Grade  9    Science  Exam  Notes  
Syed  Kamran   Gordon  Graydon  Memorial  Secondary  School  

Syed  Kamran  

Table  of  Contents  
Introducing  Ecosystems   ...............................................................................................   6   Life  on  Planet  Earth  ......................................................................................................   6   Bioaccumulation  ..........................................................................................................   7   Cycles  of  Matter  in  Ecosystems  ....................................................................................   7   Energy  in  Ecosystems  ...................................................................................................   8   Food  Webs  ...................................................................................................................   8   Ecological  Pyramids   ......................................................................................................   9   Biomass  and  Fossil  Fuels  ..............................................................................................   9   Biotic  and  Abiotic  Influences  on  Ecosystems  ..............................................................  10   Symbiosis  ...................................................................................................................  11   Ecological  Succession  .................................................................................................  11   Importance  of  Bio-­‐Diversity  .......................................................................................  12   Matter  .......................................................................................................................  13   Physical  Changes  of  Matter  ........................................................................................  13   Types  of  Properties  ....................................................................................................  14   Chemical  and  Physical  Properties  ....................................................................................................................  14   Qualitative  and  Quantitative  Properties  .......................................................................................................  14   Conversion  of  Mass  ....................................................................................................  14   Energy   ........................................................................................................................  15   WHMIS  ......................................................................................................................  15   MSDS  .........................................................................................................................  15   HHPS  ..........................................................................................................................  15   The  GUESSS  Method  ..................................................................................................  16   Mass  and  Volume  ......................................................................................................  16   Density  ......................................................................................................................  16   Buoyancy  ...................................................................................................................  17   Particle  Theory  of  Matter  ...........................................................................................  17   Classification  of  Matter  ..............................................................................................  17   Atomic  Theory  ...........................................................................................................  18   Dalton’s  Atomic  Theory  –  The  Ball  Model:  1800’s  ....................................................................................  18   Thomson’s  Discovery  of  Electrons  (Cathode  &  Anode  Experiment)  ................................................  18   Thomson’s  Model  ....................................................................................................................................................  18   Ernest  Rutherford’s  Gold  Foil  Experiment  –  1911  ...................................................................................  18   Bohr  Planetary  Model  –  1912  ............................................................................................................................  19  

Syed  Kamran   Isotopes  .....................................................................................................................  19   Naming  Isotopes  ......................................................................................................................................................  19   Atomic  Mass  ..............................................................................................................................................................  19   Atomic  Structure  ........................................................................................................  20   Atomic  Number  ........................................................................................................................................................  20   Mass  Number  ............................................................................................................................................................  20   Atomic  Notation  .......................................................................................................................................................  20   Periodic  Table  of  Elements  .........................................................................................  21   Mendeleev  –  Concept  of  Periodic  Table  ........................................................................................................  21   The  Current  Periodic  Table   .................................................................................................................................  21   Elements   ......................................................................................................................................................................  21   Valence  Electrons  ....................................................................................................................................................  21   Main  Categories  of  the  Periodic  Table  ...........................................................................................................  21   Groups  and  Periods  ................................................................................................................................................  22   Classes  ..........................................................................................................................................................................  22   Ions  ............................................................................................................................  23   Introduction   ...............................................................................................................................................................  23   Cations  .........................................................................................................................................................................  23   Anions  ..........................................................................................................................................................................  23     Why  does  this  occur?  ........................................................................................................................................  23   Naming  Ions  ...............................................................................................................................................................  23   Chemical  Symbols  ......................................................................................................  24   Counting  Atoms  in  Compounds  ........................................................................................................................  24   Combining  Capacity  ...............................................................................................................................................  24   Building  a  Molecule  ................................................................................................................................................  24   Naming  Compounds  ...............................................................................................................................................  25   Double  and  Triple  Bonds  ............................................................................................  25   Drawing  Diagrams  ......................................................................................................  25   Bohr-­‐Rutherford  Diagram  ...................................................................................................................................  25   Bohr-­‐Rutherford  Ion  Diagram  ...........................................................................................................................  25   The  Cell  ......................................................................................................................  26   Electric  Current  ........................................................................................................................................................  26   Circuit  ........................................................................................................................  26   Components  ...............................................................................................................................................................  26   Types  of  Circuit  ........................................................................................................................................................  27   Current  ......................................................................................................................  27   Voltage  (Potential  Difference)  ....................................................................................  27   Power  ........................................................................................................................  27   Electrical  Resistance  ...................................................................................................  28   Loads   .............................................................................................................................................................................  28   Conductors  .................................................................................................................................................................  28   Wires   .............................................................................................................................................................................  28   Superconductors  .....................................................................................................................................................  28   Safety  ........................................................................................................................  29  

Syed  Kamran  
Circuit  Breakers  .......................................................................................................................................................  29   Fuses  .............................................................................................................................................................................  29   Wall  Outlets  ...............................................................................................................................................................  29   GFCI  ...............................................................................................................................................................................  29   Surge  Protector  ........................................................................................................................................................  29  

Human  Conductivity  and  Resistance  ..........................................................................  29   Resistance  of  human  body  ..................................................................................................................................  29   Direct  and  Alternating  current  ...................................................................................  30   Alternating  Current  ................................................................................................................................................  30   Direct  Current  ...........................................................................................................................................................  30   Electricity  flowing  to  your  house  ................................................................................  30   Electrical  Production  ..................................................................................................  30   Non-­‐renewable  Resources  ..................................................................................................................................  30   Fossil  Fuels  ..................................................................................................................................................................  30   Nuclear  .........................................................................................................................................................................  31   Renewable  Resources  ...........................................................................................................................................  31   Solar  ..............................................................................................................................................................................  31   Wind  ..............................................................................................................................................................................  31   Hydro-­‐electric  Electricity  .....................................................................................................................................  31   Tidal  Energy  ...............................................................................................................................................................  32   Electricity  Production  in  Canada  ......................................................................................................................  32   The  Future  ..................................................................................................................................................................  32   Nuclear  Fusion  ..........................................................................................................................................................  32   Geo-­‐Thermal  ..............................................................................................................................................................  32   Static  Electricity  .........................................................................................................  32   Insulators  ....................................................................................................................................................................  32   Conductors  .................................................................................................................................................................  32   Laws  of  Electric  Charges  .............................................................................................  33   Electrostatic  Series  .....................................................................................................  33   Charging   .....................................................................................................................  33   Friction  ........................................................................................................................................................................  33   Contact  .........................................................................................................................................................................  33   Induction  .....................................................................................................................................................................  33   Semiconductors  .........................................................................................................  34   Grounding  ..................................................................................................................  34   Lighting  ......................................................................................................................  34   Circuit  Diagrams  .........................................................................................................  34   The  Universe  ..............................................................................................................  35   Distance  in  Space  .......................................................................................................  35   Astronomical  Unit  (AU)  ........................................................................................................................................  35   Light  Year   ....................................................................................................................................................................  35   Galaxies  .....................................................................................................................  35  

Syed  Kamran  
Spiral  .............................................................................................................................................................................  35   Elliptical   .......................................................................................................................................................................  35   Irregular  Galaxies  ....................................................................................................................................................  36  

Constellations  ............................................................................................................  36   Our  Solar  System  .......................................................................................................  36   Sun  .................................................................................................................................................................................  36   Mercury  .......................................................................................................................................................................  36   Venus  ............................................................................................................................................................................  36   Earth  .............................................................................................................................................................................  36   Mars  ..............................................................................................................................................................................  36   Jupiter  ...........................................................................................................................................................................  36   Saturn  ...........................................................................................................................................................................  37   Uranus  ..........................................................................................................................................................................  37   Neptune  .......................................................................................................................................................................  37   Poor  old  Pluto  ...........................................................................................................................................................  37   Best  of  wishes  on  the  Exam  :D!!  .................................................................................  37        

Syed  Kamran  

Ecology  Notes  
Introducing  Ecosystems  
Ecosystem:   All   the   living   and   non-­‐living   organisms   of   a   certain   region   or   area   interacting.     Example   of   ecosystems   include:   Forests,   Swamps,   and   Coral   Reefs.   Living   Components  of  an  ecosystem  are  called  Biotic  and  non-­‐living  are  abiotic.   Population:  All  the  individuals  of  a  single  species  in  a  certain  region  or  area  make  a   population.   Community:   Individuals   from   all   populations   of   a   certain   region   or   are   form   the   community.  This  does  not  include  abiotic  factors.     Characteristics  of  an  Ecosystem:     Organisms:  Organisms  vary  from  ecosystem  to  ecosystem.     Temperature  Range:  The  weather  patterns  of  each  ecosystem,  depicts  what   organisms   live   there.     Precipitation:   The   amount   of   rain   and   snow   fall   controls   the   climate   of   an   ecosystem.   Sustainability:   Sustainability   is   the   ability   to   maintain   ecological   balance;   today   most  ecosystems  are  sustainable.  This  means  that  their  characteristics  will  remain   the   same   over   a   long   period   of   time.   Human   actions   can   disturb   the   biotic   and   abiotic   factors   of   an   ecosystem,   thus   reducing   its   sustainability.   Some   actions   can   damage  an  ecosystem  to  a  point  where  it  is  no  longer  sustainable.  E.g.  Oil  Spills.     Man-­‐Made   Ecosystems:  Most  ecosystems  are  not  mad  made,  however  ecosystems   such  as  parks  are  mad  made.  These  ecosystems  require  constant  management  and   are   usually   not   sustainable.   i.e.   If   you   left   a   farm   for   three   years   would   it   look   the   same  when  you  came  back.    

