Burned-over district

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Burned-over district
"Burned-over district" refers to the religious scene in Upstate New York, particularly the western and central regions of the state, in the early 19th century, which was repeatedly "burned over" by religious revivals of the Second Great Awakening.[1] The term was coined by Charles Grandison Finney who in his 1876 book Autobiography of Charles G. Finney referred to a "burnt district" to denote an area in central and western New York State during the Second Great Awakening. The name was inspired by the notion that the area had been so heavily evangelized as to have no "fuel" (unconverted population) left over to "burn" (convert). When religion is related to reform movements of the period, such as abolition, women's rights, and utopian social experiments, the region expands to include areas of central New York that were important to these movements.

Religion in the District
Western New York still had a frontier quality during the early canal boom, making professional and established clergy scarce, lending the piety of the area many of the self-taught qualities that proved susceptible to folk religion. Besides producing many mainline Protestant converts, especially in nonconformist sects, the area spawned a number of innovative religious movements, all founded by laypeople during the early 19th century. These include: • The Latter Day Saint movement (whose largest branch is The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints). Joseph Smith, Jr. lived in the area and claimed he was led by the angel Moroni to his source for the Book of Mormon, the golden plates, near Palmyra, New York. • The Millerites. William Miller was a farmer who lived in Low Hampton, New York, who preached that the literal Second Coming would occur "October 22, 1844." Millerism became extremely popular in western New York State, and some views remain active in church organizations affilitiated with Adventism. • The Fox sisters of Hydesville, New York conducted the first table-rapping séances in the area, leading to the American movement of Spiritualism (centered in Lily Dale) that taught communication with the dead. • The Shakers were very active in the area, with several of their communal farms located there. • The Oneida Society was a large sectarian group that established a successful community in central New York that subsequently disbanded. It was known for its unique interpretation of group marriage which had mates chosen by committee and offspring of the community raised in common. In addition to religious activity, the region including the burned-over district was famous for social radicalism. Elizabeth Cady Stanton, the early feminist, was a resident of Seneca Falls in central New York where she and others in the community initiated the Seneca Falls Convention devoted to women's suffrage. The larger region was the main source of converts to the Fourierist utopian socialist movement. The Skaneateles Community in central New York was such an experiment. The Oneida Society, likewise in central New York, was also considered a utopian group. Related to radical reform, central New York provided many members of Hunter Patriots, some of whom volunteered to invade Canada during the Patriot War.

Burned-over district

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Location
The district can be broadly described as the area in New York State west of the Finger Lakes and south of the Erie Canal [2] (built in 1825) and contains the following counties:
• • • • • • • • Allegany Cattaraugus Chautauqua Erie Genesee Livingston Monroe Niagara • • • • • • • Ontario Orleans Seneca Steuben Wayne Wyoming Yates

References
[1] Cross (1950) [2] http:/ / www. crookedlakereview. com/ books/ saints_sinners/ martin1. html

• Glenn C. Altschuler, Jan M. Saltzgaber: Revivalism social conscience, and community in the Burned-over District. The trial of Rhoda Bement. Cornell University Press, Ithaca NY 1983 ( online version) (http://historical. library.cornell.edu/cgi-bin/cul.cdl/docviewer?did=cdl166) • Cross, Whitney, (1950) R. The Burned-Over District: The Social and Intellectual History of Enthusiastic Religion in Western New York, 1800–1850.

External links
• John H. Martin, Saints, Sinners and Reformers: The Burned-Over District Re-Visited (http://www. crookedlakereview.com/articles/136_167/137fall2005/137martin.html), The Crooked Lake Review, Fall 2005. Book-length study in a local history quarterly. • The “Burned-Over District, 1810-1830 Federal Census Indices” (http://olivercowdery.com/census/BurntCen. htm)

Article Sources and Contributors

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Article Sources and Contributors
Burned-over district  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=425022506  Contributors: ABF, AndreasPraefcke, Barticus88, Bkonrad, Blainster, Bluemoose, BoNoMoJo (old), Boomcoach, Bytebear, COGDEN, Dangerous-Boy, Dzim, Ghaines09, H2O, Ihcoyc, JCrocombe, Jengod, Jgarciausa, Jmabel, Jonathan.s.kt, Joseph Solis in Australia, Lucyintheskywithdada, MARQUIS111, Marek69, MisfitToys, NekoDaemon, Nihil novi, Nkocharh, One Salient Oversight, Ospalh, Palmcluster, Phmalo, Postdlf, R'n'B, RepublicanJacobite, Reydeyo, Rjensen, Rmhermen, Snocrates, Surv1v4l1st, Typofixer76, VanishedUser314159, Vik-Thor, WBardwin, Wadems, Wanderer57, Wiki14840, WolfmanSF, Zosodada, Écrasez l'infâme, 48 anonymous edits

License
Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported http:/ / creativecommons. org/ licenses/ by-sa/ 3. 0/

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