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E. Vélez Márquez, J. Moreno Sáenz, M. A. Molina Vilchis evmdoeg@hotmail.com ESIME Culhuacán-IPN Abstract- Nowadays three-dimensional models or 3D are used on a large scale in different areas such as medicine, entertainment, architecture, among others. As digital information is vulnerable to several attacks in the meshes as transformations, geometric or topologic alterations, and distortions with malicious purposes, for this reason there is a need to protect these models using cryptographic or steganographic algorithms, such as fingerprints and watermarking. However, whatever the protection strategy is, it is always necessary to determine the topology or geometry of the mesh of the model. This article presents a method for obtaining and analyzing 3D triangular mesh models, then makes an analysis of their properties and determine, according to its geometry and topology, the most appropriate method for inserting a digital signature or watermark. Keywords: 3D model, mesh, topology, attacks. Resumen- En la actualidad los modelos tridimensionales o 3D son utilizados a gran escala en diferentes áreas tales como la medicina, el entretenimiento, la arquitectura, entre otras. Al ser información digital son vulnerables a diversos ataques en las mallas como transformaciones, alteraciones geométricas o topológicas, y deformaciones con propósitos mal intencionados, por esta razón surge la necesidad de proteger dichos modelos utilizando algoritmos criptográficos o esteganográficos, tales como las huellas digitales y las marcas de agua. No obstante, cualquiera que sea la estrategia de protección, siempre será necesario determinar la topología o geometría de la malla del modelo. En este artículo se presenta un método para obtener y analizar mallas triangulares de modelos 3D, para luego hacer un análisis de sus propiedades y determinar, de acuerdo a su geometría y topología, el método más adecuado para la inserción de una firma digital o una marca de agua. Palabras clave: modelo 3D, malla, topología, ataques. 1. INTRODUCTION Three-dimensional models (3D) in computer security, are found in a conceptual world of three dimensions that can be seen in two different ways depending on the need and use that the users give them, so that a 3D model is a schematic representation visible through set objects, elements and properties that, once processed, will become an image or animation in three dimensions. From technical viewpoint, they are a set of formulas or mathematical representations which describes a world on three dimensions [1].See Fig1.

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

Fig. 1.Representation of the 3D model [2-4]. (a) Finished 3D model, (b) 3D object represented by meshes to be modified subsequently (c) y (d) Models created from mathematical formulas.

1

Alias. etc. Maya. These models are no longer exclusive to the entertainment and research laboratories. Poser. 2. XSI Softimage. widely used in computer systems for research. Cheetah3D. Moreover. AutoCAD. Java 3D. being one of its main proponents Ivan Sutherland and Laboratories Lincoln of MIT. The increasing demand that year by year generates profits of billions of dollars. b) Virtual Reality. Blender. in order to trick the senses to perceive the images as they exist in the real world. XML and X3D. among many other applications. shortly after appearing on the market. three-dimensional mice. yZBrush TrueSpace.) in order to assemble the model. which originally were processed in large computer companies and universities. which allow easy creation and modification of objects on three dimensions. (a) (b) (c) Fig. 3D models are considered like digital intellectual works. this makes them vulnerable to malicious attacks or unintentional such as 2 . now are widely used in various fields such as medicine with representations of human body in 3D. by what is stored and transmitted like any other digital document. quality incorporating visual dynamic 3D models. Houdini. Some applications of modeling are 3D Studio Max. in their development have been used electronic accessories such as pencils. etc. which emerged during the 60 decade whose development has facilitated the emergence of new services that have been involved importantly 3D models. Solidworks. architecture complementing the design work replacing the models. And c) Internet. The creation of 3D models has been developed in various areas in which vary the ways to presentation and interaction. (a) Model made in 3DMax to videogames (b) Model made in Poser to explain the human body. See Fig. geography to the development of cartography. (c) Model of Cheops pyramid made by DessaultSystemes in Solidworks. MilkShape 3D. [1]. either for marketing or for integration into different applications using programming languages such as VRML. 2. transparency. There are 3D modeling applications. To produce different effects as the stereoscopic viewing that requires specialized devices and accessories such as 3D glasses used to view 3D anaglyphs. education facilitating the learning of various disciplines. joysticks and electronics tablets. LightWave. among other things.In recent years one of the impacts on computer technology have been the creating systems of 3D models which contribute to increasingly credible simulation of reality [5]. These tools usually have polygonal basic objects (spheres. and the study of physics for predictive purposes. animation. and the huge competition that has occurred among manufacturers as well as technological advances in this industry evolve by leaps and bounds getting better. etc. whose research laid the foundation for Computer Graphics and Virtual Reality. triangles. etc. which has taken to 3D models. but this important breakthrough had its origin in big ideas produced during the last decades with three major industries [5-8]: a) Games. the first console was based on analogic technology in which a few programs were run whose feature were their simplicity and operational graphics. they often have tools for generating lighting effects. Modo Rhinoceros 3D. tourism through virtual tours to archaeological sites and museums. simulation and entertainment. Cinema 4D. squares. 3D models for various applications [9-11]. texturing. Generative Components. which increase sales in the market.

