Pre-Contract Procedures

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Pre-contract Stages
‡ ‡ ‡ Inception Feasibility Scheme Design
± Outline proposals ± Detailed design

‡ ‡ ‡

Production information Bills of quantities Tender action
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Inception
‡ What is the purpose of the building ‡ Why it needs to be build ‡ What is to be built

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‡ The client appoints architect to oversee the design and construction of the project. ‡ After the signing of an agreement between the client and the architect recommends the Q.S. and Structural Engineer.

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standards. constructionsite . ‡ The nature of the project size and type of facilities required. ‡ Financial limits/method of financing. ‡ Specific requirements materials.Client clarifies ‡ The Required time scale date for commencement and completion. ‡ The site location and topography.

Decide on a particular development. then find a suitable site. constructionsite .Approaches 1. 2. Locate a site then assess what could be developed on that site.

Pre-contract Stages ‡ ‡ ‡ Inception Feasibility Scheme Design ± Outline proposals ± Detailed design ‡ ‡ ‡ Production information Bills of quantities Tender action constructionsite .

Feasibility ‡ Design team examines the clients proposals to make sure that there are no major problems or constraints relating to the proposed type of building and the selected site. ‡ Confirmation that: ‡ the development be able to fulfil its proposed function ‡ the technical problems of the project be overcome economically ‡ the financial constraints are acceptable constructionsite .

constructionsite . ‡ Outline Planning Permission (OPP) applied for. sub soil conditions and the legal constraints.‡ investigations carried out in relation to the site topography.

Feasibility ‡ Looks at the potential of the project being viable ‡ A number of factors must be Considered constructionsite .

Considerations ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Financial consideration Other developments Competition Need Opposition Support Planning Controls constructionsite .

Easements and Rights of Way constructionsite . Traffic Flow and Densities Availability of land Site Access Ransom Strips Parking Space Tenure of Land Restrictive Covenants.‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Roads.

‡ Tree Preservation Orders ‡ Preservation Notices ‡ Archaeological Areas and Ancient Monuments ‡ Conservation areas ‡ Sites of Special Scientific Interest Population and Socio-economic grouping ‡ Customer Requirements and Behaviour constructionsite .

they may be land fill sites which require more expensive substructures than normal sites. vary widely in different parts of the country. Alternatively. e. old gas works sites which have chemical residues in the ground. ‡ Cost depends also on the economic climate and supply and demand ‡ In some areas it is becoming increasingly the case that the choice may be restricted to difficult sites which may be contaminated. therefore.g. constructionsite .Land availability ‡ The cost of land is related to its availability. Costs.

constructionsite .Ground conditions ‡ The type of subsoil will affect the ground works and the choice of foundation and ground floor construction. ‡ A comprehensive site investigation is required to determine the ground water conditions to ensure that the correct type of foundation is used and economically designed.

constructionsite . ‡ The size and shape of the site may affect the design layout and the progress of site operations during construction.Site location / access ‡ The site location may be important in relation to the availability of labour and materials. ‡ Access into the site may also restrict the size of plant and components or the type of construction.

g.these include: ± regular maintenance . re painting etc.E. replacing central heating boiler.these include all the costs associated with the initial construction of the building and associated works. ± capital costs . ± maintenance costs .E. window cleaning. constructionsite .g.Finacial Considerations ‡ The Client will probably have a fixed budget for any particular project and the design team must produce a satisfactory solution within these cost constraints. repointing masonry etc. ± periodic maintenance . ‡ The cost of any building must consider both capital and maintenance costs (Cost in use).

heating and air conditioning.e.‡ Running costs must be considered i. ‡ An outline cost can be estimated by the Quantity Surveyor at an early stage by the following methods constructionsite . costs of lighting.

Methods of Assessing Construction Costs ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Elemental Cost Analysis Cost per unit area Approximate Estimating Bills of Approximate Quantities constructionsite .

e. Data for the calculation of costs can be obtained from a number of sources i. ‡ constructionsite .Elemental Cost Analysis ‡ This is based on historical data from completed projects with the costs broken down into the elements of construction and shown on a metre squared basis. the Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors quarterly review of building prices.

Cost per unit area ‡ Based on historical data obtained from similar completed projects on a cost per metre squared basis. Best used on simple offices or car parks. constructionsite . ‡ Easy method to calculate though it is not very accurate. ‡ Information may be obtained from the developers own projects or from other developers.

‡ Data on costs is obtained from sources as Spon s or Wessex (these provide up-to-date pricing information for building work) or from the use of a number of computer software programmes which are available. constructionsite .Approximate Estimating ‡ Requires detailed information about the design requirements of the project. ‡ Cost obtained by taking off quantities and building up an estimate.

Bills of Approximate Quantities ‡ This method is time consuming in comparison to those listed above. constructionsite . ‡ Method requires a Bill of Quantities being produced before an estimate can be obtained. ‡ Most accurate and can be used for tendering.

Pre-contract Stages ‡ ‡ ‡ Inception Feasibility Scheme Design ± Outline proposals ± Detailed design ‡ ‡ ‡ Production information Bills of quantities Tender action constructionsite .

