Direct and Indirect Speech

A menudo tenemos que dar información acerca de lo que la gente dice o piensa , para hacer esto tenemos que usar “Direct Speech” o “Indirect o Reported speech.”

Direct Speech
Cuando queremos informar exactamente lo que otra persona ha dicho, utilizamos el estilo directo.(Direct speech ) Con este estilo lo que la persona ha dicho se coloca entre comillas y deberá ser palabra por palabra. Ejemplo 1) El comentario de Mayra ahora es: My mother is sick Lo comentamos tal cual lo dijo a eso llamamos : Direct speech Direct speech ===> Mayra said “My mother is sick” 2) Susan :"I don't earn much money at work" Direct speech "I don't earn much money at work" , said Susan

Indirect Speech / Reported Speech
El estilo indirecto, a diferencia del estilo directo, no utiliza las comillas y no necesita ser como se dijo textualmente , es decir tal y como se hizo el comentario. En general, cuando se usa el estilo indirecto, el tiempo gramatical cambia cambia, es decir si el comentario se hizo en presente simple el reported speech lo trabajamos en pasado simple. A continuación tienes un explicación de los cambios que sufren los tiempos verbales. A veces se usa "that" en las frases afirmativas y negativas para introducir lo que ha dicho la otra persona. Ejemplo
Direct speech Indirect speech Past simple

Simple Present Paty study English I am at home

She told me (that ) Laura Didn´t Like History Sonia said (that) Sonia was at home

I.-Write these sentences in Direct Speech and Indirect Speech.
1. Example : Paty : We have some milk. Direct speech Paty said “ We have some milk” Indirect speech Paty told me that we had some milk 2. Ana :Mother wash Jenny’s jeans. Direct speech ____________________________________________ Indirect speech ___________________________________________ 3. My brother :I hate Maths lessons. Direct speech ____________________________________________

. Katia : They are hungry. My mother :my Children don´t like ivegetables Direct speech ____________________________________________ Indirect speech ___________________________________________ 6. My sister :The baby doesn´t sleep on the bed.el tiempo de la izquierda cambia al tiempo de la derecha) Direct speech Present continuous "I'm teaching English online. Direct speech ____________________________________________ Indirect speech ___________________________________________ 8." Indirect speech › Past continuous She told me she was teaching English online II. Ricardo : I am a good pupil. Anita : He is drinking a coffee.Indirect speech ___________________________________________ 4. Direct speech ____________________________________________ Indirect speech ___________________________________________ 10.Change each of the following direct speech to reported speech. Direct speech ____________________________________________ Indirect speech ___________________________________________ 9. That man : The monkey likes to eat bananas.-My brother : Dad buys a new car. Direct speech ____________________________________________ Indirect speech ___________________________________________ Cambio de tiempo Como una regla cuando tu reportas alguna cosa que alguien te ha dicho debes de cambiar el tiempo ( Observa el cuadro . 1. Direct speech ____________________________________________ Indirect speech ___________________________________________ 2.Silvia : I am swimming on the wave Direct speech ____________________________________________ Indirect speech ___________________________________________ . Direct speech ____________________________________________ Indirect speech ___________________________________________ 5. Antonio: Peter isn´t very tired. Direct speech ____________________________________________ Indirect speech ___________________________________________ 7.

. Past perfect She told us (that ) she had taught Biology yesterday. . Direct speech ____________________________________________ Indirect speech ___________________________________________ 2. Linda : Debbie has bought a new bike.3. Direct speech ____________________________________________ Indirect speech ___________________________________________ 5.-. Sally and Jenny have got a new CD player. Direct speech ____________________________________________ Indirect speech ___________________________________________ 3.Fair has made a fantastic cake." Indirect speech › . My grandmother :She isn´t washing her hair. the boy :I haven´t fed my little dog yet. Manolo : Chris hasn´t found wood for a raft (wood =madera) ( raft = balsa ) Direct speech ____________________________________________ Indirect speech ___________________________________________ Direct speech Past simple "I taught Biology yesterday. Direct speech ____________________________________________ Indirect speech ___________________________________________ 4. 1. (get) Direct speech ____________________________________________ Indirect speech ___________________________________________ 5. The girl :Mrs Mc. IV. Direct speech ____________________________________________ Indirect speech ___________________________________________ 4..Change each of the following direct speech to reported speech. Direct speech ____________________________________________ Indirect speech ___________________________________________ Direct speech Present perfect simple "I've been on the web since 1999. III. The teacher ." Indirect speech › Past perfect simple She told him she had been on the web since 1999. The woman :The cats aren´t dinking the milk. My sister : We are dancing in the living room.Change each of the following direct speech to reported speech.

