Segment – GPS receivers using space segment to determine position on surface. PTC – PILOT TRAINING COLLEGE 19 .:  The Space Segment – this contains the 24 satellite constellation.  Accuracy of the system according to ICAO Annex 10 is 13 metres horizontally on 95% of occasions.

20 PTC – PILOT TRAINING COLLEGE . The clocks cannot be changed but the error will be noted in the satellites broadcast. The monitoring stations check the satellites internally computed position and clock time at least once every 12 hours. Also if there are any errors noted in the satellite clock time then this will be noted. It is made up of: – – – Master Control Station (MCS) Monitoring Stations (MS) Back up MCS • • • • The Master station tracks. When a positional error is detected by the ground station. it is sent to the satellite to be uploaded and update its position.Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) • • The Control Segment: This provides the control and support system for GPS. monitors and manages the satellite constellation.

Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) PTC – PILOT TRAINING COLLEGE 21 .

There are several types: Single-channel: As the name suggests this type uses just one channel which moves from one satellite to another to collect data for navigational purposes.Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) • • The User Segment: Is all the GPS receivers using the space segment to determine position on and close to the surface of the Earth. As the data is not simultaneous the movement of the receiver can degrade overall accuracy. These receivers may be stand-alone or part of an integrated system. • • PTC – PILOT TRAINING COLLEGE 22 .

They provide a high quality fix but are susceptible to jamming.Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) Continuous Receivers Continuous receivers are used in specialised circumstances such as survey work or for scientific purposes. Operating on between four and twelve channels they give instantaneous read out of position and speed. Multiplex Receivers Multiplex receivers use a single channel which switches every 5 milliseconds between satellites in view. either real or accidental PTC – PILOT TRAINING COLLEGE 23 .

PTC – PILOT TRAINING COLLEGE 24 . Compared to a single channel receiver time to first fix is reduced and the receiver can maintain tracking at moderate speeds.Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) Multi-channel Receivers: These are the types most likely to be found in aircraft. One channel is used to calculate range whilst the others read the NAV messages. normally with three channels.

Satellite Ephemeris Error. solar winds and electromagnetic forces can also produce errors. Caused by the satellite not being where it should be. • • PTC – PILOT TRAINING COLLEGE 25 .5 m. This could be caused by gravity changes in the earth's gravitational field or the fields from the sun and moon. Atmospheric drag. Control of position is so stringent that errors caused are in the region of plus or minus 0.Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) • • Accuracy and System Errors: Fixing accuracy of plus or minus 13 metres on 95% of occasions is quoted for raw signals.

• • • PTC – PILOT TRAINING COLLEGE 26 .Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) • • Time To First Fix When the receiver is first turned on it looks for satellites where it expects to find them according to the almanac of space segment orbital data held in memory. If the receiver has been moved a long way since it was last used it gets confused and has to search the sky to determine which satellites are overhead. time and date to give the receiver a new starting datum and shorten the search for the satellites. 'Time To First Fix' can be shortened by entering a position. If the almanac is out of date it has to download new almanac information from the satellites. Once the satellites are identified clock bias is corrected for and the position is computed.

Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) • • • • Selective Availability (S/A): Was a feature which was purposely added to GPS to degrade its accuracy. It would intentionally alter the timing signals sent on the Coarse Acquisition (C/A) signal. It would actually dither the clocks onboard the satellites. • PTC – PILOT TRAINING COLLEGE 27 . President Clinton ordered S/A be turned off. In 2000.

Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) • • Atmospheric or Ionospheric Error Variations in ionospheric density and atmospheric conditions lead to predictable propagation errors of plus or minus 4m. • PTC – PILOT TRAINING COLLEGE 28 . A civilian receiver operating on one frequency. Satellites that are overhead have the least errors and provide the most accurate ranges. Military receivers operating on two frequencies can compare the delays on their two frequencies to compute a correction for ionospheric error. the C/A signal. can not take advantage of this and relies instead on a mathematical model of the ionosphere which is downloaded from the satellites as part of the data message and subsequently stored in its memory.

5m or so. Multipath Signals Signals reflected from terrain can be confused with direct signals and reduce the accurate by 0. Clock Bias Timing errors at the receiver will lead to fixing errors. Errors at the satellite are less likely but more serious as these can only be corrected as the satellites passes over the Master Control Station. Errors in range from this source are only expected to be in the region of one metre. The error arising from multipath signals can be reduced by aerial design and software fixes. computational errors or errors arising when matching the pseudo-random signals. 29 • • • • PTC – PILOT TRAINING COLLEGE .Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) • • Instrument/Receiver Error These are caused by electrical noise. Receiver clock bias can be corrected out.

