1.

Torn in some places, yellowed with age, and written in nearly indecipherable German, the documents purporting to be Hitler's diaries were greeted with great interest by historians, assuming the diary was authentic. A. the documents purporting to be Hitler's diaries were greeted with great interest by historians, assuming B. the documents purporting to be Hitler's diaries were greeted with great interest by historians who assumed C. historians greeted with great interest the documents purporting to be Hitler's diaries, who assumed D. historians, with great interest, greeted the documents purporting to be Hitler's diaries, assuming E. historians with great interest greeted the documents purporting to be Hitler's diaries because they assumed

2. Formulas for gross domestic product and trade balance do not apply to small, emergent economies in the same way they apply to established economies, because they are developing and are not in equilibrium. A. Formulas for gross domestic product and trade balance do not apply to small, emergent economies in the same way they apply to established economies, because they are developing and are not in equilibrium B. Because they are developing and are not in equilibrium, formulas for gross domestic product and trade balance do not apply to small, emergent economies in the same way they apply to established economies C. Because they are developing and are not in equilibrium, small, emergent economies are not subject to the same applicability of formulas for gross domestic product and trade balance as established economies D. Because small, emergent economies are developing and are not in equilibrium, formulas for gross domestic product and trade balance do not apply to them in the same way they apply to established economies E. Small, emergent economies are not subject to the applicability of formulas for gross domestic product and trade balance in the same way as established economies, because they are developing and are not in equilibrium

Although ballet originated in lavish Italian court dances, the art form flourished in 17th-century France, most notably under the passionate devotion of Louis XIV. In 1653, at age 15, Louis danced the lead in Le Ballet de la Nuit, a 13-hour, allnight performance. Louis appeared as the rising sun, arrayed spectacularly in gold, gems, and ostrich plumes. This role led to the popular nickname the "Sun King," by which he is still referred today. While ballet was a vanity project, Louis had talent as a dancer. Under his personal ballet master, Pierre Beauchamps, Louis worked daily to develop his technique and to enhance and display what he considered his natural-born grace and physique. Louis demanded as much from the noble members of his court. Louis believed that inner nobility was revealed through outward appearance: physical beauty, grace, etiquette, and adherence to social convention. As a result, court ritual and etiquette were rigid and demanding, and dance, along with fencing and equestrianism, became part of a trio of noble disciplines. A noble's social status and patronage depended on pleasing the sovereign, so many learned to dance. More than 200 dancing schools emerged in Paris to train these nobles in the art of dance. To centralize and codify ballet instruction, Louis founded the Academie Royale de Danse at the Louvre in 1661, with Beauchamps as its head. The rest of Europe fervently embraced French fashion and culture, including courtly ballet, long after the monarch's death in 1715. 3. The main purpose of the passage is to A. examine the courtly rituals of Louis XIV. B. demonstrate the superiority of French ballet over Italian ballet. C. describe the interrelationship between Louis XIV, his court, and ballet.

D. explain how Louis XIV came to be called the Sun King. E. establish for readers that ballet is a noble art form.

4. The passage implies that A. a noble who lacked physical beauty and grace risked disfavor in Louis's court. B. Le Ballet de la Nuit was not well received by audiences and critics due to its length. C. Louis was unattractive and tried to compensate by excelling at dance. D. other European countries adopted ballet because they feared France's military power. E. Louis believed that with practice anyone could learn ballet.

5. The author probably mentions fencing and equestrianism in order to A. demean Louis's court by showing how trivial activities were viewed as important. B. demonstrate that military activities were still important during a time of peace. C. describe two activities that eventually supplanted ballet in importance. D. hint at Louis's enjoyment of physical activity as a means of self-improvement. E. show that nobility was revealed in many ways in Louis XIV's court.