3D model representation using meshes [17]. Finally. These structures have features which give them properties such as texture. 3. or isosurface extraction that are constant points mathematically describing the surface as a function of threedimensional object [15]. which are generally based on the geometric mesh representing the model. refraction. reflection. quadrilaterals or fan.1 Concepts and overview of meshes. or polyhedral [19]. depth etc. and these are linked together forming meshes characterized by having vertices and edges that represent geometric shapes in different types as triangles. [18]. These models are called polyhedral models [14]. tone. 3 . so there is necessary to protect this information using different methods and techniques based on steganographic techniques. these meshes can be constructed from a cloud point. see Fig. This article presents a method for obtaining meshes from 3D models as an initial step to protect them by watermarking techniques. (b) Quadrilateral y (c) Polyhedral. are also numerical information which represents the spatial location in the 3D plane. square. A 3D model is formed by organized set of points that have numerical values in [13]. 2. Each property provides information to join with the other properties is the model itself. the relationship between these two results c) Faces that are closed sets and gain some form that together with other provide a topology either triangular. section IV presents the results of analysis of the mesh obtained to identify the characteristics and properties usable for protection against geometric attacks. color. manipulations or geometric alterations. (a) (b) (c) Fig. unauthorized copies.transformations. (a) Triangular. In structured meshes the connectivity can be described by some indexing scheme. b) Edge that is the connection between vertices. it can have or not connectivity to the mesh formation. shade. transparency. rectangles. whereas in the unstructured one relationship does not exist and you need a special data structure to represent connectivity information [16]. This document has four sections. RELATED WORK (STATE OF THE ART) 2. range data which are mainly numerical data with the location in the 3D plane. section II presents an overview of the mesh representing the 3D models. including others violating copyright and distributed illegally by different media. 3. A mesh consists mainly of a) Vertex that determines the corners or intersections of geometric shapes that form the mesh in a 3D model. In section III is presented the proposed method for obtaining the mesh. The mesh may or may not be. distortions. lighting. translucency. [6]. like fingerprints and watermarking [12].

analysis. Connectivity vertex-vertex representation. protection. 5. The main connections are: a) Vertex-Vertex In this one each vertex connects to its adjacent vertices.Connectivity is very important because it gives form and related key parts of the mesh. Fig. It provides a great ease of doing tours on the mesh. it is used in the file formats .obj [19] [20]. b) Face-Vertex It is a simple connection and it is the most used. although operations at the edges and faces are not easy to perform [19] [20].. in this connection is easier to locate the corners of each side but there is no concept of neighboring vertices through the faces. this type of connection is the simplest and is widely used in VRML and X3D formats. 4. 4 . as shown in Fig 4. storage and export formats. Each mesh has important features that are exploited for different purposes such as modification. See Fig. a poor connectivity would cause distortions and errors in the topology as in form. in this connection each vertex is linked to adjacent faces.