Life  on  Planet  Earth  

The   Spheres   of   Earth:   The   earth   has   three   spheres   surrounding   it.   Unlike   the   moon,  the  Earth’s  gravity  is  strong  enough  to  hold  gases  close  to  the  surface.    
Atmosphere:   Layer   of   gases   extending   upward   for   hundreds   of   kilometres,   and   consists   of   78%   nitrogen   (N2),   21%   oxygen   (O2)   and   the   remaining   1%   is   argon,   water   vapour,   CO2,   etc.   This   is   crucial   to   life   on   Earth,   and   acts   like   a   blanket   providing  moderate  temperatures.   Lithosphere:   The   rocky   outer   shell   of   Earth   containing   rocks   and   minerals.   It   is   50-­‐   150  km  in  thickness.     Hydrosphere:   All   the   water   on   the   Earth   (above   and   below   the   surface).   This   includes  all  oceans,  lakes,  ice,  clouds,  etc.    

• •

The   Biosphere:   All   the   life   forms   that   exist   within   all   the   three   spheres   of   Earth   (Atmosphere,  Lithosphere,  Hydrosphere)  

Syed  Kamran  

Bioaccumulation  

Bioaccumulation:   A   process   in   which   materials,   especially   toxins,   are   ingested   by   an  organism  at  a  rate  greater  than  they  are  eliminated.     Biomagnifications:   The process, in an ecosystem, in which a higher concentration of a substance in an organism is obtained higher up the food chain.

Cycles  of  Matter  in  Ecosystems  
Biogeochemical   Cycles:   The   movement   of   matter   through   biotic   and   abiotic   factors.   Matter   cannot   be   made   or   destroyed.   Nutrients   are   produced   from   substances  already  in  the  environment.  They  are  four  main  biogeochemical  cycles:  
1. The  Water  Cycle:     2. The  Carbon  Cycle:  

Carbon  is  cycled  through  the  lithosphere,  atmosphere,  hydrosphere,  and  biosphere.   Carbon  is  an  important  element,  it  is  the  basic  building  block  of  living  things.  Carbon   is  recycled  by  photosynthesis  and  respiration.     3. The  Nitrogen  Cycle:   The   series   of   processes   in   which   nitrogen   compounds   are   moved   through   and   abiotic   environment.   Nitrogen   is   taken   from   the   atmosphere   by   soil   bacteria   by   nitrogen   fixation   –   a   process   that   converts   nitrogen   gas   into   nitrogen   containing   compounds.   Nitrogen   is   than   available   to   producers,   which   animals   eat.   Decomposers   feed   on   dead   animals,   while   Denitrifying   bacteria   release   the   nitrogen   back  into  the  atmosphere.     4. The  Phosphorus  Cycle:     Phosphorus  starts  in  rocks,  which  break  down  into  soil.  Plants  use  the  phosphorus   in   the   soil;   the   plants   are   eaten   by   animals,   which   are   decomposed   by   bacteria,   which  release  the  phosphorus  back  into  the  soil.    

Syed  Kamran  

Energy  in  Ecosystems  
Types  of  Energy:    
• Radiant  Energy:  Energy  that  travels  through  empty  space.   o 70%   of   radiant   energy   from   the   Sun   is   absorbed   by   the   hydrosphere   and   lithosphere,  and  converted  into  Heat.   § 51%  Absorbed  by  land  and  oceans     § 19%  Absorbed  by  Atmosphere  and  Clouds   o 30%  of  the  radiant  energy  is  reflected  back  into  space.     Light  Energy:  Visible  forms  of  radiant  energy   Thermal   Energy:   The   form   of   energy   transferred   during   heating   and   cooling   (warms  the  atmosphere,  evaporates  water,  produces  winds)  

• •

Photosynthesis:   The  process  in  which  the  Sun’s  energy  is  converted  into  chemical   energy  (Glucose/Sugar).  This  occurs  only  in  producers,  an  organism  that  makes  its   own  energy  rich  food  compounds  using  the  Sun’s  energy.  Plants  use  chlorophyll  to   capture   light   energy.   The   formula   of   photosynthesis   is   !"#$%&  !"#$"!% + !"#$%
!"#!!  !"!#$%

 !"#$% + !"#$%&.   In   oceans   algae   and   cyan   bacteria   use   chlorophyll   to   capture  light  energy  for  photosynthesis.     Cellular  Respiration:  The  process  by  which  sugar  is  converted  into  carbon  dioxide,   water  and  energy.  Organism  use  released  energy  for  any  of  the  activities  carried  out   by   its   cell.   The   formula   of   cellular   respiration   is   !"#$% + !"#$%& !"#$%&  !"#$"!% + !"#$% + !"!#$%.  

Food  Webs  
Ecological   Niches:  An  ecological  niche  is  simply  the  function  of  a  species  serves  in   its  ecosystem;  thus  no  two  species  have  the  same  ecological  niche.   Producers  vs.  Consumers  
• • Producers:  These  are  always  plants  that  harness  the  sun’s  energy  with  chlorophyll.   Consumers:  Living  things  that  eat  producers  in  addition  to  other  consumers.     o Herbivore:  Animals  that  eat  only  plants  (producers)   o Carnivore:  Animals  that  eat  only  meat  (other  consumers)   o Omnivore:   Animals   that   eat   both   plants   and   meat   (producers   and   consumers)   o Scavenger:  Animals  that  feed  on  the  remains  of  another  organisms.  

Food   Chain:   A   sequence   of   organisms,   each   feeding   on   the   next,   displaying   how   energy   is   following   from   one   organism   to   the   next.   E.g.   Pine   cone   àRed   Squirrel   àWeasel   àGoshawk.   Arrow   head   is   pointing   toward   the   consumer.   These   chains   are  not  exhaustive  and  simply  show  feeding  relationships.  If  one  link  of  a  food  chain   is  broken  it  would  result  in  numerous  problems  within  the  chain.        

Syed  Kamran   Trophic   Level:  The  level  of  an  organism  in  an  ecosystem  depending  on  its  feeding   postion.  
• • • • First  Trophic  Level:  Producers  e.g.  Plants   Second   Trophic   Level:   Will   eat   producers   only   e.g.   Small   Animals   (primary   consumers)   Third   Trophic   Level:   Can   eat   primary   consumers   and   producers   e.g.   Mid-­‐sized   animals  (secondary  consumers)   Fourth   Trophic   Level:   Can  eat  primary,  secondary  consumers,  and  producers  e.g.   Large  animals  (tertiary  consumers)  

Food   Webs:   A   visual   representation   that   much   accurately   displays   who   eat   who   within   a   community.   It   is   usually   highly   complex   as   organisms   feed   upon   several   species.   Similar   to   food   chains   the   arrow   points   from   the   organism   being   eaten   to   the  organisms  that  is  eating  it.  Food  webs  are  used  to  figure  out  what  may  happen   when  a  species  is  removed  or  added  to  an  ecosystem.  

Ecological  Pyramids  

Ecological   Pyramids:  Pyramids  that  display  the  relationship  between  trophic  levels   in  ecosystems.  
Energy:  Displays  energy  loss  between  trophic  levels;  only  about  10%  of  the  energy   is  passed  on  to  organisms  at  the  next  trophic  level.  Only  10%  of  the  energy  is  passed   on  because  organisms  use  90%  of  the  energy  for  cellular  respiration.  The  energy  is   released  as  heat  and  absorbed  by  the  ecosystem.     Numbers:   The   number   of   organisms   that   make   up   each   tropic   level.   This   pyramid   are  sometime  bigger  at  the  top.   Biomass:   Represents   the   mass   (weight)   of   all   the   living   organisms   within   that   trophic  level.  

• •

Biomass  and  Fossil  Fuels  
Biomass:   Biological   material   from   living,   or   previously   living   organisms.   This   material   is   usually   recycled     allowing   the   material   to   be   reused.   If   biomass   is   trapped  in  places  without  oxygen,  with  is  required  to  break  down  living  matter,  over   time  the  trapped  biomass  is  converted  into  fossil  fuels.     Burning  Fossil  Fuels:   The  burning  of  fossil  fuels  is  the  world’s  fastest  way   of  producing  energy.  Oxygen  is   used   to   produce   energy   and   Carbon   Dioxide.   Fossil   fuels   have   accumulated   for   millions  of  years,  but  in  recent  years  human  have  burned  significant  portion  of  the   Earth’s  reserves.  
• Suspicion:   Some   believe   that   the   CO2   being   released   is   responsible   for   Greenhouse   Effect.  