African exploration in the late nineteenth century is almost entirely a story of white males: scientists, traders and missionaries. Mary Henrietta Kingsley stands out as an exception. Ostensibly, Kingsley planned her first trip to Africa so she could conduct research on fetishes and complete the academic treatise her father, an explorer, had begun. Privately, Kingsley told a friend she was traveling to Africa "to die," though she had dreamt of such an adventure since childhood. Nevertheless, she prepared for the trip carefully, interviewing friends, doctors, missionaries, and former explorers, all of whom advised her not to make the trek. Kingsley was undaunted and set off for West Africa carrying only £300, and chemicals and specimen cases designed to collect samples of unknown fish and insects for the British Museum. Kingsley sailed the coast, finally putting in at the mouth of the Congo. Recognizing that the natives were naturally suspicious of Europeans traveling without an obvious purpose, Kingsley purchased cloth and other goods in the port and traveled inland for six months as a trader, exchanging goods for food and shelter along the way. During this and her second trip in 1895, Kingsley demonstrated resourcefulness in dealing with such challenges as rescuing a native from cannibals, defeating a leopard with a bucket of water, learning to pilot a native canoe up the Ogooue River, and becoming the first white woman and third "Englishman" to climb the 14,435 foot Mount Cameroon. Upon her return to London, Kingsley campaigned for an enlightened African policy, published her bookTravels in West Africa and advocated a forum for the serious ethnological study of Africa. Kingsley's third trip was to Cape Town during the 1900 Boer War. There she encountered an epidemic of dysentery, volunteered to nurse prisoners of war, contracted typhoid, and died.

6. What is the main purpose of this passage? A. To demonstrate that even the most seasoned African explorers are at risk due to disease. B. To outline the early history of African exploration. C. To establish the need for a more tolerant colonial policy in 19
th

century England.

D. To discuss the achievements of one female explorer. E. To argue that the contributions made by women explorers in Africa were as important as those made by men.

7. The author suggests that Mary Kingsley may have gone to Africa for each of the following reasons EXCEPT: A. to serve as an Anglican missionary B. to complete her father's fetish research C. to fulfill a childhood dream D. to collect specimens of fish and insects for the British Museum E. to die

8. Mary Kingsley's reason for purchasing cloth and other supplies at the mouth of the Congo was: A. to be able to trade for food and shelter along the way B. to earn extra money to finance her trip C. to assuage the natives' concerns over her motives D. to acquire examples of fetish sculptures for her father's research E. to acquaint the natives with European goods

9. Why does the author insert the anecdotes about Kingsley's travels in paragraph three? A. To show that she was not afraid of wild beasts. B. To compare the obstacles faced by female travelers with those faced by male explorers of the day. C. To entice you into reading Kinsley's best-selling book Travels in West Africa. D. To emphasize the dangers Mary faced in her travels. E. To illustrate Kingsley's ability to conquer a variety of challenges.

10. Although traditional Japanese culture treats children as private property and not members of society with human rights , prosecutors are considering filing charges against parents in severe cases of neglect. A. Although traditional Japanese culture treats children as private property and not members of society with human rights B. Although traditional Japanese cultures treat children as private property and not as members of society with human rights C. While traditional Japanese cultures treat children as private property and society members, not human rights D. When traditional Japanese culture treats children as private property and not as members of society with human rights E. Although traditional Japanese culture treats children as private property and not as members of society with human rights

People buy a feeling of virtue when they purchase "ecologically friendly" goods. These purchasers, who are often referred to as "green consumers," want to be associated with products that promote a sustainable future and do not pollute the planet. Thus, a certain amount of care should be taken when marketing ecologically friendly products because ________________. 11. Which of the following best completes the passage above? A. Green consumers are less susceptible to advertising messages than are other consumers. B. Some traditional marketing approaches such as the use of mobile billboards and glossy flyers run counter to the philosophy of green consumers. C. Green consumers are concerned with the price as well as the ecological friendliness of products. D. Green consumers currently represent a shrinking portion of all purchasers. E. Manufacturing an ecologically friendly product may be more expensive than manufacturing a standard brand of the same product.

