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Mechanical Materials

Mechanical Engineering Design

Dirk Pons

Mechanical Materials
Third Edition, 2011

This book gives properties for various materials that are used in mechanical design. The intention is to give general information on each type of material, with typical strength properties. Basic description of metallurgy is included where relevant, though the main focus of the book is on design.

About the Author Dirk Pons PhD CPEng MIPENZ MPMI is professional Engineer Tohunga Wetepanga and a Chartered Professional Engineer in New Zealand. Dirk is a Senior Lecturer at the University of Canterbury, New Zealand. He holds a PhD in mechanical engineering and a masters degree in business leadership. The Author welcomes comments and s u g g e s t i o n s dirk@pons.co.nz

This material is provided under a Creative Commons license(Attribution Non-Commercial No Derivatives), see below for details. The Author[s] accept no liability for the use or inability to use the material in this book. Published in New Zealand
518 Hurunui Bluff Rd Hawarden New Zealand Copyright Dirk Pons

Mechanical properties of materials


1 2 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.4.1 2.4.2 3 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 4 5 5.1 5.1.1 5.2 5.3 5.3.1 5.3.2 5.3.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.6.1 5.6.2 5.6.3 5.6.4 5.7 5.8 6 7 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6 7.7 8 8.1 8.2 9 9.1 9.2 9.3 10 10.1 10.2 11 11.1 PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 IRON-CARBON METALLURGY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Manufacture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Iron - Iron Carbide Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Alloys of Iron and carbon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Strengthening of materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Strain Hardening . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 WROUGHT ALLOY STEELS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 General Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Steels to BS970 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Steels to AISI-SAE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Casting Steel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Structural Steel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 CAST IRON . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 STAINLESS STEELS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 Ferritic Stainless Steels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 Super Ferritic Stainless Steels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 Martensitic Stainless Steels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 Austenitic Stainless Steels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 Heat Resisting Stainless Steels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 Austenitic Stainless Alloys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 Cast Austenitic Stainless Alloys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 Duplex Stainless Steels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 Precipitation Hardening Stainless Steels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 Available forms of Stainless Steels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 Stainless Steel Bar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 Stainless Steel Tube and Pipe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 Stainless Steel Plate and Sheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 Stainless Steel Fasteners . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 Basic Metallurgy of Stainless Steels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 Colour Coding for Stainless Steels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 HIGH NICKEL AND SPECIAL ALLOYS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 ALUMINIUM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 Wrought Alloys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 Cast Alloys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 Heat Treatment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 Aluminium Finishes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 General Physical Properties of Aluminium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 Mechanical Properties of Aluminium Alloys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 Product sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 COPPER ALLOYS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 Mechanical Properties of Coppers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 Mechanical Properties of Copper Based Alloys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 POLYMERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 Linear and Cross Linked Polymers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 Mechanical Properties of Polymers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 Polymers for wear applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 ELASTOMERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 Rubber Sheeting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 Expanded Rubber and Polymer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 OTHER MATERIALS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 Human bone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76

Mechanical materials

Mechanical properties of materials


This chapter gives properties for various materials that are used in mechanical design. The intention is to give general information on each type of material, with typical strength properties. Basic description of metallurgy is included where relevant. 1 PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS

The following table gives some physical properties for general classes of materials.
Material Modulus of elasticity E [GPa] 72 127 110 121 103 172 45 207 207 207 190 114 83 17 79 79 79 73 43 31 0,35 0,30 0,30 0,30 0,30 0,33 0,33 1800 8300 7850 7700 7700 4400 6600 Modulus of rigidity G [GPa] Poisson s ratio Density D[ kg. m-3] Coefficient of thermal expansion [10-6 /oC] 22 17 19 17 12 11-13 26 13 12 11 14 9 27 Thermal conducti vity [W. m-1 .oC-1] 173 147 78 381 50 25-36 95 21 47 38 21 12 111 Specific heat [ J. kg-1. oC1 ] 920 420 420 420 540 500-700 1170 500 460 460 460 500 460

Aluminium alloys Beryllium copper Brass, Bronze Copper Iron, grey cast Iron, ductile Magnesiu m alloys Nickel alloys Steel, carbon Steel, alloy Stainless steel Titanium alloy Zinc alloy

27 50 41 46 41

0,32 0,29 0,33 0,33 0,26

2800 8300 8700 8900 7200

Reference:JUVINALL R, MARSHEK K, 1991, Fundamentals of Machine Component Design, John Wiley.

Mechanical materials 2 IRON-CARBON METALLURGY

The iron carbon alloys include, in order of increasing carbon content, pure iron, mild (low carbon) steels, high carbon steels, and cast irons. 2.1 Manufacture

Iron ore consists of iron oxides, with other elements. The ore is melted with coke (pure coal, ie carbon), which removes the oxide part as CO2. Limestone is added to separate the rock part of the ore, which then floats off. The iron that is left is called pig iron. It has a high carbon content (eg 10%) and many other impurities. Pig iron is not particularly useful on its own, and is subsequently converted into either cast iron or steel.

M M

Cast iron is made by melting pig iron and adding coke, limestone and scrap iron to reduce the carbon content to around 3%. Steel is made by blowing oxygen over or through molten pig iron, which removes the carbon and impurities by oxidisation. Next the oxygen is removed by adding manganese, aluminium or silicon. Alternatively the steel may be melted under a vacuum. After this stage the material is called commercially pure iron, and it has a very low carbon content. The material is soft and unsuitable for structural use. Therefore carbon is re-added in a controlled way, to create steel.

Alloying elements The effects of the major elements in steels and cast iron are as follow: * Carbon strengthens iron by forming different crystal structures to pure iron. Higher carbon content increases hardness, but reduces ductility. * Manganese removes oxygen during steel formation. Also promotes the formation of pearlite. * Sulphur is a deoxidiser. It has the useful property of making the steel easier to machine. However it can reduce high temperature ductility unless manganese is present. * Silicon is a major component in the ore, and is also added as a deoxidiser. The inclusions which remain in the steel cause weakness. * Hydrogen is responsible for hair line cracks, also called hydrogen embrittlement. This can be a problem in forging and in steels used in space. Hydrogen is removed by melting the steel under a vacuum.

Mechanical materials 2.2 Iron - Iron Carbide Diagram

The iron - iron carbide diagram shows the phases (molecular lattice structure) of various compositions of iron and carbon, and their temperature dependence. The diagram is valid for slow cooling only, such that diffusion can occur even in the solid states. Iron and carbon form an intermediate iron-carbide compound called

Iron-iron carbide diagram

cementite, with composition Fe3C, at 6,7% mass Carbon. Higher carbon contents are not of practical interest. The top lines show the transformation of liquid to solid. Regions just below the top lines are where the material is partly molten and partly solid. Internal lines show changes in crystal structure of the solid (called phase or polymorphic changes). The important phases are ferrite and austenite. The upper region of delta phase is not significant in this discussion.

Mechanical materials 2.3 Alloys of Iron and carbon

The main types of iron-carbon alloys are : PURE IRON Commercial purity iron (not the same as cast iron which has a high carbon content) consists of only ferrite grains. Non-metallic inclusions may also be present between the grains. Pure iron is not really used as a structural material. MILD STEEL For example take a composition of 0,5% carbon, as shown on the diagram below. On cooling from the molten state, austenite starts to solidify in small nuclei. The solid granules have a composition richer in Fe, and the remaining liquid is poorer in Fe. The exact compositions are given by drawing a horizontal line at the temperature concerned: where this line meets the boundaries represents the compositions. As the temperature drops, so the compositions change, by means of diffusion. When the temperature intersects the solidus austenite line, then all the remaining liquid transforms into austenite. The entire structure is now austenite, and if cooling is slow then diffusion evens out the composition. At some temperature below 910oC, some of the austenite crystal structure changes to ferrite. On further cooling to below 720oC the remaining austenite microstructure changes to ferrite and cementite,

Mechanical materials which are in microscopic layers. This combination of ferrite and cementite is called pearlite. The final state at room temperature is thus ferrite grains mixed with pearlite. In practice the steels with more than 0,4% carbon are usually fast cooled rather than slowly, and microstructure is different to that described above. This forms martensite, a hard material. If the nominal carbon content had been 0,83%C, then the final state would be pearlite only. HYPEREUTECTOID STEEL This is steel with a very high carbon content, between 0,83% and 1,7%. For example, follow the changes for a steel with 1,5% carbon. On cooling from the molten state, austenite starts to solidify. At the solidus line the remaining liquid solidifies to austenite too. As the temperature drops further it leaves the pure austenite region, and cementite starts to form. Just below 720oC, all the remaining austenite changes to ferrite and cementite, which are layered together as pearlite. The final state at room temperature is thus cementite grains mixed with pearlite. Steels have a maximum of 1,7% Carbon. Higher carbon content materials are called cast irons. CAST IRON The term cast iron makes most people think of pure iron. However cast iron is far from being pure iron: instead it contains very high carbon content. A typical composition might be 3% carbon, as shown on the diagram below. On cooling from the molten state, austenite starts to solidify. Just above 1130oC, the remaining liquid has the eutectic composition of 4,3% C. Further cooling results in the eutectic liquid solidifying into austenite and cementite. Just below 720oC, all the austenite changes to ferrite and cementite (pearlite). The final state at room temperature is thus cementite grains mixed with pearlite. This is called white cast iron. Cementite is brittle, and its high concentration in white cast iron makes this a weak material.

Mechanical materials

Cast irons have carbon contents of 2 to 5%. Melting temperature is lower than for steels, as shown on the iron-iron carbide diagram. This makes the cast irons easier to cast than steels. Cast irons have a high content of cementite, which is brittle. However the cementite can be encouraged to decompose to ferrite and chunks of carbon. The several types of cast iron are distinguished by the state of the cementite.

2.4

Strengthening of materials

There are two ways of increasing the strength of a material. The one is by strain hardening, and the other is by heat treatment. The comments below apply to materials generally, but to steels in particular.

2.4.1

Strain Hardening

Strain hardening is plastic deformation of the material, which causes the yield strength to be increased (but ductility to decrease). The mechanism is that dislocations are driven to their limits by the deformation, such that they are run up against barriers (eg grain boundaries, inclusions, carbides) and cannot move further. Dislocations are imperfections in the lattice structure of a material. 9

Mechanical materials Strain hardening is also called cold work. It is usually applied during the rolling or extrusion of the material. It is an important hardening mechanism for pure materials which cannot be heat treated. Aluminium is a typical material that is routinely strain hardened. Strain hardening may be undone by annealing.

2.4.2

Heat Treatment

Heat treatment is the controlled heating and cooling of a material so as to change the microstructure. There a number of terms which describe different aspects of this process. Annealing In this heat treatment the material is heated (but not melted), so that all the alloying elements including precipitates are taken back into solution. Dislocations are also smoothened out by high temperature diffusion. Then the material is cooled slowly. Final mechanical properties are low strength but high ductility. Annealing is also called solution heat treatment, or normalisation. Low carbon steels are usually used in the normalised condition, since they are practically impossible to harden. Medium carbon (mild) steels are usually used in the quenched and tempered condition. High carbon steels are used in the heat treated condition, that is quenched and controlled tempering. Quench hardening This is a process whereby the high temperature microstructure is cooled so quickly that it does not have time to change into the usual phase, but must instead go into another form. When austenite is cooled slowly, so that diffusion can occur, it changes to ferrite and cementite. However this is suppressed if the austenite is cooled fast, and it changes suddenly into a different crystal structure called martensite. The microstructure of martensite is fine needles or plates. These fine hard particles of Martensite strengthen a material by preventing dislocation movement. It is important to quench the austenite fast enough, otherwise diffusion will allow pearlite to form. This information is shown on a temperature-time-transformation (TTT) diagram. Steels with carbon contents less than 0,4% require very fast cooling rates to form martensite. The fast quench is very difficult with the thick sections often used in engineering. Increasing the carbon content (or other alloying elements, eg Ni) of the steel causes martensite to form at lower cooling rates, which are more easily obtained. For any given steel there exists a critical cooling rate, and the steel should be cooled faster than this if martensite is required. Quenching is done in water or oil. Water gives the faster quench. The limiting ruling section of a steel is the maximum diameter of round bar that can be heat treated successfully all the way through. Hardenability refers to the ease with 10

Mechanical materials which a steel may be fully quenched to martensite, and is typically measured by the Jominy end-quench. Martensite has high internal residual stresses, and a slightly larger volume than the austenite. Furthermore there may be stresses due to the different cooling rates between the inside and the surface. Consequently the material may crack during quenching. Martensitic reactions occur in steels, and also many other metal alloys. Martempering is a two stage quenching process, where the steel is cooled fast to a temperature just above that at which martensite starts to form (about 300oC). The material is held at this temperature for a while, to relieve the stresses. After a few minutes at this temperature, bainite would begin to form, but before that the steel is quenched again to form martensite. Tempering Martensite is formed by rapid quenching, but thereafter a tempering heat treatment is usually applied. Tempering involves reheating the material (so that some of the martensite converts to other structures), and then slow cooling. The effect is to reduce the hardness and strength, but to increase the ductility. The tempering temperature is less than the annealing temperature. The higher the temperature the greater the ductility. For steels, tempering is usually done between 450oC and 650oC, and the material may be held at the temperature for an hour. The martensite converts into cementite and ferrite, in a fine microstructure called sorbite. Tempering is not without problems, as brittleness can occur in the following conditions: * Tempering steel between 250oC and 350oC causes loss of notch toughness, called brittle tempering. The mechanism is that residual austenite converts to bainite, expanding in the process. * Alloyed steels may also show temper brittleness if exposed to temperatures between 550oC and 600oC. The materials should be cooled fast through this danger zone. * Blue brittleness occurs in mild steels exposed to 300oC. Austempering Under slow cooling, austenite would transform to pearlite. However under suitable cooling rates the austenite changes to bainite. This has the same composition as pearlite, but the microstructure is slightly different. The process of forming bainite is called austempering, and it is used in some steels. Ausforming This is a special process for increasing strength of steels. It involves heating the material to the austenite phase, cooling to about 500oC, strain hardening (cold work), quenching to form martensite, and finally tempering.