     

Syed  Kamran     Global  Warming:     The  Greenhouse  Effect  is  predicted  to  be  causing  Global  Warming;  this  effect  states   rising   of   CO2   in   the   atmosphere   is   responsible   for   the   increase   in   temperature.   However,  this  has  not  been  proven  thus  far.     Fuel  from  Waste:     Some  bacteria  are  known  to  break  down  waste  into  sugar,  through  a  process  called   fermentation.   This   released   a   gas   called   methane   (CH4).   This   gas   is   then   collected   and  burn  to  generated  electricity.     Acid   Precipitation:   Acids  fall  to  the  earth  as  a  form  of  precipitation  (rain,  sleet  or   snow).    
• • • When  fossil  fuels  are  burned  they  release  undesirable  substances   Nitrogen  Oxides  and  Sulfer  Dioxide,  are  released    and  combine  with  water  to  form   compound  acids,  such  as  Nitric  Acid  &  Sulphuric  Acid)   Acid  Precipitation  damages  many  things:   o Forest  soils  lose  nutrients  killing  life.     o When   mixed   with   water   in   lakes   and   oceans,   it   damages   the   ecosystems   and   kills  aquatic  life.     o In  addition,  acid  also  damages  stone  work.   Efforts  to  reduce  Acid  Precipitation   o Reduce  burning  of  fossil  fuels   o Improve   technologies   to     prevent   Nitrogen   Oxides   and   Sulfer   Dioxide   from   escaping  power  plants.   o Rising  the  standard  for  factories  and  motor  vehicle  emissions.     pH  7:  Neutral  e.g.  Pure  Water  and  Blood   pH  below  7:  Acidic    e.g.  Vinegar  (pH:3)   pH  above  7:  Basic  e.g.  Ammonia  (pH:12)  

pH:  The  measure  of  acidity  and  basicity  of  a  substance.  
• • •

Biotic  and  Abiotic  Influences  on  Ecosystems  
Limiting  Factor:    Any  factor  that  places  a  limit  on  the  size  of  a  population,  this  can   be   biotic   or   abiotic.   These   factors   can   indirectly   effect   another   population   in   the   community.    
• • Biotic  limiting  factor:  Amount  of  food  available   Abiotic  limiting  factor:  Temperature,  and  availability  of  water.  

Tolerance:   Ability   of   an   organism   to   withstand   many   conditions   (abiotic   and   biotic).  If  the  organism  is  the  optimal  zone,  it  will  perform  the  best  and  thrive.     Carrying   capacity:   The   number   organisms   of   a   single   species   that   an   area   the   support  forever.        

Syed  Kamran  

Symbiosis  
1. Mutualism:  Both  species  benefit  from  each  other.     2. Commensalism:  Both  species  benefit  (Taken  out  of  the  curriculum):P   3. Parasitism:   One  species  benefits  at  the  expense  of  another  species.  This  harms  the   host,  however  does  not  kill  them.    

Predator   –  Prey   Relationship:   The  predator-­‐prey  relationship  act  to  regulate  the   population  of  each  species.  e.g.  If  there  are  more  predators  the  prey  population  will   decrease,  thus  also  bringing  down  the  predator  population  because  there  is  less  to   eat.    
− − Predator:  Eats  plants  and  animals.  This  are  consumers  that  eat  other  organisms   Prey:  The  organism  that  is  eaten  by  the  predator  

Population  Factors:  Factors  which  display  how  a  population  changes.  
• • • • Nataility  (Births)   Mortality  (Deaths)   Immigration  (Animals  coming  in)   Emigration  (Animals  leaving)  

Population   Equation:   !"#  !"#$%&'(") = !"#  !"!#$%&'"( + !"#"$%#& + !""#$%&'#() − !"#$%&'$( − !"#$%&'#()   Exponential   Growth:   Rapid,   uncharacteristic   growth   which   occurs   for   a   short   period  of  time.  Usually  happens  when  a  species  is  introduced  into  a  new  ecosystem   that  has  lots  of  resources  or  when  predators  are  removed.  

Ecological  Succession  
Ecological  Succession:  Gradual   changes,   in   the   types   of   species   that   live   in   an   area.   The   replacement   of   one   plant   community   by   another   through   natural   processes   over  time.  This  process  takes  over  100  years.    
• Primary   Succession:   Begins   in   a   place   without   soil,   due   to   flooding.   The   species   that   are   first   to   arrive   are   those   who   do   not   need   soil   to   survive.   These   are   called   Pioneer   Species.   These   species   help   break   down   rocks   into   smaller   pieces   to   produce   soil;   when   they   decompose   they   also   add   organic   matter   to   the   rock   to   make   soil.   As   the   small   species   die   off   more   plants   slowly   begin   to   grow.     Primary   Succession   would   look   similar   to   the   following:   Dune   grasses   à   Cottonwoodsà   Shrubsà   Oaks   à   Beeches   Maples.   As   more   plants   begin   to   grow   animals   also   begin   to  arrive  .   Secondary   Succession:  Starts  in  an  area  where  soil  is  already  present,  this  usually   occurs  after  a  forest  fire.  Unlike  Primary  Succession,  soil  is  already  present  so  there   is  no  need  of  Pioneer  Species.     Pond   Succession:   Organic   substances   will   build   up   at   the   bottoms   of   ponds   and   lakes  and  convert  the  pond  into  marsh  and  later  into  dry  land.  An  example  of  Pond   Succession  is:  Pond  à  Marsh  à  Dry  Land/Grasses  à  Shrubs  à  Forest.  

Syed  Kamran   Terminology:  
• • Pioneer  Species:  The  first  species  to  start  the  process  of  succession.   Climax  Community:  The  last  or  final  stage  in  succession  e.g.  Forest  is  matured.  

Importance  of  Bio-­‐Diversity  
Biodiversity:  The  amount  of  life  in  a  particular  ecosystem,  this  is  measured  by   counting  all  the  species  and  is  referred  to  as  Species  Richness.  i.e.  Tropical  rainforest   have  the  highest  biodiversity  of  any  ecosystem.   Why  humans  value  biodiversity:  
• • • • Different  trees  clean  the  air  we  breathe   Animals  provide,  we  require  different  tasting  animals  J   Stabilizes  and  moderates  the  climate   Benefits  our  industries  such  as  forestry,  farming,  and  fishing  

At  Risk  Species:  
• • • • • Vulnerable:  Any  species  that  is  at  risk  because  of  declining  numbers  in  population   Threatened:  Any  species  that  is  likely  to  become  endangered  if  factor  that  make  it   vulnerable  are  not  reversed.   Extirpated:  The  species  no  longer  exists  in  one  of  its  previous  habitats   Endangered:  The  species  is  very  close  to  extinction  in  a  large  area.     Extinct:  The  species  cannot  be  located  anywhere  in  the  world.  

Keystone  Species:  Species  that  are  crucial  for  the  health  or  survival  of  other  species   e.g.  Bats.  These  species  are  hard  to  identify  until  an  ecosystem  fails  due  to  their   absence.     Natural  Causes  of  Extinction:  Extinction  of  species  that  have  not  been  blamed  on   humans.  
• • • • Competition  with  other  organisms   Environmental  disasters   Climate  change   Low  Reproduction  

Human  Cause  of  Extinction:  Extinction  of  species  which  is  blamed  upon  humans.   As  human  population  increases,  the  amount  of  species  remaining  declines.    
• • • Invasion  of  habitat   Over  Hunting   Pollution  

   

 

Syed  Kamran  

Chemistry  Notes  
Matter  
Matter  is  everything;  it  is  around  us,  above  us  and  below  us.    We  ourselves   are   made   up   of   matter.     It   is   defined   as   any   substance   that   has   both   mass   and   volume.  Matter  is  classified  into  three  states,  which  are  as  following:  
Solids:   The   molecules   are   close   together   and   can   only   move   a   little   bit.   They   have  a  definite  shape  and  volume,  in  addition  are  not  compressible.     • Liquids:   The   molecules   are   close   together,   but   are   free   to   move.   Liquids   have   the   ability   to   change   shape,   but   have   a   definite   volume.     You   can   compress   liquids  a  little  bit.     • Gases:  The  molecules  are  far  apart  from  each  other,  and  are  free  to  move  as  they   wish.   Gas   has   no   particular   shape,   and   can   and   no   definite   volume.   Gases   are   also  compressible.   Note:  Light,  heat,  and  types  of  energy  are  not  forms  of  matter.   •

Physical  Changes  of  Matter  
There  are  certain  processes  that  matter  undergoes  to  change  physical  state.  
• • • • • • Ice  to  Gas:  Sublimation   Gas  to  Ice:  Sublimation   Liquid  to  Gas:  Evaporation   Gas  to  Liquid:  Condensation   Liquid  to  Solid:  Solidification   Solid  to  Liquid:  Liquefaction    

                   

       

Syed  Kamran  

Types  of  Properties  
 

Properties  of  substances  are  not  exclusive  to  one  list,  and  they  overlap.  i.e.  A   chemical  property  can  also  be  a  qualitative  property.  

Chemical  and  Physical  Properties  

Chemical  Properties:  A  characteristic  is  deemed  a  chemical  property   if  it  reacts  with  another  substance  to  create  a  new  substance.     Physical   Properties:    A  characteristic  is  deemed  a  physical  property   if   it   does   not   produce   a   new   substance.     Some   examples   of   physical   properties  that  you  should  know  for  the  test  are  as  follows:  
• • • • • • • • Hardness:  Measure  of  resistance  of  a  solid  being  scratched   Ductility:  Ability  to  pulled  into  wires   Malleability:  Ability  to  be  hammered  into  thin  sheets   Crystal  Form:  Solid  form  of  minerals  where  you  see  a  definite  structure   of  cube  or  blocks  with  a  regular  pattern  or  natural  shape   Viscosity:  How  easily  a  liquid  moves   Colour:  The  hue  of  light  related  of  a  substance   Solubitlity:  Ability  to  dissolve  in  another  substance,  such  as  water   Density:  Amount  of  matter  per  unit  area.  

Qualitative  and  Quantitative  Properties  
  Quantitative:  Properties  that  are  based  on  a  number  or  measurement   Qualitative:  Properties  that  are  descriptive  properties.    

