A.R.C.S., A.M.Inst.C.E.

Author of
The Field Manual, Higher Surveying, The Transition


















First published




Second Impression
Third Impression Fourth Impression





1943 1945 1946 1947





Now that Elementary Surveying is regarded as something more than a mere adjunct to mathematics and geography, it appeared to the writer that there might be a place for a little book which aims at opening a vista of the educational and professional possibilities of the subject, a few general geometrical principles presenting it as the application of akin to a handicraft with each operation an entity. rather than something
It is




will stimulate






template entering one of the professions implied in the Introduction man's job. or, otherwise, create an interest in the other
text is based largely upon the syllabus in Elementary Surveying General School Examination of the University of London, and matter outside this curriculum is indicated with an asterisk, suggesting the introduction to an intermediate course in the subject. Also many of the questions are taken from papers set by the writer in this particular examination; and he takes this opportunity of expressing h s indebted-


in the



ness to the Senate of that University for their courtesy in permitting to reproduce this material.

In addition to the theoretical exercises, a

number of

field exercises

are added, and these no doubt will suggest lines upon which others can be devised in keeping with what may be (conveniently) styled "local" conditions. These examples are short, and anticipate the

adoption of parues of three (four at most) pupils, this organisation, in the writers opinion, being the only rational way of handling the can be allocated to these subject. Parts of larger surveys or schemes

who retain their identity as far as is practicable. Prior to into the field the routine should be outlined so as to reduce going to their supervision to a minimum, and, better still, to leave the parties




writer takes this opportunity of expressing his indebtedness to A. N. Utting, of the Cambridge University Engineering Labora-

are reproduced, tory, for preparing the drawings from which the figures to Mr. S. G. Soal, M.A., of Queen Mary College, for also his thanks

kindness in reading the proofs. In conclusion the writer acknowledges the agency of his wife, whose influence really led him to undertake this short but pleasant enterprise.

Queen Mary College,
cjo King's College,



CONTOURING Nature and uses of contours Horizontal and vertical control Direct and Combinations of methods Interpolaindirect methods of contour location tion 113 X. gradients XL ' THEODOLITE SURVEYING Historical ^ Measurement of and departures 140 theodolite Circles and verniers angles Theodolite surveys Reducing bearings Latitudes Adjustment of traverse surveys Miscellaneous problems Note The TRIGONOMETRICAL TABLE INDEX iv 154 155 . ANGULAR LEVELLING Methods 79 Observing heights The clinometer and Abney level Barometry Aneroid barometer VII. FIELD GEOMETRY Reciprocal ranging Perpendiculars and Obstructions to measurement and alignment Checking angles with the tape Optical square parallels Four classes of obstacles 48 V.CONTENTS CHAPTER PAGE INTRODUCTION I. 1 FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES Co-ordinates Five fundamental methods 4 Triangulation and traversing Sloping distances Other Chains and chaining Offsets. CHAIN SURVEYING Field book Traversing with the chain 22 Outline of simple survey Equipment Boundary lines III. the three-point problem Field work table accessories Orientation and IX. THE COMPASS Historical note The prismatic compass Bearings and azimuths Magnetic declination and variation Local attraction Fixed and free needle with the compass Graphical adjustment of traverse surveys Traversing Compass resection 86 VIII. historical note Bubble tubes and equivalent plumb line Telescope Dumpy and other levels Levelling stavesLevelling Curvature and refraction Levelling practice Two systems of booking levels Classification difficulties 60 VI. PLANE TABLING The plane setting 102 and its Primary methods Resection. locating objects modes of linear measurement Signals II. PLOTTING PLANS AND MAPS Construction and use of scales Special scales Plotting and finishing maps Conventional signs Constructing angles. use of protractor and trigonometrical tables Enlarging maps and plans 30 IV. LEVELLING of methods. AREAS AND VOLUMES Areas of simple plane figures Areas of irregular plane figures Methods Give and take lines Trapezoidal and Simpson's rules Computing scale Volumes of simple regular solids Cross sections Trapezoidal and prismoidal rules Earthwork volumes Use of truncated prisms and contours __ 123 Longitudinal and cross sections.

the earth is considered a sphere. (2) open structure of It is essential principles. and levelling as taking measurements in the vertical The converse operation to surveying is setting-out work. Levelling is combined with surveying when the project requires that the variations in the surface surveyed shall be delineated by contour lines. while.INTRODUCTION Surveying may be described as the art of making measurements upon the earth's surface for the purpose of producing a map. or field engineering. In fact. In geodesy. as when a constructional project. Mathematics. the complex filling the voids in a wide. a degree may be taken in geography. Four-figure I . or shown in a vertical section. may thus be defined as making measurements in the horizontal plane. Surveying is divided primarily into (1) Geodetical Surveying and Plane Surveying. at the bench the workman can often use the tablts with facility as merely a part of a day's work. This suggestion of more advanced mathematics may cast a shadow over the aspirations of the reader. is pegged out on the ground. which always settles its account with the least effort. and the latter of plane trigonometry. such as a railway. evading trigonometry by cumbersome artifices in map projections. the approximation being within the permissible limits of error for areas up to about 100 square miles. In applied science. or used in the calculation of a volume content. the lowlier methods of ground survey will always be utilised in the setting-out of works for the use and convenience of man. Hence it is obvious that whatever possibilities the future may hold for aerial methods of surveying. and philosophic doubts often overcome enterprise. unfortunate that the syllabuses of certain examinations do not insist upon an elementary knowledge of plane trigonometry. or reservoir. or estimate of an area. but let him be comforted in the thought that few boys are gifted with real mathematical ability. and not infrequently this is at the expense of vision and initiative. The mention of trigonometry introduces aptly the question as to whe extent of mathematical knowledge necessary in the various professions in which surveying plays an important part. plan. and many brilliant scientists and engineers would admit that their knowledge in this connection has grown with mental development arising from other interests. Therefore get into touch with your trigonometical tables. Normally mathematical knowledge is a slow growth in hard-worked ground. The former involves a knowledge of spherical trigonometry. and in plane surveying a plane. mathematics is a good servant but a bad master. Surveying plane. highway. by one of those balancing feats of nature.

valuation. Though you may never aspire to a knowledge of the theory of errors.2 tables will suffice ELEMENTARY SURVEYING when angles are only required to degrees. though you do your utmost to keep them in their place. Scientifically. townplanning. In civil engineering a knowledge of spherical trigonometry and the calculus will be desirable. and various public works. simply because the really true measurement of that quantity is not known. But this is a very advanced argument. of course. you must learn to control and adjust your never errors. particularly knowledge of the theory of errors. ranging from coast surveys to plans for harbour works. such as farms and estates. be included railways. HYDROGRAPHICAL SURVEYING. and seven figures whenever seconds are when minutes of involved. a knowledge up to and including the solution of plane triangles is necessary. engineering. ENGINEERING LOCATION SURVEYING. for the construction of highways. five figures arc occur. and orderliness. The true error in a measured quantity is never known. accuracy. and the subject is subordinate to mensuration." and you make no apology for making them. as also is the case in cartography and hydrography. projected scheme. . while geodetic surveying will demand still more advanced mathematics. Errors! What are errors? They are as natural to surveying as colds and measles are to the young. for geological. though. always avoiding mistakes with professional contempt by a chaining arrow (or an odd ten in calculations) or reading dropping All a foot out on the levelling staff. PRELIMINARY AND PARLIAMENTARY SURVEYS. ranging from the Land Division System of the United States and extensive topographical surveys and work for boundary commissions to small areas. You want to know something about the scope of the subject. building. comparison with a precise standard will convince you whether the error is great or small. But this digression is looking years ahead. you know is the "discrepancy" between successive measurements of the same quantity. PIONEER AND EXPLORATORY SURVEYING. In ordinary surveying. such as occurs in connection with estate management. TRIGONOMETRICAL SURVEYING. all of which may contain error. and mining enterprises. for the preparation of maps of large extents of territory. LAND SURVEYING. also work in connection with archeological expeditions. the application of which demands speed. in connection with a such as the construction of a railway or a waterworks. the demands of accuracy gradually giving way to the exigencies of speed and time. which is shown in the following list. where the relative degrees of accuracy are given in descending order. and quantity surveying. they are not "mistakes. municipal engineering. Mine surveys are to in this category.

or exactly 1 2. and others by the methods. borough. contoured and hill-shaded. in addition. or I 63.. In war. Various other maps are obtain: : 500 "Town" map for certain districts. etc. The Theodolite. In the United Kingdom. for the various subdivision of their states : the Twenty-five Inch. and parish boundaries. The Compass. The best known of the Ordnance sheets are the Six-Inch. the 25-inch gives the areas of enclosures. these are carried out in dangerous situations.360.INTRODUCTION aerial 3 SURVEYING. e. Levels are marked on these maps. Some writers subdivide the subject in accordance with the i'lstrumeni used. Most countries issue a series of maps and departments. tunnels. etc. further sheets showing municipalities.. and (double scale) in land valuation. based upon these.. this is done by the Ordnance Survey Department. marshes. ranging from reconnaissance to maps by photographic methods. and accuracy must be subordinated to speed. Tacheometrical Surveying. able. the well-known indicating that a detached area is included in a given acreage* bond . which is used largely in connection with parliamentaiy plans.560. or "County*' maps. Plane Tabling. roads. approximately 25 inches to the mile.g. etc. etc. and notes made as to the conventional signs used to represent such features as county.. : down to The commoner Qrciugince sheets should be carefully examined. as Photographic Surveying. formerly the 1 the latest series for the Land Utilisation Survey. on a scale of 6 inches to the mile or a representative fraction of 1 10. etc. ORDNANCE SURVEY MAPS. and.500. canal locks. and the One-Inch. The Chain. either plain or coloured. as used for certain constructional surveys.

1 with respect to the axes by the distance OP and the bearing or angle (3. S. y respect to the axes in Fig.L -Y in surveying.lx 3 . It is not = altogether member of +x which is an intruder here. and Levelling taking measurements in the vertical plane. in particular.. with the X axci corresponding to abscissae x and ordinates y the origin being at O. In Fig. being a the same family as y=cx*. as plotted with parabola. 1 you will recognise and Y the axes of rectangular (or Cartesian) co-ordinates. 1. the four quadrants representing the four quarters of the compass.CHAPTER I FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES In introducing the First Five Principles of Surveying. vertically above of a point P is also plan p. Possibly you have also met the cubic O. the transition curve the rail- sets out. Negative south and negative west. FIRST FIVE PRINCIPLES it was stated that Surveying consisted in making measurements in the horizontal plane. in which the point P FIG. the point P is fixed . N." as you doubtless call them. in surveying the measurements In the introduction consist in fixing the positions of points in the horizontal plane.E.W. it may be advisable for us to recall our acquaintanceship with Co-ordinates.. If the actual position its found in a vertical plane. two points fix a straight line. in order to ease the passage of a train from the tangentstraight to the circular curve against the way surveyor effects of centrifugal force on the train's motion. Actually.E. Polar Cois fixed ordinates. and each is not a stranger living in the same house. S. But there are endless applications of our mathematical principles in applied science." Rectangular co-ordinates are also used in plotting surveys by the Method of Latitudes and Departures. as indicated by the letters. and three or more straight lines determine the plan of a plane figure. or "graphs. y "Positive north and positive east. Other forms of co-ordinates are used S..W. I. N.

and usually map represented by contour lines. bp. FIRST will METHOD Rectangular Co-ordinates Here the point p is fixed with respect to the survey line distance^/? measured at right angles to AB from the point q Uses. A Here X ^ FIO. the position of aeroplanes in flight. and as the area surveyed becomes extensive account has to be taken of the fact that on a spherical earth the meridians must converge in order to pass through the poles. parallels of latitude. as in taking right angle offsets to the boundaries from the AB by the (Fig. (3) and certain 90 o Fundamental the tions. in as Uses. boundaries with long offsets. (2) Basis of all chain surveying. (2) Setting out buildings engineering works.S. 2). guide and principal. skeleton outline of a survey. particularly in surveying frontage lines in town surveying. " 3 THIRD METHOD Angular Co-ordinates Here the point p is fixed with respect to the line AB by the intersection of two visual lines. 5 this is the basis of topographical surveying. A /e a y / \L p FIO. and through the medium of electrical communication. (1) Auxiliary. Thus in a few lines our mechanics to geography. ap. which leads which the surface features are delineated. 4 . 4 ^ _r * . SECOND METHOD little mathematics has carried us from Focal Co-ordinates Here the point/? is "tied" by the distances ap. whether 'chain triangulation" or traversing. which at known points a and b make observed angles 6 and 9 respectively with AB (Fig. sounding boats. (3) Method of referencing survey stations on the completion of the field work. such as mountain peaks. which are measured respectively from a and 6. in important operasuch as the U. and in to a All surveying operations are based upon these principles. surveying (1) Auxiliary. 3).FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES in space. This method is peculiarly applicable to the locating of inaccessible points and objects. known points in the survey line AB (Fig. bp. 2 B co-ordinates are really and the Y co-ordinates meridians.A. Lands Survey. a 1 b 10. as appear in the summaries appended to the following methods. 4).

AB being a reference meridian or N. and S.5 FIFTH METHOD is Trilinear Co-ordinates fixed Here the point p by 6 and <p. the (dotted) distance bp being measured instead of ap. The "three-point problem" with the plane table. table ELEMENTARY SURVEYING (1) Basis of the method of "intersections" with the plane and compass. three points plotted on the chart. (3) FIG. (1) in resection Uses. and conversely. (4) Locating positions by wireless signals from three known is trans- mitting stations.e. the base being at the distant point observed. which may range from a simple net of triangles to a major and minor system. line. (3) Basis of all pure triangulation. (3) Basis of traversing with the compass or theodolite. the art or technique of the subject.C.B. and a tertiary net." (2) Method of "radiation" and "progression" in plane tabling.6 Uses. the optical measurement of distances. Important method in marine surveying. P being the sounding boat (2) and A. Now the mere knowledge of these There is principles not the sole qualifi- cation of a surveyor. or even a primary. also with the compass and the theodolite. ab (2) Method embodied in range-finders and telemeters. a b FIG. FOURTH METHOD Polar Co-ordinates Here the point p is fixed with reference to the survey line AB by the distance ap measured from a known point a in A B at a known angle p from that line. 6 in Method embodied in in resection space stereoscopic methods of surveying. the base being near the observer. . the angles subtended at p by three visible and mapped points. a secondary. (1) Method of locating details by "angles and distances. constructed without account of their magnitudes. as in the Ordnance Survey of the United Kingdom. the principle employed in tacheometry. and C (Fig. B. i. 6). A. also the kindred process in ordinary and stereo- scopic photographic surveying. Uses. where the angles are measured goniographically. Inverse polar co-ordinates occur in certain operations.

FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES which alone is 7 acquired by practice and experience. b. this consists in judiciously selecting methods and instruments to suit the objects and nature of the survey. 8). B. but correctly between points surveyed as a basic framework.. which is the case in certain town and park surveys. as indicated by the which actually makes a compound traverse with dotted lines EefgC. may be measured (Pure triangulation)^ or certain sides a^d angles (Mixed triangulation)'. the base.. and to utilise numerals. It is not acquired by making a crazy-patchwork map merely to show that you have used evt*y instru- ment which at it is your disposal. The angular points of a triangulation net or traverse skeleton are called stations. a. are . etc.. as in chain surveys (Chain triangulation). Unfortunately the idea that rough measurements will there are many obsessed with accommodate themselves. though of course contingencies may arise in expedient to depart from the one prevailing method of the shall make all your survey. A. the latter being approximating more applicable to areas devoid of interior detail. of making a survey: TRIANGULATION AND TRAVERSING. There are two primary methods (1) Triangulation and (2) Traversing. as STATIONS. so that it may be necessary Traverses may be closed. Primarily. and the skeleton of a traverse becomes weaker as the number of sides to brace it up with triangles. and are usually indicated thus in chain whenever angular observations are involved. A it is advisable to retain the letters requisitioned. increases. hence the triangle. In triangulation surveys. 8 ABCDEA. the boundary survey. the art requires that you measurements with uniform accuracy. Thirdly. simplicity and economy are precision to be considered with due regard to the strength or rigidity of trm basic figure or scheme. for the . 3. or only the sides are measured. 7. also triangles. etc. In triangulation the area is covered as nearly as may be with a by a polygonal outline. Secondly. scheme of and in traversing. only one side. never mixing the crude and precise promiscuously. or open. In extensile surveys for main stations. C. FIG. 2. and surveys Commonly stations are referenced with capital letters. c. etc. to the boundary or fences (Figs. 7 FIG. not with great only obligingly. 1. The strongest figure is that with the fewest sides. and if subsidiary stations occur the small letters.

but is such that ten square chains are comprised in an English acre.8 ELEMENTARY SURVEYING and small letters are soon exhausted. (or 1 ft. The standard chain length of 66-ft. e. with the exception of those at the handles. poles. The length is not only convenient to handle. the error of planting the picket or flagpole beside it introducing no serious error in chain surveys. is 7-92 in. Otherwise the large Stations are established in the ground in a manner consistent with the duration of the field-work. square pegs will suffice. the flagpole being inserted in the socket when the station is not occupied. FIELD-WORK item in the surveyors' outfit consists of ranging rods. a metal socket is let into concrete. The use of the Greek alphabet is not usually successful. alternately red. Both chains are made up of one hundred long pieces of steel or iron wire. white. The entire length of the chain is 66 ft. and connected with the ring of the next piece by two or three oval rings. or 4 poles. the stations become more permanent. If-in. sub-stations. II. Pickets can be supplemented by builders' laths in "ranging out" or "boning out" long lines so as to guide the chainmen as they follow the ups and downs of the ground. In practice. In small surveys.). as the surveyor's classical knowledge seldom gets beyond Epsilon. or "engineers' chain. such as you will undertake. was introduced by the celebrated mathematician.). and applying dashes (or primes) leads to confusion in the field notes. and the hundredth part of the whole is a link (or a foot). commonly in the 6-ft. as measured from the middle ring of connecting rings to the corresponding ring in the next may be . which is now used extensively in this country in engineering surveys. known as pickets. not chains. Edmund Gunter. As the survey grows and lines are thought of in miles. and 10-ft. each bent at the ends into a ring. and when the distances reach up to 60 or even 100 miles scaffolds are erected with signals for day and night observations. are painted in one-foot lengths. CHAINS. which afford flexibility to the whole and render the chain less likely to become entangled or kinked. and are shod with a steel point. Flags of red and white fabric are desirable when visibility is impaired by first The distance or background. which. or poles. however. unit. in 1620. where the work is likely to last weeks. Where" fore Americans style it the "surveyors' chain in distinction with " the 100-ft. (or 100 ft. 9 the three ft. and black. this decimal division allowing lengths to be written as 8-21 Iks. Two or more in the chain so that it swivels are inserted turned without twisting. (or ft. Each link.) outside the handles. length. A bundle of six pickets forms a convenient set for a party. like the 8-ft. The longer sizes are more convenient in larger surveys. =0-66 Fio.

. though more especially to keep the a spring constant. Steel bands are elastic. Extreme care should be exercised in the plate of these. Tapes and Bands. For this reason. where the one finger tag can be 10 or 90. These are preferably made of steel wire. and in the language of Huckleberry Finn. in order to apply a constant pull.FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES length. are more easily corrected and repaired than steel chains. A 100-ft.. Sometimes a 50-ft. some surveyors use a tension handle or not in use. blue steel band fitted In better class work the surveyor often uses a with handles. but 18 in. and wound on a windlass when The links or feet are marked with brass studs. as indi cated in Fig. . Every tenth link is marked with a brass tag or teller in a system that allows either end to be used as zero. which may vary from 5 Ib. "A body would need the list o' Goliar to cast it. 9 The handle and short link at each end constitute the first and hundredth link (or foot). and the four-finger tag 40 or 60 Iks. chain is used for offsets. may be necessary in long grass or stubble. Ten arrows comprise a set. or where traffic exists. but the reversion of few tellers makes it inconvenient to read. length balance. as the case may be. and the number should be checked from time to time. and on this account some surveyors insist upon 6-in. and it is quite easy to pass the elastic limit and so produce a permanent set. in the pin. a small use denoting the tens.vork. so as to allow the use of a ft. length. Iron wire chains are still used in rough farm and estate . Chesterman is recommended. and though more cumbersome. Arrows should be made conspicuous by tying strips of wide red tape to the rings. chain in iron wire would be a tough proposition for a young surveyor. They should be carried on a steel snap ring or in a quiver slung ac^ss the shoulders. links in orde r to increase the flexibility. particularly in the narrow or lighter patterns. or even lighter gauge. 12 gauge wire by of iron wire.'* Steel wire chains are lighter Chaining arrows are used to mark the ends of the chain lengths. or ft. A common length is 1 2 ft. 10. The Gunter chain is much more easily manipulated than the 100-ft. 50 and more easily manipulated than those and the three-ring pattern in No.

and need wiping and indispensable to the surveyor. dragging Meanwhile F takes up Arrow No. holding both handles in the left hand. on receiving ten arrows. with hand signals. and on receiving the final "stick. retaining hold of the handles. As he approaches a chain's length from the Follower (F). desirably. L. "stick. and directing by hand signals the interpolating of pickets and laths at intermediate points in the line. except that F holds his handle against Arrow No. bad." fixes an arrow firmly as No. only by those who have had good. and valuer. you have ranged out a line between two B. Happily the following instructions are being given to young and enthusiastic surveyors who do not regard it infra dig. 1. These tapes are usually wound into round leather cases. he moves slowly.10 ELEMENTARY SURVEYING oiling to preserve them. 1 and carries it to No. is to 20 lb. Good chaining is a great accomplishment. which can be appreciated CHAINING. directs lines L in with the forward station B." turns and faces F with an arrow gripped against the Follower (F). no tangles will occur. throw the chain well forward. and unfold five links from each handle. finally. Leader (L). Let it be assumed that station poles. and drags the chain forward for the second length. which is measured in the same manner. be restricted to high-class work and experienced Linen tapes should be dry when wound into their cases. "Halt. and on receiving the order. links on the reverse side. First of the strap jerks the chain to expel kinks. 1. and 100-ft. who in his wisdom lends him the two men whom he regards as surplus to requirements. A and manner: Remove all. holding the chain clear L and of his person (and preferably facing F). and. counts them. Meanwhile. handle.. and drags the chain forward along the line AB. L now takes up the remaining nine arrows. He bends down in readiness for further instructions. to tighten or ease his pull. Presumably you have agreed who shall be Leader (L) and who Follower (F) in chaining the line. in bright steel with etched divisions. lengths. 2. holds his handle against the starting-point A. If the chain has been done up correctly. civil engineer. according to the cross-sectional area of the steel." L fixes Arrow No.. 66-ft. dirty. if they should be washed. Also. 1. responds to the orders from F. then. directs L to fix Arrow No. On receiving the signal the chain.. and are obtainable in the 50-ft. and are liable to corrosion. whereas the resident engineer is sometimes at the mercy of a contractor's foreman. but these are expensive. to get down (literally. and indifferent chainmen. Similar patterns The Linen tape are made and their use should hands. The . the tapes are easily snapped. by standing behind one pole A. He then bending down. wiped carefully. and allowed to dry. 2 and goes forward. and on one knee) to a job of the first importance. showing feet and inches. Some surveyors are fortunate enough to have trained chainmen. the chain must be cast in the following from the chain. sighting the other B.

Students in their enthusiasm may una tug-of-war. these should be tested from time to time. correction. and F collecting them duly. better. which he hands to L.consequently tiue areas A are computed as A'. J~ Offsets are measurements made Offsets. Testing Chains. they should also . been laid L inserting arrows. Quite easily a chain may be forgotten during a break for lunch. and place the first five links on each side of the 50-teller. and repair of chains. turning it slowly in the palm of the hand. The best practice now is to proceed to measure the eleventh the Leader having no arrows. lines of a triangulation or traverse skeleton from the outer survey to the boundary of a property. and be little alarmed at the repair he has made with not more than three this links missing. and their length is limited roughly to 50 links. it is essential that a Standard Length be laid down carefully with a steel tape on stone flags or a concrete surface. as the case may be Usually these are taken at right angles to the survey lines. Whenever necessarily long. at a time together. When the eleventh len^ch has down. turning the links in the palm of invert the folded portion in the left hand so that the the hand. Folding the chain properly means the saving of much annoyance when next it is used. the root of a hedge.FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES II length. and secure it by means of the strap in form. fold links equidistant from the middle across it. Then there is always the danger that a chain of correct length / has attained an incorrect length / after protracted use. The limits of this book preclude various hints as to the care. is long. and even the rings of wittingly provoke chaining into steel chains will open under the strain. a fence. though some latitude is allowed in certain circumstances. Take it up by the middle (50) teller and shake Transfer it it out so that it drags evenly on each side of that teller. L stands on his end of the chain until F comes up with ten arrows. but sloping obliquely to the left at the top. the correct values can easily be reduced by the 1 following relations: LQ= -j '0 *L\ AQ\ } A. or. 10. and an inoffensive ploughman may tun it down. by inserting metal plugs cut with a fine cross and filled with solder. who sticks one (1 1 chains) before dragging the chain forward for the twelfth length. process is repeated. to the left hand. Continue side by side. two Now straight. not as at first. Hence lines of correct length L are measured as L. If the line No. Sometimes startling disclosures are made in checking a chain against the standard length. the ends being marked with cuts into the surface. and. this oblique folding until the handles are reached. Although this will not occur as far as you arc concerned. the leader L calls out "Ten" on fixing his last arrow. Nevertheless. an. 50-teller hangs down. which is that of a hyperboloid of revolution. two at a time. but if the chain has been tested and tne incorrect length / observed. or a wall.

in the it on Objects buildings in particular are located by finding points the chain which are in line with the end walls of houses. />'/'. 1 1 (left) shows how a buildfixed ing is offsets. and. but when the offset is long. be "tied" from another point in the chain as it lies along the survey Offsets are usually measured with the linen tape. J'e' 9 respectively. 12 in the open form. The line cd being thus fixed. Here the 11 points a' and c' are selected so that they are in line with the respective sides /'#' e'h' 9 of the building and the corners/' and e' are tied with the lines of #'/'. and since it is rectangular. b' . turned up at the ends. and c'e'. and cut with vertical sighting slits at right angles. At this stage we may consider two simple instruments which are used to set out the right angles of long perpendiculars. the position of the building may be plotted. it may be constructed on the side cd when the remaining sides have been measured up with the linen tape. The right angle is estimated. the geometrical construction of which will be dealt with in Chapter IV. The head . 12. Fig. Fig. The cross-head is best known FIG. this is best done by "swinging" the tape in the following manner: A directs B to hold the ring (O) end of the tape at a point boundary or detail. as judged by sighting along these while standing on the chain as it lies on the ground in the survey line. the little more complicated patterns possessing to qualify their use. This pattern consists of four metal arms. though formerly the offset staff was used. A swings over the chain and notes the lowest readings both on the chain and tape as the respective chainage and length of the offset. the readings a'. by rectangular the diagonals be and ad being sometimes measured as checks. shown in Fig. pulling the tape out gently. CROSS STAFF.12 ELEMENTARY SURVEYING line. c'. 1 1 (right) shows of a common method in" lies "tying which building obliquely to a the survey line. and d' being suitably recorded in the field notes.

The best-known form consists of a circular box about 2 in. Prisms are sometimes used in optical squares. Suspend the nut by three threads from the socket. The lid. the rays coming from a pole P fixed at right angles to the survey line AB will be finally reflected to the eye along the eye-horizon line he. and a pair of 45 prisms are embodied in the Line Ranger. gas-pipe. which in some patterns is adjustable by means of a The three openings key. 13 shows a plan of the square when the lid. diameter and f in. required for sighting are cut alike in the rims of the case and cover: a square hole for Q Fio. and i the wholly silvered index glass. The chief difficulty is that of planting the staff the simple artifice (or Jacob) truly vertical. Drill ^-in. a device for interpolating points in survey lines. and drill three corresponding holes in the rim of socket in which the staff is inserted. which may be improvised as follows. The optical square belongs to a class of reflective instruments of which the Sextant is the representative instrument in modern surveying. AB. then. deep. since the angle between the planes of the mirrors is 45. which is perpendicular to Oi by the optical fact that the angles of incidence and reflection are equal. rigidly attached in a frame to the sole plate. perpendicular is erected in the following manner. which is planted at the point at which desired to set out the right angle. and the right angle is set out by sighting in a picket through the other pair of slits. The best way of ensuring that the staff is vertical is to use a ringplummet. a similar one O for the Index sight. Fig. 13 Horizon sight. The index glass A a line. or cover.FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES is it is U attached to an iron-shod staff. the optical square being inverted if the right angle is to be erected on the left of Eye sight. if * Optical Square. Cross heads can be constructed in the manual training classes. is removed. it will appear centrally in the hole of the backnut. / is set at an angle of 105 and. as indicated by pickets. holes near the alternate corners of the hexagonal face of a backnut for IJ-in. . but this can be facilitated by hereafter described. can be slid round so as to cover the sight-holes and thus protect the mirrors when out of use. when the staff is vertical. and even metal is not available. h horizon is the half-silvered glass. though attached. quite useful instruments can be made from hard wood. and a pin-hole e for the the to the index sight line Oi. Two slits are sighted along the survey line.

and quite has a headache about it. Then. doubtless. If the actual sloping as used is /. or distance Slopes are expressed either (a) by the vertical angle a the surface (b) by the ratio of the vertical rise in the corresponding horizontal distance. that is. as viewed directly. For instance. estimating the right angle. which . and this definition is understood in the valuation of land. certain exceptions must be admitted. There is also the geometrical argument which contends that a map must represent areas of any on a plane sheet. valleys. sighting B through the eye-horizon. undulations will affect your measurements. all measurements must be reduced to a common basis." or in other words. surface being too long or too short. hedging. in the case of certain creeping plants. assistant to move until you III. raising the eye momentarily in obtaining coincidence. and ditching. as the horizontal equivalent is called. Exception. Wherefore. Other economic arguments are that the majority of plants shoot up vertically. but if the other diagonal be measured likewise. the gradient on a road or railway is . an "area" is the superficial content of a horizontal plane surface of definite extent. possibly at this moment some contractor those in authority that no more houses could be built Polybius told upon a hillside than within the same limits on level ground. and these refer to the work of the labourer. 1 in x 9 say. SLOPING DISTANCES and Already. On the other hand. Over two thousand years ago Government officials were worried about the matter. Send out an assistant to the required side of the line AB. as well can. No account is taken of the nature or relief of the surface. to an extent dependent upon its own slope and the distortion induced by the other irregularly measured lengths Hence. and so the four-sided skeleton of an irregular field any which slopes steeply from one corner will plot as two triangles on a are diagonal as a common base. which consists of lineal or superficial measurements. Let us hope by this time that our contractor has fathomed the reason why more concrete will be required in constructing the road up Hilly Rise than the amount he estimated by scaling from the map. the vertical rise d is / tan a. a triangle can be plotted with three distances. even though all the measurements made on the actual ground surface. direct the as you see his picket by reflection vertically above the B. makes with the horizontal. for general convenience is the horizontal plane.14 ELEMENTARY SURVEYING Place the square on the top of a short pole interpolated in AB at the point at which the perpendicular is required. and not / sin . projected on to a horizontal plane. in certain connections. such as mowing. and no more trees or crops can be grown on a hill than on its productive occurs base. however. you have been wondering how hills. which theoretically is thus "reduced to horizon. its length will not check with the resulting figure.