• • PTC – PILOT TRAINING COLLEGE 30 . This error is known as Geometric Dilution of Precision (GDOP). The greatest error comes from satellites that are spaced too closely together. Satellite Geometry reflects on how close or how far apart satellites are spaced across the sky.Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) • Errors in the Satellite navigation mainly come from the errors in the Pseudo Ranges from the satellite to the receiver and the geometry of the satellites.

Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) • • • • • • Geometric Dilution of Precision (GDOP): Is made up of: HDOP – Horizontal dilution of precision (latitude and longitude) VDOP – Vertical dilution of precision (height) PDOP – Position dilution of precision (combination of HDOP and VDOP) TDOP – Time dilution of precision (time) PTC – PILOT TRAINING COLLEGE 31 .

PTC – PILOT TRAINING COLLEGE 32 .Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) • • Fixing Errors: Also known as Dilution of Precision (DOP). also known as Geometric Dilution of Precision (GDOP). It is the GPS term for a poor cut between position lines occurring when satellites are close together.

These 'worm holes' can cover relatively large areas and last from minutes to days. 33 • • • PTC – PILOT TRAINING COLLEGE .Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) • • Optimum Geometry The optimum geometry for four satellites is to have three separated by 120º in azimuth and elevated a little above the horizon with a fourth directly overhead. sometimes by harmonics from similar frequencies such as UHF television broadcasts. Coverage Problems There have been many reported cases of GPS coverage being less than expected because the satellite signal has been blocked. Worm holes are caused by accidental or deliberate jamming of the satellite signals sometimes by transmissions on the same frequency.

This increases the number of satellites in view and. by using two separate frequencies. At present three methods exist within airborne equipment to provide integrity of navigation under these circumstances. This method is not yet approved for IFR navigation. The second method is to use a system called Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring (RAIM). reduces the effect of propagation errors. 34 • • PTC – PILOT TRAINING COLLEGE .Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) • • Improving the Navigation Solution Because satellites are monitored from the ground it may take some considerable time before users become aware of a malfunction in the system. The first is to use GPS with another satellite system such as GLONASS.

a further satellite is required to replace the satellite giving faulty data. we know four satellites are required.Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) • • Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring (RAIM): RAIM is used as a satellite integrity system. For a 3D fix. Then the receiver monitors the satellites to see if one is giving an incorrect range. With RAIM. From these satellites the position is determined. we actually require 6 satellites. 35 • • • • PTC – PILOT TRAINING COLLEGE . If though. which helps to improve the reliability of the satellite navigation system. a satellite is giving incorrect data. So in total for a 3D fix. the receiver takes information from 5 satellites.

the GPS can no longer be used for primary navigation for the IFR flight.Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) If NAVSTAR/GPS satellite navigation system is being used for an IFR flight. and the number of satellites required to maintain the RAIM function are not available. • • This flight can only be continued as long as you fly using other certified navigation systems. PTC – PILOT TRAINING COLLEGE 36 .

will lose its position completely if its signal fails. Such as the INS or RNAV equipment. • • PTC – PILOT TRAINING COLLEGE 37 . INS is not as accurate as GPS but it will only start to drift. So we can help increase the reliability of the GPS by combining it with other navigation systems. have their own problems and disadvantages. The GPS however.Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) • The Satellite navigation systems are a great improvement over previous navigation systems but as we have seen. so will still maintain some amount of accuracy.

Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) • Not all aircraft have an INS fitted. Multisensor systems like this use GPS as a primary nav system when RAIM is functioning. • • • PTC – PILOT TRAINING COLLEGE 38 . So they will have an RNAV system set up which the GPS with RAIM can be combined with. RNAV is less accurate than GPS. but is usually a lot more reliable. when there are insufficient satellites for RAIM to operate RNAV automatically becomes the primary nav system. An RNAV system is one which can automatically tune VOR and DMEs to obtain the best available cross cut for positioning.

– Also traditional navigation systems such as VOR and DME must be available as a way to cross check the system and also be an immediate back up if the GPS fails.Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) • • GPS is approved for Basic Radio Navigation (BRNAV). • If it does not have RAIM then it must be combined with another system. A standalone GPS system must have RAIM facility to be approved. – If the RAIM facility fails. PTC – PILOT TRAINING COLLEGE 39 . the GPS can still be used but has to be continuously cross checked with the traditional navigation systems such as VOR and DME.

where do you think the most sensible area of the aircraft? – The aerials are usually position on top of the fuselage to give a clear view of the sky and are usually located near the aircrafts centre of gravity. PTC – PILOT TRAINING COLLEGE 40 .Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) • Location of the GPS aerials.