Conversion  of  Mass  

A  principal  in  science  is  that,  matter  cannot  be  made  or  destroyed  during  a   chemical  change.    Consider  the  following  example:     Butane + Oxygen → Carbon dioxide + Water     58 g 208 g 176 g 90 g                              

266 g

266 g

Syed  Kamran  

Energy  
• •

The  ability  to  do  to  work  and  this  comes  in  many  different  forms:  
Heat   Mechanical   o Kinetic   o Potential   Electrical   Sound   Chemical   Nuclear   Electromagnetic  

• • • • •

WHMIS  
  WHMIS  stands  for  Workplace  Hazardous  Material  Information  System.    It  is   used  to  identify,  classify  products,  and  train  and  educate  workers.    There  are  eight   classes  of  Hazard  Symbols.    Which  are  as  follows:  
• • • • • • • • Class  A:  Compressed  Gas   Class  B:  Flammable  and  Combustible  Material   Class  C:  Oxidizing  Material   Class  D1:  Materials  Causing  Immediate  and  Serious  Toxic  Effects   Class  D2:  Materials  Causing  other  Toxic  Effects   Class  D3:  Biohazardous  Infectious  Material   Class  E:  Corrosive  Material   Class  F:  Dangerously  Reactive  Material  

MSDS  

MSDS   stands   for   Material   Safety   Data   Sheet,   and   are   available   for   all   used   chemicals  and  contain  important  information.    

HHPS  
Hazardous   Household   Product   Symbols   are   found   on   all   potentially   dangerous  household  products.  It  indicates  both  the  type  of  danger  and  the  degree   of  risk.                    

Syed  Kamran  

The  GUESSS  Method  

This  is  kind  of  important  and  might  be  on  the  test,  but  anyways:     G:  Given     U:  Unknown     E:  Equation     S:  Substitute     S:  Solve     S:  Statement  

Mass  and  Volume  

  Mass:   Mass   is   a   physical   property   that   displays   the   amount   of   matter   and   object  contains.  It  is  measured  in  grams  and  kilograms.     Volume:   A   physical   property   that   represents   how   much   space   an   object   occupies.  It  is  measured  in  milliliters,  liters,  centimeters  cubed.  

Density  

Density  is  a  quantitative  property  of  matter,  which  describes  how  much  mass   per  unit  volume  a  substance  occupies.    Basically,  it’s  the  amount  of  mass  in  a  specific   amount  of  space.    Density  is  measured  in  grams/mL   Formula  for  Density:    Density  =  Mass/  Volume     In  order  to  find  the  density  of  a  submerged  object  under  water  we  use  the  formula:   %  !"#$%&'%(  (!"#$%  !"#$"%)  !  !"#$%&'  !"  !ℎ!  !"#$%  

Density  of   object  

Mass  

%   submerged   (in  decimal)  

Density  of   Fluid  

Density  

Volume  

**  Remember  the  triangle  for  the  formulas.      

 

Syed  Kamran  

Buoyancy  

Buoyancy   is   the   upward   force   upon   an   object   when   it   is   submerged   in   water.   This   is   why   you   weigh   less   in   water   than   on   land,   because   buoyancy   pushes   you   upward.    
• • • Negatively  Buoyant:  Will  sink   Positively  Buoyant:  Will  float   Neutral  Buoyant:  Will  neither  sink  or  float,  it  will  hang  in  the  middle.    

Water   has   the   density   of   1g/mL,   meaning   anything   that   has   a   density   of   less   than   1g/mL  will  float  in  water.  

Particle  Theory  of  Matter  
The  particle  theory  of  matter  covers  basic  laws:  
1. All  matter  is  composed  of  particles   2. The   particles   of   one   substance   are   the   same.   Different   substances   are   made   up   of   different  particles.     3. There  are  attractive  forces  between  particles.   4. Particles  are  always  moving,  except  for  absolute  zero  J   5. The   more   energy   particles   have,   the   faster   they   move   and   the   higher   their   temperature.     **  Temperature  is  a  measure  of  speed  of  the  particles.    

Classification  of  Matter  
All  matter  in  the  universe  can  be  classified  into  two  basic  categories.:  
1. Mixtures:   Consists   of   two   or   more   substances   mixed   together,   not   chemically   bonded.   a. Homogeneous:   The   mixture   has   one   phase   and   has   identical   properties   throughout.   b. Heterogeneous:  The  mixture  has  more  than  one  phase,  and  does  not  look  the   same  throughout  the  object.     2. Pure   Substances:   Matter   that   consists   of   one   substance,   chemically   bonded   or   alone.     a. Elements:  Any  element  on  the  periodic  table  of  elements   b. Compounds:  Two  or  more  elements  chemically  bonded.      

 

 

Syed  Kamran  

Atomic  Theory    

To  generalize  the  size  of  an  atom,  lets  take  the  Size  of  Earth  :  Soda  Can  =  Soda   Can  :  Atom.  All  elements  have  atoms;  they  are  the  smallest  particles  that  still  carry   properties  of  their  elements.  It  is  possible  to  view  an  atom  under  scanning  electron   microscopes.  The  Greek  philosopher  Democritus  (460  B.C  –  370  B.C)  was  the  first  to   suggest  the  existence  of  atoms.  As  time  progressed  so  did  the  Atomic  Theory.    

Dalton’s  Atomic  Theory  –  The  Ball  Model:  1800’s  
• • • Dalton   referred   to   the   atom   as   a   small,   hard,   indestructible   sphere   that   cannot  be  subdivided.     Atoms  of  different  elements  have  different  properties.   The  atom  is  the  smallest  particle  of  any  element.     When   there   are   low   gas   pressures,   a   ray   is   emitted   from   the   negatively   charged  cathode.   The  ray  then  moves  to  the  positively  charged  anode.     Thomson   suggested   the   rays   were   made   up   of   negatively   charged   particles   found   in   the   atoms,   and   later   said   that   all   atoms   have   negatively   charged   particles.     These  are  now  called  electrons  (e-­‐)   Thomson   believed   that   atoms   did   not   have   any   charge,   and   since   his   particles  were  negatively  charged  then  there  also  must  be  positively  charged   particles  within  the  atom.     Thomson   concluded   that   electrons   were   embedded   like   raisins   in   a   positively  charged  “Bun”,  thus  its  was  called  the  “Raisin  Bun”  model.     Alpha  particles  (+  charged)  –  The  alpha  particles  were  fired  at  a  thin  sheet  of   gold   foil,   and   particles   that   hit   on   the   detecting  screen  (film)  are  recorded.     Rutherford   expected   that   the   particles   would   go   through   but   some   might   be   diverted,   however   some   particles   collided   and  rebounded  off  something  very  dense.   Rutherford  concluded  that  most  of  the  atom   is   empty   space,   it   contains   a   small   dense,   positively  charged  nucleus  at  the  center,  and   has  negatively  charged  electrons  that  revolve  around  the  nucleus.              

Thomson’s  Discovery  of  Electrons  (Cathode  &  Anode  Experiment)  
• • •

Thomson’s  Model    

Ernest  Rutherford’s  Gold  Foil  Experiment  –  1911  

Syed  Kamran  

Bohr  Planetary  Model  –  1912  
• In   1912,   Neils   Bohr   thought   that   if   the   electrons   were   negatively   charged   and   the   nucleus   positively,   why   don’t   they   attract   and   collide.   (Opposites   attract).     By   passing   different   amounts   of   current   through   hydrogen   gas,   Bohr   observed   that   different   coloured   light   were   given   off.   He   concluded   that   electrons  could  gain  energy  by  absorbing  light  (quantum).    

Isotopes  

  Dalton   believed   that   all   atoms   of   an   element   were   the   same   (identical),   but   that   was   later   discovered   to   be   incorrect.   Atoms   of   the   same   element   can   have   different   number   of   neutrons.   Frederick   Soddy   proposed   the   idea   of   isotopes   in   1912.   Isotopes   are   atoms   of   the   same   element   having   different   masses,   due   to   varying  number  of  neutrons.    

 

Naming  Isotopes  
When   naming   isotopes   we   put   the   mass   number   after   the   name   of   the   element.  
• • • Carbon  –  12  =  carbon  with  an  atomic  mass  of  12  (6p+,  6no)   Carbon  –  14  =  carbon  with  an  atomic  mass  of  14  (6p+,  8no)   Note  the  number  of  protons  does  not  change  only  the  number  of  neutrons.    

Atomic  Mass  
When   calculating   the   atomic   mass   of   an   element,   we   are   actually   concerned   about   the   average   atomic   mass   of   all   its   kinds   of   atoms.   This   is   measured   in   Atomic   Mass   Unit   (amu).     To   calculate   the   atomic   mass   of   an   element,   we   need   the   atomic   mass   of   all   its   different   atoms   and   their   percentage  of  abundance.  Look  at  the  following  example:    
• Isotope  10X:  

     

   

mass  =  10.012  amu   relative  abundance  =  19.91%  =  0.1991  
Isotope  11X:  

mass  =  11.009  amu   relative  abundance  =  80.09  %  =  0.8009  

10.012  ×  0.1991 = 1.993  !"#  (Isotope  10X’s  mass  times  abundance)   10.012  ×  0.8009 = 8.817  !"#  (Isotope  11X’s  mass  times  abundance)   !"#$%&  !"##  !"  !"#$#%&  !   = 1.993 + 8.817 = 10.810     To   watch   a   cool   atom   video:   http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0kUSqHYcF8g   (My   Science  ISU  video).            