if we prescribe a ratio of sign to the corresponding such as 1 r.. and the limit at which It is very difficult to assess slopes by eye. expressed as a fraction.FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES 15 1 in 12.000. in surveying. being differences cosa) c=/(l from the measurements made on the which are subtracted (2) incline. it is possible to determine the precision to our chaining. Hence. 142 of the same magnitude but opposite Also.000 or 1 in 5. cos. 14 Now where cos a-V d\L 1 sin 2(X > and d* if a is verv small COS a= l ~ I sin 2 sin a Hence c= the rule used (3) 27 when pegs are driven on steep slopes and their differences d found by Rule levelling. . FIG. slope <x= /r. at which it is necessary to apply a correction. as the case may be. a correction is error. 14.. difference in height (or in alignment) of (3) shows that if we ignore a will not exceed ft. in a length of 100 ft. or are engraved as such on clinometers. angles up to 3 or 5 being neglected in ordinary horizontal distance b corresponding In Fig. the angles if we that error does not arise exceed 2 34' and 1 08' respectively. even assuming : 11 from other sources. J in.. in the work.cos a (1) Corrections are sometimes given in reduction tables. of slope must not are to chain to 1 in 1. it is evident that the to the sloping length / is 6=/. should be taken into account depends upon the accuracy required they w^rk. if the ratio c/I must not exceed 1/r. Hence Thus in rule (2). the error in length or 0-01 ft.= 17 in. or the tangent of the angle of slope. 1 in 75.

the angle a or the gradient 1 in A: being observed.16 ELEMENTARY SURVEYING distances There are two general methods of determining horizontal when measuring slopes: (1) Stepping. almost invariably holding his end too Ipw. lengths varying from 20 to 50 links." loaded with a lead plummet. the sense of looking horizontally is badly impaired when working on slopes. insert a stout pin at . and P Stepping uphill is more difficult. and sticking arrows in this way facilitates the use of a plumb-bob. exerts a pull. as it requires that both Q must move their ends of the length used. Some surveyors insert arrows slantwise when they require the slope to be taken into account. frequently with the clinometer. form. 14). When to direct extends his right hand and no horizontal object can be viewed. an instrument made in more forms and types than any other surveying instrument. or 6-in. to ensure a vertical fall. the compass included. and uses this artifice in judging the horizontal. holding his handle of the chain on the ground. (In fact. looks for telegraph wires or ridges of roofs. R. Q. standing some distance to the side of the line. Q R balances the rod on his forefinger. The instrument most commonly used in this operation is known as a clinometer. puts Q into line. (2) OBSERVING SLOPES. as in surveying crooked fences. or with a plumb-bob. in order in raising or lowering his end of the length PQ. by taking such precautions as will ensure that the chain or tape is stretched out horizontally. When "All right" is signalled. at the starting-point B. but involve few or no offsets. (1) STEPPING. Stepping has the advantage that it is that P also must be provided any alteration in the field notes. At present we need only examine it in its simplest and improvised Take a 5-in. Q fixes an arrow and proceeds for the next length. as chainmen. P. whose duty it is to see that the chain is horizontal. in accordance with the steepness of the slope and the weight of the chain. In this method it is usual to employ short portions of the chain. gripping a plumb-line at (say) the 40-teller. celluloid protractor. When there streets or its is quick and does not necessitate use is limited to lines that much detail. which is far better than "drop arrows. since the chain will of necessity lie on the ground for some time.) Hence the advisability of the services of R. Let us proceed to measure down the slope from B to A with P and Q R going outwards to the side of the line with a straight rod (or picket) in his hand (Fig. the following method must be used. In the latter respect the sagging effect of the chain may be so serious that the tape must be used in accurate work. (2) Observing Slopes when taking hypotenusal measurements or chaining along the actual slope.

and attach the protractor to the plywood. 1 5. bringing it clown thus. Since one aim of this a broad view of the subject. from the pin-hole and the bottom of the square hole some practice. tan a. Figure around the outside of the protractor the even slope ratios. the chief drawback to tliis method is the fact that the field notes must show the angles of The chief difficulty since these often vary slope or their ratios together with the limits of each different slope. so that a plummet with a hook attachment can be readily suspended. Finally make a wooden handle and fix it to the back of the baseboard. which will be a in observthe complement 90 its move until you ing angles of elevation (up the slope) and /or angles of depression (down the slope). directing him into the sight along the straight edge of the protractor which should be with it A B. What is big in the field is small on a map. then grip the thread and the protractor at the edge near the point g. and. square. 6 in. In practice the distances along the survey lines must be duly amended before plotting. particularly the relative degrees of accuracy are shown. not offsets normally. Bend the strips at right angles. preferably as red ink corrections. : . at the other a thread to the pin. as 1 1.500. tie bunch of keys. Obviously requires the foregoing it process FIG. and attach a light weight. wide. J in.000 . keeping its zero line parallel to the upper surface of the wood. preferably from the tables in a surveying manual. Attach a piece of three-ply. to a piece of hard wood. say a end of the thread. read the angle. the lines of constructing a good substitute. Take two brass strips. As a further refinement. etc. Only measurements along survey lines will be affected. Insert a tiny picture-ring in the centre of the protractor. but and attach these sights to the upper face of the wood with brass screws. 15 suggests. and see the eyes of your helpmate. with a fair average of 1 1. In surface measurements the precision is influenced mainly by the nature of the ground and : book is to give methods of if some idea of the precautions that are tak"-n at the expense of speed. f in. drill a pinhole sight in one. x 6 in. 1:12. and the sense of appreciating the general trend must be cultivated. the corrections to surface measurements can be inscribed in accordance with Rule 2. on a hillside or consist of featureless undulations. Appoint somebody of line Now held your own height to proceed up the slope. square hole in the other. : : is knowing when and where to take the slopes.FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES its 17 centre o. Apart from injudicious selection of slope limits. The ratios for ordinary chaining are 1 750 to 1 1. a summary of the different measuring lines will not be out of place. respectively. and cut a $ in. failing a proprietary instrument. | in. little LINEAR MEASUREMENT. Such a device can be used in many connections. plane vertical.

and range-poles are easily snapped. They respond to well-defined paces. the mechanism being operated by a delicate pendulum device. : 500 to 1 : 900).000 to 1 : 1. . route. Practised pacing is a great asset to the surveyor. Sheep and cattle are naturally inquisitive. instruments and atmospheric conditions are the controlling factors. which at least has an official air. Possibly the line of approach should be through the medium of a code. and if damaged or neglected impair some other fellow's work. towing the patent log (1 By optical measurement. FIELD-CODE In the writer's youth the text-books gave much sound personal advice to the surveyor. In optical and other measurements. and two lambs can overturn an expensive level in two to four minutes. in the vest pocket or clipped inside the collar opening of the waistcoat. : (c) (d) to 1 : By river launch. or pace-counter.000 seems reasonable for surface measurement with steel tapes and every precaution. is a useful investment. and not to the shuffling gait of a celebrated comedian of the silent films: a fact that may be useful when the user does not want counts to be recorded. Horses masticate flags (and lunch haversacks).000). If carried in the trousers pockets. they usually count only half-paces. and suffers from the refinements necessary to setting it to the individual step. even though sound sense and good taste are not experience. (b) (1 : By Perambulator. and is particularly useful in reconnaissance. cows chew tripods. Both instruments are similar and like watches in appearance. They should be carried vertically above the waist. in road measurement and exploratory work 150 to 1 300). IV. and is to be preferred to the pedometer. Doubtless this would appear superfluous in a modem text-book.18 ELEMENTARY SURVEYING A : for careful limit of 1 work on good ground. (1) is likely to Surveying equipment is expensive.000 : : : 3. lower value in route surveys.000). (1 the shore (/) to 1 : and a ship By aeroplane.000. (a) Pacing. (1 : or range-finder 300 (e) By sound signals. The passometer. but the difficulty of counting is a great handicap. by tacheometer 650). the "obvious" being evident only after the event. which gives distances. (g) By base tapes and compensated bars (1 : 300.000). and military surveying. and the ratios given are representative of average practice. after training (1 : 75 to 1 : 150). 50. in guns being fired alternately between ships or 500 to 1 2. controlled flight over ground stations (1 1. even on matters of dress and deportment. even if stones are transferred from pocket to pocket at every hundred paces.

and the proper way is the (4) shortest. Pedestrians and cyclists are easily tripped. barbed wire is no respecter of clothing. should be carried under the arm. even for temporary An open gate may lead to straying cattle. and never leant against trees or walls. instruments should never be left unguarded. Chains. except in the open. In public spaces ridicule. It may be impossible to supply an omitted (6) Field measurement. range-poles. (5) Chaining on paths and highways should be carried out with extreme caution.. and theodolites should be protected with a waterproof cover. and easily interpreted by a surveyor who has never seen the area. and the entire work may be rendered invalid. and a stretched chain may lead to a motor accident. (3) Hedges must never be opened or cut visible. or forecourt. tripods firmly planted. and staves and poles left on the ground. . and always under supervision. etc. Wet instruments should be carefully dried. notes should be legible. Surveying affords excellent opportunities of trying out the semaphore But a simpler system is desirable: something like the following. during be left in enclosures. Chaining yard.FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES recesses. and that undue interest by the public will When soon subside if you work silently and show no resentment. Every respect should be given to property. it provokes code. is which suggestive rather thi*n standard. Tripods and poles should not be shouldered in streets or through doorways. only municipal parks are available. they should be removed nightly. Station pegs should be removed. levels. and in private lands annoyance or curiosity. Gates should be properly closed and fastened. (7) Stock should be taken of the equipment before leaving the field. in order to make stations inter- Fences should never be climbed in order to shorten journeys. compasses. If driven where they are likely to cause accidents. Permission should always be asked before entering any field. or walking through crops of all kinds may lead to a claim for damage. When necessarily exposed to rain. and. should 19 Wherefore. the instrument forward. and neglect in this respect may lead to the withdrawal of your permit. explicit. They should be complete before leaving the field. and levels. with consequent damage and expense. (2) Instruments should be securely attached to tripods. the tennis racket case serving this purpose well. and the position of the station carefully referenced. It should always be remembered given that these are places of recreation. and arrows are easily forgotten when clearing the ground. (8) Shouting instructions is bad taste. special attention should be to the conditions of the permit. egress. security in this respect being checked from time to time.

the right hand extended." and instructs the staffman to extend a telescopic staff or to move to higher ground. "Right" or "Left" Extend the right or left elbow and graduate the motion of the forearm to required. but obviated by "fix picket" in boning-in. and (d) it "Go Ahead. and swing the entire body to the right. the sign implying "All right" in short (b) "Fix.K. in front of the body. For great distances where the less-emphatic "Fix" would not be recognised. bringing the hands together above the head several times. it is in the required suit the lateral movement desired to bring staffmen or chainmen round through a considerable distance from their present positions. 9' distances." Extend between this bringing the arm full length to the halt position. "Fix arrow" is indicated by depressing the right hand sharply. "Come here" or "Come in" is indicated by bringing the hand to the crown of the head after every few turns. Directing staffmen in levelling and chainmen in fixing stations. The signal implies "Too Low. and raise the right hand briskly above it. When (/) "Come Nearer" Circle the right arm over the head. periodically indicating the required spot with the arm extended." for "All Right" fully forty years before we took it into our vernacular." Raise the right arm full length vertically above the head. emphasising the motion by raising the body until the signal is interpreted and obeyed. "Plumb Staff" "To your Right. and depress the hands briskly." Extend the right arm upwards slightly to the right. and generally to await further instructions. Plumbing the staff in levelling (h) and adjusting station poles. checking further movement by thrusting out the left arm. and finally bringing the arm to the halt position. (e) direction. Directing staffmen to remain while a reading is taken. the hands extended. Ranging out lines and establishing stations. (i) . The signal may be reversed to suggest movement to lower ground. and a position horizontally in front of the body. palm downwards. (c) "Stay There. Directing staffmen and chainmen. "All Right" Swing both arms from the sides simultaneously. repeat after momentary pauses. graduating the motion to the desired forward movement. Vice versa in plumbing (g) to the staffman's left. Extend the forearms forward horizontally. American surveyors signalled "O." Raise both arms full length vertically above the head. slackening the motion as the required position is approached. emphasise the signal by swinging the arm and body in the required direction.20 ELEMENTARY SURVEYING SIGNALS (a) "Halt. "Higher" Hold the left hand. and wave the right arm full length above the head.

1 A (e). Use of a cycle wheel on a gong serving as an improvised trocheameter. 131 Ss. rule and a set of pickets. rule. It was proved.. Investigate the accuracy of chaining by measuring the line AB . and desirably a passometer. Refund. 24 p. 1 (b). 1 (a). chain (50ft. Equipment: Set of pickets. (e. an accurate steel tape or band. arrows and set of pickets.000 in Town Surveys.FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES CLASS EXERCISES 21 Surveys and 1 in 3. Express as angles or otherwise the slopes corresponding to these errors. chain. Problem 1 (c).) (2 34' or 1 1 (c).. Equipment: Set of pickets. and the court decided that the excess payment should be refunded to the purchaser. 0-438 acres. (Excess. (a) to which the legs are hinged. cross staff. Describe the optical square.) the strikes .) Calculate the amount of the refund. Problem 1 (b). tape..) (G. arrows. (G. In chaining you are instructed to take into account the slope ot the ground when it gives rise to an error of measurement of 1 in 1.S.). purchaser disputed the area of a field which was stated to be 54 a. Describe how you would "reference" a survey station so that you : 1 (a). that the Gunter chain used was 0-4 link too short. FIELD EXERCISES Problem length.S. 22 and 1 29' or 1 39. however. A picket (or plumb-bob) may be inserted in the junction-piece Problem 1 (e). the following methods of measuring sloping distances with the chain: (a) Stepping. and a linen tape. (b) Hockey ground. times. . and in the absence of a permanent standard. Describe with reference to neat sketches.g. and hard surfaces improvised tripods may be used. the sale price being 300 per acre. Problem 1 (d).000 in Land : could re-establish 1 its position if required. scriber or chalk. Equipment: Chain. Qd. . the feet tied to prevent (On opening out. Measure up the specified portion of the .) (J). arrows. arrows. Ascertain the average length of the natural pace and assess the accuracy of careful pacing. (b) Observing slopes. Examine and test the assigned chains against a standard Equipment: Chains.) ORIGINAL PROBLEMS as a road-measuring perambulator. Equipment: Chain. Set out one of the following in the playing-field: Tennis court. Building. indicating its principles on a neat sketch. 3 r.

