1 ST PART :: POETRY PROSODY :: is the science of versification.

Its a fairly broad term that covers wide world of poetic terms, also of metre and stanza forms POETIC LANGUAGE/POETIC DICTION :: any form of expression of grammar which consists of FIGURES OF SPEECH. Figures of speech are divided into other subcategories; metaphoric expressions, rhetorical devices and sound effects. FIGURES OF SPEECH/FIGURATIVE LANGUAGE :: poetic language concerns any form of expression or grammatical form which deviates from the most general language WHEREABOUTS OF THE POETS :: is the poet possibly in the poem or does he reside outside the poem (is he a protagonist or not) When I have fears that I may cease to be (e.g.) an autobiographic poem. A poem in which the speaker of th e poem is the poet himself. ³The poem is alive. You have to treat it as something eternal.´ THE IMPLIED READERSHIP OF THE POEM :: STATUS OF THE POEM IN RELATION TO SOCIETY :: what position does a certain poem hold in society. Poem having a certain positio n in a society and in a particular society; whether the poem is critical or supportive e.g. Steven Spender :P; Moving through the silent crowd critical of social, political, economic circumstances; left wing author after the WW2, political ideological manifesto Walt Whitman; Leaves of grass no criticism THE STATUS OF THE POEM IN LITERARY TRADITION :: every poem somehow follows the tradition and somehow breaks the tradition. Shakespeare, Sonnet 130 very strongly against the tradition of Elizabethan sonnets, he wanted to write a parody Edmund Spenser, Amoretti dead serious in his descriptions SONORITY SONOROUS :: which sounds ASSONANCE :: repetition of vowels after the last accented syllable CONSONANCE :: repetition of the same final consonant in the accented syllables and neighbouring words EUPHONY EUPHONIOUS :: sounds pleasantly, nice to the ear, gentle, sweet, soft. Is a such a combination of words which sound pleasantly smooth and musical to the ear (s, ,l normally produce this euphony). CACOPHONY CACOPHONOUS :: the opposite of euphony, An arrangement of words which create harsh sound and it doesn¶t sound that smooth, it¶s often hard to pronounce. (r is used a lot for example the raven) ALLITERATION :: a sequence of repeated consonant so unds ± frosty fingers COLLOCATION :: nonstandard c.(busy heart) standard c. (weak heart) METAPHORS :: many phrases today don¶t anymore stand as metaphors ± blue blood, new blood/old blood: new personnel. JUXTAPOSITION :: to juxtapose a verb=to place side by side, sopostavitev/sopostavljanje PERSONIFICATION :: the verb is personified POLYSYNDENTON:: Figure of addition and emphasis which intentionally employs a series of conjunctions (and, or, but, for, nor, so, yet) not normally found in successive words, phrases, or clauses; the deliberate and excessive use of conjunctions in successive words or clauses. ANIMATION :: the verb is turned into an animant one ONOMATOPOEIA ONO MATOPOETIC :: imitating the sounds from nature. It comes f rom William Yeats¶s poem The Lake Isle of Immisfree ENJAMBMENT = RUN ON LINE :: semantic or grammatical extension in the following line INTER-DEPENDANCE :: every line depends on another line BLANK VERSE :: unrhymed iambic pentameter EPIGRAM :: poem consisting of only one couplet (very short) IRONY:: indispensable textual element; what distinguishes a good writer from a bad one; if you want to avoid being pathetic, emphatic, sympathetic, you can use irony and keep distance from the topic ; is more objective the term refers to a contrast, discrepancy between appearance or reality can take a number of different forms DRAMATIC IRONY :: a state of affairs known to the reader, audience is the reverse what it is suppose to be (King Oidipus-Sofokles) SITUATIONAL IRONY :: a set of circumstances is reverse to what is expected appropriate VERBAL IRONY :: contrast between what is literally said and what is meant; most common denotative meaning; dictionary explanation connotative meaning ; purpose of using a word , the usage EXAGGERATION/HYPERBOLE/OVERSTATEMENT :: reading between the lines, take the opposite meaning from what it is said; a special effect that has a humorous touch; primarily to amuse the reader UNDERSTATEMENT/FITOTES/MEIOSIS :: the opposite of hyperbole, undervalues, underestimates, tells too little INTERTEXTUALITY :: intertextual link to other sources; complex interrelationship between a text and other texts (theyre in a complic ated relationship :P) taken as basic of the creation or interpretation of a text BATHOS :: sudden, unexpected change AMBIGIUITY :: use of the word that carries 2 or more different meanings, can be found also in everyday situations although not always welcomed, in poetry is welcomed ± food for thought, it achieves also an ironic effect; ambiguity is achieved with homonym (a pun, wordplay) WORDPLAY :: - homophony relies on phonetic phonological properties; when you listen to a text HOMONYM :: same spelling or pronunciation, different meaning A PARADOX :: ambiguity that plays with ideas; statement that is true in some sense but at first appears absurd and contradictive; operates on a larger scale: on the textual scale e.g. the second coming sb walks somewhere to be born OXIMORON :: when expressed in 2 words (living dead , a little giant) METONIMY SIMILE :: AS or LIKE .. The feature that bonds tenor and vehicle together is TERTIUM COMPARATIONIS

