Automotive inovations

1545 The joint It is in 1545 that the famous scientist Italian Jérôme Cardan described the joint th at he invented and that carries his name in a treaty of physics titled " Of subt ilitate rerum ". The joint permits the relative angular displacement of two trees whose geometric axes even compete in one point. It is used in a car to mate two rotating trees of which positions dses one in re lation to the other can vary. 1823 The cooling by water It is the English Samuel Brown that invented the cooling of the motor by water. In his motor, water circulates around cylinders surrounded by a shirt. Dragged by a pump, it is itself cooled by contact with the ambient air. 1827 The differential The differential gearing was conceived by the French Onésime Pecqueur in 1827 for a steam-powered machine. In a car, the differential is the mechanism that permits to transmit the effort of the motor to driving uheels, while permitting them to turn to the different s peeds in turns, where the outside wheel turns more quickly than the interior. 1841 Spool of induction It was created by the French physicists Antoine Masson and Louis Breguet in 1841 . It is a device that puts to profit the electromagnetic induction phenomenon to g enerate the alternating current of high tension. It equips all systems of motor ignition to explosion. Since 1836, Antoine Masson had achieved some high-tension currents as provoking the fast interruptions of the current produces by a battery. The spool that he constructed in 1841 with Breguet served him to produce dischar ges in the rarefied gases. 1875 The cooling by air

of mixed type. with an application Karl Benz on a prototype 3 wheels s ince 1886. the French Etienne Lenoir invented a candle of very near electric ignit ion of those that we use again. The ignition of a fuel by a spark was already recommended by the Italian Volta i n 1777. In 1883.It is in 1875 that the French Alexis of Bischop used for the first time a coolin g by air. included a cylinder surro unded of vertical small wings. invented the air in 1888. in 1880. to one year of interval. The first apparition under modern shape is located in 1 921. The competition follows. then by isaac of Rivaz for the motor to explosion in 1807. 1880 Magneto of ignition The magneto of ignition was invented. The magneto is a small generating of electric current that transforms the mechan ical energy coming from the rotation of wheels of the car in electric energy. The first magnetos were some low-tension magnetos. by the Giesenberg German. . This one produces a spark that puts to fire mixes it fuel-comburant in the room of combustion of the motor. His motor without previous compression. it was used s imultaneously for the first time by a French Etienne Lenoir (1822-1900) and by K arl Benz. 1886 Rack-and-pinion-steering The ingenuity of inventors carries himself on the subject first toward direction s to trammel and gables. 1888 The tire A Scotch installed in Belfast in Ireland. 1883 Electric ignition by battery and spool of induction The electric ignition system by a battery of accumulators and a spool of inducti on is from afar the more employee in motors to explosion. He had the idea to provide wheels of the byciclette of his son of rubber tubes i nflated of air. 1885 Candle of ignition In 1885. John Boyd dunlop. with the first cars Of Dion-Trépardoux on a model steam-powered participant to a first race. on Sizaire Brothers 11 CVS that will be tested to the Rally of Monte-Carlo. Léon Bollée adopts him for his cars.