In chain surveys the selection of stations can be truly pioneer work. as in accurate angles and rough chaining. Sanction to purchase a theodolite may sound important in the council chamber. though the field of imagination. since all lengths must be measured. and reconnaissance in order to obtain inter-visibility becomes a matter of greatest importance. often the same precision. by 4i in. which is often introduced inexpediently. classical piece of work. The writer recalls some notes he encountered thirty-five years ago. the records of a very extensive chain survey carried out in the 'sixties. particularly in view of the fact that page 22 of the duplicated sheets was missing. chain. linen tape (cross staff or optical square). but disillusionment is often the lot of the surveyor. This method of upward booking should be characteristic of all forms of line notes. and something that merges into the complex naturally and unobtrusively. The field notes are entered in a book with stiff covers.CHAPTER H CHAIN SURVEYING Not the least of the educational values of surveying is the fact that the introduction to the art is through the medium of the simple chain survey. containing plain leaves.) FIELD NOTES. Some of the notes recorded seventy years ago emphasise a marked decline in handwriting and 22 lettering and general presentation. as in looking forward along the chain to the next forward station. effort. The execution of an extensive chain survey is the finest training for the surveyor. in order that you may foster your own A reminiscences.. but a proper place. and. and resource has been impaired by the premature inception of the theodolite. There is a place for everything in the field. the field-book. and not mixed. The usual two sets consist of one or (By the way. arrows. which in no small way arises from the fact that all measurements are of the same order. something utilitarian as well as instructive. are ruled centrally down the middle of the page to represent the survey line. see that the linen tape is also figured in links when measurements are to be made in Gunter chains. about f in. scale is relatively unimportant compared with neatness and clarity of interpretation. pocket compass. But the labour is usually rewarded by satisfaction in the results. above all. and secured with an elastic band. Usually two red lines. Equipment. outfit in work of the present nature will of range-poles or pickets (flags). In keeping field notes. particularly in regard to offset detail. . about 7| in. But let us proceed. opening lengthwise. but a monumental piece of plotting. and the notes are recorded up the page. apart.

though. various Fig.) and objects. Space will not allow discussion of the . 16 shows a specimen page of the notes symbols being introduced. of a chain survey. Few surveyors record their notes in precisely the same way.CHAIN SURVEYING which to-day 23 is not infrequently loose and half legible. and obtain soire idea of representing improvising clear abbreviations. these follow a more or less general scheme." page 37. (It is now suggested that the reader study the survey of "Conventional detail Farm. of course. but vary their conventional signs.

overwhelming the story or the instrument in their enterprise.24 ELEMENTARY SURVEYING line instead various points of contention. better. Indelible pencils may serve in official capacities. in the main. but there is no place for them in plotting or surveying. such as the merits of using a single red of a pair. and often loses it and the labours of his fellows. often inadept. while contact with a fence corner necessitates contact at a red line with the zero offset distance "0" suggested by the word "At. or with arrow-heads and letters indicating the directions of the adjacent stations concerned. by breaking the road or fence. except for marking Keeping the Field Notes. the The keeping. and whether in pencil or waterproof ink. I. CHAIN TRIANGULATION 17. Some object to the indoor transcription of notes. area As few main triangles as possible. The crossing of a road or fence requires that the double lines be imagined as a single line. even if this is not stated in words. (d) As strong check lines as possible. (a) bearing in mind the following rules: As long should if it latter lines as possible. etc. two strokes are drawn to denote the end of a line. whether lines should be numbered or not. though even a chain may be per- missible (b) obviates a subsidiary triangle in an unimportant gap. but with reasonable latitude in subsidiary triangles. the lone keeper of records may be a wellmeaning but irresponsible student. Frequently the station chainages are inserted in rings. which be restricted to 50 links. but a copy is a copy wherever made. booking being a substantial part of the class under instruction may appear like a rush of reporters in an training. and the leader must keep an eye to the book from time to time. but these are long. and even like to see the marks of the field (which need little cultivation). without further remark. in order to verify all main triangles with an additional measurement. or notes affords no difficulty in actual practice. Some insert direction marks at the stations. etc. with no angle under 30 or greater than 120. Usually a page is allocated to a line regardless of its length." Right-angle when offsets are generally understood. Often the "class copy" must inevitably be the work of several hands. consistent with covering the without a number of subsidiary triangles for outlying boundaries. unless these are otherwise . consistent with short offsets. On the other hand. who fails to produce the evidence when required. necessitating "tying." and at least one other student of that party should transcribe the notes before leaving the field. A stakes. American gangster film. inlying details. though obviously very long lines or lines with much detail will require two or more pages. (c) As well-formed triangles as possible. custody of the field but is a matter of serious importance in instructional classes. Let us consider Fig." dotted lines are inserted with the tape measurements figured along them. A middle course must be found by deputing a trustworthy student to be responsible for the "party copy. Also.

lines. its position being recorded in both these lines: thus: AB. particularly with the 100-ft. chain. Thus in the afternoons. which together comprehend the area without requiring long offsets to the boundaries. but one of sorts. as these will arise from lines along farm roads and fences Now form a triangle. On AC are built the two triangles ABC and ADC. so that in plotting. Normally. often a check too The (1) field-work many in slipshod work. 6-72 chs. and. selecting the order most suitable to prevailing conditions. etc. read the chain to the nearest link. a pole O should be interpolated so that it is both in AC and BD. Select the stations in accordance with the foregoing rules. visibility along the long lines may become very poor. to the adjacent (3) Proceed to measure the lines and the offsets boundaries. may be detailed concisely y as follows: Reconnoitre the ground and select suitable points for the stations A. quite without qualification. and if necessary fix flags to the station 9 poles. if available.CHAIN SURVEYING mtvxivwia 25 oy interior fence or road triangles need not be checked.. In the case of farms. In certain connections. such as #>. aiming at simplicity and strength.. the lines can be readily found from the numbered pages of (2) Sketch an "index insert the survey lines. since in plotting this will introduce an error of less than 1/200 inch on a scale as large as 1 chain to 1 inch. a plan will certainly follow. and these should be measured first. 6-64 chs. in the case of large surveys. In large surveys an index to the lines is desirable. Hence it is essential to measure a check line. Establish the stations suitably with pegs. this difficulty being obviated by inserting the triangle efg in the gap. in doing this. where several fields are included. in winter. the first page of the field-book. with O at 2-04 chs. B C. D etc.. and is frequently styled the base line. Fio. 17 any three lengths will and if a chain length is "overlooked" in measuring a line. map" on the book. it is necessary . consulting existing maps. Small or isolated subsidiary as The diagonal AC in Fig. with O at 3-28 chs. and ED. and This item often permits simplification in the field-book. and never sacrificing a strong triangle in order to avoid a difficulty. no offsets being taken from these lines. 17 work. is selected the basis of the A line alongside approach road usually assumes this capacity in plotthe ting. it is seldom necessary to think about checks..

At least and these.. two corners. gate-posts. But when a hedge has a ditch (or the remains of one) the hedge and the ditch usually belong to the same . portions may (4) Concurrently with the measurement of the lines. and such as this efg. Never take offsets at regular intervals merely in order to use Simpson's Rule. (5) Continue the work on these lines until all the lines are measured or surveyed. the root is the boundary line if it divides the property of two different owners A and B. The plotting of the survey will be discussed in a later chapter. which should be restricted to distances scaled from the plan. Clusters of trees may often be surveyed from a line between them. local inquiries have to be made as to the positions of stones and marks on parish boundaries. and swinging the tape as already described in estimating the right angles.26 to ELEMENTARY SURVEYING work more accurately. though occasionally after closing the line may be done on the end station. sending out the ring end of the tape to the roots of hedges. Reference two stations of an important line in order to facilitate re-survey. and particular note should be made whenever the chain line crosses fences. and often the general limits and a mere count as to their number is sufficient. take offsets from the chain as it lies on the ground. Two (three at most) are necessary in the case of straight fences. remembering what is large to the eye is often undison the map. There are very few cases in which the surveyor can by mere inspection the precise position of a legal boundary line between properties. important measurements. or none at all. while in other cases the wall is built entirely on one property and the boundary line is then the outer face. or prominent points on buildings. should be "tied" even though they be squared off from the survey line. In the case of brick and stone walls. When a hedge has a ditch on either side of it. Offsets should be taken where there is a distinct change in the direction On tinguishable of a boundary. taking care that no important triangle is unchecked and that no important detail is omitted. and laths. walls. etc. Finally remove all station pegs. it is often desirable to represent trees by a conventional circle rather than to obscure the ground with artistic matter. tell Hedge and Ditch. like all fixing the faces of buildings should be located. should be taken from eg andfg. as calculations may be involved. Widths of gateways should be figured in addition to the offsets to the posts. Trees need little attention may when they grow along boundaries. fences. or certain be required on a very large scale. the centre some- times forms the division line. Also the boundary between properties and parishes may be the centre of a brook or a stream. footpaths. in which case it is known as a party wall. Frequently. poles. offsets ditches. but otherwise their positions should be found. roads. by tying the stations with two tape measurements from trees. When a subsidiary triangle is set out. large scale plans. particularly if isolated or if they are planted along avenues.

CD. and S. Commonly all measurements are taken to the root of the hedge. Usually the owner's side is denoted by a "T" when a hedge is represented by a mere line on a map. and that is best left to lawyers or chartered surveyors. as in the case of chain N. which by a stretch of imagination may be a road. In chain traverses it is necessary to fix the y relative positions of the lines AB. and (b) Closed Traverses. etc. There are exceptions to this rule. II.. so that the directions of the main traverse lines may be in error. Further discussion may get us entangled in the Law of Property. or between the stations of closed traverses. road. so that a magnetic meridian. in themselves are traverses Strictly. in A. . or planta- tion. includes both the hedge and property the ditch.. Fig. the the primary classes of traverse surveys: (a) Open Traverses. In the case of roads through woods it is often extremely difficult to get in ties at all. EC. pond.'s property is the line XY. or otherwise giving too acute or oblique intersections. (a) Open Traverses. MrA Fio. or stream. it would be incongruous to run a closed traverse around a wood. B. can be drawn on the plan. Usually the bearing of the first line. AB 9 is triangulation. The tendency is to use ties far too short. or.'s Fig. the clear side or brow forming the boundary line. the following allowances being made: 5 or 6 to 7 links according as adjacent fields belong to the same or different owners. Strange things like this happen in surveying when a proper examination of the ground is not made. and then introduce one of traverse.CHAIN SURVEYING 27 property. which these instruments in order to survey an interior road. B. CHAIN TRAVERSES two categories representing less in Traversing denotes the running of consecutive survey lines more or conformity with the configuration of a wood. What may occur between triangulaopen tion stations. or a route. the boundary of Mr. the chain alone is is not the ideal method of dealing with a best surveyed with the compass and chain. river. Needless to say. angles or bearings at A. line. etc. and 7 to 10 links when abutting on public lands. the theodolite and chain. 18. and C. or taken with a pocket compass. placing the latter in the category of Compound Traverses. by means of ties ab whereas otherwise the directions would be determined by the cd. while Mr. better. 19 shows the main traverse lines and ties with reference to a portion of a stream. Thus.

say. The principles and methods of chain triangulation are also employed in mixed triangulation surveys with the theodolite. 20 compound chain surveys. should not terminate with the end station. which in the case of Fig. as. B. but doubtless affords a better basis for offset measurements. the principles could be extended to FIG. Some idea of surveying Conventional Farm might be obtained by inspection of Plate I. . The area in Fig. This is evident in the triangle bed. the line de. Also. "back angles" will also be the interior angles of the polygonal skeleton. 20 shows the (b) Closed Traverses. 6 obviate the chaining of the diagonals by the observation of four angles. Each main line and not infrequently FIG. 19 main lines are laid down whereas few would suffice.28 ELEMENTARY SURVEYING D are selected or even a contour line. B. c. so as to retain continuity and avoid omissions. and the tie stations. foregoing method applied to the case of a pond. There is certainly much differs little D lation surveys. Sometimes certain of the ties afford a convenient basis for offset measurements. b. incidentally serving for offset measurements when close to the stream. which not only replaces two main lines. 0. such as those of farms and estates. The routine from that detailed for trianguThe notes. but should include the end b of the tie on the next line. The main stations A. C. and d. and so as to render the offsets short. When the traverse is run between stations more rigidly located by chain or other triangulation. however. to be said for the use of the single red line instead of the pair in work of this nature. however. 17 might and this would be an extravagant innovation unless great accuracy is required or obstructions impede the measurement of AB and CD. Generally. for instance. Fig. to fix the angles rigidly. 20 is shown j traversed direction in the counter-clockwise simply is because when a theodolite D used. the traverse lines can be adjusted to fit between the main stations by the methods described in Chapter VII. requires an angle several tie.

Equipment (which is also (he same in the following problems): Chain. Often a field class has to be abandoned on account of the weather.CHAIN SURVEYING 29 the sketching of lines on diagrammatic surveys is of little value unless contours and other information are supplied. Hence. arrows. containing a road leading how you would survey this with the chain. indicate clearly how you would survey the farm with the chain. poles and tape only. and insert the imaginary notes of an important line in the survey in Qu. measuring tape. Survey the (specified) cottage (gate lodge) and garden. 1 12 1 10 1:8 : I : | | | () 2 50 245 360 field 510 720 824 960 1128(C) Enter these on a for sloping ground. poles only. nothing as notes brought in from the field. Sketch the plan of a street you know. limitations of time. is so good CLASS EXERCISES Sketch the plan of a farm which consists of six adjacent fields and a building. the ground. ORIGINAL PROBLEMS . Problem 2 (e). Survey the (specified) farmyard. page of notes and make the necessary corrections Sketch an isolated to a quarry. and indicate how you would survey the frontage lines of buildings and fix other details from a survey line which runs down the centre of the carriage-way. extract notes area and you from text-books must be resorted to. and range-poles only. Problem 2 (b). Nevertheless. Problem 2 (d). set of pickets. the whole area approximating to a rectangle with a road running along the south boundary. (d). (a). Survey the (specified) *oad between the range-poles marked .4 and B. notes. Draw up a page of a field-book. 2 (b). Examine an will discover that this is something more than a This comment does not apply to plotting from unseen field diagram. pocket compass. FIELD EXERCISES Problem 2 (a). such as are given in text-books. and linen tape. Survey the (specified) pond (wood or plantation) with the chain. or an omission on the part of a member of the party. Problem 2 (c). Survey the (specified) field by chain methods only. 2 2 (c). and indicate wood of irregular shape. chaining was done on the surface of and the slopes taken with the clinometer at the sections indicated. and 2 (). and measure up the buildings. Assuming that the interior fences are low and the ground fairly level. 2 (a). tape. In measuring a survey line BC.

and (2) as an important feature of the plan or map for Scales occur in convenience in scaling measurements and distances. and all three are combined (c) Usually (a) to^ express modes are used on the Ordnance maps. celluloid.F. in deference to his wishes.F. such as our 25-in. On the other hand.560.500. absolutely necessary involved. precisely 25 inches to the mile. and two forms. (1) Office Scales. Thus the R. Oval section scales carry four different fets of divisions. which is usually "open" divided. 6 Inches to 1 Mile. dividing known as an offset scale. of measurement.F. etc. of the scales stated above are respectively 1 : 792 and 1 : 10. the present various chapter is inserted somewhat prematurely. as 1 R. is by even and not. as the case may be. The when two unrelated systems of units are or map scale. revised at a second reading. a matter of primary importance. and most Continental maps are to all applying is 1 : systems characterised 2. or cm. of triangular section which carry six scales. which therefore. it is desirable to difficulties view of the subject of plotting proceed slowly. the scale. in order to take a wider the book. Ordnance sheet. Office scales are constructc4 the flat section bearing two scales. ratios. instruments for plotting maps (1) As refined or improvised drawing and plans. and construction of scales is Anyway. which are Open Divided or Close Divided. The method is universal. the in.)> such : tor being the number of units in space represented by one scale unit. possibly overlooking he has encountered. and. the denominaRepresentative Fraction (R. though matters not rather than to distribute it throughout It is of immediate interest the uses may be I. SCALES on plans or maps in certain conventional ratios to the actual lengths of the corresponding lines in three ways: space.CHAPTER m PLOTTING PLANS AND MAPS efforts but natural that the young surveyor is eager to see how his own show up on paper. being better than those or ivory.. By a Divided Line. of boxwood. such as 1 Chain to 1 Inch. 30 . as only the first main division or all the main divisions according are subdivided. (c) R. and are usually (open) divided for scales are close engineering and architectural plans. Surveying plotting and are sometimes provided with a short length of the same divided. Scales may be expressed in the following (a) A scale is used to measure straight lines By a By a (b) Statement.