Element  X:  

Syed  Kamran  

Atomic  Structure  

Atoms  are  the  building  blocks  of  all  matter;  they  are  composed  of  the  smaller   bits,  as  follows:    
• • • Proton:   The   proton   has   a   positive   charge   has   a   mass   of   one   and   is   inside   the   nucleus.    The  number  of  protons  determines  the  atomic  number.     Electron:   The  electron  has  a  negative  charge  has  a  mass  of  zero  and  is  outside   the  nucleus.  The  number  of  electrons  determines  the  ion.     Neutron:  The  neutron  has  no  charge  has  a  mass  of  one  and  is  inside  the  nucleus.   The  number  of  neutrons  determines  the  isotopes  of  the  element.    

Atomic  Number  
Atoms   of   different   elements   differ   from   one   another   because   they   contain  different  number  of  protons.    The  atomic  number  of  an  element  is  the   number   of   protons   in   the   nucleus.   In   addition   when   an   atom   is   in   normal   form,  the  number  of  protons  is  equal  to  the  number  of  electrons.    

Mass  Number  
The   atomic   mass   of   an   element   is   determined   by   the   sum   of   the   number  of  neutrons  and  number  of  protons.    This  refers  to  the  weight  of  the   atom   and   is   measured   in   Atomic   Mass   Unit   (amu).   There   are  6  ×  10!"  or   600,000,000,000,000,000,000,000  amu’s  in  one  gram.    

 

Atomic  Notation  
The  chemical  symbol  tells  us  what  atom  it  is;  this  is  usually  short  form   however  sometimes  it  isn’t  because  they  were  named  in  Latin.  The  first  letter   is  always  a  Capital  Letter  and  is  followed  by  a  lower  case  letter.    

             

             

       

   

Syed  Kamran  

Periodic  Table  of  Elements  

The  periodic  table  of  element  is  the  most  useful  tool  to  chemists,  and  you  in   the   test.   It   has   a   ton   on   information   in   regards   to   all   the   known   elements.     The   periodic   table   organizes   elements   in   a   particular   so   that   you   can   determine   physical   and  chemical  properties  for  an  element  from  its  location  on  the  table.  You  can  also   predict  what  the  element  will  react  with  chemically.   *  Note:  You  are  given  a  periodic  table  of  elements  before  the  test  starts.  

Mendeleev  –  Concept  of  Periodic  Table    
In   1869,   Dmitri   Ivanovitch   Mendeleev   created   the   first   accepted   version  of  the  periodic  table  of  elements.  He  grouped  the  elements  according   to   their   atomic   mass,   as   he   did   he   found   that   the   families   had   similar   chemical  properties.  Blank  spaces  were  left  open  to  add  the  new  elements.    

 

The  Current  Periodic  Table  
Mendeleev   was   not   that   far   off   the   current   periodic   table,   today   the   elements   are   put   in   rows   by   increasing   ATOMIC   NUMBER.   The   horizontal   rows  are  called  periods  and  are  labeled  from  1  to  7.  The  vertical  columns  are   called  groups  are  labeled  from  1  to  18.    

 

Elements  

Scientists  have  identified  92  naturally  occurring  elements  and  created   about  26  others.  The  elements  alone  or  in  combinations,  make  up  our  bodies,   our  world,  our  sun,  and  in  fact,  the  entire  universe.    

 

Valence  Electrons  
Valence   electrons   are   the   number   of   electrons   at   the   outer   energy   level   of   an   atom.   These   are   the   electrons   that   are   used   when   atoms   bond   together.  

Main  Categories  of  the  Periodic  Table  
    Metals:   Metals   are   good   conductors   of   heat   and   electricity.   They   are   shiny,   ductile,   and   malleable.  Metal  corrode  in  water.     Non-­‐Metals:  Non-­‐metals  are  poor  conductors   of   heat   and   electricity.   They   are   not   ductile,   and   malleable.   Solid   non-­‐metals   are   brittle,   break   easily   and   are   dull.     Many   non-­‐metals   are  gases.     Metalloids:   Metalloids   have   properties   of   both   metals   and   non-­‐metals.   They   can   be   shiny   or   dull.   They   can   conduct   heat   and   electricity,   however   not   as   well   as   metals.   They   are   also   ductile,   and   malleable.    

 

Syed  Kamran  

 

Groups  and  Periods  
Within   the   Periodic   table   of   elements,   elements   are   also   organized   via   groups  and  periods.     Groups   (families):   Groups   are   the   vertical   columns   that   have   similar   properties.     Some   of   the   columns   have   been   given   special   names   to   distinguish  them.  All  elements  in  a  family  have  the  same  number  of  valence   electrons.     Periods:  Periods  are  the  horizontal  rows  that  do  not  have  similar  properties.   Sizes  of  atoms  decrease  as  we  move  left  to  right  across  a  period;  this  is  due  to   the   increasing   number   of   protons   in   the   nucleus,   resulting   in   a   stronger   electrical   attraction   between   the   nucleus   and   electrons.   In   addition   the   electronegativity  increase  as  you  move  left  to  right  across  a  period.  The  first   element   in   a   period   is   always   an   active   solid,   and   the   last   is   always   an   inactive  gas.    

Groups  (families)  

Periods  

Classes  
There  are  many  classes  within  the  Periodic  table  of  elements;  most  of   the  elements  have  similar  properties.     Hydrogen:   The   hydrogen   square   sits   atop   of   Group   1,   but   it   is   not   a   member   of   that   family.   It   is   a   gas   at   room   temperature.   It   has   one   proton   and   one   electron  in  its  electron  level.     Alkali   Metals:   The  alkali  family  is  found  in  the  first  column  of  the  periodic   table.   Atoms   of   the   alkali   metals   have   a   single   valence   electron.   They   are   shiny,  have  the  consistency  of  clay,  and  are  easily  cut  with  a  knife.  They  are   the   most   reactive   metals,   and   react   violently   with   water.   Alkali   metals   are   never   found   as   free   elements   in   nature,   however   always   bonded   with   another  element.     Alkaline   Earth   Metals:   Have   two   valence   electrons   and   are   never   found   uncombined  in  nature.     Transition   Metals:   They   are   good   conductors   of   heat   and   electricity.     Can   chemically  combine  with  oxygen  to  form  compounds.      

Syed  Kamran   Halogen   Family:   Halogens   have   seven   valence   electrons,   why   they   are   the   most  active.  They  are  never  found  free  in  nature.     Noble   Gases:   Noble  gases  are  colorless  and  extremely  unreactive.  They  outer   most   energy   level   is   full,   and   due   to   this   they   are   called   inert.   They   are   found   in  small  amounts  in  earth’s  atmosphere.     Rare   Earth   Elements:   The   thirty   rare   earth   elements   are   composed   of   the   lanthanide  and  actinide  series.  Most  of  these  elements  are  synthetic  or  man-­‐ made.    

Ions  
  Introduction    
Atoms  are  made  up  of  particles,  which  either  have  a  positive  charge  or   negative   charge.   The   positive   or   negative   charges   cancel   each   other   out,   so   the  net  charge  in  an  atom  is  zero.  The  positively  charged  particle  is  called  a   proton,   and   the   negatively   charged   particle   is   called   the   electron.     In   atoms   the   protons   are   in   the   center   and   the   electrons   are   on   the   outside,   only   electrons   can   be   removed   from   atoms.   If   you   add   electrons   to   an   atoms   in   becomes   negatively   charged,   and   if   you   remove   them   they   become   positively   charged.  An  atom  with  a  positive  or  negative  charge  is  called  an  ION.    

Cations  
Cations  are  ions  with  a  positive  charge.  If  an  atom  loses  an  electron  or   more  it  is  called  cation.    

Anions  
Anions  are  ions  with  a  negative  charge.  If  an  atom  gains  an  electron  or   more  it  is  called  an  anion.  

 

Why  does  this  occur?  
  All   atoms   want   to   become   stable,   and   in   order   to  become  stable  there  outer  most  energy  level  must   be   complete.   To   do   this   they   can   either   lose   an   electron  and  become  a  cation  or  gain  an  electron  and   become  anion.    The  atom  will  do  what  ever  is  easier,   in   other   words   it   would   prefer   losing   an   electron   instead  on  gaining  seven  in  the  following  case.     *  Note:  We  only  work  with  groups  1,  2,13,15,16,  and   17  when  dealing  with  ions.    

 
     

Naming  Ions  
Positive  Ions:  The  name  is  the  same  of  the  element  followed  by  ion.     E.g.  Na+  =  Sodium  ion   Negative  Ions:  The  name  is  determined  by  removing  the  end  and  adding  ide.     E.g.  O-­‐  =  Oxide  ion  

Syed  Kamran  

Chemical  Symbols  

  All   the   elements   on   the   periodic   table   of   elements   have   a   single   symbol,   which   is   made   up   of   1   or   2   letters.   Just   as   a   single   symbol   is   used   to   represent   a   single  element,  multiple  symbols  can  used  to  represent  compounds.      