This was through the C/A modulation giving a Standard Position Service.Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) • • System Developments: As discussed earlier. The DoD envisioned the Civilian community using the GPS network for navigation. Differential GPS (DGPS) was the answer. and therefore had to find a way to once again improve the accuracy. GPS for civilian use was made to be less accurate than the availability to the military. and also Selective Availability. • • • PTC – PILOT TRAINING COLLEGE 41 .

Thus. and another receiver at an unknown position. the error in the pseudo range can be calculated and then used to correct the solution of the unknown receivers position. Both of these receivers must be able to use the same satellites. making the position fix much more accurate.Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) • • System Developments – Differential GPS DGPS uses an additional receiver using the satellite signals. • • PTC – PILOT TRAINING COLLEGE 42 . By fixing the location of one receiver. So now the plan is to have one receiver at an accurately surveyed location on the Earth.

Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) PTC – PILOT TRAINING COLLEGE 43 .

Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) • • System Developments – Differential GPS (DGPS) GPS signals from at least 4 satellites are received on the ground continuously by a receiver at an accurately surveyed location. • PTC – PILOT TRAINING COLLEGE 44 . This ground receiver then computes the difference between its known position and that from the GPS and sends a correction to any aircraft within 70NM using ACARS or a MODE S datalink. So we know its exact location.

and ionospheric propagation. • PTC – PILOT TRAINING COLLEGE 45 . So DGPS improves the positional accuracy of the GPS and also provides a warning of failure if any error in the data.Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) • This is known as Differential GPS (DGPS). ephemeris. and it corrects for errors induced by satellite clocks.

000 stronger). • PTC – PILOT TRAINING COLLEGE 46 . The development of DGPS is to include extra ground stations that act like another satellite (pseudolite).Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) • • • • Pseudolites are mimicked satellites on the Earths surface. So this can swamp the satellite signal at the receiver so has to be modified to be resolved. The closer an aircraft gets to a pseudolite. Also moving further away from a pseudolite the accuracy deteriorates quite rapidly. the greater the strength of the signal being received (x 40. This overall is greater than just the raw DGPS data because the pseudolites give an extra range input to increase accuracy of fix. These psuedolites send satellite type signals to receiver and the DGPS correction.

the more accurate it is. It is used to improve accuracy to provide precision runway approach.Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) • Local Area Augmentation System (LAAS). • • • PTC – PILOT TRAINING COLLEGE 47 . The closer the receiver is to the LAAS ground station. is a Ground Based Augmentation System (GBAS): This system is used in aviation to provide both failure warning and enhancement of GPS receiver position by removing ephemeris and satellite clock errors and minimising ionospheric errors.

48 PTC – PILOT TRAINING COLLEGE . There are three systems which work on the same principle: Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS) – USA – Operational in 2003 European Geostationary Navigation Overlay System (EGNOS) – Europe – Operational in 2004 Metsat Satellite Based Augmentation System (MSBAS) – Japan – Operational in 2010 • • • • • • All of these systems aim to provide sufficient accuracy to enable a Category I Precision Approach. Satellite Based Augmentation System takes DGPS and Pseudolites and applies it to a much wider area.Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) • • Satellite Based Augmentation System (SBAS): So we know that DGPS and Pseudolites provide a high level of accuracy of accuracy over a small area.

• • • PTC – PILOT TRAINING COLLEGE 49 . The WARS download the satellite data and pass it to the WAMS. these systems have 3 segments: Ground. Space. This is sent to the Ground Earth Station and then uplinked to the Ground Segment. a Wide Area Master Station (WAMS).Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) • • Just like GPS. and a Ground Earth Station (GES). The WAMS collect the data and determine the differential corrections for each satellite being tracked. It then organises the data and formats a data broadcast. User Ground Segment: Has a number of precisely surveyed Wide Area Reference Stations (WARS).

So additional accuracy available would allow GNSS to be used as a sole means of navigation.Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) • Global Navigation Satellite System is considered to be a Satellite system based on a combination of both Navstar GPS and GLONASS. and suffering.. So a GNSS standard is not met.. • • • PTC – PILOT TRAINING COLLEGE 50 . But.. Europe has offered aid to help bring GLONASS up to speed but the response by America was to increase the accuracy of their own GPS system to stay ahead of everyone else.. GLONASS is underfunded..

Such information sent across can be: – – – – – – Aircraft Ident Aircraft Type Speed Altitude Heading And other additional information • • This can all be sent through INMARSAT satellites and also through a MODE S data link. Information will be digitised and renewed several times a second. PTC – PILOT TRAINING COLLEGE 51 .Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) • GNSS could be used to give ATC data in real time.