Scheme Design ‡ Produced from the Design Brief given to the architect by the client constructionsite .

constructionsite .Purpose of the Design Brief is to provide the design team with as much information as is possible in order to ensure that a building appropriate to the clients needs and requirements is produced.

‡ These include: ± Outline drawings showing design ± Explanations of what assumptions and main decisions have been made.Sketch Plans . constructionsite . ± Forecast of costs and time scale.Outline Proposals ‡ Architect prepares proposals to meet Clients brief.

Scheme design The design developed to include: ± Investigation of individual room requirements. textures. constructionsite . outline specification and scheme drawings are produced. ‡ Detailed cost plan. ± Methods and materials to be used. ‡ Section sizes for all the main structural elements are determined. styles ‡ The Structural Engineer will require layout drawings identifying space requirements and idea of services layout. report. ± External requirements colours.

‡ Architectural and structural detailing work carried out. constructionsite .Detail design Working Drawings ‡ The agreed scheme plans / elevations etc. ‡ Architect co-ordinates the design process and ensure that all the interested parties receive the relevant information as and when required. will be finished and passed onto the Structural and Services Engineer.

.S. ‡ All the drawings and structural calculations submitted for Building Regulations Approval and Full Planning Permission (FPP). to ensure compliance with the cost targets. constructionsite .‡ All drawings checked by the Q.

Methods of providing a design brief ‡ Specific Requirements ± This provides a list of specific requirements. ± They are frequently produced on a room to room basis and are often used by local authorities and health authorities. constructionsite . ± Although it does not lend itself to misinterpretation it can restrict the design due to the requirements being too rigid.

‡ Performance Specification ± This gives the designer the standards of performance which the building is to obtain. ± This method allows the designer some flexibility as to the design and the materials which are chosen. the way that this is done is left to the designer. ± It is then up to the designer to ensure that these standards are met. constructionsite .

‡ Open Ended Brief ± This type of brief is often used in conjunction with 'fast track' techniques. which may work if the project is of a standard type which is to be disposed of on completion. constructionsite . ± This gives the design team a certain amount of latitude. though is not recommended for buildings for a specific use. where the project is frequently designed as work proceeds.

User requirements study Objectives must be set by the study with regard to: The function of the building: ‡ 1. 3. constructionsite . 4. 2. The persons using the building Budgetary constraints Life cycle of the building Site considerations.

concrete frame ‡ Cost and availability of materials.Design Considerations ‡ Type of building Steel. car parking constructionsite . components and labour ‡ Site conditions ‡ Location and access to the site ‡ Amount of area available type.

Scheme design ‡ Outline ‡ Detail constructionsite .

Pre-contract Stages ‡ ‡ ‡ Inception Feasibility Scheme Design ± Outline proposals ± Detailed design ‡ ‡ ‡ Production information Bills of quantities Tender action constructionsite .

‡ All schedules door / window / drainage / reinforcement etc.Production Information. constructionsite . ‡ Specifications construction methods / materials. a detailed cost estimate is obtained remainder of production information produced. ‡ Once Building Regulations approval is obtained. ‡ This includes :‡ All working drawings Architectural / structural / services etc.

Pre-contract Stages ‡ ‡ ‡ Inception Feasibility Scheme Design ± Outline proposals ± Detailed design ‡ ‡ ‡ Production information Bills of quantities Tender action constructionsite .

item by item. all the materials and components which are required to construct the project.Bill of quantities ‡ Quantity Surveyor prepares the Bill of Quantities (BOQ) by taking all the material requirements off the working drawings. constructionsite . ‡ This lists.

BOQ Contains ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Form of Tender Preliminaries Preambles Measured work section Dayworks Prime cost and Provisional sums Final summary constructionsite .

‡ General items ‡ Provides extra information to contractors constructionsite .Preliminaries ‡ Referred to as Prelims. these are found at the commencement of the BofQ.

specify BS numbers. manufacturer etc. constructionsite . catalogue reference numbers.. The object is to specify all materials in such a way as to leave no doubt in the contractors mind .Preambles ‡ Form the specification for materials and workmanship.

Items are quantified according to the nature of the work ie metres run.Measured Quantities ‡ Relate to the work section and consists of precise measurements and description of work. metres square etc constructionsite .

water etc. constructionsite .Provisional Quantities ‡ Covers items in the BOQ for work that was not known at the time of tender. ‡ Would be measured or omitted on completion. ie rock.

Prime Cost Sums (PC Sums) ‡ A sum allocated for work to be done or materials delivered by nominated subcontractors. constructionsite . suppliers. the amount being provided by them.

Provisional Sums ‡ Not to be confused with provisional quantities. constructionsite . but which it is known is likely to be required. ‡ This relates to a sum which is provided for in circumstance which cannot be entirely foreseen.

Pre-contract Stages ‡ ‡ ‡ Inception Feasibility Scheme Design ± Outline proposals ± Detailed design ‡ ‡ ‡ Production information Bills of quantities Tender action constructionsite .

who then becomes the Contractor.Tender action ‡ Architect will select method of tendering to be used and produce all the tender documents. constructionsite . ‡ Documents sent to builders so that they can estimate the price for which they are prepared to do the work. ‡ On the specified date the tenders will be opened and the Architect / Client will select the builder that they think most suitable. ‡ The tenders must be submitted by a specified time and date.