and. pensive item is the protractor scale. Comparative scales show systems. though its principal use is giving fine measurements through the medium of the dividers when constructing scales by the methods hereafter described. a diagonal scale. or 100 ft. the students in. TENTH?. etc. such as feet and metres on the same representaand time scales show time intervals instead of yards or pacing. and J. 21 . the various kinds of scales that may have to be constructed are Comparative Scales different tive fraction. long. boxwood rule. it is usual to resort to construction by diagonal division. The primary divisions must show integral va ues of the units. inches with eights and tenths. has omitted to insert a scale on his map. being used for etc. (1 ch. improvising wherever useful and inexnecessary special divisions on strips of drawing-paper. three edges being divided for the construction and measurement of angles. and figuring these with fractional values and their multiples. giving hundredths of an inch. i. except to the eye of the beholder. This must never be done.. I J 3 UNITS Fio. It is then necessary to find two prominent points on A map which &till exist in tru* area. in military surveying and exploratory mapping. between them.). i (inch) to 1 ft. When the division introduces fractions. failing access to these. the covers up his inaccuracies. in inches. and to provide against the shrinkage of the paper "shrunk" scale is made when the surveyor over the lapse of year. Students have a habit at first of artist primary divisions blacked setting off primary divisions. never unduly shor f or long. metres for a given statement or representative fraction. Scales should be drawn with extreme care. centimetres. and then to construct a true scale so that it can be used in the future. also a scale of chords. as shown in Fig. Constructing Scales.PLOTTING PLANS AND MAPS must content himself with a good 12 31 ^High-class scales are expensive. and Time Scales. Here. and the paper shows evidence of shrinkage. trotting.. It is exceedingly useful also in the fe1d. 21 . however fractional the actual lengths may Among two be. Scales of this category are open divided. 6 in. so that often the scale is of little use. A double line with alternate the in is olten used. A (2) Map Scales. and are drawn on the map to facilitate measurement with a paper strip or a pair of dividers. although it carries the statement of the exact scale on which the survey was plotted. and similar to the so-called One form show military protractor. unfortunately. and preferably with a single line. The boxwood pattern is the best. to measure carefully the distanc-.

chains and tenths. was found to be 11-85 chs. .. pb would have to represent 55-6 yds. serving for lettering and inserting details. there are certain items which must be discussed at length. Take the decimally-divided 2-67 in.32 ELEMENTARY SURVEYING A horizontal line pa to it a line pb. the primary divisions being 5 minute intervals. while alternatively 1 cm. Join ab and draw parallels through 2' scale and measure off pb and 1'. 13-9 yds. = 375 yds.. length of pa. b and a are are drawn through the even points of joined. F. mile. Write "0" at the end of the first division and subdivide the division on the left into 10 parts. in length. set-square. 5*80 ^ x2 . When drawn. divisions of /?0. all of which are too well known to require description.. and dividers. (v) Construct the scale stated as 2 chains to 1 inch. Extend the scale a convenient length to the right. T-square. or 375 yds. so that tens of yards would appear as primary divisions. being the zero of the open divisions. Here 4 in. which is the scale of the : preceding example.. primary divisions. =44 ft. a drawing scale is placed along pb. Next. given the statement. 500 showing yards and metres. a is division is chosen say 4 in.. say. 27 x 100 =75 yds. and the close divisions 1 minute intervals. In the metric system. TO. to 7| in. Find the number of chains that are represented by a convenient length. = 528 in. on while recent re-measurement. 7 '6. given the R. as pa. and parallels to ba 2' and 1'. the subdivisions of pi' giving likewise the subdivision. = 5 metres. and at any convenient acute convenient length has been marked off. given that a line scaling 5-80 in. 1 528. The following examples introduce commonly arise: (i) the types of problems that Construct a scale showing chains and tenths.. = 500 in. to the mile a scale for marching at (iv) Construct on the scale of 100 paces per minute with an average length of 27 in. to 1 10 ft. =2-667 chs. =176 ft. Apart from the drawing-board.. and 4 in. each to represent 10 metres. 4 inches. =29 -3 yds. =2-667 chs. (ii) Construct a scale showing Here 1 in. say. Here 2 chs. and b could conveniently be 5-56 in. in 5 min. omitted from an old shrunk map.. Hence a suitable scale would be 6 in. length of pa in Fig. the primary divisions on pb which give on pa divisions each corresponding to one chain. per min. to a. Here 100 paces will cover : = on the given scale 1 in. as indicated. ^ Mapping Requisites. =0-98 in. compasses. and the so that it represents conveniently the number of units (usually fractional and integral) represented by the 4-in. (1) First a good drawing-pen the common mapping-pen is necessary for drawing lines in ink. the scale would be constructed by merely setting off 2 cm.. scales of 1 (iii) Construct comparative Here 1 in. 21 will represent =8-17 chs. If pa is still 4 in. and the true J'O scale can be constructed by joining b at 8-17 chs. and drawing parallels 8'7.. or 1-28 in. are actually represented by . with single yards on the left. 6 in. Otherwise the 1 1 *o3 4 in.

) and Imperial Sheets (30 in. possibly. never the soft surface material which becomes ragged along inked lines. the base. in. or f-in. Ordinary writing-ink should never be used on plans. 18 in. the chief item is the beam compass. X 1J in. nor crayons. the sides of the often in laying Rule from observed angles triangles having been calculated by the Sine and the one measured side. The beam compass is down . to 24 in. In an emergency strips of paper. x 22 in. stand erasures. (3) Good quality drawing-paper should be used. or HHH. the stock being secured to the head with an adjustable thumb nut. by making adjustable clips and attaching these to the points and pencil-holders of old A compasses. The sizes that will be used in the present connection are the Half Imperial (23 in.PLOTTING PLANS AND MAPS 33 Waterproof Indian ink should be used. how it will react to water-colours.). etc. and. good quality beam compass should be available. 15 be used. (2) clinograph is preferable to the lever types of parallel rules for transferring parallels to oblique lines. even with sand-paper in the event of accidents. long. though a few additional ones could be improvised in the workshop with f-in. chisel-pointed. as in plotting bearings. 22 BEAM COMPASS not only used in plotting chain surveys.. but accurate triangulation nets. which emphasise only bad taste. and often one can A be improvised from a broken T-square. a stout pin serving as the centre. An adjustable T-square will also serve the purpose. and a roundAlways use a hard pencil. A sample of the paper should be tested as to how it will take ink. pricker off scale distances on survey lines. particularly whenever a colour wash is to be applied. might Fio. since the lengthening bar will extend the use of ordinary compasses only to relatively short lines. HH pointed H marking for lettering. x 16 in. or HH A is recommended for (4) Finally. square mahogany rods.

Finishing the be discussed later. 17) is selected as the base. is by the conjoint use of a close divided surveying scale and an offset main scale being held in position by a pair of shoe-shaped Few students will have these latter at hand. Considerable thought may be involved in placing a survey on the paper.. C ACD. such as efg. true or magnetic. (2) Placing the Survey. and thus the approaches to the property should appear at the bottom. with intersecting at the apex A and B as centres. centimetres and chains or feet must never be mixed. In selecting the scale the objects of the survey and the extent of surface to be represented must be borne in mind. to All "irregulari1 ch. with roads approximately parallel to the bottom edge of the paper. The then set to the respective scale lengths of the sides. ties" must be avoided. C. the scale. PLOTTING THE SURVEY There are four principal steps in the routine of plotting maps and plans: (1) Selecting the Scale. simply because a scale map will (1) in. and. short perpendiculars arc erected . to the base. adjacent swung accordingly. regardless of the position of the meridian needle. Stations should be indicated by small circles. leaving very little margin. to 1 in. constructed likewise. while. so as to be pleasing to the eye. to the inch. is placed carefully along the pencilled line. and the T-square weights.34 ELEMENTARY SURVEYING II. (3) In plotting the triangles. as in 1 cm. If distances are to be scaled to the nearest foot. to 1 in. and set-square must be brought into service. Z). and this is drawn to scale in the best position on the paper as can be judged. arcs are beam compass is AC. since it is more easily manipulated. (2) Only in maps of extensive areas is it desirable that the true north should be at the top of the sheet. etc. the scale should not be less than 50 ft. B. zero at the beginning station of the line... The most rapid method of inserting right-angle offsets is of the triangle. then with the aid of the set-square. and easily evident to the least intelligent. such as 64 ft. Subsidiary triangles.) The plotting scale. a survey line (AB in Fig. a fairly wide margin is effective. (3) Constructing the Triangulation or Skeleton. Incidentally. (4) Details of surveys of the present class will be inserted by offsets. and the process is continued until the entire framework is completed. the side border lines being true north and south lines. The area should be viewed from the local aspect. in Fig. and the points at which offsets were taken are pricked off. within ^ reason. or 132 ft. On this triangle another. 17. and (4) Inserting the Detail. mostly rectangular. often from a trial plotting. to 1 in. can be inserted with the ordinary compasses. even if this would be geometrically convenient. when the scale is reading to definitely 2 chs. (A straight edge is better than a T-square. BC. is available. long offsets being tied by means of ordinary compasses. appropriately lettered A. The tendency is to use too large a scale.

Inserting and at this stage the imaginary survey the finishing of survey maps. When a number of subsidiary traverses occur in instructional mapping. ordinary compasses. Never let the ink coagulate in the pen when out . are and filled in or finished in black ink. but not too conspicuously. apart. so as to obtain uniform heights and spacing. cover the remainder ot the sheet with a series of strokes. between guide-lines Titles are best inserted by outlining them first soft pencil. etc. always at hand to wipe same paper as that on the board. The celluloid open stencils Then outlines in pencil. All details should be carefully outlined in pencil. reducing the use of erasers to a minimum. red circles being drawn of chain surveys and triangles wherever angles are observed. or. letters. about J in. exceedingly useful in obtaining well-proportioned craftsmanship is at a discount to-day. The station letters should also be inserted in red. such as the following. In instructional surveys it is usual to insert the survey for the stations lines in very fine red ink lines. Erect letters emphasise defects an experienced draughtsman can work to any slope with facility. Handwriting Free-hand lettering cannot be taught by a text-book. have improved themselves in free-hand lettering by practising Write a sentence three times to some scheme. the ends carefully pricked or pencilled. finally giving the outline in block which are inked with the drawing-pen and the mapping-pen. though result. ruled parallel. lines are sometimes shown in another colour: green should be restricted to one detail: the signature. Half an hour's practice a day for a week often has a revolutionary far more than slanting. The scale is then applied to a short stroke the offset measurements. even to a prosaic survey map. but the fact remains that draughtsand the master-touch can give an manship is a great accomplishment. and hence find the the on Many top natural slope of the downstrokes. with the aid of the squares. are inserted with the aid of the set-square. Next. a French curve. Finally. This retention of the skeleton occurs in practice only where construc- work is likely to follow.PLOTTING PLANS AND MAPS by 35 offsets being indicated for right-angle offsets. the nearest walls of buildings occasionally. and keep a cloth of temporary use. the or blue ink. the positions of tie line across the survey line. three lines of a sheet of ruled foolscap. and the fences. the paper ruling. as in mine surveys particularly. of Conventional Farm should be consulted (page 37). etc. being normally tional the outcome of practice and training.. atmosphere test your pen from time to time on a piece of the Finally. reproduce the giving written sentences by changing script into hand-lettering.. with a fairly or other the squares are used. details is a step closely related to Finishing Survey Maps. and then rule guide-lines parallel to the height of the body of the letters. the corners usually being fixed by ties described with are inserted. Likewise. and the will Unfortunately seems to be taken for the deed.

possibly. (e) and (/) a Terrier.W. (b) the Scale. beasts.R." "G. This tional light coming convention is sometimes used in connection with objects. but never so as to obscure the ground below. even leviathans basking where America is now known to be." "Horse." etc. and (d) the Border Lines. The divided scale line should always as well as the statement of the scale for the reasons already mentioned. the artistic touch has almost disappeared during the is the touch applied at the bottom past fifty years. and clear the rubbings from the board before inking or colouring. more closely Signs are sometimes modified to resemble the object where they become relatively important in the in large-scale maps. if desirable. In certain plans there is a more or less fixed be inserted position for the title. in fact. (h) Constructional and this involves great Simplicity is the keynote of modern mapping. Medway. an Explanation or Legend." or "Inn" on a painting. though there would in certain specimens of certainly be some justification for doing this noun must be used only when duly qualified. showing the acreage held by various owners. actually large with added verdure. or spot-levels. and requirements lines and symbols for building and engineering works. where the ownership suggests that the names are the property of Symbol & Sign (Plate I). and hedges shoot from the root line. One of the remains the shadows cast by convenright corners of tree-trunks. small area portrayed. and equally gigantic men everywhere. obviously." "G. roads. such as boundaries. . Special surveyor's signature and the date should always include (g) Contours. it is better to represent them with small circles. seize the opportunity of instruction in sharpening a drawing-pen. often rich mezzo-tint. and. Trees should never be drawn taller than and garden.. the lower sea: birds.. lakes and constructional objects. hachures.36 the pen. Meridian Needle. "R. or f in. as to the symbols employed. The example. The artist never writes "Tree. there is a host of these. indicating from the top left-hand corner of the plan. etc. Thus. The be given. The title should be printed neatly and compactly in what appears to be the best position. giving place to accuracy in the terrain. Use soft rubbers generally. Early cartoin graphic art was characterised by wonderful embellishments. and right-hand edges being outlined boldly. Gradually these have vanished like prehistoric monsters. as. (c) the as the artist cannot hide defects with trimmings. for modern art." "Beverley Brook. walls become double lines. as in the case of a house to scale. Junction Canal. Many of those in everyday use are shown in the Survey of Conventional Farm. ELEMENTARY SURVEYING Also. certain symbols being varied in accordance with the scale of the map. these are 1 in. buildings. Conventional signs are used to indicate features. The General Requirements of a Map or Plan are: (a) The Title. When. also. and far more entertaining than the prosaic land and skill.


Stencil plates are convenient for pencilling the outlines of various features. and treacherous particles of colour. however. often a finish indeed when a passing student collides with the neat margin usually requires double head or stock of the T-square. This is a subject that must be introduced diffidently. Students are exceedingly liberal with colour washes: if the roads are pastures. and always colour before inking Incline the drawing-board towards you. Happily. some maps drawn on good paper in waterproof ink have been resuscitated after a necessary immersion in a tank or bath of clean water. The secret is to apply only the faintest suggestion of colour. which are rubbed down saucers and mixed to give any desired shades. again. practise on a piece of similar paper when waterproof ink is not first. etc. Arable. providential that the demand for colouring is declining in modern practice.. and the effort demands great courage when lines about A ^ break in the border for outlying details a border-pen is not at hand. Hooker's green. Buildings. and wash the area over rapidly. The best water-colours are sold in cakes. If. avoid brushwork. Property surrounding the portion for which the survey was made . Contour lines are either indicated by alternate dots and dashes. dust. and. for instance. lakes. since it may lead to the ruination of a nicely plotted plan. Trees. or in gaps in the contours. always excluding dirt. surface. Transfer a pool of colour to the top of the portion A to be tinted. as Perhaps it is lightly in sweeping the painting domestic objects. rounded corners are often preferred to plain right angles. the following being fairly common: Prussian blue. apart. Land. crimson lake. the map is dated. Roman ochre. but preferably varied in adjoining fields. thus admitting of additions after the lapse of years. Pasture. in green. burnt umber or sepia. in. toned from deep at the banks to faint at the touch is also applied to the conven centres of rivers. or are traced in sepia. Water. above all. the contour heights being figured on the high sides. and the true north indicated. Hedges. blocks beneath it.38 ELEMENTARY SURVEYING The meridian needle is best drawn with a star for the true north. these should be small. tional sign for marshes. as it should be. and letter stencils never of the size used in directing boxes for passage by rail. Brick. "Use sparingly. India yellow. Also. A border line with an appropriate but it is margin gives a finish to the map. looks far better than one very close to the edges of the paper. and an arrow-head for the magnetic north. etc. the magnetic declination can be found from a book. COLOURING. Above all. Numerous conventions arc in in use. inserting wood available. A Roads. and soil exceedingly rich. Timber. green indeed. darker." in the words on the labels of certain proprietary articles. garage doors. but. even veritable quagmires.