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Mechanical materials Maraging This heat treatment can be applied to Iron-nickel alloys (no carbon). On slow cooling the microstructure is martensite. When tempered at about 500oC for several hours, precipitates form, and these strengthen the material. This is also called precipitation hardening. The effect also occurs with aluminium alloys.

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Mechanical materials 3 WROUGHT ALLOY STEELS

Steel is one of the most familiar materials in mechanical engineering. This section describes the steels that are alloys of iron and carbon, together with small amounts of other elements. The other large group of steels are the stainless steels, and these are left to the next chapter. Design choices The designer has to specify a steel according to three basic parameters: * alloy composition * shape of section (eg round vs channel) * size (eg diameter) In theory any grade of steel is available in any section at any size, providing that you are prepared to pay for it. In practice only certain commonly used combinations are readily available. From the view of the designer, the easiest way to put some order into all the many combinations is to classify a steel according to one of the following basic applications: * Wrought steel in the form of round and rectangular bars. This material is used to fabricate parts by metal removal processes (machining). * Casting steel, which is poured into moulds. * Structural steel, in various sections, is used for fabricating structures (columns, beams etc). Sometimes these are large structures, like factories. * Flat products: strip, sheet, and plate. Each of these categories may have its own particular favourite alloy compositions, shape and size combinations, and these are not usually available in the other categories. The steels are described below according to these categories.

3.1

General Properties

Hardness Hardness is used to check on heat treatment. It is also sometimes used to distinguish different steels, although chemical analysis is better for this (spectroscopic analysis is usually used). However mechanical designers usually find strength properties more useful than hardness. Hardness is quicker, easier, and less destructive to measure than ultimate tensile strength, and therefore it is often used to estimate tensile strength. The relationship between Brinell hardness Hb and ultimate tensile strength Rm for steels is approximately as follows:

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Mechanical materials There are a number of measurements of hardness. Some hardness equivalents are shown in the table and figure below.

Hardness equivalents
Brinell Vickers Rockwell C 120o diamond cone with 150 kg load 57 53 50 47 45 42 Rockwell B 1/16" steel ball indenter with 100 kg load

675 598 540 494 454 430

401

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Mechanical materials
Brinell Vickers Rockwell C 120o diamond cone with 150 kg load 40 37 35 33 31 29 26 24 22 20 102 99 97 96 94 92 90 88 86 84 82 80 78 76 73 71 Rockwell B 1/16" steel ball indenter with 100 kg load

375 352 331 311 293 277 262 248 235 223 212 202 192 183 174 166 159 153 146 140 134 128 124

389 363 339 316 296 279 263 248 235 223 212 202 192 183 174 166 159 153 146 140 134 128 124

Modified from Stainless steel buyers guide 1992, SASSDA, Johannesburg.

Physical properties Typical physical properties for steels are: Density: Modulus of Elasticity: Torsion modulus of elasticity: Specific heat capacity: Thermal conductivity: Coefficient of thermal expansion:
Source: Stainless steel buyers guide 1992, SASSDA, Johannesburg.

7870 kg/m3 200 GPa 65 GPa 455 J/(kg.oC) 70 W/(m.oC) at 300oC 13 :m/(m.oC) between 0oC and 300oC

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Mechanical materials 3.2 Steels to BS970

There are many name systems for steels, and several are in use. Some of the main systems are the British (BS), the German (DIN) and the American (ASME). The system of an En number for each steel is an old British one, which was widely used. It is now obsolete, but remnants of it may still be found. It has largely been replaced with the new British standard, as follows. Steels are classified according to BS 970, as xxxAyy, where: xxx Plain carbon steels and carbon manganese steels use 000 to 199, which is 100x the Mn content. Free cutting steels use 200 to 240, where the xx of 2xx is 100x the sulphur content. Direct hardening alloy steels, including alloy steels capable of surface hardening by nitriding, 500 to 999. Stainless steels use 300 to 449 A Supply requirements: A Analysis (some spring steels) H Hardenability (some spring steels) M Mechanical properties S Stainless steel (wrought) C Stainless steel (cast) yy Represents 100x carbon content for the carbon steels, otherwise arbitrary. Abbreviations are as follow. SYMBOLS Rm Re Rp0.2 Rf HB HV HRC DESCRIPTION tensile strength yield strength proof strength uncorrected fatigue strength Brinell hardness Vickers hardness Rockwell hardness, C scale

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Mechanical materials Tensile strength ranges Reference symbols that are used for the condition or tensile ranges of hardened steel are:
Symbol Tensile Strength Range [MPa] 540 - 695 617 - 772 695 - 850 772 - 927 850 - 1004 926 - 1081 1004 - 1158 1081 - 1235 1158 - 1313 1235 - 1390 1544 min 179-229 201-255 223-277 248-302 269-331 293-352 311-375 Hardness range, Brinell HB

P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

The same letters always represent the same lower limit of the tensile range. In order to get a particular steel to a given condition, it will be necessary to follow a particular heat treatment procedure. These procedures and the milestone temperatures are given in the standards. These details are not included here. From a design perspective it is important to note that the composition determines the hardenability, and that not every tensile strength range can be attained by a given steel. Most of the steel alloys listed in the tables are available in the form of round bar. A (limited) range of diameters will be available from any one supplier. Typical applications for the better alloys are for shafts and for relatively small machine parts, and the round section is usually suitable. Some of the grades for which there is sufficient demand may also be available in other sections, such as rectangular. The designer may have a choice of condition within the round sections, between "as rolled" (also called "black") and "bright bar". The former has scale on it from the hot rolling process and this gives it a dark grey appearance. "Bright bar" looks shiny since this scale has been removed, and the bar has been gauged (eg to h11). "Bright bar" may be sufficiently accurate for use in less critical machine parts, but not "as rolled" bar. Note that the B designation after some of the old En numbers does not refer to the bright condition but to the alloy composition.

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Mechanical materials

PLAIN CARBON STEELS The lower carbon grades, up to 0,20% (xxxM20) are used for cold formed products, rivets, stampings, machine parts. They can be carburised. Carbon contents up to 0,4% (xxxM40) give stronger steels (l\although with less ductility), which are suitable for shafts, gears, forged parts. They can be carburised, and heat treatment is also possible.
Designation Condition Rm Tensile strength [MPa] Re Yield strength [MPa] Elong-ation Other properties E: Elastic Mod. [MPa] J: Mod. Rigidity [MPa] Comments

070M20 070M26

normalised P normalised P Q normalised P Q normalised Q R normalised Q R normalised Q R S normalised R S T normalised R S T normalised P Q R normalised P Q R normalised Q R

400

200 355 216 355 417 231 340 417 247 401 463

21% 20%

En3A, 3C

080M30

19%

En5

080M36

18%

080M40

510

247 386 463 278 370 448 525 278 432 494 571

17%

En8

080M46

15%

080M50

14%

En43A

070M55

600

309 417 478 571 262 355 448 510 293 340 432 510 309 417 510

13%

En9

120M19

19%

En14A

150M19

17%

En14A

120M28

17%

En14B

18

Mechanical materials
Designation Condition Rm Tensile strength [MPa] Re Yield strength [MPa] Elong-ation Other properties E: Elastic Mod. [MPa] J: Mod. Rigidity [MPa] Comments

150M28

normalised Q R S normalised Q R S normalised Q R S

324 401 479 571 340 417 510 571 355 401 324 556

16%

En14B

120M36

16%

En15B

150M36

15%

En15

PLAIN CARBON STEELS: FREE CUTTING STEELS These steels are alloyed to provide greater ease of machinability. Otherwise increasing strength generally means greater difficulty of machining.
Designation Condition Rm Tensile strength [MPa] Re Yield strength [MPa] Elongation Other properties E: Elastic Mod. [MPa] J: Mod. Rigidity [MPa] Comments

216M28

normalised P Q normalised P Q R normalised Q R normalised P Q R normalised Q R S normalised R S T

355 432 340 401 494 401 479 340 401 479 401 463 540 448 525 602

En8M

212M36

225M36

216M36

212M44

225M44

220M07

normalised

360

215

En 1A

19

Mechanical materials

DIRECT HARDENING ALLOY STEELS Including alloy steels capable of surface hardening by nitriding, designation 500 to 999.
Designation Condition Rm Tensile strength [MPa] Re Yield strength [MPa] Elongation Other properties E: Elastic Mod. [MPa] J: Mod. Rigidity [MPa] Comments

503M30

Q R S T V R S T R S T U V R R S T R S T U V R S T U S T U R S T U R S T U V T Q

432 525 587 617 741 525 587 680 525 587 680 757 849 494 525 587 680 494 556 680 757 849 525 556 680 757 556 680 757 525 556 680 757 494 556 680 757 850 680 448

17% 17 15

503M40 = En12

526M60 530M40

En11 En18

605M30

605M36 606M36

En16 En16M

608M38

En17

640M40

En111

653M31

En23

708M40

En19A

709M40

En19

722M24 785M19

suitable for nitriding, En40B En13

20

Mechanical materials
Designation Condition Rm Tensile strength [MPa] Re Yield strength [MPa] Elongation Other properties E: Elastic Mod. [MPa] J: Mod. Rigidity [MPa] Comments

816M40

S T U V T U V W X Z T U V W X Z S T U V T U V W X Z T U V W X Z T U V W X Z U V W X Y Z T U V W Z Z R S

556 680 757 850 649 757 850 942 1019 1235 649 741 850 942 1019 1235 556 680 757 850 649 757 850 942 1019 1235 649 741 850 942 1019 1235 649 741 850 942 1019 1235 741 833 927 1019 1097 1235 649 757 850 942 1235 1235 525 587

En110

817M40

En24

823M30

En24

816M40

En110

817M40

En24

823M30

En24

826M31

En25

826M40

En26

830M31

En27

835M30 897M39 905M31

En30B suitable for nitriding, En40C suitable for nitriding, En41A

21

Mechanical materials
Designation Condition Rm Tensile strength [MPa] Re Yield strength [MPa] Elongation Other properties E: Elastic Mod. [MPa] J: Mod. Rigidity [MPa] Comments

905M39

R S T R S T U V

525 587 680 494 587 680 757 850

suitable for nitriding, En41B suitable for nitriding, En100

945M38

STEELS FOR CASE HARDENING


Designation Condition Rm Tensile strength [MPa] Re Yield strength [MPa] Elongation Other properties E: Elastic Mod. [MPa] J: Mod. Rigidity [MPa] Comments

523M15 527M20 635M15 637M17 655M13 659M15 665M17 665M20 665M23 805M17 805M20 805M22 805M25 815M17 820M17 822M17 832M13 835M15 045M10 080M15 210M15 130M15

quenched quenched quenched quenched quenched quenched quenched quenched quenched quenched quenched quenched quenched quenched quenched quenched quenched quenched quenched quenched quenched quenched

618 772 772 927 1004 1313 772 850 927 772 850 927 1004 1081 1158 1313 1081 1313 432 463 463 649

13% 12% 12% 10% 9% 8% 12% 11% 10% 12% 11% 10% 9% 8% 8% 8% 8% 8% 18% 16% 16% 14%

En206 En207 En351 En352 En36A En39A En34 En34 En35 En361 En362 En363 En363 En353 En354 En355