it is the case for Delaunay-Belle ville. In Europe. But the race . on models Bits and Aders. Rolls-Royce makes in the same way for the London-Edinburgh race.is demanding concerning streng th. the 4 cylinders to dish (in line).Quitting his veterinarian's first profession. It ation. constituted an incident only to which one remedied in less than 15 minutes. therefore. controlled by two brothers. Dunlop had his invention patented and founded the first manufactures of air while using the vulcanization invented by Good year 1889 Aerodynamic survey 1891 The removable tire Invented in 1891 by the business French Michelin.where one searches for the speed . while doi ng call to the 6 cylinders. that required the recourse to a specialist. From where the temptation to mul tiply cylinders beyond of 4. from 1962. especially when it is about coast shopping. since 1896. to basis of air and steam of gas. that one finds at Amédée Bollée (1898/99) and at Wolseley and Winton (1903). progressively. its strength and its speed of rotation 1896 The 4 cylinders Panhard and Levassors. the engineer German Wilhelm Maybach invented the carburetor. Later. multicylindreses (to four cylinders) win t he thick cars and. on the current cars but only on mmercial vehicles opting for the solution " motor under the floor in competition won't know an applic the present co ". one . from 1927. this time in Eu rope. The carburetor was perfected by Karl Benz in 1893 that added a butterfly of acce lerator. A first variant. bef ore it is inhaled in the motor cylinder. this solution seduces Peugeot and Ariès for their models current of before 14. The following year. but as Matra and SAAB. Mercedes. nor immediate nor faraway. Later. hire a " 4 in line " cylinders on the Paris-M arseille-Paris test. Second variant. Some years later. The transposition to the current models is almost-im mediate for sports cars and luxury. Napier. Two years later. the 4 cylinders in V. An dré and Edouard Michelin. A Chadwick modèIe to the United States clears the ste p in 1907 for the race of coast of Fairmont. become widespread to the whole of the range. to the United States for Marmon. 1893 Le carburateur In 1893. b ecoming in a way the world archetype for cars current of average and bass ranges . made its apparition in race to the hinge of the two centuries. Ford will make a large utilization of it. It is the indispensable device to all motor to gas since it is inside its pregna nt that gets ready the mixture vaporizing. From then on punctures. This one permitted to adjust the quantity of the aspirate mixture at will by the motor and. the removable tire constituted a revolution.

c'est après de nombreux tato nnements qu'il mit au point le radiateur dit "nid d'abeille". while waiting for Peugeot. One combined the system of ignition by magneto of high tension and the one by ac cumulator danbs motors of planes to benefit advantages of each of these generato r types. of a gear-box t o direct hold and change of speeds by walkman. The ado ption will be in series so much almost-immediate the brought progress are specta . in Italy this time. 1897 The radiator Inventé en 1897 par l'ingénieur allemand Wilhelm Maybach. A biting competition began between these two systems. One finds a first example of it in competition. 1899 Gearbox in direct hold In 1899. achieved in 1898. with t he Lancia " Lambda ". since 1898. Then in 1905 on cars of shopping light clarifications by Sizaire and Naudin. with his 201 CS.will find some 6 cylinders (almost always in line) on a big number of models no sporty. by the engineer German Gottli eb Honold. Ce radiateur était situé dans le circuit de refroidissement par eau. the accumulator's use ends up imposing itself. After 1925. But the first prominent realization only intervenes in 1921. Il était composé d'un fausceau de conduits courts et étroits dans lesquels pouvait cir culer l'air envoyé par un ventilateur placé devant lui. It is them that acclimatize this daring innovation on a modèIe of production in 1908. 1902 Magneto high tension The magneto of high tension was invented. in 1902. even for the modest capacities. soon imitated by other marks. Louis renault equipped his first car. in " semidetached " on cars participating in Paris-Madrid in May 1903. 1898 Independent suspension The big innovation will be the apparition of front wheels independent. in 1931. on a Decauville car. The main asset of this solution being th e suppleness of working of the motor. This one possessed three speeds more a rear march. so much European that American. the third speed. fastest got himself in direct hold. 1902 Hydraulic shock absorbers The hydraulic shock absorbers make their apparition on cars of race in 1902/1903 .