In this connectivity edges can relate to all the essential parts of the mesh. c) Winged-Edge This connectivity is widely used in modeling programs to provide flexibility in the changing dynamics of the mesh geometry. because the split and merge operations can be done quickly. due to keep many indices. but also provides greater mobility between their structures [19]. 5.Fig. Connectivity face-vertex representation. [20]. Its main disadvantage is the large storage requirements and complexity. See Fig.6. 5 .

so now 3D modeling programs can export their original format to another one to include more areas. such as education. 2. these features must have a balance in the realism of the model (especially if it is got many curved shapes) and the number of polygons that are required depending on the final application that will be given to the model [17]. health. 6. Currently in the world of 3D modeling has endless programs. 3D modeling programs have extensive features to work with mesh due to the main structure. 6 . The Table 1 gives the comparison of most used file extensions with the application with it is related. moreover. its implementation or difficult to work. communications etc. but greater capacity and processing time required by the device running the model.2 Formats. characteristics and resolution are involved with this. the more the mesh has polygons. the more the model has reality and resolution. formats and extensions which can work but depends on each one will depend on user's necessity. In general.Fig. Representation of Winged-Edge connectivity. entertainment. file extensions give a reference where they can be applied.

copyrights. if it is not violated the distribution agreement.2. but difficult to protect every distributed model with a unique identity. etc. That does not degrade the object. number of copies or authorized reproductions. format conversion.pcf . Undetectable: That is invisible to the observer. these protection methods used as main discipline the steganography which studies the data hiding techniques. copyright and authorized distribution.jar .obj . Watermarking is an effective solution to protect 3D models.blend . These watermarking systems must be composed by two main modules. File extension . perceptible or preferably imperceptible. Table 1. which perform the encoding (insertion or embedding) of the mark and decoding (extraction and identification) of it. filtering. [ 21]. which is permanently embedded in the information (not disappear after decryption) and it may contain information about the owner. because of this there cannot be two equal fingerprints.). It also must support common processes of transformation (compression. geometric distortion. both of them have advantageous features for protection.vrml .dwg Program Most of them Most of them 3D Studio Max Java 3D Maya Poser Solidworks Blender AutoCAD x Internet x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x Videogames Education x Animation Virtual reality Mobile Technology Watermarking must have the following features to ensure their reliability: 1. the connections between vertices (topology). The methods of protection are extensive and the purpose of each one is to protect the integrity of the model.3ds .mb . any attack will be reflected in the watermark that verifies the integrity of the model helping the user to know if you have an illegal copy or not [12]. These techniques include fingerprints and watermarking. 4. programs and common applications to create 3D models.3 Handling of the mesh for purposes of protection. authorized user. 3. But protecting a three-dimensional model is not easy due to the features of it.sldprt . They cannot be ambiguous: The mark must clearly identify the copyright owner so that it can claim ownership. namely. creator. Examples of formats. 3D models are marked in the same way protecting the copyrights of the product. 2. this will cause a high level of security. so on. surface properties 7 . A watermark is an identification code. protecting a 3D model involves the collection and analysis of mesh because of information security is inextricably embedded in the model. Robustness: Elimination or reduction of the mark must be difficult or impossible without degrading the quality of the digital object. the vertices. In order to embed the watermarking in the 3D model mesh is necessary to manipulate the mesh information. Fingerprints mark uniquely the model for each user who purchases the product. but their main goal is to insert information (hidden or not) in the 3D model.

