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**Comparison of geotechnic softwares - Geo FEM, Plaxis, Z-Soil
**

Comparison du logiciel géotechnique – Geo FEM, Plaxis, Z-Soil

J. Pruška

CTU in Prague FCE Department of Geotechnics, Prague, Czech Republic, Pruska@fsv.cvut.cz

KEYWORDS: FEM, numerical modelling, validations ABSTRACT: GEO FEM is geotechnical software based on the finite element method utilized friendly platform from GEO4 programs. In this article after short description of GEO FEM program selected soil mechanics problems are analyzed next to illustrate and validate the program. For the comparison was used commercial geotechnical software based on the finite element method: Z – Soil and PLAXIS and analytical solution if available. 1 INTRODUCTION GEO FEM offers an attractive alternative to traditional approaches to geotechnical problems (especially for GEO 4 users). It uses recent advances in nonlinear finite element techniques to perform analysis of complex geotechnical problems like load carrying capacity, deformation and stress fields inside the layered soil body, solve stability, consolidation of saturated soils, plastic modeling of soils, modeling of structures and the interaction between the structures and the soil (anchors, rockbolts, sheeting walls) and excavation sequences. The main goal of this paper is illustrate and validate the capabilities of the GEO FEM program. For the comparison we used typical benchmarks and two commercial geotechnical software based on the finite element method: Z – Soil and PLAXIS. In this article the main features of GEO FEM program (preprocessing, constitutive models, postprocessing) is described first, then comparison on the benchmarks and finally conclusions. 2 MAIN FEATURES OF GEO FEM GEO FEM is a finite element package specifically intended for the two dimensional analysis of deformation and stability in geotechnical engineering projects and is built on the same original friendly platform as the GEO 4 - geotechnical software. GEO FEM is equipped with special features to deal with the numerous aspects of many geotechnical engineering projects involve the modelling of structures and the interaction between the structures and the soil. In particular the program offers the following essential features: - The input of soil layers, structures, construction stages, loads and boundary conditions is based on GEO 4 platform (highly interactive user interface), which allows for a detailed modelling of the geometry cross section – Fig. 1. You can use material database including material properties for soil, as well as for structural elements. - Automatic mesh generator with the bandwidth optimizer for the finite-element discretization allows you to generate finite element mesh (of thousands of element) with options for global and local mesh refinement. Finite element mesh is easily generated from the input 2D geometry model. - Automatic generation of standard boundary conditions that apply in most cases. These boundary conditions may be changed by the special conditions that can be imposed on the geometry lines as well as in points. - Quadratic 3 node and 6 node triangular elements are available to model the deformations and stresses in the soil. Beam elements (based on the Mindlin theory) are used to model the bending of retaining walls, tunnel linings, shells, and other slender structures. To model prestress conditions (anchors) the

Main Session 5 "Geotechnical Engineering in urban areas "

819

stresses. . . XIII ECSMGE. 7. application of loads.76 Validation of the computer simulation was performed on the typical soil mechanics problems.ISBN 80-86769-01-1. . The elements mentioned above offer the flexibility to model any configuration of the soil profile.Proc.Interfaces: Joint elements are available to interaction. Main Session 5 "Geotechnical Engineering in urban areas " 820 .Contact interface elements may be used to simulate the thin zone of intensely shearing material at the contact between a tunnel lining and the surrounding soil. Modelling of the geometry cross section in GEO FEM 3 VALIDATIONS For the comparison of the GEO FEM program described above we used analytical solution (if available) and results from two commercial products for the solution based on the finite element analysis: PLAXIS ver. (Vol. boundary conditions etc. 5. © ČGtS.1 Z SOIL ver. For example. strains and structural forces) can be also gained from the output tables. Drucker Prager and Cam Clay models (elastoplastic type of hyperbolic model) are available. All plots and tables can be modify. time dependent soil behavior. Values of required results (displacements. To this paper two examples have been selected. Figure 1. Vaníček et al.GEO FEM enables a realistic simulation of excavation and construction stages by activating and deactivating of construction parts. exported to other software or send to clipboard. (eds).GEO FEM offers a variety of advanced soil models to simulate the nonlinear. The first example represents slope stability problem and the second example involvs a diaphragm wall.For displaying computational results exists a fully integrated postprocessor. 2) elastoplastic spring elements are used.Coulomb. . In addition to the Mohr . Values of interface friction angle and adhesion are generally not the same as the friction angle and cohesion of the surrounding soil. . Prague. Frictional contact interface elements are available to model soil structure. .Stability analysis is simpler and more general than usual sliding surface approaches due to C-phi reduction and stress level algorithms. these elements may be used.