(1) Set the beam compass at 10 in. It say in the 6-in. details. opportunity be taken to include certain relevant operations. where the There is usually allowed for plotting compass traverses. of course. being measured from Ab. Of course centimetres could be used consistently. 23. for they are not only useful in plotting angles. the sine of an angle is always at hand. CONSTRUCTING ANGLES The most obvious method of constructing angles is by means of the protractor. preferably those giving protractor are. as they are in the more precise. The following method is actually that which chords were included in the tables. such as Chambers' Seven Figure Mathematical Tables. and the sine is a kind of halfbrother to the chord.or five-figure trigonometrical ratios. 23 . exactly." There are also the trigonometrical tables. but in constructing and measuring angles in the field when the theodolite is not at hand. minutes in four. where an angle would result if a table of out at a station A. Anyway. as far as constructing angles is concerned. swing FIG. and are particularly disconcerting in examinations. as will be seen in 6 is to be set Fig. in plotting and 100 ft. size. in field construction. and with A as centre. Silver-plated types reflect light. and there is the cheaper form of cardboard protractor with an 18-in. radius. even though it introduces a highly important method of constructing and measuring angles through the medium of the tables headed "Chord. the error would be considerable. But the unit may be conveniently 10 in. elaborate forms with vernier arms. but all the conventional signs in black ink are usually inserted. * (1) Chord Method. though admissible in rough compass 3-in.PLOTTING PLANS AND MAPS is 39 not coloured. as used for plotting bearings. open circle. Two methods of constructing or measuring angles must be considered. where the values refer to a unit chord. which is no more accurate than a small protractor. say. but it must be borne in mind that the ordinary pattern. is not sufficiently accurate except for inserting and never for plotting the skeletons of theodolite traverses. surveys. Accurate celluloid protractors are the best of this category. but centimetres and inches must never be mixed. will Since the present chapter deals mainly with Office Work.. Also there is the scale of chords. which merely means that the decimal point is moved respectively one or two places to the right. would be impossible to plot to nearer than 10 minutes of arc on the and when this is extended as a survey line to 12 in. III.

.. being 10 in. being defined by N. 24. in (2) The method follows from the fact that Thus. radius. O and W.O W= OE= 10 in. the angle b and c by swinging a 100-ft. and sin. S. or the measuring ten times the tabular value of the tangent or co-tangent along the outer side of a small square. (3) Swing an arc with the chord be as radius about 6. which.) radius.E.40 ELEMENTARY SURVEYING an arc of convenient length be. and is measured from the N. *(2) Tangent Method. (2) Find in the table of chords the unit value for the angle 0. ON= OS. the complement. (3) Plot the direction line for each traverse line in its proper quadrant. and draw parallels so as to form an outer square of 20 in side exactly. as described on page 90. and is applied with a base of base now taking the place of the hypotenuse. in front of the magnitude and E. so that when a bearing exceeds this value. and multiply this by 10 for the length of the chord be in inches. their Lengths and Bearings. the involves the table of tangents. rule a vertical line and a horizontal line.. Consider the method with reference to the closed traverse ABCD of Fig. also the Tangents of bearings under 45 and the Co-tangents of bearings over 45. or S. J0. The method 10. Incidentally. (cm. a bearing S. whence for a 10-in.E. the principle is par excellence in plotting the bearings in traverse surveys. following. and make Obviously. Also the tangent of 45 is unity. |0=22 10'. point.E. centimetres on a half-imperial must supersede some larger conis venient decimal scale at hand. S. a subject that will be treated with reference to the compass in due course..S. Join Ac for the required angle alternative bAc=0. for 0=44 20'. is under 90. and finding J0 from W=^4fr. could be measured by inserting arrows at In the field. N.W. Otherwise. the co-tangent. in the (1) Through a point centre of the paper. and joining the point thus found .). inches unless sheet. must be introduced: Cot. Although applicable to angles.. respectively. the chord 6c=2x3'773=7'55 in.sin|0. the four interior squares representing the four quadrants: N. and find the value for the hypotenuse Ab. measuring the chord bc > halving be at </. p=tan (90 p).J0=0-3773. gives the chord be as 20 times the tabular value of the sine in inches. (cm. or W.W. N. Assume the central vertical to be a north and south line. look up the sine of the half-angle. cutting the arc be at c. Draw up a table showing the Traverse Lines.

recourse must be made to Graphical Methods. IV. field units are to be preferred when mapping units introduce squares of equally inconvenient dimensions.W. Tangent distances are scaled outwards from the north and south points on the upper and lower sides respeceast and west tively. while co-tangent distances are scaled from the points. or photographically. are used instead of convenient mapping units. this is usually done mechanically. 1 in. the best known of which is that of (1) Proportional Squares.W. say. respectively. The same inconvenience arises when with sides representing chains. while those of the copy will be simply so many inches. are often discovered by such procedure. though often the method of (2) Angles and Distances serves as an excellent (1) substitute. ENLARGING AND REDUCING MAPS Frequently enlarged or reduced copies of maps and plans are required. In a great many cases of enlargement and reduction scale of the copy is either a simple multiple or sub-multiple of the scale the of the original. (4) upwards or downwards. It is always advisable to ascertain if one or fractions of the mapping or a field unit.E. or other of these units. and over 270 as 360 p. the ^parallel to each direction line in its Draw correct position on the paper. are plotted in a similar manner. using the clinograph or adjustable T-square. In practice. S.. inches..E.PLOTTING PLANS AND MAPS 41 tc rthe centre of the large square. S. But cases constantly arise in which the given statements or representative fractions. a . either actually on the map or on a superimposed sheet These squares are then reproduced proportionally tracing-paper. larger or smaller on a clean sheet of paper. This method consists in covering the with a network of squares (otherwise called a grid or of graticules). the lines falling within quadrants which exhibit the angles as bearings p. but even they cannot be considered unless suitable direct relationship to inches. over 90 as 180 over 180 as p 180.. hundreds of feet. and f in. corresponding respectively with N. centimetres. Whole circle bearings (or azimuths). or both. and the lines of the survey are inserted with reference to the sides of the squares by plotting distances in the proportions they bear to the sides of the squares of Proportional Squares. and the squares of the copy involve complex mapping unit. accordingly. or other even squares units of measurement. styled bearings in military surveying and applied geography. with the aid of the pantagraph. values under 90 being expressed by p. and the squares of the original can be made a convenient mapping unit. and N. proper. not evident at si^ht.. say. As a rule. When the necessary instruments are not available. as in photo-engraving. 2 in. for various simple square relationships. will lead to simple dimensions in both the original and the copy. or so much of an inch. bearings. etc. original map the original.

squares.200. squares on Fractions are Given. 25 1600 2000 2400 . Let it be required to enlarge the 25-in.. to 40 to 1 in. squares : 400 800 1200 >600 2000 2400 400 800 1200 Fio. exists in one or other of the given statements'or representative fractions. Suppose it (b) Representative to reduce a portion of the Ordnance 1 : 1.42 ELEMENTARY SURVEYING simple parts thereof. and. although 1 J in.. representing 88 ft. both convenient mapping and smaller scale.500 corresponds to a scale of 25-344 in. 2-in. or f in. or 1'65-in. on the original will necessitate 0-66-in. But if reduction from 5 is field units are ft. 1 Suppose ft. on the copy would be on the original. Here 1 2. to 208-296 ft. it map from chain to in. in general. represented by -in. representing 2-66 chs. Thus with 1 -in. Let us consider the matter with reference to the three cases that may a arise: (a) When Statements 1 are Given. 1 in. squares representing 100 preferred to 1-in. squares ft. to 1 in. as the case may be. will merely require the copy. But all relations between the given scales will introduce fractional dimensions in the squares of either the original or the copy. Here feet are the units in view. be required to enlarge Here 1-in. to the mile to 4 ch.056 sheet to the scale of 1 : 1. the enlargement can be made with equal facility with either field or mapping units. When be required engineering the original scale is directly related to chain units. squares on the copy. while 2 chs. Ordnance sheet to a scale of 100 ft. and since one of the given scales is simply connected with hundreds of feet. required. squares on the original will require 66/40. (c) When Representative Fractions and Statements are Given. to the mile. one chain. on the original. to in. inherent in the 1 Thus. squares on the enlargement. or 1 in.

squares 2-in. circle NB. As in graphical methods. q. C.PLOTTING PLANS AND MAPS 43 of 2-08 in. unless a simple proportion. and through its centre o draw a reference meridian ns. or^tne original. etc.. of 0-96 in. . Q> and R in the proportion that the scale of the copy is greater or less than the scale of the original. being judged by eye with reference to the corners. or one readily obtained with proportional compasses. in etc. and r. squares representing 200 ft. with the sides of the squares. sheet of paper. side will be required on the copy. side Once all the squares. and c respectively. and rays to important points. Measure the chord distances the original. nb.. The latter case is illustrated in Fig. in the latter. NC. and the positions of points. on NA. the plotting is quite simple. such as p. the use of proportional compasses facilitates and raises the accuracy of the work. and set them off as Fio. the compasses being set for the desired proportion by changing the block so that the index line coincides with the mark figured plotting One sliding with that proportion on the graduated limb. the intersections of fences. exists between the scale of the original and the copy. of the slotted limbs of these double-pointed compasses is graduated for a series of proportions between opposite pairs of points. is particularly suitable for areas in which important detail is sparse or localised. Describe a circle of the same radius on a clean and insert the meridian. on the copy will require squares while on the original.. b. Describe a circle of any convenient size in the centre of the area to be enlarged or reduced. 27. The following method (2) Angles and Distances. produce these rays to cut the circle in a. the selected points P. B. 25. 26 na. Having thus fixed the ruling points. The use of this method is not advised. nc. the original map and the copy sheet have been covered with suitable squares.. etc. and the accuracy of reproduction is highly important. etc. and along these rays set off the computed distances of on the R intervening detail by eye.. fill in the of the copy. capitals superseding the small letters. If necessary. etc. Draw rays through A. The copy is assumed to be superposed over the original in Fig.

what size must they be on *he new one. considerably.) Problem 3 (6).) 3 ((/).S. 0'8 cm..) (b) Reading to single metres. a surveyor found two prominent points on the map that are : A existing: he measured the distance between these and found it to be 15*39 chains whereas it scaled only 15'20 chains on the map.) yards for the new map 3 (e). Problem 3 (d). (G. You wish to copy the map on the scale of 1 mile to 1 inch by the method of squares. Plot the survey from the notes given on Plate II. (a) Reading to 10 ft. suitable for measuring lengths up to (G. (20 ch.44 ELEMENTARY SURVEYING 1 : 3 (a).) 20 chains.) ditto Problem 3 (c). to 10 m. OFFICE EXERCISES Problem 3 (a). If you draw }-in. (G. Problem 3 (e). squares on the old map. with pacing at the rate of 100 paces of 30 inches per minute.) 3 (c). represented by 4*94 in.S. to 100 ft.S. with main divisions of 10 metres... with main divisions (G.. Enlarge the specified portion of the assigned map to a scale of . although no scale is drawn. The scale of an old French map is 1.) Plate IV. ORIGINAL PROBLEMS .S. (0-96 in.000 Service CLASS EXERCISES Map of France is to be used in the following Laying Decauville track with measurements both in metres and feet. Plot your survey of (specified area) and finish it in the prescribed manner. Construct the following scales to the representative fraction of 1 1250 : of 100 ft. 27 (e) to a scale twice the size of that still of the figure. survey map dated 1860 is stated to be on a scale of 4 chains to Believing that the paper had shrunk 1 inch.000 toises to 1 French inch.S. Reconnaissance. Construct the respective "comparative" and "time" scales. (G. 3 (b). Plot the survey from the notes given on Plate III. Draw a scale of (0-284 inches. Enlarge the plan shown in Fig. Construct a scale for the old map. given that 1 toise was 72 French inches. The connections: (a) (b) 10.

PLATE II The above pages of tape. to 1 inch. . and range-poles were used. Field Notes refer to a survey in which only the chain. all measurements being in feet. Plot the survey on a scale of 50 ft.

line parallel to the short chain to 1 inch. The above pages of all Field Notes refer to a in links. and S. measurements being Plot the survey on a scale of 1 N. placing the Magnetic 2J inches from edges of the paper with A the lower and right-hand edges.PLATE III Ltne. . Chain Survey of a meadow.

g T3 D * * . 1JB W *^ w fl> S O ' s o a 5 * S M s . P-1S ^ 3 o 8 r4 -H <*- -g o 6 JH O 3 -I ^ -gsllfi' . ^J * .3 i S *- O -S -a 3 -o .1 =3 T3 ~2 <* 1 G o _o <" t- .

and put a's picket in line at a'. Observer a repeats his operation from a'.CHAPTER IV FIELD It GEOMETRY may be well at this stage to consider a number of problems. There is no geometry The in the following artifice. b. It is also convenient A or B. In this manner the two alternately line in each other. some of which you may have already encountered in the field. puts Z>'s picket in line with B. more commonly. as shown in Fig. however. and it is necessary to interpolate pickets in the y to guide the chainmen. B. and the title of the present chapter must be understood to include also the applications of geometrical principles in dealing with obstructed survey lines. when only at the chain. and is then himself moved by b to #. and so that one can see the other and the station beyond him. FIELD GEOMETRY. Reciprocal Ranging. on level ground in foggy weather when the station poles can be seen for about only five-eighths of the distance AB. and by signals. Observers a and each holding a place them- picket. out lines become matters of obstructed distances. Reciprocal ranging is also useful in interto the end polating additional stations in a survey line without going the boning-out. gradually approaching the straight line between the stations A. of the line in the between A and B as nearly as they can guess. till at last they find themselves exactly in it at a" and 6". though. The primary operations in 48 field geometry consist . and poles are your disposal. 28 (b). many cases of ranging their measurement. have preceded subject of ranging out survey lines strictly should on the other hand. It often happens that a hill or high ground intervenes so that the end stations. in order to direct stations. A and B are not visible from each line AB in order other. Observer b then looks to A. tapes. selves on the ridge hill. (not shown). 28 a looks to b. Observer PLAN FIG.

introducing the fact that the square on the hypotenuse of a right-angled is equal to the sum of the squares on the other two sides. These facts should be borne in mind also when measuring obstructed distances. (1) Measure from the given point p a length of is applied in the following manner 30 Iks. and P'Q. (2) Hold one handle of the chain at p and at q its 90Ik. (3) Pull out the chain evenly by the teller 40 Iks.) along the survey line AB A .) ring. at any convenient point p the given external (2) Line in a point Q in AB with p' and P'. It is almost a matter of propriety that the subject should be introduced by the application of Pythagoras' Theorem. longest perpendicular is usually required. since these can never be set out precisely with auxiliary available. p and p' denoting respecand external points with respect to a survey line AB. and ft. Underlying the use of linear methods is the fact that right angles must be reduced to a minimum. 29. the foot of the required perpendicular QP= 7^ . to a point q. while the construction of right angles is a tedious matter with the chain alone. with the 50-ft. the method with the Gunter chair (Fig. however.) from p until it takes up the form shown in Fig. following cumbersome construction: (b) (i) Erect a perpendicular pp'. from position of P. to this in the External Points. or (b) Let fall from given external points to Survey Lines. (3) Measure the sides pQ. and this can be laid down with the following combinations of the available unit lengths: ft. These cases tively internal (1) will be considered separately. when a theodolite instruments. and calculate the point in AB. chain. chain. such as the optical square or the cross staff. triangle The (152025) (334455) Commonly. down Perpendiculars. a point in the required perpendicular. as above. /Ik. particularly when these are but part of a method. The 3:4:5 Method. /Ik. with the 100 ft. p'Q. 29): (a) Internal Points. PERPENDICULARS to be (a) Erected at given points in Survey Perpendiculars may have Lines. (ft. The method is not directly applicable and would involve calculation by similar triangles.FIELD GEOMETRY in *(i) Laying 49 in Parallels. I. and little difficulty (ii) Running is The work presents though there are instances when even this would be of little use. and the surveyor must resort to purely linear methods. as case. (ft. (4) Fix an arrow at /?'. (ft.