Having the 3D model mesh has a lot of possibilities for embedding methods. Much of protection methods chooses to embed a protection code in the vertices of the mesh. and through the recognition rule application neighboring vertices are selected. especially in complex models like the human body. topology. as it is the case of a collection of surfaces or parametric curves. 3. The advantage of using clusters is that is not necessary to compress the mesh to make the process of embedding marks. which are called "neighbors. the clustering technique to embed watermarks is adequate. High resolution models are a great amount of vertices and edges. In [25-29] algorithms are proposed to embed watermarks based on initial selection of a triangle mesh as a starting point to create subsets called sub regions of the mesh. so that it results tedious to embed watermarking in each of these properties and although in this case the watermark results robust. yi. colors. Mesh partition. it would consume a lot of resources to embedding system or for its proof. Topological features. The need arises methods for obtaining the meshes of 3D models as this would provide us more details about the model ensuring protection from attacks by malicious users [22]. zi) or centroid which is associated with a set of adjacent vertices N(vi). star or triangle strips. considering their topological and geometrical properties. [31] this strategy is used which consists in selecting a vertex vi = (xi. [30]. edges and faces of the mesh. Geometric features. The first step to make sure a 3D model through watermarking techniques starts with the selection of strategies to manipulate the mesh. later. 2." In order to embed the watermark is randomly selected a vertex vi and from this it is found the first node in the neighborhood. Before protecting a 3D model must treat the mesh. In other words. [33] groups can have different topologies. because of these provide shape. for example in [34] it is done a spectral analysis of the mesh as a preliminary process to generate a Laplacian matrix derived from the connectivity the vertices of the mesh. only in these vertices the watermarking is embedded. the criterion for locating the new vertices created depend on the properties of the edges and the amount of mark information. the most common are: Mesh triangulation. so that is preferable to make a choice on the set of model properties. and other information of high priority to make sure their integrity. A mesh can be described as a list of ordered items is where a set of vertex or points in the three dimensional space and is the set coding adjacent vertices. any change is reflected in the vertices of the mesh. either to improve the method of protection and provide greater reliability and effectiveness. location and resolution as well as another attributes. These features are related to the connectivity of the vertices of the mesh. In [28]. OBTAINING MESH METHOD There are different ways to represent a 3D model.(textures. Neighboring vertices. The number of vertices selected and the rule for recognition depends on the type and length of the pseudorandom sequence of the watermarking. embeds watermarks with different methods. due to these are the main feature of the model. This strategy subdivides each triangle of the mesh into a set of two or four triangles. however. such as: 1. consists of subsets of 8 . In dynamic models that will be animated. Clustering vertex. the most common and the most useful for our practical purposes is the representation by polygonal meshes. In [32]. so on). due to these attributed to the model location as well as shape. such as mesh. and the information which are integrated changes radically. The subsets created represent some parts of the 3D model and only in these is embedded watermark. The main geometric features of a mesh are the vertices in which can embed the watermarking. which can be redefined the topology in the process of watermark embedding. In [23] [24] are presented algorithms that employ this technique for either safety or attack model. Knowing topology of the mesh let.

6 0. Creation of a cube in 3D Studio Max 2. 8. To get the vertices and faces is necessary that the model created has extension . From the meshes obtained will generate the parents of representation and paths. separated by commas. The method of production is based on the following steps: 1. Version 12. Revision 1. In this section presents the methodology for obtaining the mesh of 3D models developed with 3DMax Studio. these have three connections that are identified as triangles. each path that represents the face are divided by .25 0 0. Fig.0 utf8 # Produced by 3D Studio MAX VRML97 exporter. as shown in the Fig. 8.722 } } geometryDEF Box01-FACES IndexedFaceSet { ccw TRUE solid TRUE 9 . The instruction coordindex identifies the faces that are made up of closed paths between the vertices. edges and faces [24].894 0.1.wrl which will facilitate the extraction of information.498 children [ Shape { appearanceAppearance { materialMaterial { diffuseColor 0. as shown in Fig.06 # Date: Mon May 10 00:10:18 2010 DEF Box01 Transform { translation 4. Creation the model of three dimensional. 7. the vertices are presented in three groups at coordinates . which can be used for later proceedings of embedded of watermarks. see Fig. 7.of the three general component of the mesh: vertex . The file obtained contains the code to generate information of the vertices from the instruction point. For experimental purposes were created 3D models of basics forms such as the cube. #VRML V2.