61 1.74 1.72 1.22 0.66 1.20 0.91 0.97 1.84 0.75 1.48 0.44 0.18 0.34 0.For a homogeneous medium the critical height of the cut is independent of the dilatancy angle ψ.15 0.19 0.69 1.43 0. XIII ECSMGE.3 0.10 GEO FEM DP 1.73 1.73 1.87 0.18 1.3 0.03 Plaxis M-C 1.69 1.06 GEO FEM M-C 1.17 0.The initial stress state was set to σ v = γ H .81 1.82 0.43 0.08 2.Linear elastic and perfectly plastic material with the Mohr-Coulomb and Drucker Prag failure criterion.5 10.69 1.17 0.06 2. and Table 1 contains a list of the material parameters.52 0.63 0.98 0. The displacement field allows a clear identification of the slip surface as shown on Fig.95 1.35 0. The results for two selected soils are in Table 2. 2) 3.64 0.00 0.63 0. σ h = K 0γ H .10 0.66 1. Table 2.05 1.14 0.58 0.68 1.82 0.22 0.82 0. Prague.84 0. Here it is the localization of the strain field which is indicative of the failure.47 0.74 1. a natural slope stability in a homogeneuous media.53 0.04 0.99 0. © ČGtS.60 0.02 2.03 1.61 0.19 0.83 0. (Vol.ISBN 80-86769-01-1.21 0.99 2.08 0.5 14 14 14 14 14 14 10 10 20 20 30 10 10 20 20 30 30 10 10 20 20 30 30 1.1 Slope stability Fig.98 1.46 0.59 1.68 1.5 10.63 1.46 0. 4 and Fig.42 0.81 0.11 1.71 1.31 0.32 0.95 1.65 1.33 0.82 0.11 0.71 1.71 1.31 0.46 0.53 0.82 0.60 0.The slope safety factor is defined as the factor of reduction applied to the yield surface coefficients when failure occurs.5 10.66 1.92 1.34 0.71 1.66 1. .Proc.85 0. For the analysis the following general assumptions were considered: .05 Main Session 5 "Geotechnical Engineering in urban areas " 8m 821 .45 0.5 10.20 0.70 1.45 0.35 0.59 0.44 0.8 0.59 0. .43 0.98 1. Geometry of natural slope stability example We are focused in this type of problem on the slope safety factor and the displacement field.07 Z-Soil DP 1.75 1.71 1. Material parameters for „slope stability example Soil 1 Soil 2 Young modulus E 5000 10000 [kPa] Poisson ratio ν 0.35 0.84 0. 15 m 8+h m 40 m soil 1 Table 1.5 10.81 0.48 0. 3 (you can compare the layout of graphical output from the next software on Fig. (eds).54 0.59 0.2 1.08 1.73 1.72 1.35 [-] Weight γ 24 18 [kN/m3] Cohesion c 20 5 kPa Friction angle ϕ 10 – 30 10/30 [°] Dilatancy angle ψ 0 0 [°] Figure 2.51 0. .54 0.50 0.91 1.09 0. Comparison of results for „slope stability“ example Type of h ϕ Sarma Bishop Petterson Z-Soil soil M-C 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 7 7 7 7 7 10.65 0.59 0.Plane strain conditions.17 2.53 0.54 0. . Vaníček et al.86 0. 5).89 0.71 1. 2 depicts the geometry of the first validation example (height of slope varies from 7 m to 14 m).97 1.

ISBN 80-86769-01-1. © ČGtS. Results after analysis (displacement field) in PLAXIS Figure 5. Vaníček et al. 2) Figure 3.Proc. (eds). Results after analysis (displacement field) in GEO FEM Figure 4. Results after analysis (displacement field) in Z-SOIL Main Session 5 "Geotechnical Engineering in urban areas " 822 . (Vol. Prague. XIII ECSMGE.