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ANADIPLOSIS _____x x_____

ANAPHORA x_____ x_____ RHETORICAL QUESTION :: the answer isn¶t expected and it¶s presumed GENRE :: 3 major genres; poetry, prose/fiction, drama + numerous subgenres(novel, sonn et, ...) Perplexed = confused Metric foot = stopica (no shit) POETIC METRE :: monometer = 1 foot dimetre = 2 feet trimetre = 3 feet tetrametre pentametre hexametre heptametre octametre U = nenagla en; - = nagla en U- : iambic foot/IAMB -U : TROCHEE, TROCHAIC -- : SPONDEE, SPONDAIC UU : PYRRHIE -UU : DACTIL, DACTILIC UU- : ANAPEST, ANAPAESTIC U- U: AMPHIBRACH, AMPHIBRAIC | U- | U- | U- | U- | acatalectic perfect | -U | - U | -U | - catalectic | U- | U- | U- | U hypercatalectic TRADITIONAL VERSE FORMS ± FIXED STANDARD BLANK VERSE :: unrhymed iambic pentametre (1557; Henry Howard, in translation of Vergil¶s Aneid, in Shakespeare¶s plays) A COUPLET :: smallest possible stanzaic form (2 lines) -complete thought expressed through 2 lines; closed couplet(Alexander Pope,Gwendolyn Brooks -We real cool) EPIGRAM :: is a poem consisting of 1 and only couplet (short, sharp, witty) TERCET :: 3 line stanza TRIPLET :: all 3 lines rhyme together (a,a,a..) TERZA RIMA :: form of 3 rhyme stanza (Dante) rhyme: aba bcb cdc (Phillip Lankin-Whatever happened) QUATRAIN :: 4 line stanza, most common in english poetry. 1st and 3 rd line are tetrametres, the 2 nd and the 4th are trimetres. poetic form that uses quatrains is a ballad QUINTETS :: stanzas of 5 lines (Waller) SESTET :: 6line stanza (Shakespeare -Venus and Adonis), rhyme: abab + cc, dede + ff SEPTET :: 7 line stanza, rhyme royal: ababbcc (used for serious themes ) (Shakespeare -rape of lucrece, Auden -Letter to lord Byron) iambic pentameter OCTET :: 8 line stanza, OTTAWA RIMA, a b a b a b c c (lord Byron-don juan 9 LINE ± SPENSERIAN STANZA :: most intricate, 1590 1st used in a long epic poem Faerie Gueene 8 lines of iambic pentametre + final line of iambic hexametre (Alexandrine) ababbcbc + c 2 ND PART :: FICTION a product of their imagination (narrative in verse or prose) fiction also encompasses plays special type of fiction (narrative poems, folktales, allegories, romance, satires) fiction: about the way of treating the subject matter and the way it relates to reality VERSIMILITUDE :: LIFELIKENESS :: how realistic it is; how closely it imitates reality Subgenre: fiction faction novel/ journalistic novel NOVEL :: 1st in 17th cent in Spain(Don Quixote, 1605-1615)(innovative, revolutionary, puts an end to chivalric romance by parodying the lady) , then emerged in the 18 th century especially in England The centre is set around the hero he has to fulfil a lot of tasks changed when modern novel brought individualism; the manner of expression is broader. Predecessors: Aeneid (Vergil, 13 -19 BC); Odyssey & Iliad (Homer, 7 th cent. BC), Divine Comedy (Dante, 1307-1321-medieval period) , E.g :: Joseph Andrews (Henry Fielding, 1742 a comic romance, also a comic epic in prose, basically a novel), Robinson Crusoe(Daniel Defoe, 1718), Pamela & Clarissa (Samuel Richardson, 1740/41 & 1748/49) Modern epics: Faerie Queene (Edmund Spenser, 1590 -1596), Paradise lost (John Milton, 1667) wordview (Weltanschaung) ± a unified universal wordview was presented with which everybody agree MODERN NOVEL: wordview changed when modern novels were brought, individualism, individualistic perspective of the world; provided space for the reader to agree or disagree; the manner of expression is broader than before Written in verse It distinguishes from other works in : length, structure, characterization of heroes Early romance was the beginning of a modern novel Marks the beginning of a new literary genre that replaced the epic ROMANCE: the scope is usually broad, it stresses to a single problem; the protagonist is depicted in detail and care; it has linear structure PICARESQUE NOVEL :: conflict with social norms. Relates the experience of a vagrant the protagonist is in conflict with social norms of the society. Structure :: episodic narrative(normally in chronological order), social injustices in a satirical way. Defoe-Moll Flanders,1722 & Fielding-Tom Jones,1749 BILDUNGS ROMAN :: describes development of protagonist from childhood to maturity. Came from germany. A novel of education. George Eliot-Mill On the Floss, 1860 & Joyce-A portrait of an artist as a young man,1916 EPISTOLAR Y NOVEL :: a novel in letters; uses letters as a means of 1st person narrator. Samuel Richardson -Pamela,1740/41 HISTORICAL NOVEL :: actions that take place in realistic historical situations. Jim Walter Scott-Waverly novels,1814 NEW JOURNALISM :: reworks real events in a new way, partly related to a historical novel, recently new, uses genre to rework real events in a new way. Truman Capote-In cold blood,1966. SATIRICAL NOVEL :: Jonathan Swift-Gullivers travels,1726