-Change each of the following direct speech to reported speech.1." Indirect speech › NO CHANGE . Direct speech ____________________________________________ Indirect speech ___________________________________________ 5. My aunt : The girls visited the Tower Direct speech ____________________________________________ Indirect speech ___________________________________________ 4. They had written all the letters Direct speech ____________________________________________ Indirect speech ___________________________________________ We had seen the film before my parents Direct speech ____________________________________________ Indirect speech ___________________________________________ It had rained a lot in the winter Direct speech ____________________________________________ Indirect speech ___________________________________________ She had studied before the exam Direct speech ____________________________________________ Indirect speech ___________________________________________ I had gone out when she came Direct speech ____________________________________________ Indirect speech ___________________________________________ Direct speech will She said." Indirect speech › She told me (that) she would teach English o tomorrow. The teacher : They didn´t do the English homework Direct speech ____________________________________________ Indirect speech ___________________________________________ 3. Past perfect V. My father :We didn´t watch the news Direct speech ____________________________________________ Indirect speech ___________________________________________ Direct speech Past perfect "The lesson had already started when he arrived. would . "I'll teach English tomorrow.He told them (that) the lesson had already started when he arrived. My brother :He bought jeans andT-shirts. My mother: They invited Linda to their party Direct speech ____________________________________________ Indirect speech ___________________________________________ 2.

"I can swim very well" Indirect speech › could She told she could swim very well. Direct speech ____________________________________________ Indirect speech ___________________________________________ 5.-Change each of the following direct speech to reported speech.. Direct speech ____________________________________________ Indirect speech ___________________________________________ 5. Direct speech ____________________________________________ Indirect speech ___________________________________________ .-We build a house Direct speech ____________________________________________ Indirect speech ___________________________________________ 3.-I will go to France next year.we will have an important exam Direct speech ____________________________________________ Indirect speech __________________________________________ _ Direct speech can She said. 1.-He buy a new car tomorrow. Direct speech ____________________________________________ Indirect speech ___________________________________________ 2.-My friend won´t come to university tomorrow.Dogs can´t drive.-Change each of the following direct speech to reported speech. Babies can´t write. Direct speech ____________________________________________ Indirect speech ___________________________________________ 2.VI. VII. 1. Direct speech ____________________________________________ Indirect speech ___________________________________________ 3. Direct speech ____________________________________________ Indirect speech ___________________________________________ 4. Direct speech ____________________________________________ Indirect speech ___________________________________________ 4. Birds can read books. Helicopters can fly. Bears can climb trees..

Modal verb forms also sometimes change: Direct speech will She said. .He told them (that) the lesson had already started when he arrived.En Resumen los cambios de tiempo para reporter en estilo indirecto son: Direct speech Present simple “Laura doesn´t like History” Present continuous "I'm teaching English online. Past simple "I taught Biology yesterday. "I'll teach English tomorrow." › NO CHANGE . › could She told she could swim very well. "I can swim very well" would Indirect speech › She told me (that) she would teach English o tomorrow." Present perfect simple "I've been on the web since 1999." Indirect speech › Past simple She told me (that ) Laura Didn´t Like History › Past continuous She told me she was teaching English online." can She said. › Past perfect simple She told him she had been on the web since 1999." › Past perfect Past perfect She told us (that ) she had taught Biology yesterday. Past perfect "The lesson had already started when he arrived.

For example: Direct Speech She says "I teach English online.. Place change Si tu reportas alguna cosa que alguien dijo en un lugar diferente de donde tu lo escuchaste o estabas .Time expressions change Expresiones de tiempo Si la oración que vamos a reportar contiene expresiones de tiempo. tu debes cambiar el lugar here (aquí) a el lugar there (ahí) For example:- . › those (days) › then › (a week) before › the weekend before last / the previous weekend › there › the following (week) › the next/following day Pronoun change En reported speech los pronombres personales tambien cambian." Indirect Speech (tu reportas) She said she teaches English online.. debes cambiar esa expresión para escribirla acorde el tiempo a la cual estas haciendo el cambio Ejemplo Direct Speech Paco :”My sister works today” Mi hermana trabaja hoy Reported Speech He said that her sister worked yesterday El dijo que su hermana trabajaba ayer Expressions of time if reported on a different day this (evening) today these (days) now (a week) ago last weekend here next (week) tomorrow › that (evening) › yesterday .

( ahí) En este caso estamos diciendo Mi papa trabaja aquí y al reportarlo lo escribimos como: Ella dijo que su papa trabajaba ahí aquí en este caso el lugar donde trabaja quiza ya no esta a la vista de quien lo reporta y tenemos que hacer el cambio Direct speech "We are working in this project today.At work "I have worked here for a long time" a long time." En este caso tenemos tres cambios 1º Cambiamos el pronombre personal observa Direct speech Nosotros estamos trabajando en este proyecto hoy Tiempo presente Reported Speech o Indirect Speech lo cambiamos a tiempo pasado Ella dijo que ellos estaban trabajando en ese proyecto ayer + 24 hours after: Indirect speech She said : They are working in that project yesterday. . At home She told me that she had worked there for Possessive adjectives change Los adjetivos posesivos tambien cambian observa: Por ejemplo necesitamos cambiar palabras como adjetivos posesivos o here tienen que trabajarse de la siguiente manera. Direct speech She says “My father works here “ Indirect Speech / Reported Speech She said that her father worked there En este caso estamos efectuando dos cambios : El primero cambiamos el adjetivo posesivo de my a her por que ella dice en direct speech Mi papa trabaja aquí Y a la hora de hacer el reporte en estilo indirecto decimos Ella dijo que su papa ( de quien? pues el papa de ella) trabajaba ahí Segundo cambio cambiamos de here ( aquí )por there.