12. Many experts believe that the politician, which is relatively inexperienced in foreign affairs, was probably nominated because none of the more qualified candidates felt they could defeat the incumbent. A. which is relatively inexperienced in foreign affairs B. who is relatively inexperienced in foreign affairs C. which inexperienced in foreign affairs is relative D. to which foreign affairs are relatively inexperienced E. to whom inexperienced foreign affairs are relative

The first human flights, conducted aboard hot air balloons in the late 18th century, required courage. The first aeronauts entrusted their lives to nascent principles of flight; although buoyancy had been discovered centuries before, the theory had not been applied to passenger aircraft. It is even more difficult to contemplate the fortitude summoned by aeronaut Andr-Jacques Garnerin, who made the first parachute jump on October 22, 1797, from a hydrogen balloon flying 3,200 feet above Paris. While smaller parachutes had been tested successfully with animals, Garnerin's design, which had a semirigid construction, had to be much larger. Because he failed to equip the parachute with a vent at the apex, the contraption spun mercilessly on its way down. Nevertheless, Garnerin survived and continued improving the design. By the time of World War I, the first conflict with a major aerial component, parachutes had advanced tremendously. Although the parachute was no longer semirigid, the newer silken envelopes could waft a flier to Earth with reasonable reliability. Germany, France, and the United States quickly adopted parachutes as potentially life-saving devices for the air forces. Only Britain did not equip its fliers with parachutes, ostensibly on the grounds that the design was not 100 percent reliable. Only later did British military leaders admit their true concern: that pilots would be more likely to abandon their planes and abort missions if they had a ready means of escape. 13. Which of the following statements can be inferred from the passage? A. It can be difficult to trust one's life to a scientific principle that has yet to be practically applied. B. British leaders during World War I cared little about human life.

C. Andr-Jacques Garnerin was simply lucky to survive his parachute jump. D. The silk parachutes were no better than Garnerin's semirigid one. E. The animals in the first parachute tests did not survive the descent.

14. The author mentions the semirigid structure of Garnerin's parachute in order to A. create a vivid image to entertain the reader. B. underscore how little was known about physical laws of science. C. demonstrate how parachute design evolved. D. highlight how rigid and formal 18th-century thinking was. E. provide a detailed description of Garnerin's "contraption."

15. The author's main objective in the passage is to A. demonstrate that British leaders during World War I put mission objectives ahead of human life. B. discuss the pioneering efforts to develop parachutes, their early uses, and design developments. C. instill a sense of André-Jacques Garnerin's accomplishment in the reader. D. criticize the British military for undervaluing the lives of World War I pilots. E. persuade readers about the inferiority of 18th-century scientific thinking.

16. The government of Egypt proposes to require bakers to make their bread twenty percent corn due to wheat being costly there. A. due to wheat being costly B. because of the costliness of wheat C. for the fact of wheat's costliness D. as a result of wheat displaying costliness E. being that wheat is costly

17. A black hole is a star that has used up its nuclear fuel and can no longer counter the force of its own gravitation. A. a star that has used up its nuclear fuel B. where a star has used up its nuclear fuel C. when a star has used up its nuclear fuel D. when a star is using up its nuclear fuel E. a star that, having used up its nuclear fuel,

Microlenders offer small loans to borrowers who are unable to get loans from traditional lenders. These borrowers are people in poverty who have no credit history, collateral, or steady employment. Microlending programs allow very poor people to develop or expand self-employment projects that generate additional income and lead them out of poverty. For example, a $100 microloan helped a Sri Lankan woman purchase equipment to produce candy from locally available raw materials. Since the initial investment, her business has grown to employ six women from her community, who are now her partners. Microcredit originated in the 1970s, when Professor Mohammad Yunus, a Bangladeshi economist, discovered the power of making very small personal loans to poor basket weavers. In 1983, he founded the Grameen Bank, which now has over 2,500 branches and 20,000 employees, and is 90 percent owned by borrower shareholders. In 2006, Professor Yunus was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for "efforts to create economic and social development from below." In 2009, more than 128 million families received microloans, according to the Microcredit Summit Campaign. Over 80 percent of those receiving microloans are women, who have proved to be lower credit risks than men and consistently reinvest in their families and communities. In their press release, members of the Nobel Committee acknowledged that "lasting peace cannot be achieved unless large population groups find ways to break out of poverty. Microcredit is one such means." 18. The author's primary objective in the passage is to A. introduce readers to the concept and history of microcredit. B. chronicle Professor Yunus's path to the Nobel Peace Prize. C. explain that women are better credit risks than men.

D. demonstrate that microcredit is an ineffective way to bring families up from poverty. E. predict the future of microcredit.