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UTOPIAN NOVEL/DYSUTOPIAN NOVEL/SCIENCE FICTION NOVEL :: creates alternative worlds to criticize socio-political circumstances . George Orwell-1984,1949 GOTHIC NOVEL :: macabre scenery, Bram Hoker -Dracula,1897 DETECTIVE NOVEL :: Agatha Christie-Murder on the Oriento Express,1934 SHORT STORY :: concise form of prose/fiction, emerged as individual works(end of 18 th cent). Addresses the educated middle class, published in magazines, journals, newspapers. One centre action, often begins ³in media res´, flashbacks. One location, usually one perspective. Has roots with the novel-a lot of things in common. Story, myth, fairytale. Ancient satire, romance. D e novel Short story c Long, a lot of Shorter, 1 main event, often begin in media res, 1 a characters, a perspective, 1 location, suggestive characters m number of Impression of unity(can be read in 1 sitting, without e perspectives, interruption) r more Length; plot is highly selective ..short o locations, Usually focuses on one central action n different It has to be accelerated with different techniques , settings, The action after starts close to the climax(crisis); often characters are begins in Ins medias res ± in the middle of things) A The plot is reconstructed with flashbacks ± retrospective described in r Mush has happened before the beginning and this is detail, more a revealed than 1 event b Characters depicted with less detail Uses number i Has to be more suggestive more leading, directed of a towards the ultimate goal, more compact perspectives, n Choice of the narrative perspective due to the shortage points of of space, normally 1 perspective view n ights, Canterbury tales. PLOT - what happens. Is the deliberately arranged sequence of interrelated events which makes up its basic narrative structure. Most plots have an identificible beginning, middle and plot. Some kind of existing state of equilibrium or balance must be broken. Mos t plots originate in some kind of conflict; either internal or external.. plot is open to infinite variety; the author does not need to conform to patterns(the only pattern is his own). The only requirements: plot ± interesting INTERNAL CONFLICT :: within protagonist, the issue in the protagonists self conflict ; 2 or more elements are opposed in the protagonist himself EXTERNAL CONFLICT :: protagonist is placed against other forces 1)exposition 2)complication 3)crisis 4)falling action 5)resolution/conclus ion this plot structure is repeated in many chapters Exposition; the beginning section in which the author provides the necessary background information Complication; the rising action, develops and intensifies the conflict Crisis; climax, the moment of breaking, the turning point, the moment in which the plot reaches the greatest point of emotional intensity Falling action; the tension subsides, the plot moves towards the conclusion Resolution; recalls the outcome of the conflict and establishes balance Highly plotted works; contain distinct stages and generally follow the structure (detective works) The crisis does not need to be at the middle External conflict .. form of opposition: - 2humans; protagonist verses human adversary = antagonist -human and nature -human and society NARRATOLOGY :: science that explains narrative situations confides all kinds of fields(linguistic, pragmatic) CONFLICT :: basic opposition or tension that moves the story forward , arouses the expectations i n the reader DOUBLE CONFLICTS :: both at the same time EPIPHANY :: sudden recognition of the state of affairs, sudden revelation CHARACTERS ± who acts .. CHARACTERIZATION :: The relationship between plot and character is vital Fiction provides with immediate access to the characters and their lives and whenever the author withholds some info he provides some other crucial information We are concerned with being able to establish: personality, techniques, whether the characters are credible and convincing other elements come here and form a unity :plot, setting, narration CHARACTER:: any individual in a literary work; portrayal of a character in a certain degree, significant character change PROTAGONIST = central/ main character; + and ± traits, easy to notice ANTAGONIST = person who strongly opposes sb/ sth; more difficult to identify if it is not a human being (hero or villain) which is very common ROUND CHARACTER = a lot of qualities, multidimensional characteristics, considerable intellectual and emoti onal capacities, can grow and change. FLAT CHARACTER = a single characteristic idea or limited number of them, one-dimensional, don¶t grow and change, appears again and again, common in stock character DYNAMIC PROTAGONIST = in most novels, the events slowly portray the change SETTING : where and when do the events take place. Functions as a background for an action ; as antagonist (partially in Eveline) ; as a means of revealing characters (how character reacts, speaks about his or her state); as a means of r einforcing them; as a means of creating appropriate atmosphere NARRATIVE PERSPECTIVE :: who sees what TELLING :: direct commentary by the author Characterization through the use of names and appearance SHOWING :: characters evolve through dialogue what he say, action what he does, tone of speaking, egoist/gossip, circumstances: day/night reveals more HERO/HEROINE :: person who is admired by many people for doing something good or/and brave. Person you admire because of particular quality or skills.

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ANTIHERO :: main character in the story, but one who does not have the qualities of a typical hero and is either more like an ordinary person or is morally bad.