En39B

22

Mechanical materials
214M15 quenched 649 12%

3.3

Steels to AISI-SAE

The American steel naming system has four (or five) digits. The first digit is for the main alloying element (1 carbon, 2 nickel, 3 Ni + Cr, ...), the second digit is the percentage of that alloying element, and the last two (or three) digits give 100 times the carbon content.
10xx 11xx 12xx 13xx 23xx 25xx 31xx 32xx 33xx 34xx 303xx 40xx 41xx 43xx 46xx 51xx 514xx 515xx 52xx 61xx plain carbon free cutting, with sulphur free cutting, with sulphur and phosphor manganese up to 1,9% nickel 3,5% nickel 5 % nickel 1,25% chromium 0,6% nickel 1,75% chromium 1,0% nickel 3,5% chromium 1,5 % nickel 3,0% chromium 0,8 % corrosion and heat resisting molybdenum 0,25% molybdenum 0,20%, chromium 1% molybdenum 0,23%, chromium 0,8%, nickel 1,8% molybdenum 0,25%, nickel 1,75% chromium 0,8% corrosion and heat resisting corrosion and heat resisting chromium 1,5% chromium 0,78%, vanadium 86xx 92xx 93xx 0,13% nickel, chromium, molybdenum manganese, silicon nickel, chromium, molybdenum

In front of the number is placed a letter, which specifies how the steel is to be produced: A basic open hearth alloy steel B acid Bessemer carbon steel C basic open hearth carbon steel D acid open hearth carbon steel E electric furnace steel (carbon or alloy) If there is no prefix, then it is taken to be C. If letters B or L appear in the middle of the steels number, then this shows that Boron or Lead have been included. Suffix letters (after the number) refer to specifications for: A analysis (chemical composition) H hardenability

23

Mechanical materials
Designation Condition Rm Tensile strength [MPa] Re Yield strength [MPa] Elongation Other properties E: Elastic Mod. [MPa] J: Mod. Rigidity [MPa] Comments

1002 A 1010A 1018A 1020HR 1045 HR 1212 HR 4340 HR 52100A Carburising steels 1015 1022 1117 1118 4320 4620 8620 E9310

290 303 341 455 638 424 1041 1151

131 200 221 290 414 193 910 903

503 565 662 779 1006 793 896 1165

317 324 407 524 648 531 531 952

32 27 23 17 22 22 22 15

HB 149 HB 163 HB 192 HB 229 HB 293 HB 235 HB 262 HB 352

Reference: JUVINALL R, MARSHEK K, 1983, Fundamentals of Machine Component Design. John Wiley.

3.4

Casting Steel

Foundries have stock of certain grades of steel, and may also be able to cast proprietary alloy compositions. No data are given here for cast steels as there is a large choice of materials, many of them proprietary. Remember that ductile iron is a serious contender for casting, with mechanical properties in many cases better than cast steels.

3.5

Structural Steel

Structural steel is pre-formed steel used for the fabrication of structures. One application is in buildings (typically factories and warehouses), for which the steel framework is constructed (fastened or welded) on a concrete foundation and covered with cladding (steel, aluminium or other sheets, usually with some profile). Internal architecture may also be made from structural steel. Another application is the

24

Mechanical materials fabrication of bases for machines. There are several types of section used for structural purposes. * hot rolled sections include angles, channels, H and I sections, plates, flats, squares and rounds. These tend to be relatively thicker than the other sections. * cold formed sections. These include various angles, C and S shapes. They have uniform thickness throughout, being made from sheet material. Lips are typically provided at the edges. * hollow sections, including round, square and rectangular tubes. These are fabricated by rolling and welding processes, and may have an internal seam. * plate and sheet There are several standards to which structural steel is produced. Different structures are produced in different standards. For applications where mechanical properties are non-critical, steel may be ordered as commercial or "mild steel". Geometry and Material properties are given in a separate chapter.

25

Mechanical materials 4 CAST IRON

Cast irons are available in a number of types: white, grey, malleable, ductile (also called nodular, or spheroidal graphite), and austenitic. See the section on the iron carbide diagram for details of the metallurgy of the cast irons. White cast iron The microstructure at room temperature is cementite mixed with pearlite. White cast iron is brittle, but hard and wear resistant. The material is not usually used on its own in castings. A typical use is to form a hard surface layer on a casting. This is done by placing metal chill plates in the mould, next to which white cast iron will form, while the rest of the casting will be in the grey cast iron state. White cast iron may be transformed to malleable cast iron. Grey cast iron This cast iron contains silicon, which causes the cementite to change into ferrite (pure iron) and graphite flakes. The graphite flakes make the material softer, easier to machine, and somewhat sound absorbent. However the tensile strength is relatively low. There a several forms of grey cast iron, with different degree of dissociation of the cementite * pearlitic grey cast iron: the cementite in the pearlite is left as it is, but that in the primary grains of cementite is converted * ferritic grey cast iron: all the cementite, in the pearlite and the primary grains of cementite, is converted Grey cast iron may be heat treated to change the structure from pearlitic to ferritic or the other way. Heat treatment is also used to remove residual stresses (at about 620oC), for annealing and hardening. Small amounts of phosphorus lower the freezing temperature, giving fluidity in casting, and less shrinkage. Malleable cast iron This is a white cast iron that is heat treated to change the microstructure. White cast iron is heated to about 850oC for several days, during which the cementite changes to ferrite and blobs of carbon. This gives ductility. A variant is to create pearlite instead of ferrite. The carbon can also be oxidised out of the surface layer to create whiteheart cast iron. Ductile iron This has spheres of carbon in ferrite or pearlite, like malleable cast iron. However this state is created during solidification (by adding magnesium) rather than by heat treatment. This is a major advantage to the foundry. Other names are nodular cast iron, and spheroidal graphite cast iron. The material has relatively high strength and ductility. As cast the matrix around the carbon will be pearlite, but this can be heat treated into ferrite or martensite. The material is widely used for engineering components, even those that are relatively highly stressed, eg crankshafts, gears,

26

Mechanical materials brake drums, machine parts. Larger wall thicknesses are possible than with malleable iron. Austenitic cast iron These materials contain alloying elements that allow austenite to exist down to room temperatures (instead of changing into pearlite). Corrosion resistance is good. Mechanical properties follow.
Designation Condition Rm Tensile strength [MPa] Re Yield strength [MPa] or 0,2% proof Elon gation Other properties E: Elastic Mod. [GPa] J: Mod. Rigidity [GPa] Comments

WHITE CAST IRONS 2,75% C 250 - 300 0 400-550HB. Hard, brittle, used for wear resistant surfaces

3,25% C GREY CAST IRON 3,25%C as cast 3,25%C annealed 2,75%

300-450

150-250

100-200

0,5

180-240 HB Common usage 100-150 MB 210-320HB

125-200 300-400

85-140 200-275

0,51,0 0,5

Ultimate Compre ssive strength [MPa] ASTM 20 152 572

Ultimat e shear strength [MPa] 179 E 66-97 J 27-39 HB156. Endurance 69 MPa. Soft iron castings HB 174. Endurance 79 MPa.. Housings, IC engine blocks HB 210. Endurance 97 MPa. Brake drums HB 212. Endurance 110 MPa. Brake drums

ASTM 25

179

669

220

E 79 - 102 J 32 - 41

ASTM 30

214

752

276

E 90 - 113 J 36 - 45

ASTM 35

252

855

334

E 100-119 J 40 - 48

27

Mechanical materials
Designation Condition Rm Tensile strength [MPa] Re Yield strength [MPa] or 0,2% proof Elon gation Other properties E: Elastic Mod. [GPa] J: Mod. Rigidity [GPa] E110 - 138 J 44 - 54 Comments

ASTM 40

293

965

393

HB 235. Endurance 128 MPa. Cylinder liners, camshafts HB 262. Endurance 148 MPa. High strength HB 302. Endurance 169 MPa . High strength

ASTM 50

362

1130

503

E 130-157 J 50 - 55

ASTM 60

431

1293

610

E 141-162 J 54 - 59

MALLEABLE CAST IRON 2,5%C blackheart 350-400

260-300

10-20

110-140HB Black & white used for engineering parts, vehicle castings 120-220HB

2,5%C whiteheart

400-450

280-320

5-20

DUCTILE IRON SABS 936/937 (1970) SABS SG38 SABS SG42 SABS SG50 SABS SG60 SABS SG70 SABS SG80 375 245 17 E: 172 HB180 Endurance limit 0,55xRm HB200 Endurance limit 0,54xRm HB170-240 Endurance limit 0,49xRm HB210-280 Endurance limit 0,45xRm HB230-300 Endurance limit 0,44xRm HB260-330 Endurance limit 0,44xRm

410

275

12

E: 172

490

345

E: 172

590

390

E: 172

685

440

E: 172

785

490

E: 172

International standard ISO 1086 (1976)

28

Mechanical materials
Designation Condition Rm Tensile strength [MPa] Re Yield strength [MPa] or 0,2% proof Elon gation Other properties E: Elastic Mod. [GPa] J: Mod. Rigidity [GPa] Comments

ISO 800-2 ISO 700-2 ISO 600-3 ISO 500-7 ISO 400-12 ISO 370-17 German standard DIN 1693 GGG-40 GGG-50 GGG-60 GGG-70 GGG-80 GGG-35,3 GGG-40,3

800 700 600 500 400 370

480 420 370 320 250 230

2 2 3 7 12 17

400 500 600 700 800 350 400

250 320 380 440 500 220 250

15 7 3 4 2 22 18

References:

JUVINALL R, MARSHEK K, 1991, Fundamentals of Machine Component Design, John Wiley. KARSAY SI, Ductile iron castings, Ferrous Casting Centre PO Box 785711 Sandton 2146 South Africa.

29

Mechanical materials 5 STAINLESS STEELS

A stainless steel is a ferrous steel with at least 11% chromium. The materials have good corrosion resistance because a layer of chrome oxide naturally forms on the exposed surfaces, and prevents further corrosion. If this passive layer is damaged, then a new layer forms. However corrosion will occur if the passive layers are removed continuously, or prevented from forming. There is a common belief that stainless steels are much stronger than carbon steels. This is generally wrong: the ordinary stainless steels have mechanical properties which are similar and even less than those for ordinary carbon steels. Designers usually use stainless steels not so much for strength but for corrosion resistance.

A common misconception is that stainless steels are non-magnetic. In fact only the austenitic 300 series alloys are non-magnetic.

The designations used for wrought steels generally follow the USA AISI system, which is basically similar to the British and Canadian. The German DIN system has more limited use. Cast stainless steels follow the USA ASTM system, which differs from the British. SYMBOLS Rm Re Rp0.2 Rf

ultimate tensile strength An excellent South African reference on all stainless yield strength steel matters is the Southern Africa Stainless Steel proof strength Development Association (SASSDA), which produces technical literature and an annual supplier uncorrected fatigue guide on behalf of the industry. Their address is PO (endurance) strength Box 4479, RIVONIA 2128. Telephone (011) 803HB Brinell hardness 5610. HV Vickers hardness HRC Rockwell hardness, C scale Note (1): Q denotes quenching, T tempering, P,R,S,T refer to strength range as per conventional steels Note (2): The AISI steels are sometimes not used for casting.

30

Mechanical materials 5.1 Ferritic Stainless Steels

These are the conventional ferritic stainless steels. Composition: Chromium eg 18%, no nickel, low carbon Properties: Magnetic, non hardenable, poor welding (TIG may be best), moderate corrosion resistance, low hardness, medium strength, good ductility, moderate impact resistance, good scaling resistance, medium strength at elevated temperatures Available in sheet, coil, tube, plate. Generally thin gauge material, up to plates in the case of 3Cr12.

Forms:

Applications: Sinks, architectural trim, conveyors, fume extractors. Usually used as corrosion resistance sheet. Common grades: 3Cr12, 430. Always used in annealed condition.

Description

Designation

Condition (1)

Rm [MPa]

Re [MPa]

Elongation [%]

Other properties

Comments

FERRITIC STAINLESS STEELS


3Cr12 AISI wrought AISI wrought 403 430 softened softened 415 430 280 280 20 20 170 HBN 170 HBN 276 MPa fatigue weldable (MMA, MIG, TIG) with 309L filler 13Cr 0,12C general purpose 17Cr

5.1.1

Super Ferritic Stainless Steels

These steels substitute for austenitic stainless steels where stress corrosion cracking (SCC) and pitting are problems. Composition: Chromium 18%, molybdenum 2% (or 26/1) Properties: Forms: Resist pitting and stress corrosion cracking, properties similar to ferritic. Poor weldability. Available as sheet, tube.

31

Mechanical materials Applications: Sheet products: heater panels, solar heaters, heat exchanger tubing. Welded products are made from thichnesses less than about 5mm. Common grades: Common grades 444. Proprietary alloys are also available.