19. The author of this passage would most likely agree with which of the following statements? A. Microlenders are foolish not to insist on credit scores and collateral from their potential clients. B. Microcredit is a virtually risk-free investment. C. Microloans have only a small impact on relatively few people. D. Professor Yunus has demonstrated that business interests and social consciousness are not mutually exclusive. E. The microcredit model works only in third-world countries.

20. The author first quotes the Nobel Committee in order to A. state that microlending leads to world peace. B. confirm that microlending has successfully led people out of poverty. C. illustrate the prestige of winning the award. D. argue that development from below is more effective than traditional large-scale economic development programs. E. defend against critics who feel that microlending is ineffective.

21. Emily Dickinson is regarded as the greatest female poet of her generation. A. as B. to be C. to be seen as D. as to E. for

22. Since records about ancient earthquakes are often incomplete or biased, and consequently scientists are unable to quantify the amount of possible damage from these quakes with any degree of accuracy. A. and consequently scientists are unable to quantify the amount of possible B. consequently scientists are unable to quantify the possible amount of C. so consequently scientists are not capable of quantifying the possible amount of D. scientists are not capable of quantifying the possible amount of E. scientists are unable to quantify the amount of possible

23. One reason some particle physicists are switching to astronomy late in their careers is that they tire of spending years constructing environments in which they can conduct experiments; astronomers have an infinite and ready-made supply of environments at their disposal. A. One reason some particle physicists are switching to astronomy late in their careers is that they tire of spending years constructing environments in which they can conduct experiments; astronomers have an infinite and ready-made supply of environments at their disposal B. Late in their careers, one reason that some particle physicists are switching to astronomy is suggested by the fact that particle physicists must spend years constructing environments in which they can conduct experiments, while astronomers have an infinite and ready-made supply of environments at their disposal C. Late in their careers, one reason that some particle physicists are switching to astronomy is suggested by the fact that particle physicists must spend years constructing environments in which they can conduct experiments, while an infinite and ready-made supply of environments is at the disposal of astronomers D. The fact that particle physicists must spend years constructing environments in which they can conduct experiments while astronomers have an infinite and readymade supply of environments at their disposal is one reason, late in their careers, some particle physicists are switching to astronomy E. The existence of an infinite and ready-made supply of environments at the disposal of astronomers compared with the fact that particle physicists must spend years constructing environments in which they can conduct experiments suggests one reason some particle physicists are switching to astronomy late in their careers

Stocks traded on the stock market are known to fluctuate based on any news that concerns the strength of the economy. One such source of news comes from certain 'harbinger' companies. If these companies report solid earnings, it is taken as a sign that the economy is healthy and that other companies will also report higher earnings in the future, thus driving up stock prices. Before the stock market opened this morning, a 'harbinger' company, United Automobiles, announced earnings for the previous quarter that were dramatically better than expected. Therefore, the overall stock market will be up sharply today. 24. Which of the following, if true, most weakens the argument above? A. Many people who own stock of United Automobiles have not yet heard of the news that earnings came in higher than were expected. B. Economic experts announced today that interest rates are rising rapidly, and this condition is known to slow the overall economy. C. Stock prices have been fluctuating more dramatically this year than in the previous five years. D. United Automobiles attributed its earnings success to increased demand for its automobiles. E. United Automobiles often has difficulties dealing with its very strong labor union and this often causes the company to have to share increased earnings with its workforce.

25. A new technique was devised at a German blood bank to use light treatment to destroy viruses which exist in plasma supplies, and is being developed for use on an international basis. A. A new technique was devised at a German blood bank to use light treatment to destroy viruses which exist in plasma supplies B. To destroy viruses which exist in plasma supplies, a new technique was devised at a German blood bank to use light treatment C. A new technique using light treatment to destroy viruses which exist in plasma supplies was devised at a German blood bank D. A new technique was devised to use light treatment which exist in plasma supplies at a German blood bank to destroy viruses E. A new technique to destroy viruses was devised at a German blood bank to use light treatment which exist in plasma supplies

