Preparation of the Fibers Harvesting the Bast Fiber

The KOZO is harvested during early winter (November to December) after the leaves drop. gnarls and flaws of branch are changed their colors to dark brown. black bark. The stripped bark are tied to small bundles and dried. the green layer. The stalks are cut into 1. green bark and white bark. Preparation of the Fibers 1 The dried strips of bark are soaked overnight to soften the tissues and makes the removal of the outer layers easier. The buds. Some papers like Kasu-gami contains black bark purposely. The soften barks are rubbed between feet in running water to remove dark outer bark. Papermaking Process Cooking . These are carefully removed without damaging the fiber.2 meter (about 4 foot length) and cook in the special barrel shaped steamers. After they cooked. is carefully scraped away with a knife. Preparation of the Fibers 2 Once the dark outer layer is removed. the bark is striped from the bottom of branch to the top. which contains more hemicellulose than the pure white layer. but commonly high quality paper are consisted of white bark only and does not contain balk and green barks. Those barks are stored or processed to white bark in spring. The bark is consisted of three parts. The cleaned bark (white bark) is dried in a cool shaded area until ready for further processing.

the amount and type of alkali are adjusted. Since the bark is already eluted. then it is sufficiently cooked. When testing the fiber. buds. Traditionally. caustic soda [NaOH].The white bark is soaked overnight before cooking. keep the water temperature lower. If it can be gently spread apart to reveal a fine network of fibers or if it can be pulled apart widthwise easily. it may be better to choose a thick piece of bark and carefully removed and rinsed to cool. more of the non-cellulose materials are dissolved resulting in a softer paper. This bark is again rinsed to remove any loose bits of rubbish before cooking. soda ash [Na2CO3] or slaked limes [Ca(OH)2] are used depend on purposes. If more non-cellulose materials remain in the fiber. the fiber becomes soft and the liquid turns a dark brown as the non-cellulose materials are dissolved during the cooking process. To keep the quality of fiber. scum will be appeared on the surface of the cooking liquid. the bark is easy to tear apart. After 30 minutes from boiling. keep the fire to high. the cooked bark is thoroughly rinsed in water. In the case of cleaning KOZO bark. The amount of slaked lime used is about 20%. This re-hydrates the dry bark and helps to remove any water-soluble elements and makes it easier for the alkaline solution to penetrate the fibers. Depends on the purpose of the paper. When a strong alkali is used. The next day. The characteristic of washi is determined by the amount of non-cellulose materials contained in the fibers. After the heat is turned off. Cleaning When the bark is cooked. The type of alkali used also affects the color and feel of the paper. this process has to be done by hand. Nowadays. then the bark started to clean. It should be enough if the bark is completely soaked in the water. The prepared bark is cooked in an alkaline solution. unevenly cooked parts and discolored parts. since it is difficult to clean up with machines. soda ash is about 18% and 15% for caustic soda for the dry weight of the fiber to be cooked. The amount of water is equal to at least 10 times the weight of the dry fiber. the purpose of cleaning is to remove scars. Put a basket in water and put small amount of bark into the basket. Until water is started boiling. The fiber is tested after about two hours. the cooked fiber is allowed to soak into water to remove the scum and non-fiber material which was eluted by alkaline solution. the bark must be carefully cleaned and . to not flow the water from the pot. The fibers are stirred occasionally to prevent scorching and to insure an even cook. wood ash [K2CO3 or potash] was used. At this process. Once it started boiling. then the paper has more body.