The family of Ferritic stainless steels, and their derivatives consists of the following. The main characteristic or niche application of each alloy is given. 430 general purpose 446 scaling resistance 442 scaling resistance 444 SCC resistance 429 weldability 405 resistant to hardening 409 automotive exhausts 430F machinability 430FSe machine texture 434 auto trim 436 heat and corrosion resistance
Physical properties Typical physical properties for select steels are: 430 Density [kg/m
3]

3Cr12 7700 207 600 460 (24)

444 7800 200

409 7800

7800 200 65 750 460 23

Modulus of Elasticity [GPa] Torsion modulus of elasticity [GPa] Max continuous temperature [oC] Specific heat capacity [J/(kg.oC)] Thermal conductivity [W/(m.oC) at 300oC]

Coefficient of thermal expansion 11 11,3 10,6 (11,7) [:m/(m.oC) between 0oC and 300oC] Modified from Stainless steel buyers guide 1992, SASSDA, Johannesburg.

32

Mechanical materials 5.2 Martensitic Stainless Steels

There is only one group of martensitic stainless steels. All the other stainless steels have low carbon, except the martensitic group. Here the carbon is used to give hardenability through the formation of martensite. Composition: Chromium eg 18%, high carbon, Properties: Hardenable, poor welding, moderate corrosion resistance, magnetic, medium to high strength, good to fair ductility, moderate to poor impact resistance, fair scaling resistance, medium strength at elevated temperatures Available in bar and strip.

Forms:

Applications: Heat treatment is used to control strength and hardness: eg for blades, shafts, springs, cutlery Common grades: Common alloys are 410, 420, 431. The family of Martensitic stainless steels, and their derivatives consists of the following. The main characteristic or niche application of each alloy is shown. 410 general purpose 414 corrosion resistance 431 corrosion resistance 422 mechanical properties at higher temperatures 403 turbine parts 420 mechanical properties 420F machinability 416 machinability 416Se machined texture 440C hardness 440B toughness 440A additional toughness

33

Mechanical materials

Description

Designation

Condition (1)

Rm [MPa]

Re [MPa]

Elongation [%]

Other properties

Comments

MARTENSITIC STAINLESS STEELS


AISI wrought AISI wrought 410 420 Q&T P Q&T R Q&T S 540695 695850 850925 695850 850925 695850 850925 9251000 9251000 620 370 525 585 20 15 13 152-207 HBN 201-255 HBN 223-277 HBN 201-255 HBN 223-277 HBN 201-255 HBN 223-277 HBN 248-302 HBN 248-302 HBN 170-240 Equivalent to AISI 410. Rotor blades, pumps, valves Equivalent to BS420C29 Equivalent to DINX22CrNi17 Equivalent to 17-4PH. Pistons, valve seats,. 220 Equivalent to BS425C11. Water turbine casings. Equivalent to BS452C11. Construction parts. 13Cr 0,12C

AISI wrought

420

Q&T R Q&T S

525 585

15 13

AISI wrought

416

Q&T R Q&T S

525 585

11 10

AISI wrought AISI wrought ASTM cast

431 441 CA-15

Q&T T Q&T T annealed

680 680 450

11 11 18

ASTM cast ASTM cast ASTM cast ASTM cast ASTM cast

CA-40 CB-30 CB-7Cu CA-6NM CC-50

annealed annealed quenched annealed annealed

690 450 760 880

485 205 550 -

15 15 -

34

Mechanical materials

Physical properties Typical physical properties for select steels are: 410 Density [kg/m3] Modulus of Elasticity [GPa] Torsion modulus of elasticity [GPa] Max continuous temperature [oC] Specific heat capacity [J/(kg.oC)] Thermal conductivity [W/(m.oC) at 300oC] Coefficient of thermal 11,4 11,0 10,8 11,0 expansion [:m/(m.oC) between 0oC and 300oC] Modified from Stainless steel buyers guide 1992, SASSDA, Johannesburg. 7800 200 416 7800 200 420 7800 200 431 7800 200

5.3

Austenitic Stainless Steels

The conventional austenitic stainless steels are a large group. All the austenitic steels contain chromium and nickel. Composition: Chromium 18%, nickel 8%, low carbon <0,08%. Molybdenum may be added (2-3%) for additional corrosion resistance. Low carbon grades (max 0,03% C) are denoted by L. Ti or Nb may be used as stabilisers Excellent corrosion resistance, easily weldable (MMA, MIG, TIG, SAW), cold work hardenable, good cryogenic prop, easily cleananable, tolerates up to 925oC. Non-magnetic when in fully annealed condition, low hardness, medium strength, excellent to good ductility, excellent impact resistance, excellent scaling resistance, high strength at elevated temperatures BUT don't like acids or halide ions (Cl) Available as strip, coil, plate, sheet, tube, rod, wire.

Properties:

Forms:

35

Mechanical materials Applications: Widely used in food processes, cryogenic, chemical processes. high temperature heat exchangers, low temperature gas storage. Often cold worked, which increases strength but decreases ductility. Common grades 304, 316.
Condition (1) Rm [MPa] Re [MPa] Elongation [%] Other properties Comments

Common grades:
Description Designation

AUSTENITIC STAINLESS STEELS


AISI wrought 304 & 304L softened 465 170 40 183 HBN 241 MPa fatigue. Used in fasteners, grade DIN K18-8. 18Cr 10Ni 0,06C (L: 0,03C)

AISI wrought AISI wrought

312 316 & 316L

softened softened

495 465

195 170

40 40

183 HBN 183 HBN 269 MPa fatigue. Used in fasteners, grade DIN K18-8-2. 17Cr 11Ni 2,5Mo 0,07C (L: 0,03C) 18Cr 13Ni 3,5Mo

AISI wrought AISI wrought

317 303

softened softened

465 510

170 210

40 40

183 HBN 183 HBN

36

Mechanical materials 5.3.1 Heat Resisting Stainless Steels

This is a special group of austenitic stainless steels, suitable for higher temperature duty (up to 1100oC). Composition: Properties: Forms: Applications: Common grades:
Description Designation

High chromium 24%, nickel eg 20%, Resist oxidisation at high temps, good hi temp strength Available as plate Typically furnace parts. Common grades 309, 310.
Condition (1) Rm [MPa] Re [MPa] Elongation [%] Other properties Comments

HEAT RESISTING STEELS


cast (2) AISI wrought 309 310 softened 515 540 240 215 10 40 207 HBN 23Cr 14Ni 217 MPa fatigue. 24Cr 20Ni

37

Mechanical materials 5.3.2 Austenitic Stainless Alloys

This is another group of special austenitic stainless steels. The steels are highly alloyed, giving greater corrosion resistance than the conventional austenitics. Composition: Properties: Forms: Applications: Common grades:
Description Designation

Chromium 20-27%, nickel 25-42%, molybdenum 3-6%, low carbon, highly alloyed Fe< 50% Properties as for austenitic ss, weldable, resist pitting corrosion & SCC Available as sheet, plate, tube. Generally for high corrosion resistance, eg petrochemical industries. Proprietary alloys
Condition (1) Rm [MPa] Re [MPa] Elongation [%] Other properties Comments

AUSTENITIC STAINLESS ALLOYS


DIN GNiMo30 DIN GNiMo16CrW DIN NiCr15Fe negotiable negotiable as cast 495 495 485 320 320 195 6 40 30

The family of Austenitic stainless steels, and their derivatives consists of the following. The main characteristic or niche application of each alloy is given. 302 general purpose 316L resists sensitization by low 302B scaling resistance carbon 202 general purpose 205 less Ni 201 less Ni 304 corrosion resistance 304L resists sensitization by low carbon 304N mechanical properties 304LN mechanical properties 308 welding material 321 resists sensitization by Ti 347 resists sensitization by Ta and Nb 348 limited Co and Ta for nuclear use 316 corrosion resistance 316LN mechanical properties 316F machinability

38

Mechanical materials
316N 317 317L strength corrosion resistance resists sensitization by low carbon 309 heat resistance, 309S similar 310 more heat resistance, 310S similar 314 even more heat resistance 329 resists SCC 330 resists thermal shock 305 reduced work hardening 384 less work hardening 301 reduced work hardening 303 machinability 303Se surface texture

Physical properties Typical physical properties for select steels are: 304 Density [kg/m3] Modulus of Elasticity [GPa] Torsion modulus of elasticity [GPa] Max continuous temperature [oC] Specific heat capacity [J/(kg.oC)] Thermal conductivity [W/(m.oC) at 300oC] 7900 195 85 925 503 17,4 310 7900 205 70 1150 503 15,2 316 8000 195 70 925 503 16,4 321 7900 195 72 950 503 (18)

Coefficient of thermal expansion 17,8 16,5 17,5 17,8 [:m/(m.oC) between 0oC and 300oC] Modified from Stainless steel buyers guide 1992, SASSDA, Johannesburg.

5.3.3

Cast Austenitic Stainless Alloys

Stainless steels may be cast, but a remelted bar of say 316, will not show the same mechanical properties of the original wrought material. In order to get the mechanical properties of a particular wrought steel ina casting, it is necessary to change the composition. There is an AISI designation for cast stainless steels. However (in South Africa) the cast steels rather follow the ASTM system. Composition: Chromium 20-27%, nickel 25-42%, molybdenum 3-6%, low carbon, highly alloyed Fe< 50%

39

Mechanical materials Properties: Forms: Applications: Properties as for austenitic ss, weldable, resist pitting corrosion & SCC Available as sheet, plate, tube. Generally for high corrosion resistance, eg petrochemical industries.
Condition (1) Rm [MPa] Re [MPa] Elongation [%] Other properties Comments

Description

Designation

CAST AUSTENITIC STAINLESS STEELS


ASTM A743 ASTM ASTM ASTM ASTM ASTM ASTM A297 ASTM ASTM ASTM ASTM ASTM ASTM CF-8 CF-8M CF-3 CF-3M CG-8M CN-7M HH HK HT HU HX HC HD quenched quenched quenched quenched quenched quenched as cast as cast as cast as cast as cast as cast as cast 450 485 450 485 520 430 515 450 450 450 380 515 195 205 195 205 240 170 240 240 240 35 30 35 30 25 35 10 10 4 4 8 furnace parts, grates furnace nozzles screw conveyors furnace parts 130-200 HB 130-200 HB chloride resistance sulphuric acid resistance chain links, furnace parts 130-200 HB 130-200 HB pumps, stirrers

40

Mechanical materials

5.4

Duplex Stainless Steels

These stainless steels are hybrids of the austenitic and ferritic stainless steels. They have a mixed ferritic/austenitic (i.e. duplex) structure. Composition: Properties: Forms: Applications: Common grades: Chromium 18-26%, nickel 5-7%, molybdenum 3% Highly resist SCC, high strength, good weldability Available as plate, sheet, tube. Heat exchanger, vessels (especially Chlorides) Proprietary alloys

Description

Designation

Condition (1)

Rm [MPa]

Re [MPa]

Elongation [%]

Other properties

Comments

DUPLEX STAINLESS STEELS


cast DIN X2CrNiMoN 22.5 ASTM CD4MCu or DIN X8CrNiMo27 .5 annealed 680 450 30

cast

quenched

689

483

16

190-230 HBN

Physical properties Typical physical properties for select steels are: DIN X2CrNiMoN22.5 Density [kg/m3] Modulus of Elasticity [GPa] Torsion modulus of elasticity [GPa] Max continuous temperature [oC] Specific heat capacity [J/(kg.oC)] Thermal conductivity [W/(m.oC) at 300oC] Coefficient of thermal expansion [:m/(m.oC) between 0oC and 300oC] 6800 na na na na na na

41

Mechanical materials 5.5 Precipitation Hardening Stainless Steels

These are stainless steels that produce a microscopic precipitate on aging. This precipitate strengthens the material. The aging heat treatment determines the mechanical properties. Composition: Properties: Forms: Applications: Common grades: 15,5% Chromium, 3% Ni, max 0,07% Carbon, plus other elements Hardenable, weldable, good corrosion resistance (similar to 304), high strength, good impact resistance, resists SCC Available in forged bar (round, hexagonal, square) and forgings. Can be forged or cast. Machinable before and after age hardening. Marine applications, gas turbine blades Common alloy is 17-4PH. Usually supplied in solution heat treated condition, and requires age hardening to develop desired strength. The higher the aging temperature the low the strength. The metallurgical process should be obtained from the supplier if necessary.
Condition (Heat treatment) Rm [MPa] Re (0,2%) [MPa] Elon gation [%] Ultimate shear strength [MPa] Bending fatigue strength 10^7 & 10^8 cycles [MPa] Brinell hardness