According to the BBC's The Blue Planet: Seas of Life documentary, "more people have traveled into space than have traveled to the deep ocean realm." The deepest of the ocean's life zones is the abyssal plain, ranging from 2,000 to 6,000 meters (1.2 to 3.7 miles) below sea level. This large, flat ecosystem exists in perpetual darkness, as sunlight cannot penetrate to such depths. The water there is cold-around 3 C (37.4 F). The pressure is enormous, averaging between 200 to 600 times greater than at the surface-enough to crush submarines. The ooze on the plain's surface is comprised of sediment and organic marine "snow," or dead plant and animal matter and wastes that have fallen from the surface waters over millions of years. Surprisingly, life does exist in the abyssal plain. Deep-sea creatures sift through the mud for food or prey on fellow bottomdwellers. Some organisms have made adaptations to their harsh environment. Many are bioluminescent, producing their own low-level light to lure prey or attract mates. Some species have developed larger eyes to absorb available light, while others rely on highly developed olfactory senses to find their food. Still other deep-sea marine organisms endure great pressure because they have no excess cavities. For example, giant tube worms are creatures without eyes, mouths, or intestines, and they derive their energy from sulfurloving bacteria found in chemicals in the hot water around hydrothermal vents. As deep-sea exploration technology advances, scientists are learning more about the fascinating world of the abyss. 26. It can be inferred from the passage that fewer people have traveled to the bottom of the ocean than to the moon primarily because of which factor? A. Distance B. Temperature

C. Cost D. Water pressure E. Scientific interest

27. The author mentions tube worms in order to A. provide an example of a creature that lives near hydrothermal vents. B. support the claim that deep-sea organisms have made adaptations to their environment. C. describe an organism with large eyes and a keen sense of smell. D. show how deep-sea organisms cope with extremely cold water conditions. E. explain why most sea creatures are unable to live at great depths.

28. According to the passage, marine ""snow"" comes from A. hydrothermal vents. B. toxic waste and pollution. C. bioluminescent fish. D. sulfur-loving bacteria. E. organic material from surface waters.

29. The frequency of shark attacks is on the rise partly because of overfishing, which forced sharks to search out new types of food. A. which forced sharks to search out new types of food B. which have forced sharks to search out new types of food C. which has forced sharks to search out new types of food D. which will force sharks to search out for new types of food E. which forced sharks to search out for new types of food

Even the smallest amounts of chlorofluorocarbons contribute to the needless and rapid destruction of the Earth's protective ozone layer. The destruction of the ozone layer will lead to catastrophic global warming and greatly increased incidence of skin cancer. The loss of the ozone layer is unacceptable, so chlorofluorocarbons should not be used, especially since _________. 30. Which of the following best completes the passage? A. most people live in areas where the ozone layer is thickest B. users of chlorofluorocarbons are generally unaware of the risks involved C. most chlorofluorocarbons are used in small amounts D. safe and equally cheap replacements are readily available E. the ozone layer serves to protect human life in a variety of ways

31. Each year, thousands of salmon swim to spawn up the rivers of Maine, only a few of which are genetically recognizable descendants of the salmon that swam up the same rivers centuries ago. A. swim to spawn up the rivers of Maine, only a few of which B. spawn by swimming up the rivers of Maine, only a few of which C. swim up the rivers of Maine to spawn, only a few of which D. swim to spawn up the rivers of Maine, but only a few of them E. swim up the rivers of Maine to spawn, but only a few of them

The California ground squirrel must constantly balance the conflicting demands of self-preservation and predator assessment. Because predator assessment requires a fairly high degree of proximity and sensory contact, the ground squirrel can only safely assess predators from whom there is little to no immediate threat. For example, when avian predators, including the red-tailed hawk and golden eagle, launch sudden, unexpected aerial attacks, self-preservation must take precedence over the acquisition of knowledge. Rattlesnakes, on the other hand, pose relatively little immediate danger, and give the squirrel the greatest opportunity for predator assessment. Predator assessment might normally be hampered by the inherent danger of the rattlesnake's lethal bite. But while squirrels constitute almost 70 percent of the rattlesnake's diet, adult ground squirrels are all but immune to rattlesnakes. Rattlesnakes hunt slowly and stalk their prey, in marked contrast to sudden avian attacks. And even though a rattlesnake's strike is fast, the ground squirrel can move much faster. More important, any danger posed by a snakebite is mitigated by proteins in the squirrel's blood that confer resistance to rattlesnake venom. Adult ground squirrels will generally survive a rattlesnake bite that could prove lethal to a grown human. Indeed, it is the squirrel pups that are most susceptible to rattlesnake bites, because their smaller bodies cannot neutralize a full bite's worth of venom. This innate resistance allows the ground squirrel to change the dynamic of the traditional predator-prey relationship and approach the rattlesnake in an effort to acquire useful information regarding size and body temperature. Larger snakes, which deliver more venom per strike, are naturally more dangerous, as are warmer snakes, which can strike faster, from a greater distance, and with greater accuracy. Visual cues can be helpful, but the squirrel is often hampered by the