with the particular cars and taxicabs. the American Harry D. A patent to the name of Walter P. apparition in race in France and to the United States. of the 8 in line cylinders. after the competition. It is only lately all t hat the complete transmission appears on many models of upscale and of sport. 1904. In fact. during th e following years. The generalization of the front wheel drive won't linger. with an unit to 8 cylinders in V. The s ame year appears. But it will be necessary to wait close to 60 years.R. FF type (car of luxury. so-c alled " use all land ". But it was also tempting for the current cars. to atten d a merchandising. and that know. and tenantses of shock absorbers to friction. Christie pa sses in production in 1908/1910. their bench of test par excellence. A few later (1908) develop himself shock absorbers to friction. 1903 Front wheel drive But the most important innovation in this domain will be the recourse to wheels before motor cars. Weed. Simms made patent the 1st bumper in rubber. Hartford. One himse lf there tried in race. The solution suited for vehicles special.cular. 1904 Chains for wheels of cars Since August 23. And it is a Netherlander. that takes the initia tive of it in 1906. under shape of the Jensen (1965). and causing the remarkable improvements. Christie is put down in 190 3. This one doesn't immediately make school. The Simms Manufacturing Co of Kilburn brought up bumpers on the Simms-Welbeck ca r during the summer 1905 . 1903 The 8 cylinders A new stage is cleared when one spends to the " 8 cylinders ". the British F. Spijker. Ader (France) ope ns the way in 1903 for the Paris-Madrid. for these two types of shock absorber. by Issigonis for the famous Austin Mini. etc. in competition w ith precedents. In the front. exciting the emulation betwe en tenantses of devices merely hydraulic such Houdailles. quickly transferred on models of set. 1905 Bumper In 1905. already experienced in France by Georges Latil that is the re al inventor of it. still for the competition. Fer guson system). among which Excelsior. The pate nt foresaw the transverse installation of the motor. with driving wheels the way was opened to creat e of vehicles all driving wheels. In 1906/1907. the competition will stay betwee n the two wars. of Canastota (New york) inven ted chains to equip the automotive tires in case of snow. no tably to Japan and in Europe. of large applications on c ars of luxury and sport from 1919. according to an original di sposition that will be adopted in big set. Alfa. in 1959.

Th is solution will become etc.will make himself only later. 1912 Multivalves The Peugeot-Henry Grand prix of 1912 signalled himself by another novelty of siz e. it multiplies this one progressively. on sports cars and luxury. shortly before the war of 1914. of 1920 to 1928. the same year. on a Henry survey. during years 20. they will make the object of a precise règlementation and numerous improvements. the first woman to the world to have benefitted a driver's license. Talbot. In France. that will win the test. on the car of Mormon Wasp. as the Düesenberg JS and S5 and the Stutzes DV32.. The converter of couple characterizes himself by the possible report infinity th at it establishes between the speed of rotation of the motor and the tree of exi t.. notably at the level of the feeding.that is in all memoirs . when the resistant couple passes the maximal motor coup le.again " confidentially " . the multivalves by cylinder. The real breakthrough . on occ asion of the Big Price of Indianapolis of 1911. It will be necessary to wait for years 30 to see to become i mplanted . Indeed. Delahaye. One finds some of it. during years 80. Since the end of this one. 1910 Mirror A word on mirrors mirrors. the Duchess of Uzès. . a short time later on one Of Dion Button V8 (carburetor doubles body) and. European. Thereafter. The transfer toward cars of production doesn't immedi ately make himself.the " multivalves " on the sporty cars of luxury. current currency in 1934 for models of cars sport/l uxes of production of Delage. solution that will also adopt.1905 The camshaft in head 1907 The compressor 1908 Semidetached wheels 1908 Multiple carburetors Satellites of the motor also make the object of researches.). they affirm themselves like facilities of set. it acts so that. of versions endowed of motors to several valves by cylinders (2. or for models of Big luxury (example Jaguar). The multiple carburetors (or multiple bodies) make their appari tion toward 1908 on cars of big Price. One sees them appearing to the United States a little later. Pa ckage. Japanese) will propose. time during which most construc tors (American. for the sporty versions of the ir upscale.. had made some endow her cars since before 1910. to title of accessory. Hotchkiss. 4. without forgetting the B ugatti models and Ariès in France. here and there. 1910 Automatic gearbox The automatic speed box that the German Föttinger didn't invent in 1910 is other t hat a converter of couple. 3.