but in all accurate work arrows should be lined in. In general. (by the preceding method). and on this account two steel tapes would need to be tied together. light steel wires or strong cord (such as sea-fishing line) or (in an emergency) the linen tape. preferably on the opposite side of AB. and each half secured in its temporary position on the wire by means of a pocket screwdriver. sawn in two. lengths of wire or cord.. (2) Pull out the chain evenly. The chief advantage is that lengths may be bisected by merely doubling the cord or wire back upon itself. bp.50 Tfie following its ELEMENTARY SURVEYING and methods. points 15 to 40 ks. can be laid down expeditiously and accurately. as acb. (a) Internal Points. One index secured in the middle of the whole length. either by eye or with the aid of the stretched cord or wire. (1) With one end of the chain at the external point /?'. an electric wiring connector may be taken from its porcelain container. and lining an arrow at p with those at p' and c (Fig. and lengths up to 300 ft. a small spring balance is desirable in precise work. the steel tape cannot be subjected to sharp bends. But in the following.. since figured lengths are required. This. (ft. this is the best linear method of (a) erecting perpendiculars at given points in survey lines. care always being that the elastic limit is not passed. The erecting of a long perpendicular at a point in a straight wall becomes a simple matter. swing an arc about p cutting the survey line AB in the points a and b. of course. so as to obtain a second point on the perpendicular (Fig. In fact. have a wide range of application when long lengths of cord or wire are used. and in this case an outer index should be set at a convenient distance for the loop from the lengths ap. and fix an arrow at the 50-teller to indicate p\ a point on the required perpendicular.) equidistant from the survey line AB given point p. carefully tested. 30) This method is in effect. 30). as used in chemistry. Small pipe clips. can all be used to advantage. (1) Hold or secure the ends of the chain in the at a and b. etc. As in the foregoing method. (2) Chord-Bisection Method. For instance. When long perpendiculars are required. Also wires or cords could not be used in the 3:4:5: method. Otherwise obviate measurement by laying down a second triangle 1 '. and the total length made a convenient multiple of a standard length. it is advisable to lay down a second triangle. Loops should be made at the ends. are convenient in the case of cord lines. applies larly more when working with 200 particuft. (b) External Points. provided a safe and uniform pull is applied. such as acb or ac'b. though detailed with reference to the cfiatn limitations. the lowest readings on tape and survey Fl - 30 . the process of swinging the tape "to and fro" in measuring short offsets. and an adjustable one on each side are desirable. and bisect it at p. Various methods must be improvised for marking lengths. (2) Measure the length ab.

. from the (1) Let fall a perpendicular given point p' on to the survey line AB. there is little to commend might though such practice under ordinary circumstances. (3) Test the accuracy f P' AFIG. or the chain might be used alone. swing an arc of radius op'. The following construction is expressly (b) At Given Distances. making qq'~pp'. pq (Fig. (b) The second case reduces to the first by setting off the given perpendicular distance pp' from AB. In lower grade work it is easily effected by measuring trial with the optical square or the cross staff. though the setting-out of two right angles should be the limit in this. 31). (3) With one end of the chain held or between direction of (2) Measure secured at o. the line is (1) Select a point a in the survey line AB so that at an angle the 30 and 60 with the given external point /?'. The construction is based upon the theorem that the angle in a semicircle is a right angle. the length of the chain or tape should at least be 5 per cent greater than the length of the required perpendicular. and the method of alternate angles would be used. Occasionally it might be the best method when only the chain and arrows are at hand. in AB. suited to the use of the theodolite. In general this is the best linear method (3) Semicircle Method. cutting the survey line at p. . (a) Through Given Points. The following to the present case with a theodolite. the distance ap'. of (b) laying it down (b) External Points. sextant. but it has the defect of requiring two right angles. involves the dropping of a perpendicular from a given point. 31 II. as in other constructions. the foot of the required perpendicular (Fig. (2) At any convenient point q erect a perpendicular qq'. The line through the points p and q' is the required parallel. except in accurate work. preferably as a part of the construction. PARALLELS a given external point. or parallel may be required (a) through at a given distance from the survey line AB. perpendiculars from given external points. Incidentally. as with all angleinstruments. 32 of the construction r by the equality of the diagonals qp'. and the cross staff and optical square may be used likewise. and be extended to Case (a). etc. Ho.FIELD GEOMETRY 51 lint being at the point of tangency to the arc. and bisect it at the centre o. (1) A By it method would be inapplicable since Right-angle OJfsets. 32).

thus making the alternate angles each 90 in the following method. A convenient point distance pp'. q is selected in would be measured off. 33). The use of similar triangles is recommended when only the chain and poles are available. 35 -. In this case the point o is the line bases are on the survey whose and the parallel. (2) From another convenient point r in AB. quired parallel (Fig. Then at /?' the angle q'p'q is set out equal to a. This also applies to the case r P qo FIG. measure the distance to the given point p'. used in laying down a parallel with the chain or tape at a given distance from AB. only the perpendicular pp' might be erected and a perpendicular to pp' set out at p'. making os' equal to ro. is o p* selected outside the parallels. and the angle pqp' =OL is measured. it is convenient to swing an arc about o so that the triangles are ___ P FIG. AB. q.52 (1) ELEMENTARY SURVEYING and along each of these Erect perpendiculars at convenient points. (1) From a convenient point q in the survey line AB. and then make os equal to or xp'o. With the theodolite. and then measuring the r's' equal to the chord rs. and common apex of similar triangles. (b) At Given Distances.35). and bisect qp' at o. (b) At a given AB is set at/?. . 34 when the point p' is not very distant from the survey line AB. B ^ 9 sosce ^ es (Fig. giving the parallel p'q' (Fig. 34). (2) Test the accuracy of the construction by erecting a third perpendicular of the same length. and noting the alignment of its extremity with the points p' and q' line. venient to bisect qp' at If it is o. Again. (3) By Similar Triangles. or 100-ft. in the sunfcy set out the given distance pp' and qq' of the required parallel. chord It would seldom (a) Through Given Points. angular method should supersede all other methods in the case of (a) parallels through given points when an angle measuring instrument 8 FIG. if ever. D r This purely (2) By Alternate Angles. a right angle to pp'q'. radii. thus tying the alternate angles a. The method might be effected by purely linear means by swinging arcs about q and p' with 50-ft. 33 is at hand. (1) point p in AB. ' inconselect o appropriately and measure qo and op'\ also ro. p. The line through p' and s* is the re- rf D * r . and at p' another right angle. erect a perpendicular At any given pp 1 . be. run in a line through o to s'.

this may be done with sufficient accuracy by means of the tape. Suppose that the fore- man requires a direction fixed by an angle 0=36 15'. OBSTRUCTED DISTANCES Although the stations of a survey should be selected so as to avoid obstacles as far as possible. while. and fix ^ at a distance of 36 ft. Also an essential extension of a survey line may introduce similar difficulties.) so as to give the required direction 36 AC. In chain surveys. in addition. the length around ihe arc will be the magnitude of the angle in degrees and decimals. and swing an arc from r with a radius of 57-3 ft. and in the absence of a theodolite. broken alignment will require additional construction in order that the direction of the line may be re-established after the obstacle . The science of surveying is to know fundamental principles. particularly. IV. at the same time inserting arrows (or clean twigs) around the arc /-. and the art. (36J Iks.) is described about angle to the angular point A. Now obstacles may (i) impede the chaining of a survey line only or. with the aid of a table of sines or chords. making as before. Imagine and the yourself in charge of setting out certain engineering works. 3 in. Well. (ii) prevent the alignment or prolongation of the line. merely centre the ring end of the tape on A. no tables are at hand. to apply them with dexterity and accuracy in any emergency.). the angle thus being 57-3. a survey line of great importance. even if it be obstructed in some way. MEASURING ANGLES BY LINEAR METHODS when it is Contingencies often arise necessary to construct or measure often angles in the field.FIELD GEOMETRY 53 thus fixing ths point p'. then measure carefully round the arrows from r with the tape. You know that a radian is the angle subtended at the centre of a circle by an arc equal in length to the radius of the circle.?. it often happens on hilly ground that the end stations of a line are readily intervisible. The line through p' and r' is the required parallel. the line from q through o' to r'. as described on page 39. Impeded chaining means that a geometrical construction must be resorted to in order that the distance may be determined. III. must not be discarded for others less suitable to the general scheme. Hence. running proceed o'r' equal to qo'. but when the chainmen work into a hollow they find themselves confronted by a pond or even a building. (Iks. (2) Then eqilal in length to the given distance. if a radius of 57-3 ft. (Iks. The use of an external apex o' is dealt with on similar lines. in addition. and the foreman is none too amiable because his men are held up for the want of an fix a direction. theodolite has not arrived.

(d) Erect ab. obtain a second point /on the required prolongation by producing be to e. a perpendiclengths the of ular to the survey line AB. and low plantations. erecting ef perpendicular to ce. lakes. A which should be equal in length to the obstructed distance ad. (1) By Right-angle Offsets. and must therefore be considered separately. Its use at once suggests the theodolite. and (b) those which impede both measurement and alignment. this construction should not be attempted with the chain and poles alone. Detached. such as ponds. or otherwise indicated. Since it is never advisable to set out two consecutive right angles by linear methods. Otherwise. Broken alignment requires that two points shall be established beyond the obstacle. particularly in precise work. Measure to B. diagrams. 37). equal perpendiculars to the survey line A3. since a number of right angles are involved. in order that the line may be continued on the far side of the obstacle. some check will be desirable. a perpendicular to be. This method is best adapted to close sites. and comparing B FIG. at b. Classes (c) and (d) differ essentially. dc. Continuous Obstacles likewise fall into two classes: (c) those which impeded chaining only. as suggested by progress from y Also right angles will be blacked in. and may therefore be treated together. The first two classes (a) and (b) introduce the same basic constructions. (b) At a erect ab. say. . and measuring ef equal to cd. the angle often being a right angle. keeping in view the fact that (b) will require one extra point or an angle. such as high boundary walls and blocks of buildings. at points a and d in that line. for instance. and these cannot be set out very accurately with the cross staff or optical square. or one point and an angle shall be likewise fixed. set out be. prolonging be to e. Obstacles of Classes (d) and (b). a perpendicular to ab\ at c erect cd. The best-known methods will be considered with reference to an obstructed survey line AB A being on the "working" side of the obstacle and B on the "distant" side. on opposite sides of the obstacle.54 is ELEMENTARY SURVEYING passed. and finally re-establish the alignment at d by setting out dB perpendicular to cd. are of two classes: (a) those which impede chaining only. one side of the obstacle being impassable. such as buildings and woods. 37 the diagonals ed and cf after having measured df equal to ce (Fig. or as a check. such as rivers and canals. in the be. or Isolated Obstacles. measuring cd equal to ab. If necessarily carried out with the chain and range-poles only. and (d) those which impede both measurement and alignment.

and at c. the erf. or any convenient unit.cbjac and ag. 39). though by time. it demands extreme care in prolonging the angular ties when applied to obstacles of Class (b). and the impeded distance.ag accordingly. thus fixing the point d on the distant AB. be. of (a) Select a point e as the apex two lines that meet the survey line B. side ac AB FIG. The points rf and / thus determined are on the required prolongation of the survey line. a point and calculate the values of ab\ac and be lac. also of side L.FIELD GEOMETRY (*2) 55 to the interpolation in fairly close sites By One Random woods. though in average work the optical square and cross staff may be used. Also. this Though best modified method can be used angles should never be set out with the chmn alone.ae or af=- ac . 38. and calculate the obstructed distance from ad - 2 V(oe)M-(*rf) (b) . ae and ag units respectively from a. both sides. one of its sides.. ad or af. Produce ab. and /?. and on de lay down a tie triangle. It is modified to a purely linear method by running a second random line. is 9 calculated (3) from ad~ ac . (b) Proceed in the above manner. and produce df to h. of points in etc. lay of an equilateral triangle abc of side L. At e and g.cblac. to rf. random line. Measure ab. itself This purely linear method commends somewhat extravagant of space and simplicity. ed. as regards obstacles of Class (a). Line. A one on each a right angle included between side of the obstacle. Sighting from e at a point a in set out a right angle. a point conveniently clear of the obstruction.) a point on the side. erect a perpendicular to meet the survey line at also on the working side of the obstacle. a point in it. L being 50 ft.. down the (d) On the working side of the survey line AB. the lengths ae. which requires that the obstacle shall be passable on when the necessary The necessary right deviation from the survey line AB is not great. making dh equal to ad. From a.. erect perpendiculars gf having calculated their respective lengths from ae. its it is where otherwise it is a most useful method (Fig. Then on gh as base construct an equilateral triangle ghj . Measure side of the obstacle. 66 ft. and produce the side dfto meet the survey line on the distant side of the obstacle at a point h. (Fig. 39 Then ad ah. run a random line working ag. By Equilateral Triangles. points in ac.

40). by measuring either from e and h along eg and hk Fio. gives a stronger figure. From a point b on the working side of the obstacle. Measure from a along ag to any two convenient points g and k\ calculate ag(ab\ad) and ak(ab/ad). calculating the position of din ag from ablae=ad/ag. (a) From a point a in the working side of the survey line AB. 41 . From FIG. and ad. Although more complicated than the preceding method. Determine / and j. and produce them conveniently. measure any convenient line across to d in ag. 39. 40 a point b side. measure the lines ae. and measure these distances from a along ae to the points e and h respectively. Measure also ab. if more convenient. Measure along AB the length ac. two points on the required prolongation. Line with the points e and g the point / in AE on the distant side of the obstacle. of side L (if possible) in order to obtain a second pointy on the disfant side of the obstacle. one on either flank of the obstacle. but involves calculations and also requires that the obstacle be passable on both sides (Fig. in working parallel lay ae on the down a to eg. (4) By Two Random Lines. also wholly linear. as indicated by the dotted lines in Fig. as in the preceding case. the following construction. ac. (b) Run in the lines ae. and calculate the value of ab\ad and either bcjab or cd\ad. noting the reading where the survey line is crossed at c. ag. Re-establish the direction of the line by sighting through j and h The small triangles may be laid down on the other side of AB. and conin veniently beyond it. ag. and calculate the impeded distance of from either (ae\ab)ac or (ag/acl)ac.56 ELEMENTARY SURVEYING in the direction thus given to B.

distances equal to ag (cdjad) and ak (cd/ad) respectively. and along the centre line. 4 IB). battens on the underside. which in ordinary work might be set out with the optical square or the cross staff or by means of the chain. and shift the . 41 A). these may be parallels at any convenient angle. wire nails straight up through each batten to serve as a pair of sights. lay produce it backwards. Measure ac. lay down a perpendicular to the visual line cd to meet Measure ab and 2 the survey line at a point a. Erect a perpendicular of length ac at a convenient point a in the survey line AB. At a point a erect ab. (Fig. and in thk perpendicular find a point e in line with c and Measure ab. From the distant side of the wall. Using a ladder. Method (D). and a point d on the distant side of the obstruction. close along the short edges. a length equal to the impeded distance ad (Fig.ae or ac --j. ac a point d in A B on the distant side of the obstacle. 41 are based upon the relations of similar triangles. though not always expediently. 41 C). At c. The aC obstructed distance a/is equal to either -r. Air^\ (Fig. Then . Erect a perpendicular to this line at each of its extremities b and e. sight the pickets in the direction of A. line Method (A). erect a perpendicular be to the survey AB. namely. Erect a perpendicular at b. The four constructions shown in Fig. xl-in. _. and calculate the impeded distance from (ac) ad=--~ ab (Fig. Measure be. and are expressly applicable to continuous obstacles of the present class..FIELD GEOMETRY 57 dis\^nces respectively equal to ae (be jab) and ah (be jab). place the board on the coping course with the wall between the battens and the nail points uppermost. a length which is equal to the impeded distance ad. and. be. about 9 in. a perpendicular to AB.ag. At a point b. parallel to the long edges. failing these. Each requires two right angles. Method down ab (C). Method (B). Instead of perpendiculars at a and b. drive 4-in. Obstacles of Class (d). ad=-^ acXab be~ac /r. making ae is at equal to ab. ac. Fix two 2-in. board. the points c and d. 4 ID). must be negotiated by some artifice especially adapted to the circumstances. and determine where each of these lines intersects the survey line. and 4 . longer than the thickness of the wall. or in the opposite direction. This class includes the most difficult cases that arise in land surveying: obstacles that in many cases may be essayed with the theodolite or compass. If the survey line at a convenient angle and AB an angle to the river. Obstacles of Class (c). (i) High Boundary Walls. of J-in. another point in AB. visually in line with the point e. and in it determine a point c. Obtain a piece wide and at least 4 in. the mid point of ab. the same expression holding for the length ad.