surrounding vegetation and darkness of burrows. Auditory cues are generally more reliable. For this reason, the ground squirrel will engage in tail-flagging, sand-kicking, and substrate-throwing in an attempt to put the snake on the defensive, and coax the snake into rattling its tail. The sound of a particular snake's rattle "leaks" information about the snake's size and body temperature. Not only does this information allow the squirrel to accurately assess the surrounding danger to itself and its pups, but it also allows the squirrel to communicate this danger (or lack thereof) to other squirrels by additional tail-flagging. 32. Which of the following can most reasonably be concluded about adult ground squirrels on the basis of the passage? A. They are found exclusively in California. B. They have always been immune to rattlesnake venom. C. They are sometimes vulnerable to a rattlesnake's venom. D. They generally stay away from rattlesnakes in order to protect their young. E. They have only avian and reptilian predators.

33. According to the passage, the adult ground squirrel generally does NOT engage in which of the following? A. The self-application of snake scent B. Acquisition of knowledge regarding a rattlesnake's size C. Biting rattlesnakes D. Large-scale assessment of avian predators E. Communication with other adult ground squirrels

34. The author mentions the hunting method of rattlesnakes in order to A. show how the rattlesnake can sneak up on a ground squirrel engaged in predator assessment. B. give an example of an attack against which the adult ground squirrel must defend itself in order to survive. C. explain why 70 percent of squirrels are eaten by rattlesnakes. D. show how the rattlesnake is different from the red-tailed hawk and golden eagle. E. provide a secondary explanation for the adult California ground squirrel's ability to safely approach the rattlesnake.

35. The passage suggests which of the following about predator-prey relationships? A. They only allow for predator assessment when there is no danger from the predator. B. They often do not allow for a high degree of predator assessment. C. They are fairly traditional in their resistance to evolution. D. They tend to minimize the predator-prey proximity. E. They are the same regardless of the species in question.

People join the Safari Club precisely because it is not accessible to everyone. Marketing to the public at large and reducing the fees to join the club are anathema to the club because _________________. 36. Which of the following best completes the passage? A. potential club members currently make up a shrinking portion of the population B. continued success in attracting new members depends on the maintenance of a reputation of exclusivity C. people who join clubs are concerned with the quality of their membership experience as well as with the price of membership D. expansion of the club's membership to include a broader cross-section of the general populace will improve the club's financial position E. recruiting wealthy members is not necessarily easier than recruiting other types of members

With government money increasingly allocated to sustainable energy projects, offshore wind farms are a burgeoning industry worldwide. In 2010, Britain opened the world's largest offshore wind farm along its southern coast. With 100 turbines stationed eight miles offshore, the Thanet wind farm generates 300 megawatts of electricity-enough energy to power 200,000 British homes. Altogether, Britain harvests 1,341 megawatts from offshore wind, which is more than the rest of the world combined. British leaders are bullish on wind power, aiming to generate 15 percent of the nation's total energy needs by wind turbines by the year 2020. This achievement is being emulated by other nations. An offshore project being contemplated for Lake Ontario in New York State would outpace energy production at Britain's Thanet wind farm, with 166 windmills generating an astounding 500 megawatts. Meanwhile, Britain is likely to hold its lead in offshore production. Very soon, the United Kingdom plans to go online with a new site called the London Array, championed as the first offshore wind farm capable of producing the fabled one gigawatt, or 1,000 megawatts, of power. However, when total wind power is measured, the United States comes out on top. If the total gigawatts produced by all wind farms-offshore and on-were stacked up, the United States would win the theoretical competition, with 35,000 megawatts versus Britain's 5,000; the United States is the world leader in total wind power-just ahead of Germany. 37. It can be inferred from this passage that A. Britain will eventually supersede the United States in total energy produced from wind power. B. The wind power industry makes no distinction between power generated offshore and onshore. C. Five gigawatts of energy is significantly more than 5,000 megawatts.