which replaces radiuses of wood col lected around the hub therefore. work in the same direction. of the English army. One used him essentiellemnt on the thick industrial vehicles and buses. thereafter. 1925 Bodywork all steel André Citroën was the first in 1925 to construct in big set of cars models B10 and B 12. endowed of a bodywork all steel. 1923 Self carrying structure A date: 1923. 1914 Drums front brakes 1916 First windshield wiper They appeared in the USA in 1916.1914 Wheels in removable steel New type of wheel proposed in 1914 by the Michelin business. confirm the interest of a solution that will become widespread to the world ladder from 1947.: the Neighbor 1923. with his models of 1934. and especially of Citroën.M. a model. the box had gone up in series on the Armstrong-Siddeleys cars and . conceived. the wheel in remova ble steel is constituted of a disk in steel. element s of sheet metal constituting the bodywork. on the Talbots. 1917 Preselective gearbox The Wilson regimental adjutant. . timidly developed to the Etats-unises. p resents himself under the shape of a fully aerodynamic cash-box.: the Big Price of the ACF. He keeps the at tention of Lancia that. He had seized the interest that presented a new technique. the box of speed présective to the intention of fight chariots that had just been achieve d. Citroën immediately pulled gone of this method. After the war. that consisted in collecting. by autogenous soldering. real " Small Laboratory " as one will be pleasing to designate it. in 1917. in france. 1921 First automatic windshield wiper The British W. to the time. Folberth invented in 1921 of windshield wipers manipulated auto matically by the compressed air coming from the motor. This model. This last. a test.

the bodywork can be repaired by simple correction. Until then. in October 1955. Two years later. Dunlop . we have to signal that disk brakes. bodyworks were some simple skeletons in wood clothed of riveted ligh t sheet metal. 1959 Deflector for windshield wiper In 1959. avoid that this last depa rts of the windshield under the effect of the speed. 1934 Padlock of Neiman car In 1934. Systems increase (Girling. The whole is ordered by a key acting on a seat belt. gone up on a broom of windshield wiper.That making he assured to his cars a better protection of passengers a more spac ious habitable volume. 1955 Hydropneumatic suspension Citroën invented in 1955 hydropneumatic suspension that is an association of a gas and an oily liquid in a worry of comfort and security. Citroën created the eve nt while taking out his DS19 thus equipped.) and the generalization is now almost-total (of the 2CV to the Rolls-Royc e!). the industrialist German Abram Neiman invented the padlock of car. This joint permits to transmit to wheels before the couple of the motor. the direction of the car is blocked. type This one having taken back the test. attract the attention especially on this audacious solution. The other European cars of sport and luxury don't linger to fit together the step. etc. 1953 Disk brakes Concerning the braking. make their apparition in 1953 at the 24 hours in the Mans on one Jaguar C . The firm padlock at the same time the electric circuits ordering the march of th e vehicle. It was merchandised on the first DS. When the padlock is engaged. come also of the avi ation. 1926 Joint homocinétic The invention of joint homocinétic by engineers French Pierre Fenaille and Jean Grég oire in 1926 gave back conceivable the front wheel drive of cars. . the inventor Marcel Suisse put to the point for governed it renault a d eflector that. Besides.

in 1965. the LNA and the Aimed. This interest of this device is that one introduces water and antifreeze there o nce for all and that one doesn't have to worry about to add water thereafter any more 1961 5th door The 5th door. that permits to open the rear of cars appeared for the first time on TRUSTED it 600 in 1961 1965 Gearbox with electronic command Governed it renault launched.1960 Circuit sealed of the cooling by water It is in 1960 that governed it renault invented a system of cooling by entirely sealed water and therefore insulated. on a R16. It permits a faster speed passage. . ally to a bigger reliability. 1978 Complete electronic ignition Citroën was the first constructor to equip a complete electronic ignition of cars constructed in big set. This system had been elaborated and had been conceived by the society French Tho mson CSF. from 1978. the first automatic speed box t o electronic command.