the movement of the mould is different. is attached on the stand. scoop up relatively small amount of the fibers and move the mould quickly to place the fibers on the surface evenly. The separate strips of bark are beaten until it becomes a mass of separated fibers. Scoop up the fiber more than the first time. Depending on the region and the kind of paper to make.should not be ripped as much as possible. chlorine based solutions are used. and adjust the amount of fiber to scoop up and move the mould evenly. the fiber are bleached before this cleaning stage. then peeled off away from the papermaker. Beating The cleaned strips of bark are now ready for beating. and it is called 'KAKENAGASHI' or 'HATSUMIZU'. Utilize the elasticity of the bamboo. and move the mould to twine the each fiber. The next action is called 'CHOSHI'. The beating is done on a wooden or stone surface with a beating stick. When the paper is made. . First. however. Generally. which is placed as overhead suspension system. The quick movement prevents attaching dust on the surface of the paper. This action creates the surface of the paper. continue this action. couching stand. To remove the screen. guides. carefully lowered the screen to place the wet paper on the SHITOITA to prevent trapping any air between the sheets. remove the screen from the mould and place the wet paper on the SHITOITA. Now much of the beating is done by automated stampers or NAGINATA beaters. 'CHOSHI' and 'SUTEMIZU'. Until it became wanted thickness. Basic Papermaking Process NAGASHIZUKI method is formed by three basic actions of papermaking process. 'KAKENAGASHI'. At this time. If white paper is to be made. natural methods which bleached by running water (KAWASU KAWASARASHI) or snow (YUKISU YUKISARASHI) are sometimes used. with dried paper or cloth on and JOGI. it is lifted starting from the edge nearest the papermaker. The beating process helps the fibers to separate in the water.

since the material for NAGASHIZUKI is used which beating is not applied as much as the material for TAMEZUKI.TAMEZUKI is the method which has been taken from old time. and the material which is short. another dried paper is placed between the just-made wet papers or press immediately and dry by placing on a flat board. Nowadays. However. Well beaten material makes possible to create appropriate thickness with one scoop of fiber. When these papers are dried. (See making postcards by TAMEZUKI method) Get QuickTime 4 Pressing . for these papers. well beaten and does not contain ÒNERIÓ. is used in order to spread the fiber in water. 'NERI' is added in order to slower the flow of water on the screen. papers which take TAMEZUKI method are used as postcard and paper for school diploma.

The drying method. peel off by keeping the paper parallel to the post. After pressing paper. KONNYAKU ( a starch derived sizing for wet strength) or KAKISHIBU ( persimmon tannin).Leave the post of newly made papers (it is called SHITO) for overnight to drain the water naturally. paper has rigidity. . affects the finished paper. By pressing firmly. the surface of the paper tends to become fluffy and over dried. steam heated metal surfaces. Drying The pressed papers are carefully removed one by one from the post and brushed onto wooden boards to dry naturally or onto mechanical dryer. the paper should contain approximately70% of moisture. place the wet papers between two bigger sized boards. The next day. When remove the wet paper from the post. when thick paper is dried by mechanical dryer. It may also be dyed with chemical or natural dyes or textured to make paper like MOMIGAMI ( a randomly crumpled paper) or CHIRIMEN ( a crepe textured paper). The best lumber for drying board is gingko tree since it has smooth surface and large surface area. The weight is gradually added for nearly 6 hours. The finished papers may be treated with DOSA ( a sizing to prevent ink bleeding). The wooden boards of pine tree. Especially. and then press with a compressor to remove moisture. horse chestnut and Japanese cypress are used as drying boards. Then the peeled wet paper is placed onto the dryer and brushed on it. natural (ITABOSHI) and mechanical (JOKI KANSOKI).


more tearing tearing cotton linter peeling layers of abaca Sheets of paper are formed on a frame called a mould. . this vat shake helps interlock the fibers into a smooth sheet. must be added to neutralize lignin . When timed properly with the water draining back through the pulp. Longer beating time creates stronger bonds . a caustic agent. such as soda ash. that will determine the physical characteristics of the finished paper: characteristics such as translucency. the mould and deckle agitating pulp in the vat the vat shake To pull a sheet. and shakes it back and forth and side to side. the beating process forges new chemical bonds with the cellulose fibers. a frame without the screening. and overall strength. shrinkage factor in drying.the substance that turns newspapers brown and brittle. This is usually made of wood in the size of the finished sheet and covered with a mesh of fine screen or wire. working hydrogen molecules into the fiber structure. printability. The ratio of pulp to water is mostly what will determine the thickness of the sheet.PAPER MAKING PROCESS The first step in making paper is to beat the fiber to a pulp quite literally. The pulp is then mixed with water. scoops up a layer of pulp on the surface of the mould.and along with the type of fiber. The wet pulp is contained on the mould by a deckle. The plant fiber is prepared by tearing or cutting into smaller pieces and then cooked to break down the rigid cell structure. the papermaker dips the mould and deckle together into a vat of pulp suspended in water.