D. U.S. wind power output exceeds Britain's solely because the United States has more land. E. Germany generates more total wind power than Britain.

38. The author cites Britain's goal of deriving 15 percent of the world's energy needs from wind by 2020 in order to A. dramatize just how far short Britain has fallen from its stated objectives. B. underscore the depth of that nation's commitment to wind power. C. encourage other countries to follow suit with similar energy goals. D. illustrate the small aspect that wind power plays in Britain's overall energy picture. E. demonstrate how close Britain is to achieving its aggressive objectives.

39. According to the passage, New York State is contemplating a wind power project that would be built A. within a few years. B. out at sea. C. on farmland. D. by the New York State government. E. in a lake.

40. Of all the possible threats that affect American national security, the possibility of electromagnetic attack is maybe the more difficult for analysis. A. is maybe the more difficult for analysis B. is probably the most difficult to analyze C. is maybe the most difficult for analysis D. is probably the more difficult to analyze E. is, it may be, the analysis that is most difficult

From the eighth through the nineteenth century, Japanese imperial power underwent a period of decline. This is sometimes erroneously attributed to a traditional Japanese belief that clan loyalty was always more important than loyalty to the emperor. The explanation is wrong because even as late as the Kamakura period in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, local rulers called shoguns claimed that their authority dervied from that of the emperor, and Japanese peasants rarely challenged the shoguns' authority. 41. Which of the following, if true, would most seriously weaken the argument? A. Many Japanese followed the shogun because they assumed the shogun was following the will of the emperor. B. The Kamakura period collapsed in 1333, followed by 200 years of civil war in Japan. C. The shoguns were members of independent clans and ruled without regard to the emperor's decrees. D. During the earlier Heian period, from the years 794 to 1185, the power of the shoguns was far less than it was in the 200 years following the Kamakura period. E. Some historians believe that geography and the system of taxation were more crucial than clan loyalty in undermining imperial power.

Large companies in fast-paced industries concentrate on protecting their markets at all costs. Consequently, they tend not to be as inventive as their smaller counterparts, and tend to undervalue the innovations of those smaller competitors. The best example of this preservation objective is the fact that _______________. 42. Which of the following best completes the passage? A. wireless and high-speed internet connections have eliminated the market for telephone modems in desktop machines, clearing the way for the marketing of modems as tools for traveling executives B. a highly successful media player was introduced by a company that had previously sold a wildly unpopular model C. a formerly successful manufacturer of cartridge-based video game systems reacted to the introduction of diskbased systems by increasing the number of titles available as cartridges for its system D. one of the earliest models of video projectors, intended for the business market, was widely purchased by schools and individuals as well as businesses E. the inventor of 3-dimensional ultrasound intended it to be used for medical diagnoses, but it is most frequently used for novelty viewing of fetuses

In a shallow-water grave off the coast of the Dominican Republic lies the 1699 shipwreck Quedagh Merchant. This Indian merchant vessel was captured off the west coast of India and then abandoned in the Caribbean by the infamous pirate Captain William Kidd. When Kidd left the ship to address piracy charges in New York, his men looted the ship, set it on fire, and then left it adrift to find its final resting place. When the wreckage was discovered in 2007, the archeological remains closely matched the historical record of the ship. According to anthropologist Geoffrey Conrad, "All the evidence that we find underwater is consistent with what we know from historical documentation, which is extensive." On the 310th anniversary of Kidd's 1701 execution in London, the site of the Quedagh Merchant wreck was dedicated as a "Living Museum of the Sea." As such, the ship's remains, which are 70 feet offshore and under 10 feet of water, will be a notake, no-anchor cultural preserve. This arrangement protects the rich biodiversity of the surrounding reef systems. While the treasure-which included gold, silver, and silks-is long gone, divers will have the unique opportunity to explore the 17thcentury ship's remains, including cannons and anchors that are now home to coral and other aquatic life. Valuable research and conservation is ongoing, and artifacts are on temporary public display at Indiana University, the Children's Museum of Indianapolis, and the Museum of London Docklands. 43. With which of the following statements would the author of the passage most likely agree? A. Historical records are unreliable for the identification of shipwrecks. B. It may be important to consider environmental concerns when attempting historical research and preservation. C. Historical research should be conducted to recover the missing treasure.