 

Counting  Atoms  in  Compounds  

  Most   of   the   elements   can   be   combined   in   many   different   ways   to   make   compounds.     E.g.   NaHCO3   is   composed   of   Na,   H,   C,   and   O.   In   order   to   show   the   number   of   atoms   in   a   compound   we   use   subscripts.     In   H2O,   we   have   two   Hydrogen   and  one  Oxygen  atom.  If  there  is  only  one  atom  of  an  element  one  is  not  written  in   the   subscript.   If   a   number   is   put   in   front   of   a   compound   like,   2H20,   you   must   multiply  that  number  by  the  each  element,  so  2H20  is  equal  to  H20  +  H20.  In  which   case  there  are  four  Hydrogen  atoms,  and  two  Oxygen  atoms.    

 

Combining  Capacity  

  Atoms  can  only  make  a  specific  number  of  connections  with  other  atoms.  The   number  of  connections  an  atom  can  make  is  called  the  combining  capacity.  When   atoms  combine,  it  is  called  a  bond.    

Building  a  Molecule  
Lets  take  two  elements,  Hydrogen  and  Oxygen,  if  we  want  to  want  to  bond   them  we  need  to  know  their  combining  capacity.       Hydrogen:   Oxygen:  
• • Combining  capacity:  1   Combining  capacity:  2  

We  simply  switch  the  combining  capacities  and  write  them  as  subscripts  for   the  other  element.  So  we  write  H20.    1  is  not  written  in  subscripts.                         The  above  is  a  structural  diagram.  In  order  to  satisfy  a  compound  you  need  to   make  the  right  number  of  connections.     *  Note:  You  will  be  given  a  list  of  common  combining  capacities  for  the  test.      

   
   

Syed  Kamran  

Naming  Compounds  
  Rules:  
1. Metals  combine  with  nonmetals  in  many  compounds   a. Metals  will  be  on  the  left,  when  ever  in  doubt  the  one  of  the  left  goes   first   2. Write  the  name  of  the  metal  first  then  the  nonmetal   3. Change  the  ending  of  the  nonmetal  to  “ide”  

E.g.  Aluminum  (metal)  and  Oxygen  (nonmetal)   Aluminum  Oxide  

Double  and  Triple  Bonds  

  Sometimes  atoms  make  more  than  one  bond  another  atom,  this  can  either  be   a  double  or  triple  bond.    

Drawing  Diagrams  
  There  are  a  couple  of  diagrams  you  need  to  be  able  to  draw  for  the  test.  They   are  as  follows.    

Bohr-­‐Rutherford  Diagram  
      Lets  take  an  element,  with  an  atomic  number  less  than  20.     Oxygen  
• • • Eight  Protons   Seven  Neutrons   Eight  Electrons  

 

  Bohr-­‐Rutherford  Ion  Diagram    
      Lets  take  an  element,  with  an  atomics  number  less  than  20.   Oxide  (II)  ion    
• • Eight  Protons   Seven  Neutrons   Ten  Electrons  

           

 

Syed  Kamran  

Electricity  Notes  
The  Cell  
A   cell   stores   chemical   energy   and   transfers   this   energy   as   electrical   energy.   Two  cells  are  connected  to  one  another  to  make  a  battery.  The  cell’s  chemical  energy   is  used  to  move  current  around  a  circuit.    

 

Electric  Current  
  The   cell   is   responsible   to   produce   an   electric   current;   the   current   is   the   flow   of   electrons   from   the   negative   terminal   of   the   battery   back   to   the   positive  terminal.    Current  is  defined  as  the  flow  of  electrons  passing  through   a  point.  

Circuit  

When   circuit   is   closed,   it   means   that   there   is   a   continuous   path   of   metal   connecting   the   positive   and   negative   ends   of   the   cell   together,   in   which   case   all   components  will  light  up.  However  if  there  is  a  break  in  the  circuit,  it  is  known  as  an   open  circuit  where  the  current  cannot  flow  from  the  negative  side  to  the  positive.    

Components  
There   are   many   components   within   circuit   that   you   will   encounter   when   drawing  electrical  diagram.    
1. Cell:  A  cell  is  the  power  source  of  a  circuit.  Two  cells  make  a  battery.       2. Switch:  A  switch  breaks  a  path  within  a  circuit.    

     
5. Fuses:   A   fuse   is   a   moderator,   which   burns   out   if   more   than   a   certain   amount  of  electricity  passes  through  it.     3. Lamp:  A  lamp  or  bulb  is  a  component  within  a  circuit.     4. Wires:  The  wire  is  the  transport  medium  of  electrons.    

 
6. Resistor:  A  resistor  is  component  within  a  circuit,  which  restricts  the  flow   of  electrons.    

 

 
7. Ammeter:   An   amp   meter   measures   the   current   a   circuit.   It   has   to   be   connecter  in  series.  

 
8. Voltmeter:  A  voltmeter  measures  the  potential  difference  in  a  circuit.    

   

 

Syed  Kamran  

Types  of  Circuit  
  There  are  two  types  of  circuits  that  you  are  going  to  be  on  test:  
1. Series   Circuit:   The   components   are   connected   end   to   end,   one   after   an   other.   i.e.   They   make   a   simple   loop   for   the   current   to   flow.     If   any   the   components  blow  all  the  whole  circuit  will  not  work.     2. Parallel   Circuit:   The  components  are  side  by  side.  This  way  the  current  is   split   to   take   different   paths   to   reach   each   component.   This   way   if   one   component  blows  the  other  will  stay  lit  up.    

Current  
Current  is  the  flow  of  electricity  around  a  circuit,  this  runs  from  negative  to   positive.     It   is   abbreviated   to   (I),   however   measured   in   Amps   (A).     Current   is   not   measured  in  the  number  of  electrons,  however  group  of  electrons,  which  are  called   coulombs.   One   coulomb   is   equal   to   6.25   ×   1018   electrons.   One   coulomb   is   equal   to   one   ampere.   In   order   to   measure   current   you   need   an   ammeter,   which   has   to   be   connected  in  series.  Within  a  series  circuit  the  current  is  same  all  around,  however   in  a  parallel  circuit  the  current  is  shared  between  all  paths.    

Voltage  (Potential  Difference)  

The   amount   of   energy   each   electron   has   within   a   circuit   is   called   potential   difference  (Voltage).  It  is  called  potential  difference  cause  it  has  the  potential  to  do   work.  When  an  electron  passes  through  a  light  bulb  it  enters  with  certain  amount  of   energy,  and  when  it  leaves  it  has  less,  because  the  energy  is  used  by  the  light  bulb.     Potential  difference  is  the  amount  of  energy  lost  from  one  point  and  another,  so  in   order   to   calculate   it   we   have   to   connect   a   voltmeter   in   parallel.     Within   a   series   circuit   voltage   is   shared   between   all   components,   however   is   a   parallel   circuit   voltage  is  same  at  all  parts.    

Power  
Power   is   measured   in   Watts,   and   is   determined   by   multiplying   the   Voltage   and   the   Amperage.     Electrical   energy   is   measured   by   multiplying   the   number   of   watts  by  time.    
 

*Remember  the  following  formula:         Watts           Voltage Amps  

Syed  Kamran  

Electrical  Resistance  

  Resistance   is   the   inability   of   electrical   current   to   pass   through   a   substance.   When  electrical  current  is  resisted  it  is  usually  converted  into  heat,  light,  sound,  or   other   types   of   energy.   Some   substances   resist   the   flow   of   electrons,   such   as   light   bulb   filaments.   Light   bulb   filament   take   energy   from   the   electrons   and   convert   it   into   light   energy.   The   symbol   for   resistance   is   Ω   and   it   is   measured   in   ohms.   Resistance   is   in   direct   relation   with   current,   the   more   resistance   the   lower   the   current.    

 

Loads  

A   resistor   or   any   device   that   transforms   electrical   energy   into   heat,   motion,  sound,  or  light.    

 

Conductors  
A   substance   that   carries   electrical   energy   without   much   or   any   resistance  is  known  as  a  conductor.  Conductors  are  usually  used  in  wires,  to   allow  transfer  of  electricity.    

 
 

Wires  
Resistance  in  wires  is  determined  by  the  following  factors:  
1. 2. 3. 4. The  type  of  material   The  length  (greater  the  length  the  greater  the  resistance)   The  diameter  (greater  the  diameter  the  lower  the  resistance)   The  temperature  (hotter  wires  have  greater  resistance)  

Superconductors  
When   electric   current   can   flow   through   a   substance   with   zero   resistance,  it  is  called  a  superconductor.  This  can  be  done  by  cooling  a  wire  to   absolute  zero,  which  increase  the  efficiency  of  the  wire  as  no  energy  is  lost.    

  *Remember  the  following  formulas:         Voltage          
Current Resistance

Series:  
• IT=  I1=  I2  =  I3   • VT=  V1+  V2  +  V3   • RT=  R1+  R2  +  R3   Parallel   • IT=  I1+  I2  +  I3   • VT=  V1=  V2  =  V3   • RT<  R1  RT  <  R2  RT<R3   •  

             

 

Syed  Kamran  

Safety  

  In   order   to   prevent   fires   from   occurring   within   houses   or   apartment   buildings   several   safety   features   have   been   installed   to   shutdown   the   electricity   system  from  allowing  too  much  electricity  to  flow.    

 

Circuit  Breakers  
Circuit   Breakers   are   a   newer   method   of   electricity   control   in   many   houses.   They   trip   if   too   much   electricity   is   flowing   through   the   circuit,   although  you  simply  have  to  flip  the  switch  to  reset  them.      

 

Fuses  
Used   in   older   homes,   the   fuses   work   similar   to   the   Circuit   breakers   except  they  melt  the  wire  inside.  In  order  to  reset  a  fuse  and  allow  electricity   to  flow  you  need  to  replace  the  fuse.    