the bulk of the water must be pressed out so that the sheets can be strong enough to be lifted to a drying screen. FIBERS Paper is made from many kinds of plant fibers .plant stuff such as lawn clippings aren't likely to be strong enough to hold a sheet in the finished form. This will give a smoother finished surface to the paper. with various kinds of leaves and barks used in combination with cotton. fiber. Long stringy fibers are a bit more difficult to work with. but make stronger paper . felts for layering couching building the post The sheets of paper will lighten in color as they dry (which can take anywhere from a few hours to a few days depending on thickness. these irregularities can be used to great effect in assembled artworks. the sheet is couched onto a vertical surface (such as glass or masonite). and weather) and they may develop ripples and curls.draining the water off lifting the deckle the formed sheet The formed sheet is then couched (from the French verb coucher. to put to bed) or transferred from the mould onto a drying surface. or with a good binding fiber. . If a post is created.cotton is the most common. such as the Philipine abaca. called a post. the excess water sponged out through the mould. the sheet is couched onto an absorbent layer of felt. For restraint drying. Traditionally. stacking up several layers of paper sheets and felts. and the sheet left to dry.

A Zen approach is taken.. as does pampas grass. or a blend of cotton with abaca or Spanish flax.. pampas grass cotton [bleached. with the papermaker's . my preference is to use local plants bird of paradise stems and leaves make wonderful paper. raw fiber for papermaking . and Master papermakers are revered members of society.For painting and manipulation after the sheets are made. is an astonishing fiber. Kozo. has a high shrinkage content. unbleached. strong and beautiful. especially with an extended beating time. the inner bark from Japanese or Thai mulberry trees. Flax on its own. the making of paper (not just the result) is an art in itself. which creates wonderfully unpredictable shapes as the paper dries. I prefer cotton. For paper that is textured and interesting to look at or touch on its own. dyed black] sisal kozo In Japan.

. There is something immensely calming and satisfying about making paper . and especially the tactile sensation of pulling the sheets from the vat. and then becoming a part of each sheet of paper. and often discard the most valuable parts of this Japanese tradition. It's literally about getting 'in touch' with the material that becomes the paper. In typical Western fashion.preparing the materials. we focus more on the compression of time so as not to 'waste' it. going through the routine.spirit becoming one with the pulp.

Each is driven at a slightly different speed. 435Kg Dimensions: Current Hour Recorder Counter / Auto Stop Consumed Energy . the Kalamazoo / Huygen unit provides beating control by two methods. The PFI mill consists of a rotating internal beating roll with bars which rotates inside of a rotating bowl / bedplate.PFI TYPE LABORATORY BEATER BEATING AND REFINING OF PULP The PFI type Laboratory Beater from Kalamazoo and Huygen Corp. 345Kg Gross Wt. Unlike other similar beaters on the market. All instruments are factory calibrated and cross-referenced by an independent certifying institution. or by the measurement of power consumption of the beating elements in Kwh. Control is provided either with the automated beating revolution counter. This machine is constructed to comply with ISO 5264/2 and Tappi T-248 for laboratory refining and remains the only "traceable" method for laboratory refining of which we are aware.. All beating elements are constructed of stainless steel. FEATURES: • • • • • ISO 5264/2 Tappi T-248 Automatic raising & lowering of beating tackle Electronic beating counter Programmable counter with Auto-Stop Displays for: o o o 220V 3ph / 50/60Hz power Net Wt. is designed for the beating and refining of pulp under tightly controlled and highly repeatable conditions.

500mm .000 x 750 x 1.250mm Packed .Instrument .610 x 800 x 1.1.