nc] = fscanf(fp. as shown in the Fig. 7. 6. -1. Inf). face = []. [6. 3.6 0 27. -18. 5.3. 1.6 37. -1. -1. 2. 10.6 0 27. -18. 0. key = 'point ['.coordDEF Box01-COORD Coordinate { point [ -18. 1. 6. 18. 3. % extracts each number of the file and places it in a nnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnn column vertex = reshape(vertex. -1. 3. 1. 0.6 27. % remodel the vertex column vertex([2 4 6]. -18. 4. 18. Code of the file with extension .3. -1. Creation of vector called face that kept the connectivity information 4.wrl. while ( temp ~= -1) temp = fgets(fp). break. 4.3.6 37. 4. -1] } } ] } Fig.3. 0.6 37. -1. 2. Identification and saved from the vertices.length(vertex)/6]). while ( temp ~= -1) temp = fgets(fp). 7. 1.3] } coordIndex [ 0.6 -27.6 -27. See Figs.'%f%c'. -1. 5. -1.key)) ) [vertex. vertex = []. if( ~isempty(findstr(temp.:) = [].3. -1. 6. if( ~isempty(findstr(temp. 18. 6.3. -1. 2. 4. 0. The code to extract information from the vertices and faces to be stored in arrays of vertices. 3. The variables face and vertex store information while the variable key stores the corresponding identifiers. 5. 5. 18. % Identifier % Creating vector called vertex that saved the information corner % Identifier % Creation of vector called face that kept the connectivity information Fig.6 37. 7.6 27. 7.3. 2. end end Fig.6 0 -27. 3. 9.6 0 -27. 7. 8. 3. 9. 4.key)) ) % Delete rows spam 10 . key = 'coordIndex ['. -1. 10 and 11.

length(face)/7])+1. 5.:) = []. 6. From this information can be obtained the mesh and the three dimensional model with its triangular topology. Obtained array representing the vertices in the 3D drawing. for this can be used the program as Matlab using graficacion tools can obtain models as seen in the Fig. Fig. % Data collection face = reshape(face. See Figs. In this case was obtained a mesh of 8 vertices and 12 faces. % Delete rows spam end end Fig. 12. Inf).[face. face([2 4 6 7]. 11 .'%d%c %d%c %d%c -1%c'. 12 and 13. Identification and saved faces.nc] = fscanf(fp. 11. [7. Fig. 13. The results of the previous steps are 2 matrices that contain closed paths that form the faces and vertices. Obtained array representing the closed paths between each vertex to form the faces of the 3D model. 14.

. which will contain very important parts that can be seen in Fig. Obtaining the mesh and the 3D model. Wrl can verify its integrity by opening the file like a text document. 15. location. Mathematical representation of the matrix vertex. textures. 14. 8. color etc. 12 . connectivity. these data are the vertex and the paths that make up the faces of the model. Fig. MESH ANALYSIS Once created and exported the file to.Fig.. shapes. 4. size. since as shown in the procedure described in the previous section. 15 and 16. these are saved in two variables. and allows viewing graphics in 3D with the data for this application was chosen the program MatLab. but the ones we are interested to obtain meshes of 3D models are created before the location in the 3D map of the vertices and faces. At this point we turned to a program that allow us to have enough tools to get and manipulate data files regardless of the format. allows opening files and extract data from great importance. lighting. In the previous section the vertices are stored neatly in the matrix with name "vertex" each column represents a new vertex and each row represent the coordinates in the Cartesian 3D plane in the form which we can see in the Figs. This type of format has characteristics much as a 3D model.

Table. In the matrix "vertex" the unique size of rows is 3 and is determined by the coordinates that determine the position of a point at the 3D. see Fig. each column represents one face. Matrix obtained by representing the faces. 15. Below in Table 2 shows the results obtained by the method. With these matrices and with help of MatLab charting tools you can display the three-dimensional model with its characteristic mesh.Fig. while is determined by the complexity of the model. 17. All tests were performed using a PC with AMD Sempron processor at 1. and implementations of the models were made in MatLab 7. to greater complexity greater numbers of vertex will have. the total number of columns represents the number of faces that possesses the 3D model.6 GHz. and each face is showed by 3 vertices that connect each and that governing complies a closed path forming the face model. Fig. 1 GB RAM memory running under the Windows XP operating system. In the variable "face" saves the relationship of each vertex in closed trajectories that shaped the faces of the 3D model connectivity. these 3 vertices are due to its triangular. 16. for different models 3D. Results obtained from different 3D models. Matrix obtained that represents the vertices denoted with their respective attributes. As you can see in the Fig. 2. 17. The models were developed in 3D Max Studio and exported to code VRML97. Name of the 3D model Model 3D done in 3D Max Studio Number of vertices obtained Number of faces obtained Model and mesh obtained 13 . since 3 edges or connections needed to render a single triangle topology.