 

Wall  Outlets  

Wall  outlets  are  made  out  of  plastic  primarily  because  plastic  does  not   conduct   electricity.   In   addition   there   are   polarized   plugs,   requiring   the   person   to   but   the   plug   in   the   right   way,   and   lastly   the   have   a   ground   hole   for   additional  electricity.    

 

GFCI  
GFCI  also  known,  as  Ground  Fault  Circuit  Interrupter  is  a  device  used   breaks  the  circuit  if  it  detects  that  the  current  between  the  energized  and  the   neutral  conductor  is  not  balanced.  (Meaning  the  current  is  flowing  else  were.   It  is  usually  put  in  bathrooms.)  

 

Surge  Protector  
A  surge  protector  is  a  device  used  to  protect  appliances  from  voltage   spikes.  The  surge  protector  regulates  voltage  by  either  blocking  or  shorting   voltages  above  a  certain  threshold.    

Human  Conductivity  and  Resistance  

  Humans   can   be   electrocuted,   however   the   voltage   required   to   electrocute   someone   is   dependent   upon   the   current   through   the   body,   the   resistance   and   the   duration   of   the   current.   If   0.002   amps   passes   through   your   body   your   heart   is   disturbed,  and  if  0.02  amps  passes  through  you,  you  will  die.    

 

Resistance  of  human  body  
High   voltages   can   break   down   skin,   reducing   resistance   to   500   ohms.   Skin   breaks  down  above  240  V  
• • Dry  conditions:  100,000  Ohms   Wet  or  broken  skin:    1,000  –  5,000  Ohms  

Syed  Kamran  

Direct  and  Alternating  current  
  Alternating  Current  

  Direct  and  Alternating  current  is  the  two  methods  of  transferring  electricity   through  a  wire.  Each  has  it  advantages  and  disadvantages.     Alternating  current  is  when  electricity  when  electrons  hit  one  another   passing   energy   along.   This   allows   for   higher   voltage   to   be   transferred   over   long  distances,  has  less  copper  loss  than  DC,  and  is  cheaper  to  produce.  

Direct  Current  
  Direct  current  is  when  electricity  is  moving  in  one  constant  direction;   this  is  the  type  of  electricity  you  find  in  batteries  with  constant  positive  and   negative  terminals.    

Electricity  flowing  to  your  house  

  Coming   from   the   hydro   pole   are   three   wires,   two   black   and   one   white.   The   two  black  wires  carry  a  voltage  of  120  V,  while  the  white  wire  is  natural  which  is  a   way  for  the  electricity  to  go  back.    The  wires  coming  from  the  poles  go  to  the  electric   meter   outside   your   house,   which   is   calculates   the   amount   of   electricity   you   use.   From   the   electric   meter   the   wires   go   to   the   electrical   distribution   panel   located   in   your  basement.    

Electrical  Production  

  There  are  two  main  sources  of  electricity  production;  they  are  Renewable  or   Non  Renewable.  Renewable  sources  renew  themself  over  the  course  of  a  life  span,   while  non-­‐renewable  is  not  able  to  replenish  itself  within  a  lifetime.    

 

Non-­‐renewable  Resources  
Non-­‐renewable  resources  include  fossil  fuels,  such  as  oil,  coal  and  gas.   Energy   is   released   from   the   combustion   of   these   substances,   and   this   is   relatively  cheap.  However  the  world  supply  is  decreasing  of  fossil  fuels.    

   

   

Fossil  Fuels   Coal,   oil   and   natural   gas   are   called,     “fossil   fuels”.   This   is   because  they  are  formed  from  the  remains  of  dead  plants  and  animals.          
1. Fossil  Fuels  are  burned   which  heats  water  and   produces  steam   2. Steam  causes  turbine   to  spin.   3. Which  causes   generator  to  create   electricity.    

Syed  Kamran   Nuclear   Nuclear  energy  runs  from  the  power  of  Nuclear  Fission,  which   is   a   nuclear   reaction.   In   this   reaction   uranium   atoms   are   split   releasing   atomic   energy.   This   has   radioactive   waste   problems,   and   waste   materials,   which   are   deadly   to   human   beings.     Reactors   use   Uranium  rods  as  fuel,  and  generate  heat  from  nuclear  fission.  Nuclear   fission   is   accomplished   by   a   slow   neutron   hitting   a   uranium   atom,   which   is   split   in   half   and   releases   energy.   A   seven   gram   fuel   pallet   produces   the   same   amount   of   energy   as   807   kg   of   coal,   667   L   of   oil,   and  476  m3  of  natural  gas.  
1. Fission  makes  heat.   2. Heat  water  to  make   steam.   3. Steam  turn  turbine.   4. Turbine  turns   generator.   5. Generator  makes   electricity.      

 

 

Renewable  Resources  
Renewable   resources   are   resources   that   can   replenish   themselves   within  one’s  lifetime.    

 

 

Solar     Solar   energy   is   radiated   energy   from   the   sun,   it   is   used   for   heating,   and   producing   some   electricity.   Photovoltaic   cells   are   used   to   directly  convert  sunlight  into  electricity.  This  power  can  be  stored  in  a   battery,   which   can   allow   for   power   later   on.   Solar   water   heating   is   used  to  heat  water  in  glass  panels,  under  direct  exposure  to  the  sun.     Wind     The   rising   of   hot   air   and   the   falling   of   cold   air   is   the   cause   of   wind;  this  energy  can  be  converted  into  mechanical  energy  and  finally   electrical   energy   by   the   use   of   windmills.   Open   flat   fields   are   excellent   areas  for  windmills.     Hydro-­‐electric  Electricity   Water   cycle   causes   precipitation   to   areas   of   high   altitude,   from   which   the   water   makes   it   back   to   the   sea.   When   the   water   is   falling   down   it   is   converted   into   mechanical   energy   and   then   electrical.   Sometimes   dams   are   built   to   control   water   flow   and   allow   from   fast   speeds   of   water   to   turn   the   blades   of   the   turbine,   which   are   driving   the  generators.      

 

 

 

 

Syed  Kamran       Tidal  Energy   In   tidal   energy   the   motion   of   the   tides   is   harnessed.   This   is   caused   by   the   moon’s   gravity   pulling   up   on   the   ocean’s   water.   It   is   similar  to  hydraulic.  The  only  modern  tidal  energy  generation  station   is  in  Nova  Scotia.    

 

Electricity  Production  in  Canada  

In  Canada  our  electricity  is  produced  by  Fossil  Fuels,  Nuclear  Energy   and  Hydroelectricity.  We  do  not  harness  enough  solar  or  wind  power  in  this   country.    

       

 

Energy  Source   Fossil  Fuels   Nuclear  Energy     Hydroelectricity   Other   Total  

%  Supplied     26  %   50%   22%   2%   100%  

The  Future  
The  future  survival  of  human  beings  is  dependent  upon  the  investing   in  new  technologies  such  as  Nuclear,  and  Geo-­‐Thermal.         Nuclear  Fusion   This   is   the   joining   of   two   particles   to   form   one   large   nucleus,   nuclear  fusion  naturally  occurs  on  stars  such  as  the  Sun.     Geo-­‐Thermal     This   is   thermal   energy   from   below   the   earth’s   crust,   which   can   heat   water   into   steam,   which   turns   a   turbine   driving   a   generator.   This   can  also  be  used  for  heating  homes.    

 

 

Static  Electricity  

  Static   electricity   is   the   imbalance   of   positive   and   negative   charges,   when   atoms  lose  electrons  they  become  positively  charged  and  when  they  gain  electrons   they  become  negatively  charged.  Electrons  can  be  transferred  (or  stolen)  from  one   object  by  the  friction.  (Refer  to  Charging).  

 

Insulators  

Objects   or   materials   that   hold   their   electron   tightly   are   known   as   insulators.  These  objects  do  not  allow  objects  to  move  through  them.  

 

Conductors  

  Objects  or  materials  that  have  a  lose  hold  on  their  electrons,  and  allow   them   to   move   easily   from   one   atom   to   the   next.   Most   metals   are   great   conductors.    

Syed  Kamran  

Laws  of  Electric  Charges  

  Similar   to   the   laws   of   motion,   electric   charges   have   their   own   laws.   The   laws   are  as  follows.  
1. Opposite  charges  attract     2. Like  charges  repel   3. Positive   and   negative   charges   attract   neutral   objects   (remember   the   balloon   experiment)  

These  laws  are  commonly  exhibited  in  daily  life  such  as  a  taking  a  wool  hat  off  on  a   winter   day.   This   results   in   your   hair   sticking   up   because   electrons   are   transferred   from  your  hair  to  the  hat  making  them  positively  charged,  your  want  to  repel  from   one  another  and  stand  up.    

Electrostatic  Series  

  The   electrostatic   series   is   a   table   of   arranged   materials,   which   are   ordered   from   least   relative   hold   on   electrons   to   greatest   relative   hold   on   electrons.   There   will  be  questions  in  regards  to  electrostatic  series  on  the  test.  

Charging  
  There   are   three   ways   to   charge   objects   to   give   them   either   a   positive,   negative  or  neutral  charge.  The  three  methods  are  as  follows:  

 

Friction  
By   rubbing   to   two   objects   together   the   one   with   less   hold   on   its   electrons  will  lose  its  electrons  and  become  positively  charged,  while  the  one   with  a  stronger  hold  on  electrons  will  gain  electrons  and  become  negatively   charged.   Both   surfaces   obtain   a   different   charge   after   being   rubbed.     Refer   to   the   electrostatic   series   to   determine   what   objects   have   a   stronger   hold   on   electrons.    