Description

Designation

PRECIPITATION HARDENING STAINLESS STEELS


wrought 17-4PH H900 H925 H1025 H1075 H1100 H1150 quenched 1379 1310 1172 1138 1034 1000 1276 1207 1138 1034 931 862 14 14 15 16 17 19 1179 972 931 855 621 & 503 607 & 510 572 & 538 -&-&621 & 621 420 409 352 341 332 311 Equivalent to 174PH

ASTM cast

CB-7Cu

Physical properties Typical physical properties for select steels are:


PH138Mo 15-5PH 17-4PH 17-7PH

Density [kg/m3] Modulus of Elasticity [GPa]

7800 203

7800 196

7800 196

7800 204

42

Mechanical materials
Torsion modulus of elasticity [GPa] Max continuous temperature [oC] Specific heat capacity [J/(kg.oC)] Thermal conductivity [W/(m.oC) at 300oC] Coefficient of thermal expansion [:m/(m.oC) between 0oC and 300oC] 11,2 11,4 11,6 11,6

5.6

Available forms of Stainless Steels

The common forms of stainless steel are * plate, sheet, strip * round bar, rod wire * pipe * sections 5.6.1 Stainless Steel Bar

Availability Bar refers to shapes including round, square, hexagon, angles, tees, channels. Bar is produced according to various ASTM standards, depending on the usage of the product. The standard for general engineering applications is ASTM A484. A wide variety of products and sizes are produced, including: * round bar (hot rolled, rough turned, turned, precision ground) * square bar (hot rolled) * flat bar (hot rolled, cold drawn, ground) Tolerances For products produced according to standards, the tolerances on dimensions depend on the shape and the size. Values are tabulated by suppliers. Surface finish The surface finish for bars is as follows. 1 Hot worked only (a) scale not removed (b) rough turned (round bar only) (hardenable steels may be annealed beforehand) (c) pickled (possibly with blast cleaning) 2 Heat treated (annealed) 43

Mechanical materials (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) scale not removed rough turned (round bar only) pickled, possibly with blast cleaning cold worked (drawn or rolled) centre-less ground (round bar only) polished (round bar only)

3 Annealed and cold worked (Available for alloys 302, 303Se, 304, 316) (d) cold worked (drawn or rolled) (e) centreless ground (round bar only) (f) polished (round bar only) Hollow bar is produced in 316 to the following nominal sizes.
OD [mm] ID [mm] 32 20 16 36 25 20 16 40 28 25 20 45 32 28 20 50 36 32 25 56 40 36 28 63 50 40 36 32 71 56 45 40 36 75 40 80 63 50 45 40 85 45 90 71 63 56 50 95 50 100 80 71 63 56

OD [mm] ID [mm]

106 80 71 63 56

112 90 80 71 63

118 90 80 71 63

125 100 90 80 71

132 106 90 80 71

140 112 100 90 80

150 125 106 95 80

160 132 122 112

170 140 130 118

180 150 140 125

OD [mm] ID [mm]

190 160 150 132

200 160 150 140

212 170 130

224 170 130

236 190 150

250 200

44

Mechanical materials 5.6.2 Stainless Steel Tube and Pipe

Tube refers to thin walls, and pipe to thicker walls. There are several types of production process. * hot worked seamless tube/pipe, produced by extrusion * cold worked tube/pipe, which uses extruded raw material. Cold worked products have better surface texture, and finer tolerances. A wide range of sizes is available from OD 3 mm to 610 mm. * centrifugal casting, for outer diameters greater than 65 mm. Length is limited to about 5 m. * continuously welded: a continuous strip is folded over and welded (usually TIG) longitudinally. The outside weld bead is removed, but not the inner bead. * fabrication welded: pieces of plate/sheet are pressed to shape and welded together * spiral welded: a continuous strip is formed and welded into a helix. Welding could be both inside and outside, or just outside. There are a number of ways in which Pipe/tube is typically used for carrying fluids where duty involved one or more of temperature, corrosion, and hygiene. Historically pipes have been designated by the bore (inside) diameter, which then determined outer diameter. With improvement in materials, the wall thickness could be reduced, allowing larger bores. The nominal bore size is still used, but it now bears little relation to any actual pipe dimension! There are also several standards for pipe dimensions, the principal of which has been the British Standard Pipe (BSP).
pipes may be joined together: (1) welded mitre joints (2) butt welding pipes to appropriate fittings (elbow, tee, reducing, flange etc) (3) screwed fittings which mate with appropriate threads cut on the pipe (4) fittings with ferrules, where the ferrules seal onto the pipe All the of fittings are available in stainless steel. They are available in several alloys. The fittings are usually made by shaping operations such as forging.

Seamless and longitudinally Welded pipe is produced in 304 and 316 to the following nominal sizes.

Nominal bore [mm or inches] 3 mm or 1/8"

Schedule 10 40 80 10 BSP std 40 BSP heavy 80 10 40 80

Outer diameter [mm] 10,29 10,29 10,29 13,72 13,36 13,72 13,36 13,72 17,15 17,15 17,15

Inner diameter [mm] 7,8 6,83 5,46 10,4 9,3 9,25 8,07 7,67 13,84 12,52 10,74

6 mm or 1/4"

10 mm or 3/8"

45

Mechanical materials
Nominal bore [mm or inches] 15 mm or 1/2" Schedule 5 10 40 ISO heavy 80 160 XX heavy 5 10 40 BSP std 80 160 XX heavy 5 BSP light 10 ISO std 40 BSP std 80 160 XX heavy 5 10 40 80 160 5 10 ISO std 40 BSP heavy 80 160 5 10 40 BSP std 80 160 XX heavy 5 10 40 80 160 XX heavy 5 10 40 80 5 10 BSP std 40 80 160 Outer diameter [mm] 21,34 21,34 21,34 21,34 21,34 21,34 21,34 26,67 26,67 26,67 26,67 26,67 26,67 26,67 33,4 34,0 33,4 33,7 33,4 34,0 33,4 33,4 33,4 42,16 42,16 42,16 42,16 42,16 48,3 48,3 48,4 48,3 48,2 48,3 48,3 60,33 60,33 60,33 60,33 60,33 60,33 60,33 88,9 88,9 88,9 88,9 88,9 88,9 101,6 101,6 101,6 101,6 114,3 114,3 114,3 114,3 114,3 114,3 Inner diameter [mm] 18,03 17,12 15,8 14,9 13,9 11,8 6,4 23,4 22,5 20,9 20,5 18,9 15,6 11,0 30,1 28,7 27,9 27,7 26,6 26,7 24,3 20,7 15,1 38,9 36,7 35,1 32,5 29,5 45,0 42,7 41,9 40,9 39,3 38,1 34,0 57,0 54,8 52,5 51,4 49,3 42,9 38,2 84,7 82,8 77,9 73,7 66,7 58,4 97,4 95,5 90,1 85,4 110,1 108,2 107,0 102,3 97,2 87,3

20 mm or 3/4"

25 mm or 1"

32 mm or 1 1/4"

40 mm or 1 1/2"

50 mm or 2"

80 mm or 3"

95 mm or 3 1/2"

100 mm or 4"

46

Mechanical materials
Nominal bore [mm or inches] 125 mm or 5" Schedule 5 10 40 80 5 10 40 80 160 5 10 20 40 80 5 10 20 40 80S 5 10 20 40 80S 10 10 20 10 10 Outer diameter [mm] 141,3 141,3 141,3 141,3 168,28 168,28 168,28 168,28 168,28 219,08 219,08 219,08 219,08 219,08 273,05 273,05 273,05 273,05 273,05 323,85 323,85 323,85 323,85 323,85 355,6 406,4 406,4 457,2 508,0 Inner diameter [mm] 135,8 134,5 128,2 122,3 162,7 161,5 154,1 146,3 131,8 213,5 211,6 206,4 202,6 193,7 266,5 264,7 260,4 254,5 247,7 315,5 314,7 311,2 304,8 298,5 342,9 393,7 390,6 444,5 495,3

150 mm or 6"

200 mm or 8"

250 mm or 10"

300 mm or 12"

350 mm or 14" 400 mm or 16" 450 mm or 18" 500 mm or 20"

5.6.3

Stainless Steel Plate and Sheet

Availability Sheet is material less than 3,5 mm in thickness. The common dimensions are: Thickness: 0,55/ 0,7/ 0,9/ 1,2/ 1,5/ 2,0/ 2,5/ 3,0 mm Area Size: 1000x2000/ 1250x2500/ 1500x3000/ mmxmm All combinations of thickness and size are possible. Plate is material of at least 3,5 mm in thickness. The common dimensions are: Thickness: 3,5/4,5/6/8/10/12/16/20/25/30mm Area Size: 1000x2000/ 1250x2500/ 1500x3000/ 1500x5000/ 1500x6000 mmxmm All combinations of thickness and size are possible. Tolerances The form tolerances are followed according to standards such as ASTM, BS 1449 Part 4, and DIN 17440. Surface finish Stainless steel sheet and plate is available in a number of surface finishes. 47

Mechanical materials

Mill finish

Roughness [:m CLA]

Appearance

Process

0 1 2D 2B 2BA 0,4-0,1 0,1-0,5 0,05-0,1

Scaly black Frosty. Dull matt Reflective Polished, near mirror

Hot rolled, annealed. No pickling or passivating. Not advised to be used in this form. Hot rolled, annealed, pickled, passivated. For industrial applications Cold rolled after: annealed, pickled, passivated. Used for deep drawing. Additional cold roll of 2D material. Used for drawing. Polishes easier than 2D. Termed "Bright Annealed". Additional cold roll of 1 material with polished rollers. Ground in one direction with 80-100 grit abrasive. Used where surface is to be polished afterwards. Ground in one direction with 150 grit abrasive. Used where reflectivity is not required. Ground with abrasive grit on a rotating mop.

3 4 6

0,4-1,5 0,2-1,0

abrasive direction apparent smooth unidirectional grinding satin texture (multidirectional grinding marks)

7 8

0,02 0,02

reflective mirror

Buffed surface Buffed

5.6.4

Stainless Steel Fasteners

The commonly used stainless steel fasteners are those of 304 and 316 alloys. Fasteners in other special alloys are less easily available. Fasteners are produced to DIN standards, and are designated: Alloy type 304/305 316 Designation K18-8 (or A2) K18-8-2 (or A4)

Standard parts produced in these grades include nuts, bolts, cap screws, set screws, washers.

48

Mechanical materials 5.7 Basic Metallurgy of Stainless Steels

Stainless steels are corrosion resistant because they form a strong, adherent layer of chrome oxide on the exposed surfaces, and this prevents further corrosion. This passive film forms naturally, and it can also be made to form by chemical treatment (passivation). However to form the film, the steel needs to have at least 11% chromium, and enough oxygen in the environment. Although the passive film regenerates when damaged, corrosion will occur if the passive layers are removed continuously, or prevented from forming (eg lack of oxygen). A stainless steel which otherwise should resist corrosion may become locally sensitive to chemical attack. This is called sensitisation, and it is due to precipitation of chrome carbides between the grains, at a critical temperature. In those regions the chromium is therefore no longer available to resist corrosion. Inside the grains the chromium is usually unaffected, as the atom is too large to diffuse quickly. Therefore the corrosion is limited to the grain boundaries. It is called intergranular corrosion, or knife edge corrosion. Annealing is a heat treatment that fully softens the steel. The steel is heated to a certain temperature (less than melting), at which all compounds re-dissolve into solution. Thereafter the steel is cooled in such a way that the elements remain in solution. For most steels the cooling needs to be slow, but for austenitic stainless steels the cooling must be rapid in order to retain the austenitic microstructure. Quenching rates from fastest to slowest are: brine, water, oil, moving air, still air. The heat affected zone (HAZ) is a strip alongside a weld, and its characteristic is that it has been subject to a range of temperatures from melting (at the weld) to ambient (at some distance away). Somewhere in the HAZ will be a line of grains that were subjected to say 600oC, and etc. The problem is that certain temperatures cause changes in the grain structure (depending on the alloy). Thus the mechanical and corrosion properties of the steel will not be uniform. Annealing could be used to restore the grain structure. Pickling is the chemical removal of scale from stainless steel, which would otherwise interfere with the formation of the passive layer. The scale usually forms on welding or other high temperature processes. Pickling is done with hydrofluoric and nitric acids. It is usually followed by a passivating process. Passivation is a chemical process whereby a stainless steel is subject to nitric acid (usually paste or solution). The nitric acid promotes the formation of the passive layer of chrome oxide on the surface of the steel. This layer would form naturally, but not necessarily as well. The acid also cleans the surface. While stainless steels have fair to excellent corrosion resistance, they are not totally immune to corrosion. Types of corrosion include: 49