so it is important to have a method to obtain the mesh from the models mentioned. and unauthorized copies. 14 . education and entertainment. with the Internet are accessible to everyone. This paper presents the results of the method proposed for the obtaining of the mesh from VRML code regardless of the complexity of the 3D models.Cylinder 110 216 Pyramid 5 8 Cone 146 288 Sphere 162 320 Teapot 530 1024 5. CONCLUSIONS The 3D models are widely used in different areas of study. so may be object of manipulation. to protect them have been proposed various strategies steganographic as marks of water from the meshes can embed copyright information or proprietary or copy control mechanisms. The information of the vertices and edges of the mesh are stored in arrays for further processing in security processes.

solidworks.” Breve historia del videojuego”. [13] Germán Sánchez Torres.ar/Dic/imagen%20en%203d.” Gráficos 3D en la web” Año 7.htm.unam. Número 65. volumen. Available: http://www. 6. Available: http://www.html [8] Diego Dos Santos.enterate. Pisanty and G.html [4] Matlab examples [Online]. Universidad Católica Nuestra señora de la Asunción.com/sw/industries/gallery.smithmicro.bp. Available: http://www. México. JMS and MAMV thanks for the support of the Secretaría de Investigación y Posgrado (SIPIPN) to the project 20100682 and the financial support received by Comisión de Operación y Fomento de Actividades Académicas (COFAA-IPN).com/docs/Realidad_Virtual. Octubre de 2008. Available: http://poser.enterate. María Teresa Rivera Ojeda. pp.uk/~mdr/teaching/modules03/security/students/SS5/Steganography. EVM y JMS thank the financial support received by IPN through Programa Institucional de Formación de Investigadores (PIFI-IPN).” Steganography And Digital Watermarking”.pdf.htm and http://www.pdf [9] Videogames examples [Online].mathworks.com/ [5] A.unam.com/tutorials/3DSMax.ac.unam. Enero de 2008. Mateus Santiagoy .” Realidad Virtual”.html [11] Revive el proceso de construcción de la gran pirámide de Keops en 3D [Online].mx/artic/2008/enero/art3.html [7] Lizbeth Heras Lara. Observatorio de Visualización.jeuazarru. Patrick Diskin. Samuel Lau and Robert Parlett. ACKNOWLEGMENTS EVM.alegsa. [6] José Fabián Romo Zamudio. Número 73. [Online].cs.com/gallery. Available: http://www. Available: http://www. Available: http://www.bmp [3] Gallery of Poser [Online].com/_V7MooEJG-vs/SbAAcqCifAI/AAAAAAAAAGU/xWB18iaBHMA/0/ mario+1. Año 7.com. [Online].John William Branch. Diciembre 2005. [Online].com/sw/industries/gallery. Available: http://www. 1-7 [Online]. 7.6/num12/art123/art123. Available: http://3.. “Construcción de Mallas Triangulares no Estructuradas Aplicado al Ajuste de Superficies de Objetos 15 .mx/artic/2008/octubre/art3. Observatorio de Visualización. [Online]. Lucet “Ixtli instalación de realidad virtual de la UNAM”.htm [12] Jonathan Cummins.blogspot.smithmicro. Sandra P. Available: http://www.As future work the meshes obtained will be object of experimentation in the laboratory for testing of attack and protection by watermarks. 6 numero 12. Revista digital Universitaria.bham.com/go/network/media [10] Gallery of Poser [Online]. Available: http://poser.mx/vol.bmp1. REFERENCES [1] Informatics Dictionary [Online]. Available: http://www.capcom-unity.php [2] Mario Bros 3D [Online].solidworks.revista. The University of Birmingham.

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