 

Contact  
Contact   is   the   most   common   type   of   transfer,   and   the   cause   of   static   shocks.     This   occurs   when   two   objects   that   have   different   charges   touch   each   other  and  will  transfer  electrons  to  balance  themselves  evenly.    

 

Induction  
Induction   is   when   an   electric   charge   is   transferred   to   an   object   without   direct   contact.   Induction   allows   you   to   give   objects   a   temporary   charge   by   splitting   them   into   two   differently   charged   portions,   or   completely   giving  a  charge  by  the  use  of  a  ground  wire.  If  you  bring  a  charged  rod  near  a   neutral   object   the   opposite   charge   will   face   the   rod,   while   the   like   charges   will  repel.  This  creates  an  induced  object.  If  you  attached  a  ground  wire  to  an   object   and   bring   a   charged   rod   near   it,   electrons   will   either   flow   out   of   the   object  or  into  the  object,  resulting  in  a  completely  charged  object.    

   

Syed  Kamran  

Semiconductors  

  Semiconductors   are   non-­‐metals   such   as   silicon;   they   allow   electrons   to   move   through  them  fairly  well.  Not  as  good  as  conductors  and  not  as  bad  as  insulators.    

Grounding  

  Grounding   is   a   process   where  you  remove  charges  from  an  object  and  return   it   to   neutral   state.   This   process   requires   you   to   connect   the   object   to   the   ground   via   a   conductor.   This   is   also   called   discharging.   Grounding   happens   because   the   earth   has   an   infinite   supply   of   electrons   and   it   doesn’t   matter   how   many   are   added   or   stolen.   The   earth   has   6.91   x   1096   electrons.   When   a   positive   object   is   grounded   electrons  are  taken  from  the  ground  and  added  to  the  object,  on  the  other  hand  if  a   negatively  charged  object  is  grounded,  electrons  will  flow  into  the  earth.  This  always   results  in  the  object  ending  up  as  neutral.    

Lighting    

  Storm   clouds   form   when   cold   and   hot   air   meet.   The   masses   of   air   churn   together   and   lighting   is   created.     Lighting   strikes   when   negative   charges   in   clouds   are  attracted  to  the  positive  charges  in  the  ground.    Lighting  take  the  easiest  path  so   it  usually  hits  the  highest  object.  Lighting  strikes  are  unavoidable  so  people  use  light   rods,  which  are  connected  to  the  ground.  This  allows  all  the  lighting  to  be  grounded.  

Circuit  Diagrams  
You  will  have  to  solve  circuit  diagrams  on  the  test  so  here  is  an  example.           R1 = 10Ω         R2 = 35Ω     R3 = 14 Ω     V=9.0 V   V = 4.5 V           For   resistor   1   the   voltage   is   4.5V,   and   the   current   is   0.45   A.   For   resistor   2,   the   current  is  0.13  A.  For  resistor  3  the  voltage  is  4.5  V  and  the  current  is  0.32  A.  If  you   have  trouble  understanding  how  to  solve  the  circuit  ask  before  the  exam.        

Syed  Kamran  

Space  Quiz  Notes  
The  Universe  
  The  universe  is  basically  everything;  this  includes  all  matter,  all  energy,  and   even  things  that  are  outside  of  Earth.  The  stud  of  things  outside  of  Earth  is  referred   to  humans  as  astronomy.    

Distance  in  Space  
  Distances   in   space   are   not   measure   in   the   same   units   as   they   are   on   Earth   due  to  the  fact  that  space  is  so  big.    If  we  were  just  to  look  at  the  distance  between   the  Earth  and  the  Sun  it  would  be  150  million  km,  for  two  object  that  are  relatively   close   in   perspective   of   the   whole   universe.   This   is   the   reason   scientists   chose   to   make  the  AU  or  astronomical  unit  along  with  light  year  to  measure  distance  within   space.    

 

Astronomical  Unit  (AU)  
An  astronomical  unit  is  defined  by  the  distance  between  the  Earth  and   the   Sun,   which   is   150   million   km;   so   1   AU   is   150   million   km.   To   find   out   how   make  AU’s  a  distance  is,  divide  it  by  150  million  km.    

 

Light  Year  
Due   to   that   fact   that   distances   in   outer   space   are   enormous,   we   use   light   years.   When   the   Astronomical   Unit   (AU)   becomes   too   small   of   a   reference   of   measurement   we   use   light   years.   A   light   year   is   basically   travelling  at  the  speed  of  light  for  one  year.  The  speed  of  light  is  300,000  km   per   second.   A   distance   of   one   light   year   is   equivalent   to   9,460,800,000,000   km.     Note:   It’s   practically   impossible   for   anything   except   light   itself   to   travel   at   light  speed.  Check  out  Einstein’s  theory  of  relativity  if  you’re  interested  about   speed  of  light.    

Galaxies  
A  galaxy  is  system  of  stars  and  gases  held  together  by  a  gravitational  force,   Edwin  Hubble  invented  this  system.  Galaxies  are  classified  in  three  main  types:  

 

Spiral  
Spiral   galaxies   look   like   a   pinwheel,   similar   to   a   large   plate,   with   a   bulge  in  the  side.  Some  have  many  arms  spiraling  out  from  the  center.        

 

Elliptical  
Range  in  shape  from  a  either  a  perfect  sphere  to  a  weird  stretched  out   ellipse.  These  contain  the  oldest  stars  in  the  universe  and  make  up  the  large   galaxies.  

Syed  Kamran  

 

Irregular  Galaxies  
These   galaxies   are   the   odd   ones   out,   they   do   not   really   have   a   category.     The   range   in   shape   and   size   and   are   made   up   of   newly   forming   stars  and  old  stars.    

Constellations  

  Stars   in   the   sky   that   form   a   shape   or   pattern   are   known   as   constellations.   Constellations   have   been   used   for   thousands   of   years   for   many   purposes.     Various   constellations  can  be  seen  from  different  parts  of  Earth.    

Our  Solar  System  
  Our  solar  system  is  comprised  of  the  sun,  eight  planets,  several  moons  and   numerous  comets  and  asteroids.    

 

Sun  
The   sun   is   the   largest   object   in   our   solar   system;   it   is   essentially   a   large  ball  of  gas.  It  is  comprised  of  75%  hydrogen,  and  25%  helium.  The  sun   converts   hydrogen   into   helium   in   its   core,   where   the   temperature   is   15.6   million  Kelvin,  and  the  pressure  is  250  billion  atmospheres.    

 

Mercury  

 

Mercury   has   the   shortest   orbit   around   the   sun,   0.24   earth   years.   Its   mass  is  0.05  times  Earth,  which  makes  it  that  8th  largest  planet  in  our  solar   system.  It  is  composed  of  a  rock  surface.    

 

Venus  
Venus   has   a   orbit   of   0.62   earth   years,   and   its   mass   is   0.82   times   Earth   making  it  the  6th  largest  planet  in  the  solar  system.  Venus  is  also  the  brightest   planet.    

 

Earth  
Earth  is  the  3rd  planet  from  the  Sun.  It  has  one  moon  which  is  1/6  its   mass.   Earth   takes   365.25   days   to   orbit   around   the   Sun,   and   is   the   only   planet   currently   known   to   inhabit   living   life   forms.     The   Earth   is   on   a   tilted   axis   (23.5o)  

 

Mars  

Mars   is   known   as   the   red   planet   due   to   its   iron   compositions.   It   has   the   mass   of   0.11   times   Earth   and   takes   1.88   Earth   years   to   orbit   the   sun.   It   also  has  solid  carbon  dioxide  at  its  poles.  

 

Jupiter  
Jupiter   is   70%   of   the   mass   of   the   solar   system   outside   the   Sun.   Its   mass  is  317.8  times  Earth  and  it  take  11.86  Earth  years  for  it  to  orbit  the  Sun.   It  is  not  a  solid  and  is  composed  of  hydrogen  and  helium.    

Syed  Kamran  

 

Saturn  
Similar  to  Jupiter,  Saturn  is  made  out  of  gas.  It  is  known  for  its  rings,   which   are   made   of   ice.   Saturn   takes   29.46   Earth   years   to   orbit   the   Sun   and   has  the  mass  of  95.2  times  Earth.    

 

Uranus  
Uranus   is   made   out   gas,   and   is   the   4th   largest   planet   in   the   solar   system.   It   is   flipped   on   its   side   and   has   smaller   rings   then   Saturn.   It   take   Uranus  84.01  Earth  years  to  orbit  the  Sun,  and  its  mass  is  14.5  times  Earth.   The  blue  colour  is  from  methane  gas  within  its  atmosphere.  

 

Neptune  
The   last   planet   in   the   solar   system,   and   is   composed   of   gas.   It   is   similar  to  Uranus  however  is  a  slightly  darker  blue.  Its  rings  are  sometimes   visible.   Neptune   takes   164.8   years   to   complete   one   orbit   and   its   mass   is   17.1   times  Earth.    

 

Poor  old  Pluto  
Pluto  is  no  longer  a  planet  as  it  is  too  small.  There  are  many  other   dwarf  planets  similar  to  Pluto  within  our  solar  system.  Pluto  is  smaller  than   the  moon.    

 

Best  of  wishes  on  the  Exam  :D!!