Mechanical materials Abrasive corrosion This is mechanical abrasion from moving surfaces or particles. Chemical attack occurs at the newly exposed surfaces. Also called Fretting (typically when small oscillating movements occur between two surfaces). Intergranular corrosion At critical a temperature, Chrome carbides form at the grain boundaries, thereby deactivating the Cr, and also causing brittleness. Corrosion occurs between the grains. To avoid this problem reduce the time that the steel spends at the critical temperature (usually in the range 450oC to 850oC). use stabilisers, that is elements that soak up the carbon more readily than chromium, thus leaving the Cr to provide the corrosion resistance. Typical stabilisers are Titanium (Ti), Niobium (Nb), Tantalum (Ta). use low carbon alloys (L designations in stainless steels), so that there is less carbon around in the first place. The critical temperature usually occurs somewhere in the heat affected zone (HAZ) alongside a weld. Thus the HAZ is vulnerable to corrosion and embrittlement. Pitting corrosion This is a highly localised form of corrosion. Pits are created in the material while the rest of the surface may be undamaged. Chlorides cause this type of corrosion in stainless steels. Crevice corrosion Small closed volumes do not get adequate oxygen diffusion, and this causes protective oxide films to corrode. Bacteria can also cause this type of corrosion if their numbers are sufficient to block of an area of the surface. This is called microbiologically induced corrosion (MIC). The wastes from the bacteria may also be corrosive. Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) A combination of stress and aggressive chemicals is very harmful to all materials, for the following reasons. Small cracks are basically lattice imperfections, and exist in practically all engineering materials. The cracks grow when the local deformation is sufficient to overcome the bonds between the lattice molecules. The deformation may be related to the applied stress. Also, the lattice bonds may be weakened by chemicals that have affinity for the lattice molecules. Furthermore chemical reaction rates increase with temperature. Thus SCC is worsened by higher stress more aggressive media increased temperature

* * *

* * *

Alloying elements 50

Mechanical materials The functions of the alloying elements in stainless steels are basically: Cr forms a stable chromium oxide film on the surface, which halts further oxidisation. Ni promotes the formation of an austenitic grain structure C provides heat treatability if used in sufficient quantities (martensitic ss) Mo promotes the stability of the chromium oxide film Ti stabiliser (forms carbides in preference to Cr) Mn promotes the formation of an austenitic grain structure S increases machinability, but decreases corrosion resistance Se increases machinability, especially surface finish Nb stabiliser Ta stabiliser N promotes the formation of an austenitic grain structure Si decreases viscosity of molten steels for casting, also resists high temperature oxidation of wrought steels

5.8

Colour Coding for Stainless Steels

Stainless steel pipe, tube and sections are colour coded with painted ends or end plugs.
Grade 303 304 304L 316 316L 409 410 420 430 431 Colour Midnight Blue White Medium Yellow Brilliant Green Signal Red Light Blue Golden Brown Black Eau-de-Nil Mines grey

51

Mechanical materials 6 HIGH NICKEL AND SPECIAL ALLOYS

The very high nickel alloys are not called stainless steel, because they contain less than 50% Fe. High nickel alloys are particularly useful in aggressively corrosive environments, or at high temperatures. Many of the alloys have high strength, but they can also be difficult to machine. Most of the alloys listed here are proprietary brands, since there is little standardisation in this specialist field. Sometimes similar products from different manufacturers have been grouped together is their properties are close enough. Mechanical properties are given for general design purposes, and the designer is advised to contact suppliers for current data before committing design.
Description Designation Condition Rm [MPa] Re [MPa] Elongation [%] Density; Elastic modulus [g/cm3; GPa] Comments

PURE NICKEL food processing, high temp Nickel 200 VDM Nickel 99,2 VDM LC Nickel 99,2 370 100 40 8,9;196

NICKEL COPPER Monel 400 Nicorros Monel K-500 Nicorros Al 485 880 195 590 35 15 8,8; 188 8,5; 185

PURE TITANIUM Ti Gr 2 390-540 275 22 4,5; 110

CORROSION RESISTANT NICKEL BASE-ALLOYS Hastelloy B-2 Hastelloy C276 Nicrofer 5716hMoW Hastelloy C-4 Nicrofer 6616hMoW Inconel 625 Nicrofer 6020hMoW 955 792 526 356 53 61 9,2; 217 8,9; 200

801

421

54

8,6; 211

910

468

47

8,44; 205

52

Mechanical materials
Description Designation Condition Rm [MPa] Re [MPa] Elongation [%] Density; Elastic modulus [g/cm3; GPa] 8,3; 195 Comments

Hastelloy G Nicrofer 4520hMoW Hastelloy G-3 Nicrofer 4221hMoW Incoloy 825 Nicrofer 4221 Alloy 20 Carpenter 20Cb3 Nicrofer 3620Nb Sanicro 28 Nicrofer 3127LC

703

320

61

682

303

53

8,2; 195

655 590

345 275

40 30

8,1; 195 8,1; 200

500

210

40

8,1; 185

HEAT RESISTANT NICKEL BASE ALLOYS Inconel 600 Nicrofer 7216 Inconel 601 Nicrofer 6023 Hastelloy X Nicrofer 4722Co Incoloy DS Nicrofer 3718 Incoloy 800 Nicrofer 3220 Incoloy 800H Nicrofer 3220H 550 600 755 200 240 385 30 30 45 8,5; 210 8,1; 210 8,23; 197

550 500-750 450-700

230 210 170

30 30 30

8; 200 8; 200 8; 200

SPECIAL STAINLESS STEELS Remanit 4462 SAF 2205 Cronifer 2205LCN Uranus 45N Alloy 904L Cronifer 1925LC 2RK65 254SLX Remanit 4539 Uranus B6 Special 620 450 25 7,8; 200

485

205

35

8; 195

53

Mechanical materials
Description Designation Condition Rm [MPa] Re [MPa] Elongation [%] Density; Elastic modulus [g/cm3; GPa] 7,7; 198 Comments

3RE60 Cronifer 1805LC

700-950

440

30

SPECIAL CAST ALLOYS ASTM cast ASTM cast ASTM cast ASTM cast ASTM cast N-12M CW-12M CZ-100 M-35 CY-40 as cast as cast as cast 495 495 345 541 485 320 320 125 232 195 6 40 10 10 30 construction parts in chemical industry construction parts in chemical industry construction parts in chemical industry construction parts in chemical industry construction parts in chemical industry

54

Mechanical materials

ALUMINIUM

Aluminium is a useful material in mechanical engineering, since it has good strength relative to its mass. Pure aluminium is relatively soft and weak, but the material can be readily alloyed to improve the strength. 7.1 Wrought Alloys

A four digit number designates alloying elements. The number is followed by a temper designation. The meaning of the primary digit is as follows:
1xxx 2xxx 3xxx 4xxx 6xxx 7xxx 8xxx Aluminium 99% min Copper Manganese Silicon Magnesium and silicon Zinc Other

Temper F O H1x H2x H3x

WROUGHT ALLOYS COLD WORKED SYMBOLS As fabricated Fully anealed Strain harden only Strain harden and partially anneal Strain harden and stabilise (approx 125deg C)

Old (UK) M O

Hx2 Hx4 Hx6 Hx8 Hx9

Strain hardened, 1/4 Strain hardened, half Strain hardened, 3/4 Strain hardened, fully (75% reduction in area) Extra hard

H2 H4 H6 H8

55

Mechanical materials

7.2

Cast Alloys

The USA designation is xxx.x where: 1xx.x 2xx.x to 9xx.x xxx.0 xxx.1 xxx.2 Aluminium 99.xx % Other alloys castings ingots ingots

7.3
Heat treatment F O W

Heat Treatment
WROUGHT and CAST ALLOYS HEAT TREATMENT SYMBOLS As fabricated Fully annealed Solution heat treated Old (UK) M O

T T1 T2

Thermally heat treated, heat treatable alloy Cooled from elevated temp Naturally aged Cooled from elevated temp Cold worked Naturally aged Solution heat treated Cold worked Naturally aged Solution heat treated Naturally aged Cooled from elevated temp Artificially aged Solution heat treated Artificially aged Solution heat treated Stabilised Solution heat treated Cold worked Artificially aged

T3

TD

T4 T5 T6 T7 T8

TB (W) TE (P) TF (WP)

TH

56

Mechanical materials
T9 Solution heat treated Artificially aged Cold worked Cooled from elevated temp Cold worked Artificially aged

T10

7.4
M M1X M2X M3X M4X C C1X C2X C3X C4X A A1X A2X A3X A4X R V E

Aluminium Finishes
MECHANICAL As fabricated Buffed Directionally textured (eg grind) Non-directionally textured (eg grit blast) CHEMICAL Non-etch (eg chemical cleaned) Etched Brightened Conversion coatings (eg chromates, phosphates) ANODIC General, including sulfuric, chromic, hard anodise Protective and decorative, <0.4mm Architectural Class II, 0.4 to 0.7mm Architectural Class I, over 0.7mm RESINS, eg paint, powder coating VITREOUS, eg porcelain, ceramic ELECTROPLATING

7.5

General Physical Properties of Aluminium

Density 2.7 g/cm3 Modulus of Elasticity 68.95x109Pa Thermal conductivity 0.5 W/(m.K) Coefficient of thermal expansion 24x10-6/deg C 7.6 Mechanical Properties of Aluminium Alloys

Values of strength properties are given as minimum or (typical).

57

Mechanical materials
Description Designation Condition (1) Ultimate Tensile Strength [MPa] Yield [MPa] Elongation [%] Other properties: Modulus of Elasticity;Torsion;De nsity [GPa;GPa;g/cm3] Comments

1xxx COMMERCIAL PURITY ALUMINIUM

Al 99,5% min

resists corrosion, conducts heat & elec, ductile, reflective, nonheat treatable (35) (100) (150) 40 35 95 x 25 75 (165) (35) (50) (35) (105) (140) (35) 30 6 4 25 35 23 38 12 x 22 5 2 20 30 5 4 30 8 3 68.6; x; 2.7 71; 26.5; 2.71 sheet

1050 A

O H4 H8 M O M O H4 H8 O H12 H28 O M O H4 H8 O H4 H8

85-95 100-135 135 -175 60 75 60 55 100 135 75 95 150-170 55 70 70 110 140-155 (75) 95 135

1050 A 1070 A

extrusions rolled & extrusions

1100

69; 26; 2.71

sheet

1145 1200

69; 26; 2.7 70; 26.5;2.71

rolled rolled, 25x10-6 lin exp /oC

Electrical purity

1350

2xxx WROUGHT ALLOY

poor corrosion resist, excel machinability, heat treatable TF 310 230 6 71; 2,82; 27 see tables for heat treat

2011

2014A 2017A 2024 2030

T8 TB/TD T TB/TD

450 390 430 375

410 235 280 235

6 12 10 7

58

Mechanical materials
Description Designation Condition (1) Ultimate Tensile Strength [MPa] Yield [MPa] Elongation [%] Other properties: Modulus of Elasticity;Torsion;De nsity [GPa;GPa;g/cm3] Comments

3xxx WROUGHT ALLOY 3003 3004 H4 H34 H34 welded H14 H4 H4 140 214 144 165 140 160

resists corrosion, non-heat treatable 115 145 75 145 (135) 145 1-3 5 Ult shear str 95MPa 5 69 sheet

3005 3103 3105

sheet

5xxx WROUGHT ALLOY 5005 5050 5052 5083 H4 O O H321 H321wel ded O sheet H8 H34 H34 welded O O (160) (146) 170 282 268 215 (400) 231 170 215 (120)

resists corrosion, non-heat treatable (150) (68) 65 165 159 (6) 20 17 71.7 sheet sheet, plate plate

5154A 5182 5251

(375) 159 89 80

(9) 70

sheet sheet, plate

5454 5657

sheet, high purity

6xxx WROUGHT ALLOY 6005 6060 TB TF 175 (205)

heat treatable 100 (175) extrusions extrusions

59

Mechanical materials
Description Designation Condition (1) Ultimate Tensile Strength [MPa] Yield [MPa] Elongation [%] Other properties: Modulus of Elasticity;Torsion;De nsity [GPa;GPa;g/cm3] Comments

6063

T6 T6 welded TF T6 T6 welded TF T6 T6 welded TB

206 117 350 293 165 200 293 165 130

172 75 325 255 137 170 255 137 75 7

69.6

extrusion

6070 6082

69.6

extrusion

6101A 6261

extrusions 69.6 extrusion

6463

7xxx WROUGHT ALLOY 7017 7020 7075 TF TF TF (340) 310 540

heat treatable

270 480

8xxx OTHER ELEMENT ALLOY 8006 8011 H24 O 100 75

non-heat treatable 75 40 15 (30)

7.7

Product sections

Aluminium is available in a number of product forms. FLAT PRODUCTS M Commercial grade sheet from 0,5 mm to 3,0 mm thickness. Alloys 1200-H4 and 5251-H6. M Architectural grade sheet is also provided in alloy 1200. M Plate (4,5 mm to 9,5 mm) is available in Alloys 1200-H4 and 5251-H6. M Mining and marine plate is available in alloys 5083-H2. 60

Mechanical materials STRUCTURAL PROFILES Equal angles are available in alloys 6036-T6 and 6261-T6. Leg lengths vary from 9,5 mm to 120 mm. Unequal angles are available in alloy 6063-T6 M Channels are available in alloys 6036-T6 and 6261-T6. Web lengths vary from 9,5 mm to 177 mm. T sections are available in the same alloys. M Flat bar is available in alloys 6036-T6 and 6261-T6. Maximum width is 152mm. M Square bar is available in alloy 6261-T6. Maximum size is 50,8mm. Hollow squares in 6063-T6. M Round bar is available in alloys 6036-T6, 6261-T6, 2014-T6 and 5083-M. Diameters from 6 mm to 190 mm. Round tube in alloys 6036-T6 and 6261-T6. M Hexagon bar is available in alloy 6261-T6. Dimensions across flats 11,3 mm, 14 mm, 20,8 mm, 30,48 mm.