Struts (rigid members) fixed the horizontal degree of freedom.Construction stage 2: Excavation step to a level of –8 m. Geometry of the “diaphragm wall” example Table 3.Proc. (Vol. Prague. . Is known. In the Table 3 are relevant parameters for the “diaphragm wall” example. . (eds).0 m.0 m.The initial stress state was set to σ v = γ H . σ h = K 0γ H .Diaphragm wall was modelled using beam elements. Vaníček et al. The excavation process includes the following construction stages: . Figure 6. and strut at level of –3 m is installed . that elastoperfectly plastic constitutive model is not perfect for the modeling surface displacement behind the high wall. .Between the diaphragm wall and the ground is perfect bonding.2 Diaphragm wall Figure 6 ilustrates the geometry and the excavation stages analysed in this example. .ISBN 80-86769-01-1.Construction stage 1: First layer of soil is removed to a level of –4. Significant differences were not observed in the horizontal displacement of the bottom if the wall. . . Material parameters for “diaphragm wall” example E [kN/m2] ν ϕ [°] Soil 1 20 000 0.Linear elastic – perfectly plastic analysis with Mohr – Coulomb failure criterion. Main Session 5 "Geotechnical Engineering in urban areas " 823 .0 γ [kN/m3] 21 19 19 The results for the vertical displacement of surface behind the wall (the construction stage 1 and final) are in Figure 7.4 26 c [kN/m2] 2.0 10. Following assumptions are as follows: .0 10. . © ČGtS. It is apparent from the Figure 5 that GEO FEM gives higher values for the vertical displacement in the final stage of the construction. but for the comparison of the program behaviour it is unimportant.3 35 Soil 2 12 000 0.4 26 Soil 3 80 000 0. XIII ECSMGE. and strut installed at – 7. but the results are evenly distributed between the limiting values. 2) 3.Initial stresses were established without the wall. the heave inside the excavation and the earth pressure distributions.Plane strain conditions.Construction stage 3: Final layer of soil is removed to a level of –12 m.

To study the behaviour of the software sample examples has been prepared. bending moments varies within 32%.. MSM 210000003 "Developments of the Algorithms of Computational Mechanics and their Application in Engineering" is acknowledged. (2002). p. Hilar. 2) Figure 7. PLAXIS. (2002). ETH Zurich.ISBN 80-86769-01-1.. J. XIII ECSMGE. Proceedings of the Second International Conference Soil Structure Interaction in Urban Civil Engineering. J. 53-58. © ČGtS. In the case of the diaphragm wall the results are not explained in detail. 42. ISBN 3-00-009169-6. Prague. J. (eds). Numerical Modelling of the Overburden Deformations. cut stability analysis. no. cut and cover tunnel. Acta Polytechnica. M. Zürich . Pruška. Manuals of the software GEO FEM. These examples modelled for instance slope stability. Generally numerical methods are more flexible when more general slip surfaces occur.. Vol. Hilar. (Vol. ISSN 1210-2709. Significant differences were not found. on the right final stage) 4 CONCLUSIONS It was not the aim of this research to compare results with actual field observation. excavation of the tunnel. but not so significant. Z-Soil ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The sponsorship of the research project supported by the Ministry of Education of the Czech Republic grant No. but principally to see what differences are obtained when using for the models under defined conditions commercial softwares based on the finite element method.. Vol. the plasticity based on Drucker Prager appears to yield comparable results. initial state analysis. As compared to FEM approaches. In this paper are mentioned in brief only two examples. Numerical Modelling of the Underground Structures. 1. 159-164. Vertical displacement of surface behind wall (on the left construction stage 1. that the associated safety factor corresponds to the one obtained by the c . load carrying capacity. Barták. Main Session 5 "Geotechnical Engineering in urban areas " 824 . Vaníček et al. For the deep excavations we observed short growth in the limiting values. results are the distribution in the limiting values. p. J. For the problems of stability of the natural slope we can say. Pruška.ϕ reduction algorithm (comparison with classical methods).Proc. M. 2. From comparison with results from Plaxis and Z-Soil we can say that GEO FEM can give satisfactory results 5 REFERENCES Barták.

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