D. Captain Kidd was unjustly executed on false evidence. E. Shipwrecks are interesting, but academic grants could be better spent on more relevant research projects.

44. In the first paragraph, the author includes the quotation by Geoffrey Conrad in order to A. state that the ship's remains match the historical record. B. support the claim that the shipwreck is the Quedagh Merchant. C. describe how researchers identify shipwrecks. D. refute claims that the remains match historical records. E. authenticate Captain Kidd's journals.

45. According to the passage, what happened to the treasure of the Quedagh Merchant? A. Captain Kidd's men stole it before they set the ship on fire. B. Treasure hunters plundered the wreckage over the centuries. C. It remains on the ocean floor with the wreckage. D. Choice items are on display at museums in Indianapolis and London. E. Captain Kidd took it with him to New York.

Numerous studies of chemotherapy patients over the last ten years have shown that patients who had regularly attended support groups or received counseling experienced significantly fewer side effects and shorter recovery times from chemotherapy than did patients who had not. Clearly, although the mainstream scientific community has been slow to acknowledge it, psychological support has an effect on the body's ability to heal. 46. Which of the following, if true, would most strengthen the argument above? A. The survival rates for chemotherapy patients in the study were virtually identical regardless of whether or not they received support. B. The patients who did not attend support groups chose not to do so, even though they were healthy enough to attend. C. Many medical doctors believe that the mind plays a role in the causation and prevention of illness. D. The majority of chemotherapy patients must undergo more than one round of treatment. E. Some hospitals do not conduct support groups on their premises for chemotherapy patients and their families.

47. Most biologists agree that, although they are being eradicated for centuries and remain an endangered and much maligned species, the wolf has made a comeback in some Western states. A. they are being eradicated for centuries and remain an endangered and much maligned species B. they have been eradicated for centuries, remaining an endangered and much maligned species C. it had been eradicated for centuries and it remains an endangered species that had been much maligned D. it was eradicated for centuries and remains an endangered and much maligned species E. its centuries of eradication, endangerment and being a much maligned species

The price paid by consumers for compact discs has risen faster than the rate of inflation for the last 10 years, while the cost of producing the discs themselves has actually risen more slowly than the rate of inflation. Therefore, the higher prices must be the result of collusion (coordinated price fixing), which is illegal, and so the government should immediately investigate the music companies selling these discs. 48. Which of the following, if true, casts the most doubt on the conclusion about compact disc prices drawn above? A. Prices for cassette tapes have not risen faster than inflation over the last 10 years. B. Prices for compact discs are much higher in Europe than they are in the United States. C. From 15 to 10 years ago, compact discs actually decreased in price as the technology to make them became cheaply and easily available, reducing production costs. D. Many compact discs are imported, and not produced domestically. E. Over the last 10 years, the fees paid to artists performing on compact discs by record companies have increased significantly faster than the rate of inflation.

Municipal imposition of rent controls, designed to hold rents down during periods of housing shortages, can protect tenants from paying inordinate amounts of rent for decent housing. But in an era of rapid inflation, high costs for fuel and maintenance can pose severe financial strains on landlords with fixed rent rolls. During such periods of economic hardship most landlords choose to defer all but the most vital building repairs before eliminating their own profit margin. 49. Which of the following offers the most appropriate conclusion to the author's argument? A. Decent housing is thus a relative concept, determined only by individuals choosing among options circumscribed by economic and technological factors in a society. B. Landlords, who are generally opposed to rent control because it inhibits their ability to make a profit, should therefore defer maintenance in order to draw attention to what they deem unfair municipal regulations. C. The construction of new housing would be a far more effective solution to shortages in available housing than the imposition of rent controls. D. Clearly, no solution in the struggle over higher or lower rents will please both landlord and tenant, and it is time that landlords adjust their concept of an adequate profit margin. E. Rent control, which is intended to sustain fair market rents when decent housing is hard to find, can thus have the effect of actually lowering the quality of city housing.