ARCHITECTURAL PROFILES A large variety of profiles are made for windows, partitions, and shop-fitting. Alloys are not specified.

61

Mechanical materials

8 8.1

COPPER ALLOYS Mechanical Properties of Coppers

The material properties of some commonly used copper alloys are listed here. SYMBOLS Rm tensile strength Re yield strength Rp0.2 proof strength Rf uncorrected fatigue strength HB Brinell hardness HV Vickers hardness HRC Rockwell hardness, C scale
Descriptio n Designatio n Conditio n (1) Rm UTS [MPa] Re Yield [MPa] Elon gation [%] Hardness (min) Density [g/cm3]; Elastic Modulus [GPa] Comments

COPPER Hi conductivity phosphorus deoxidised tin copper zinc nickel copper ETP FRHC DHP Free cutting Resistance welding DLP SABS 805 SABS 404 CRM 006 CRM 020 DIN E-Cu58 DIN E-Cu57 DIN SF-Cu DIN CuSP DIN CuCrZr DIN SE-Cu

Cu as manuf half hard soft hard M M M M precip. hardened M 210 240 280 280 270 300 540 270 33 33 38 33 10 38 50 Deoxidised high conductivity copper hi residual phosphorus deoxidised 35 10 65HV 7095HV 55HV 130160HV 8,94; electrical busbar, heat exchanger corrosion resist resists creep, resists creep & corrosion electrolytic tough pitch hi conductivity fire refined tough pitch hi conductivity Phosphorus deoxidised non-As sulpur copper

ElectroplatASTM M 215 ing anode C12220 CRM: Copalcor Rolled Metals, Box 14229, WADEVILLE 1422

62

Mechanical materials 8.2


Description

Mechanical Properties of Copper Based Alloys


Designation Condition Rm UTS [MPa] Re Yield [MPa] Elongation [%] Hardness Density [g/cm3]; Elastic Modulus [GPa] Comments

BRASS Common brass (303i) Free cutting brass Riveting & bending brass US free cutting brass Naval Brass High tensile brass Press rod (202) 65/35 Brass (304) 70/30 Brass (306) CuZn 37 soft 1/4 hard 1/2 hard 1/2 hard M 280 325 350 430 400 45 35 20 27 40 80HV 8,5; general use

ISO CuZn39Pb3 ISO CuZn36Pb1 ISO CuZn36Pb3 CuZn38Sn1 CuZn39AlFe Mn ISO CuZn39Pb2 SABS CuZn43Pb2 1303

M M M M M soft 1/4 hard 1/2 hard soft 1/4 hard 1/2 hard hard soft 1/2 hard hard soft 1/2 hard hard soft 1/4 hard 1/2 hard soft 1/2 hard hard 1/2 hard hard extra hard hard soft 1/4 hard 1/2 hard hard

395 420 495 415 450 280 325 350 280 325 340 385 265 310 370 245 295 340 280 325 350 245 325 325 370 430 510 280 325 340 385

30 35 30 35 30 45 35 20 50 35 20 5 40 10 5 35 7 3 45 35 20 35 7 3 10 5 3 3 50 35 20 5 80HV 75HV 110HV 80HV 95HV 100HV 125HV 80HV 95HV 120HV 75HV 95HV 120HV 80HV 75HV 110HV 75HV 95HV 120HV 110HV 140HV 165HV 140HV 80HV 95HV 100HV 125HV free machining resists corrosion, good coldwork excellent ductility

CuZn 30

80/20 Brass (308) 85/15 Brass (310) 64/36 Brass (311) 90/10 Brass (312) Cap Copper (314i) Leaded Brass (228) Tin Brass (313) 70/30 corrosion resist Brass (317)

CuZn 20

good cold work

CuZn 15

good cold work, architectural good cold work, resists corrosion good cold work

DIN CuZn36 17660 CuZn 10

CuZn 5 1303

soft, ductile accurate machining

CRM 313 CRM 317

readily polished, plated resists corrosion, poor deep drawing

63

Mechanical materials
Description Designation Condition Rm UTS [MPa] Re Yield [MPa] Elongation [%] Hardness Density [g/cm3]; Elastic Modulus [GPa] Comments

BRONZE Phosphor Bronze 5% Tin CRN 034(i) DIN CuSn5 17662

copper, tin soft 1/4 hard 1/2 hard hard extrahard springhard M 310 350 460 525 645 555 45 35 10 4 25 85HV 110HV 160HV 189HV 200HV 215HV 8,8; resists wear: spring, clutch plate

Aluminium bronze Aluminium nickel bronze Low fuming bronze welding rod Cu-Ni-Si

DIN CuAl9Zn3Fe 2 DIN CuAl10Ni5Fe 4 DIN SCuZn29Sn DIN CuNi2Si

740

20

460

35

precipitatio n hardened precipitatio n hardened

550

12

Cu-Ni-Si

DIN CuNi1,4Si

590

12

Silicon DIN CuSi3Mn M 295 35 Bronze Condition M : as manufactured References * SABS 1303 for brass alloys* CRM: Copalcor Rolled Metals, Box 14229, WADEVILLE Notes

64

Mechanical materials 9 9.1 POLYMERS Linear and Cross Linked Polymers

Polymers (or plastics) are made from monomer molecules that are bonded together to form long chains. The chains are of carbon, with other elements added. As chain length increases so the molecular mass increases. The reaction is called polymerization. There are two classes of polymers: LINEAR POLYMERS Also called Thermoplastic, these are polymers in which the molecules remain linear and separate after moulding. The molecule is chemically unchanged by moulding, and can be remoulded repeatedly. CROSS LINKED POLYMERS Also called Thermoset, these are polymers in which the molecules cross-link during moulding. As this is a permanent chemical change, the molecule cannot be remoulded. Theoretically any Linear plastic may be Cross Linked. The Cross-linked form, being more tightly bonded, is stronger, harder, and more resistant to corrosion. Plastics of different type may be alloyed together. These are called plastic alloys, blends, or polyblends. A plastic alloy has mechanical mixture of the molecules (not chemical bonding). Another type of mixture is an interpenetrating polymer network (IPN), in which cross-linking traps a polymer within one of another kind. Yet another way of mixing polymers is to use a third molecule that is compatible with both other components, and this is called grafting. Fibres may also be added to reinforce the polymer, in which case it is called a composite material. The data given here represents typical properties at room temperature. Moulding processes may change the properties significantly.
Reference:Plastics, Machine Design, October 1990, pp65-149

65

Mechanical materials 9.2


Description

Mechanical Properties of Polymers


Designation Condition Rm UTS [MPa] Re YIELD [MPa] Elongation [%] Elastic modulus [GPa] Density [kg/m3] Comments

ABS (acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene) & SAN (acrylonitrile-styrene) - LINEAR

tough, hard, rigid, fair chem resist, low water absorb, high abras resist, may electroplate

ABS eg safety helmet, pipe & fittings, appliance housings/shells, chrome plated items, SAN eg lens, syringe 1040 1010 1020 1070

ABS

Medium impact High impact Superhigh impact

41 41 35 62

5-25 5-20 5-70 1-4

2,5 2,3 1,8 3,1

SAN

ACETAL - linear

strong, stiff, excel dim stability, excel creep resist, excel vibrat fatigue, low friction, high chem resist, 69 61 40 60 3,6 2,8

homopolymers are harder, stronger, more rigid. Copolymers process easier. Use for hi temp food/water contact 1420 1410 0,15 friction on steel 30 MPa fatigue 0,15 friction on steel 23 MPa fatigue

homopolymer copolymer

ACRYLIC - linear

high optic clarity, excel resist outdoor weathering, hard glossy surface, excel elec prop, avail in colours cast sheet 72 72 37 10 10 10 5 5 50 3,1 3,0 1,5

"Perspex"

1190 1190 1150

standard high impact

moulding grade moulding grade

ALKYD - cross linked

polyester based resin, excel elec prop, excel heat resist, low water absorb, easy to mould, no volatiles 20 28 3,5-20 14-20

bulk & sheet moulding compounds. Usually contain fibre reinforce. Eg switch gear, elec components 1600 2000 177oC deflection 204oC deflection

mineral filler glass filler

ALLYL (DAP) - cross linked

diallyl phthalate, excel dims stabil, excel elec prop, easy to mould, excel water & chem resist at high temp 35 62 48 48 4,4 11 12 13 1390 1700 1600 1870

polyester filler long glass filler short glass filler arc-track resist

66

Mechanical materials
Description Designation Condition Rm UTS [MPa] Re YIELD [MPa] Elongation [%] Elastic modulus [GPa] Density [kg/m3] Comments

AMINO - cross linked (UREA, MELAMINE) Urea Melamine cellulose cellulose macerated fabric asbestos glass fibre

abrasion & chip resist, good solvent resist, urea vs melamine: moulds faster, costs less, less heat resist, less chem resist 38 48 55 38 35 0,5-1 0,6 0,6 0,3 8,9 9,3 9,6 13,4 16,5

Eg elec parts, dinnerware

1470 1470 1500 1700 1800

CELLULOSICS -linear cellulose cellulose cellulose acetate proplonate acetate butyrate ethyl cellulose

Natural polymer. Tough, hard, compounded, plasticizer determines props. 15-48 10-50 10-43 21-33 0,5-2,8 0,5-1,5 0,34-1,4 1,5-1,7

Film: cellophane. Fibre: rayon 1220 1160 1150 1090

ENGINEERING FILMS nylon 6 monaxial

stronger than constituents 345 Axial 69 Trans 220 138 28 55 17 56 60 Axial 450 Trans 100200 60-165 50-300 150250 300 95

nylon 6 PET CTFE ECTFE FEP polyimide

biaxial

EPOXY moulding compound moulding compound bisphenol A casting resin bisphenol A casting resin casting resin with glass fibre with mineral fib no filler silica fill cycloallphatic

excel mech strength, excel elec prop, excel adhesion, low shrinkage 69 35 28 48 69 4 3-6 1-3 2-10 21 2,4 4

structures, encapsulation, coatings 1600 1600 1110 1600 1160

67

Mechanical materials
Description Designation Condition Rm UTS [MPa] Re YIELD [MPa] Elongation [%] Elastic modulus [GPa] Density [kg/m3] Comments

FLUOROPLASTICS - linear

excel dielectric prop, excel chem resist, low friction, excel stabil at high temp, low strength, high cost 23 20 28 36 37 45 300 300 300 100300 125 275 0,345 1,1 1,28 0,8

fluid conveying systems, load supports, release surfaces, electrical insul, ablative shields 2130 2120 2120 1750 2130 1700 dyn frict steel 0,40 dyn frict steel 0,05 "Teflon" dyn frict steel 0,33 dyn frict steel 0,214 dyn frict steel 0,14

PTFE FEP PFA PVDF CTFE modified ETFE

LIQUID CRYSTAL POLYMERS - linear

excel high temp strength, excel resist weather & radiation, good elec props, excel flame retard 110 76 138 2 1,3 1-7 12 12 1,0-4 1700 1860 1500

glass filled mineral filled unmodified, filled

NYLON (POLYAMIDE) - linear

excel toughness, excel wear resist, low friction, excel elec prop, excel chem resist. But hygroscopic, poor dimensional stability 97 20? 30 3,17 1130 high melt temp, high crystallinity 0,4 Rm MPa fatigue widely used absorbs more water, melts sooner than 6/6 low water absorb, but lower strength than 6/6

4/6

6/6 6

83 79

20? 20?

60 100

3,0 2,9

1140 1140

6/12

60

150

1,0

1070

11 cast 6 "Vesconylon 6"

60 76 75 20

300 15-50

1,0 2,8 2,5

1040 1150

resists oils, low melt temp

VescoPlastics; max 9% water absorb; 0,2 static friction; 120oC cont VescoPlastics; max 6% water absorb; 0,09 static friction; 100oC cont

"Hilube 20"

60

15

2,5

68

Mechanical materials
Description Designation Condition Rm UTS [MPa] 85 Re YIELD [MPa] 25 Elongation [%] Elastic modulus [GPa] 2,9 Density [kg/m3] Comments

"6615"

VescoPlastics; max 8,5% water absorb; 0,2 static friction; 140oC cont VescoPlastics; max 3% water absorb; 0,12 static friction; 160oC cont VescoPlastics; neg water absorb; max rubbing speed 300m/min Oil filled nylon; 0,2% water retention in 24hr; friction 0,12

"Hilube RFG"

140

40

8,0

"VESCONITE"

30

"Nyoil"

80

PHENOLIC - cross linked general purpose impact heat resist glass reinforced

low cost, black or brown 45 41 35 41 7,5 8,2 9,6 14

moulding 1350 1360 1410 1700

POLYAMIDE-IMIDE - linear bearing purpose graphite fibre glass fibre 30%

high strength, high temp, req post mould cure, high cost 192 163 205 15 7 7 5,0 6,9 11,7 1420 1460 1610

POLYBENZIMIDAZOLE (PBI) Celazole U-60 unfilled 159 3 5,9

fire protection; avail from Hoechst Celanese 1300

POLYCARBONATE - linear

excel impact resist, transparent, excel outdoor stability, excel creep resist, fair chem resist, aromatics may cause stresscracks 62 55 110 110 10 4 2,3 3,1 6,0 1200 1250 1350

general purpose high flex modulus glass reinforced 20%

POLYESTER - linear

excel dim stability & elec props & toughness & chem resist, sensitive to notch, poor outdoors, poor in hot water 55 5-300 2 1310

unreinforced resin

69

Mechanical materials
Description Designation Condition Rm UTS [MPa] 113 Re YIELD [MPa] Elongation [%] 1-3 Elastic modulus [GPa] 8 Density [kg/m3] 1490 Comments

reinforced

glass 2030%

POLYESTER - cross linked

excel balance of props, variety colours, high mould shrinkage, used with glass mat 3045% glass woven 3065% glass 30-50% glass mat 2550% glass 15-35% glass 15-30% glass mat 2030% glass 62124 207380 62124 172207 28-69 55138 83138 5,5 6,9 5,2 9-12 9,6-14 9,6-14 9-13

boats, fish rods, panels, tanks. Bulk & sheet moulding compounds 14001600 15001700 14001600 15001700 18002100 17002100 15001700

contact lay-up contact lay-up contact spray-up compression preform compression bulk mould com compression sheet MC cold press preform

POLYETHERIMIDE - linear unmod resin reinforced 30% glass

high temp mech properties 105 170 60 3 3 9 1270 1510

POLYIMIDE - cross linked, linear reinforced reinforced glass fibre graphite powder 25%

excel heat resist, high impact strength & wear resist, high cost 186 66 <1 <1 22 3,8 1900 1510 friction 0,24 at PV=10000

laminates

345

<1

27

1950

POLYKETONES (eg POLYETHER-ETHERKETONE) - linear PEEK PEEK PEEK unreinforced 30% glass 30% carbon

excel high temp props, strong, excel abrasion resist, good chem resist 92 157 208 50 2,2 1,3 1,1 1320 1490 1440

POLYOLEFINS (POLYETHYLENE, PROPYLENE) - linear

Made from ethylene, propylene, butylene, methyl pentene, pentene, hexene. various grades. polyethylene: low cost, poor dim stability, poor heat resist, excel chem resist & elec props. polypropylene: excel resist stress cracking, excel chem resist, low cost

70

Mechanical materials
Description Designation Condition Rm UTS [MPa] 4-16 8-24 21-38 27-41 Re YIELD [MPa] Elongation [%] 90-800 50-600 201000 200500 10-20 2-3,6 350500 Elastic modulus [GPa] 0,1-0,25 0,17-0,38 0,4-1,2 0,14-0,76 Density [kg/m3] 920 930 950 930 Comments

polyethylene polyethylene polyethylene polyethylene UHMWPE polypropylene polypropylene polypropylene

low density medium density high density ultrahigh molecular weight unmod resin glass reinf impact grade

35 42100 19-30

1,1 3,1-6,2 0,7-1,2

905 1100 900

POLYPHENYLENE ETHER - linear standard glass reinf extrusion platable

excel dim stability, low water absorb, good mech & elec props over wide temp range 48-66 100122 54-76 48 50-60 4,6 15-60 60 2,5 7 2,5 1060 1210 1060 1050

POLYPHENYLENE SULFIDE - linear Ryton R-5 glass filled

excel chem and heat resist, excel low temp strength, inert, flame retard 110 1 9,6 1570 Phillips Chemical (USA)

POLYPHTHALAMIDE (PPA)PPA A-1133HS 33% glass reinf, dry 193 2 11,4 Heat deflection 285oC. Amoco (USA), various grades.

POLYSTYRENE - linear polymer polymer copolymer copolymer copolymer general purpose impact clear impact glass reinf 10-20%

low cost, rigid, clear, brittle, low water absorb, low heat resist, poor outdoors 35-83 10-48 48-52 33-50 72-86 0,5-2 2-60 1,5 2-20 1,5 3,5 0,96-3,5 3 2 4-7 1040 1030 1080 1050 1130

POLYSULFONE, POLYETHERSULFONE (SULFONE POLYMERS) - linear

excel mech props at high temp, resist water, sensitive to notch, high cost, sensitive to UV

71

Mechanical materials
Description Designation Condition Rm UTS [MPa] 70 83 84 Re YIELD [MPa] Elongation [%] 50-100 40 40-80 Elastic modulus [GPa] 2,5 2,7 2,7 Density [kg/m3] 1240 1370 1370 Comments

polyarylsulfone(?) polysulfone polyether-sulfone

POLYURETHANE - linear, cross linked

variety, tough, excel abrasion & impact resist, good elec props & chem resist, poor in UV, yellow on aging 17-20 8 1

RIM process

self skinning foam, rigid

560

POLYVINYL CHLORIDE (PVC) - linear rigid flexible

variety, low cost 41-48 10-24 50-150 200450 2,4-7 -

pipes & fittings, flexible sheet 13001580 12001700

72

Mechanical materials

9.3

Polymers for wear applications

A major application for polymers in engineering is for wear parts. These include bushes (bearings), linear bearings (supports for sliding), gears, sprockets, linings for hoppers, and pistons. Of the many plastics available, the common selections for these applications are as follow.

Polyamide (nylon) The most common form of preformed section of nylon is 6/6. The common cast form is nylon 6. The nylons have a good combination of toughness, strength, wear resistance, and they are relatively inexpensive. For greater load bearing capacity, nylons are often impregnated with internal lubricants. These are called modified or filled resins. The biggest disadvantage of nylon is the poor dimensional stability. It absorbs water (even from the atmosphere), and increases in size (up to about 1%) as it does so. This property makes it difficult to use for precision applications. The water absorption has a limit (about 8%), after which no further absorption occurs. Therefore nylon can be used submerged in water. However, if it should dry out, then the nylon will shrink, which could have consequences (bearing may seize). Acetal (also called polyoxymethylene POM) This plastic is strong, and stiff, with excellent dimension stability. Its water absorbency is better than nylon. Acetal has excellent creep resistance, excellent vibration fatigue resistance. It has low friction, and high chemical resistance. Acetal comes in two forms: homopolymers and copolymers. The homoplymers are harder, stronger, more rigid. Copolymers process easier, and they have less porosity (therefore less place for bacteria to live). Acetals may be filled with lubricants such as PTFE, to increase the wear resistance. Plain unfilled acetal has slightly lower wear resistance than plain nylon. Machinability of acetal is excellent, and holds tolerances well. Typical uses for acetal are high temperature food/water contact, precision parts. Acetals have poor resistance to strong acids or bases, or chloride solutions. Thermoplastic polyester (PET) This plastic is widely used for making fizzy drink bottles. It has high strength and toughness, wears well, has excellent dimensional stability, excellent electrical insulation properties, excellent chemical resistance (acids and chlorides included). However is it sensitive to notches, is poor outdoors, and is poor in hot water (softens). Typical applications are food/beverage containers. Does not stain easily, due to low water absorbency. Other uses are bearings, pistons, electrical insulators. Ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE)

73

Mechanical materials The plain grade of polyethylene has good chemical resistance, but poor dimensional stability, and poor heat resistance. The use of longer chain molecules improves the mechanical properties, and the Ultra-high molecular weight grade is the strongest and the toughest of the polyethylenes. UHMWPE has very low friction (next best to PTFE), excellent wear resistance, and excellent chemical resistance. It also has low water absorption. But it is relatively weak, and also has a low stiffness. Consequently dimensional stability under load is poor. Reinforcement fibres or beads (glass or metal) are sometimes used to improve mechanical properties. Internal lubricants (MoS2) can also be used. Applications are linear motion guides, linings for hoppers, and underwater use. Not suitable for impact of hard particles or rocks. Also not suitable for temperatures much above about 65oC. For higher pressures and temperatures, the following materials may be considered. They are however more expensive. G Polyamide-imide G Polyether-ether ketone (PEEK) G Polyimide (PI) G Polyphenylene sulphide (PPS)

74

Mechanical materials

10

ELASTOMERS

Elastomers include the rubber and synthetic rubber compounds. These materials are commonly used in sheet form, or as solid mouldings.

10.1
DESCRIPTION

Rubber Sheeting
DESIGNATION CONDITION Rm UTS [MPa] Re YIELD [MPa] Elongation Hardness Hardness 5 IRHD General Purpose Insertion Gum Neoprene Nitrile EPDM Chlorobutyl Food quality Super red 2,5-13 3,6 16 4.5-13 6,7 5,3 12,8 11,5 235490% 260% 660% 415565% 315% 535% 565% 650% 45-65 70 40 65 60 70 60 55 Other proper t-ies COMMENTS

RUBBER SHEETING

Wayne Rubber Co (Pty) Ltd

10.2

Expanded Rubber and Polymer

These materials are also called foams. They may be made from either rubber (neoprene, styrene butadiene rubber, natural rubber, or EPDM) or polymer (polyethylene, polyester, polyether, PVC, or polyurethane). Typical uses are for sealing (eg for glazing, building cavities, expansion joints), sound insulation, thermal insulation, sleeping mattresses. The materials may be either open or closed celled. The open cell refers to internal cavities that are interconnected. These foams may be used for filtration. Closed cell foams do not have interconnected internal cavities. They have greater spring than open cell foams, and return more quickly to original shape after deflection. Foams are often available with adhesive backing. Important design parameters for foams tend to be density and permissible temperatures. Strength properties are often unavailable. Foams are usually used in compression, and have low shear strengths. 75

Mechanical materials 11 11.1 OTHER MATERIALS Human bone

Bone is a composite structure, consisting of collagen (which is elastic) and calcium hydroxyapatite (which is rigid). Bone has the property of being able to repair itself, there being cells in the bone that reabsorb cracked material, and other cells that lay down new bone. This has the major advantage that bone is able to repair the damage due to fatigue cracks. If however the healing process slows down (with age), or the cracks are put in too fast (running on concrete), then the repair can be outpaced by fatigue, and a special type of fracture may occur. Medical practitioners often call it stress fracture. Incidentally, one of the biggest problems with the design of implants to replace bone, is the need to match the stiffness of the implant to that of the bone. This is because the stiffer material will take greater load (consider a weight supported on identically shaped bricks of foam and wood, placed in parallel in the load path: which one carries the load?). Since bone is less stiff than most engineering materials, it avoids the load. This may seem at first like a good thing, but it has a big disadvantage: any bone that is not used is reabsorbed by the body. Therefore the bone wastes away, and eventually there may be insufficient bone to support the implant. This is one reason why some implants (e.g. forearm) are sometimes removed after the fracture heals. Typical data from CRC Handbook of engineering in Medicine and Biology: Density 1,6 to 1,7 g.cm-3
Parallel to axis of long bone Youngs Modulus kg.cm-3 Shear modulus kg.cm-3 Poissons ratio Ultimate tensile strength kg.cm-3 Ultimate compressive strength kg.cm-3 Ultimate torsion strength kg.cm-3 Elongation at failure 1,74 x 105 3,33 x 104 0,46 1,35 x 103 1,96 x 103 6,9 x 102 3 to 4% Perpendicular to axis of long bone 1,17 x 105 0,58 6,18 x 102 1,35 x 103 -

76

Mechanical materials

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