(c) Interpolating a subsidiary station in a survey line without ranging from the end stations. 4 (b) (a). standing back to the wall on the working look towards A. CLASS EXERCISES with reference to neat sketches what you consider to be the best method of dealing with each of the following obstructions in a survey line. d. with reference to a sketch. apart. 20 ft. You passable on one side only. and range-poles are at your disposal: (a) Chaining between stations when the line is obstructed by a building (b) Isolated building. method would be to procure a straight scaffold pole. b. c. it is often possible to bone out by "mutual ranging. lining them in towards B by means of the nail sights. (U. d. not in surveying alone. which are 24 chains apart. A more accurate. Next.58 ELEMENTARY SURVEYING board until the sights are both exactly in line with the pickets. and no great distance apart. etc." Observer on wall puts his pole and that of an observer on the wall TV in line with the then pickets interpolated on the working side from A. a. and instruct the chainmen to move the pole until two adjacent plumb-lines. a. when only the chain and poles are at your disposal: (a) Pond. to insert four picture rings. long. with the aid of a cord stretched centrally down the length of the pole.S. instruct the chainmen to fix pickets on the distant side. and suspend a plumb-bob from each of the rings. Describe. though laborious. with neat sketches. in line with his pole Much art has been lost. the same height.) (b) which . say. and it is possible only to see the pole at B for five-eights of the distance AB. the The objection to the method is that the line is prolonged through medium of plain sights seldom more than 15 in. cross the survey line. (b) In the same survey the line FG must cross a river 35 yds. how you would overcome the following difficulties when only the chain tape. In windy weather it will be necessary to damp the vibrations of the bobs by immersing them in buckets of water. in height.S. and direct the chainmen to fix pickets in the direction of B. b.) *4 (c).) are surveying in foggy weather. passable on one side only. one near each end and one about 7 ft. Now with the ladder on the working side of the wall. Observer on beyond M M N sights in poles towards B on the side and that held by the observer on M. Finally. by evading obstacles. how you would measure the length FG with only the chain and range-poles at your disposal. and. in width. Describe. Show (G. c. Describe. Measuring a line between stations when the line is crossed by a road is fronted by boundary walls 12 ft. come exactly into line with the pickets already inserted. go to the distant side of the wall.L. with reference to a sketch. (ii) Two High Walls enclosing Roads. (G. Secure the board in this position by means of wood wedges. 4 (a). When two walls of about side. from each end. Balance the pole across the wall with the rings downwards. how you would proceed to measure the line AB. and with the back to it sight through the other plumb-lines.

FIELD GEOMFTRY f4 (d). passable (c) Chaining between stations when the line is obstructed by a detacned on both sides. Equipment. Equipment as in 4 (a). but are both visible for a considerable distance on the hill itself. The pickets A. Describe difficulties in chain with sketches surveying: 59 the following how you would overcome stations when the latter are not (a) Ranging a line over a hill between mutually intervisible. B. Run a line through the given point accessible survey line ind cated by the range-poles A and B. which also suggest the order in which the auxiliary parallels (shown) thick are run in obtaining the required parallel 04. The selection of points is indicated by the numbers on Fig. Measuring a line between stations when a boundary wall 12 ft. Problem 4 (b).B. Fio. 42 (e). Check the work by the "radian" method. tape the three angles of the triangle.L. 42 (d). (b) building. as indicated by the pickets A. ^Problem 4 (c). and C. : The selection of stations is indicated by the numbers on Fig. Determine the length The range-poles A and Equipment: Chain. ^Problem 4 (d). in line. inaccessible point parallel to the in*Problem 4 (e). 42 FIG. 42 (e) . and set of pickets. arrows. line is (a). the lines actually measured being crossed (//) and chained in the order suggested by the numbers at the ends of the lines.) 4 (e). as in 4 (d). Equipment: Chain. represent stations on the across. Describe two methods of measuring angles by means of a tape. from the survey line indicated by the range poles A and B. and set of pickets.D. arrows (cross staff). Find the error that would result in measuring with the and C. find the lengths of CD and AB. Determine the perpendicular distance of the (specified) '. and table of Sines or Chords. Using opposite banks of an imaginary river too wide to be chained two different methods. Equipment: Tape (steel or linen). height crosses the (U. FIELD EXERCISES Problem 4 which of AB. arrows. B are the end stations of a survey obstructed by the (specified) building.

" "Elevations. those methods which depend upon variations of the pressure of the atmosphere. which the writer "Reduced Levels. Gravitational methods include Spirit Levelling. (c) The methods of gories: (1) levelling may be divided into the following cate- Gravitational Levelling. which is the "approxiLiverpool." This may be some assumed level plane." Points of reference to the datum are known as bench mate mean water at marks. which are figured on maps conveniently with the elevation above datum. (b) plotting vertical sections and establishing points at given elevations in constructional projects. acd in Fig. accurate to moderate. accordingly. or it may be some level spherical surface. PRINCIPLES OF LEVELLING and the systems of Levelling is surveying in the vertical plane. Fundamentally. Since a plumb-line is a vertical line.CHAPTER V LEVELLING differences in elevation of points Levelling is the art of determining the for the purposes of (a) tracing contour lines. The three systems in the general finding heights sense represent three degrees of accuracy in descending order: precise to accurate. and (3) Hypso- metrical Levelling. I. as utilised in the baroas used in meter. and moderate to approximate. (2) Angular Levelling. the boiling-point thermometer. ruling levels of all all levelling is based upon gravitation since the spirit levelling. as usually understood in practice. 43. At the same time they represent in ascending order their applications to medium. Angular methods. such as that of the Ordnance Survey. while (3) geometrical basis (see page 82). known as a local datum." and "Altitudes" prefers to designate small. (2) Inverse Polar Co-ordinates. Now a Level Line is strictly a line concentric with the earth's mean figure as given by mean sea level. and hypsometry. and the altimeter in aircraft navigation. and great differences of elevation. the application of trigonometry or tacheometry. involved are respectively: (1) Rectangular Covertical co-ordinates has obviously no ordinates. on the earth's surface to represent the nature of that surface. methods are based upon In practice all elevations are referred to some "datum. always tending to point 60 .

say) and a heavy weight were suspended from the lowest corner. The basis of gravitational levelling is the plumb-line. as ab. which. the sights A. On top of the stock arc fitted plumb-bob two sights A. and a levelling instrument concurve. if A. then. a way of specifying the accuracy or sensitiveness of a bubble tube is by its "equivalent" plumb-line. Here a builders' square is attached to the top of a vertical stake B. will KV I I and the eye at E \ FIG. and. a vertical staff. and some applications of angular levelling will be given in the following chapter. In fact. 44 be constrained to look horizontally. Only gravitational levelling will be treated in the present chapter. square. Then if the frame were suspended from the uppermost of its corners (v. remove the silver above a diagonal. A) is horizontal. and from d a P is suspended. by a stretch of the imagination. the plane of the mirror would be truly vertical. in length (mile) . or more. at d is a hook. making it so accurate and sensitive that its vibrations could never be nulled. strains us to look horizontally. which is driven into the ground. about IJ-in. of equal is height.LEVELLING to 61 tiie centre of the earth. 44. the stock being adjustable and secured in a horizontal position by means of a thumb nut c. the pupil would be seen by reflection. Let us consider the primitive instrument shown in Fig. Now the stock so adjusted and clamped at c so that the plumb-line passes centrally through the ring. and mount the mirror in a metal frame so that the line of demarcation (say A. by subtraction. the differences of elevation. the bubble of a spirit level is a plumb-bob with an exceeding long line. so that a sight on a staff could be taken. or plummet. being 8 inches per We 2 would not be detected by ordinary instruments. . which is the basis of levelling. at e a ring. Hence a surveyor at a sights along ab. and. a Horizontal Line is a tangent to the earth's must see horizontally. Such an instrument could be constructed in the metal-work classes. Plumb-line Level. Another way of introducing the principle would be to take a mirror. were moved in the direction in which the stock points the readings taken from E on the staff would show the relative heights of the ground at the different staff stations. will be truly horizontal. In the head of A. HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT. A. Hence if the instrument were held near the eye. and above the silver edge the vision would be horizontal. which may be 300 ft. where reference to hypsometry will also be made. divided into feet and tenths. If. and the distance be is the earth's curvature.

Attached to the pipes are the ends of a length of rubber tubing. Reflecting Level Water Level. which is supported by the screws d. or 1/100 ft.62 ELEMENTARY SURVEYING The principle is employed in two well-known instruments:/ the and De Lisle' s Clinometer. which is moved by means of the rack and pinion R by an external focusing screw at the side of the body. the range of sighting would be increased by 20 times. and a vertical levelling staff could be read as before. the whole being mounted on a tripod. a horizontal sight is obtained. But as soon as a waterlevel tube was mounted upon a telescope. or draw tube. when % either etched finely on glass or actually spider webs. could be read at distances up to 300 ft. 45. The principle survives in the water level. a simple instrument used for transferring levels in spaces so confined that the use of any other instrument would be impossible. O is the double-convex object glass. Thus the staff is . in that water at rest has found its own level. the whole being nearly filled with water. A is the outer tube and B the inner draw tube. of the eyepiece. like test tubes. consists of one horizontal line and two vertical lines. Again this is the principle of gravitation. This instrument consists of a FIG. the type still found in the majority of surveying instruments. fine lines being etched on the tubes. which magnifies the image through the medium of two plano-convex lenses. Suppose a |-in. but here hidden from view. The open ends are plugged until the tubes approximate to the same height. E is the eyepiece. which throws an inverted image of the levelling staff on the plane of the diaphragm D. so that the levels can be transferred the water reaches the etched marks. The diaphragm. telescope. as shown in Fig. giving a magnifying power in the ratio of the focal length / of the object glass to the focal length/. 45 pair of glass tubes. looking over the menisci. d. Still there was the limitation that the naked eye could not estimate to a tenth of a foot on a staff at distances exceeding about 150 ft. 46 is a longitudinal section of an ordinary. the tube being almost full of water. Telescope. Doubtless a water level was attached to a metal sighting tube provided with a pinhole eye-sight and a horizontal hair line at the open end. but with a short open glass pipe sealed into the bottom. Fig. glass tube were turned up at the ends and fitted by means of a knuckle joint to the top of a stand or tripod. Then if the eye E is placed near one end.

the diaphragm is fixed. 46 being also seen inverted. tried on a truly horizontal surface. the distance between the objective O and manufacture. or they would represent plumb-lines matters. either bent bodily or ground of infinite internally to a curve. even as small as 5-seconds of arc. Hence. and repeat among other things the slogan. Also there is an adage. are usually bent. Hence it is superseded by the bubble tube. This more compact telescope. Rarely an instead of two. on the other hand. the surveyor would think something was radically wrong if he lost his habit of seeing things upside down. being lighter than its spirit. if marks fixing its length are etched on the tube. less light. less light. though. being on the whole an improvement. A water-level tube on the top of the telescope leaves to be desired. as is also the case with most surveying instruments. which. inverting eyepiece is used: a tube fitted with four lenses At first sight an inverting eyepiece appears an investment. which is usually filled with pure alcohol so that a bubble of vapour is contained when the ends of the tube are sealed." many surveyors of great field experience are inveter- ately conservative. Incidentally the landscape is also seen inverted. the tube can be mounted or inset in much will register the deviation fronc! the horizontal a block of metal or wood. length." Since the end of the Great War of 1914-18. or phial.LEVELLING seer* between the is 63 two vertical lines of the diaphragm. often cision that each of the small division marks could be used for measuring small vertical angles. apart from sensitiveness. "More glass. and the reading taken at the horizontal line (or crosswire). "More Bubble Tubes. . for the cost in replacing them when broken. the numbers on the staff FIG. glass. Bubble tubes must be curved. when laid on any other plane surface. on the other hand. rises to the uppermost point of the curve of the tube. if not for the skill in producing them. The idea is that the vapour bubble. and one less susceptible to condefects. though. the internal focusing in instruments of recent telescope has superseded the foregoing pattern In this type. Cheap bubble tubes. and instead of the focusing screw moving the draw tube leads to a structional it moves a double concave (or negative) focusing lens. far too sensitive for mundane such as those fitted in carpenters' levels. All good bubble tubes are costly and demand respect. but in all with such preproper surveying instruments they are ground.

" because it was more compact than its immediate predecessor. must go with feet. instead of spider lines or lines on glass (page 62). 47. the type in which the bubble has a constant length. and terminating in which rotates a vertical conical spindle. and (4) the Levelling Head. the "Y" level. Feet even though it is a privilege of youth to mix units indiscriminately. THE DUMPY LEVEL. Then if the bubble be moved an equal distance from its central position the length of the equivalent plumb-line. even in tropical climates. To-day it is in three predominant forms. Hence. consists of four primary parts: (1) the Telescope\ (2) the Level Tube\ (3) the Limb. The dumpy level. Thus the modern spirit levelling instrument is evolved. but provided here in order that the telescope may be moved gradually round about the vertical axis of rotation. objective end of the telescope covered with a ray shade. is The . not always fitted (or wanted) in levels. the staff reading will alter accordingly.64 ELEMENTARY SURVEYING Now the radius of the curve to which the bubble tube is is beyt or Suppose that a from a levelling instrument with the bubble out of the centre and nearer the eyepiece. For nearly 100 years the Dumpy Level has characterised British practice. and the difference of the staff readings will be the intercept s. 47 cap. or lines. like most levels. The diaphragm webbing is variously styled the crosswires. which is used for cutting out the glare of the sun. in the levelling head. if R is the radius of the bubble tube and n the number of divisions of length v through which the bubble has travelled. and must therefore be our representative instrument. the limb is really a casing around the telescope. or sun FIG. of a bubble tube with a diagonal scale and v. the cross hairs. in particular. it follows that Measure six divisions find the length in feet of a single division. The Gravatt level was called "dumpy. ground vertical staff is sighted at a horizontal distance D towards the objective end. all of which embody the same essential principles. The rest is simple. particularly when the diaphragm is "webbed" with fine metal points. made so called because the telescope rested in crutches of this form. In the instrument shown in Fig. Underneath the telescope will be seen a clamp and its slow motion screw. In recent years great improvements have been made in the production of bubble tubes. differing only in manipulation and adjustment.

between the Fundamental Lines. being horizontal when the bubble is in the middle of its (i) run. etc. such as forcing them into their cases. particularly in trial and error work. such as contouring. remain in the middle will (ii) of its run for all directions in which the telescope may point. Less than forty years ago assistant engineer or pupil to attempt to adjust capital crime for a capable maker by even a dumpy level. Certainly the tilting screw apart from the prejudice of experience. as distinct which are those by which the correct relations are made Adjustments. but a great convenience. also (ii) the bubble line is an imaginary line tangential (or axial) to an undistorted bubble. or or framed. storage under extreme cona pawnbroker s ditions of temperature. as (i) and (ii) arc called in the present known as connection. The lower tribrach sprang or parallel plate is bored internally and threaded so that the instrument can be mounted upon its stand. These plates had an awkward habit of "locking. out of Caution. but a slight touch to the foot does the same thing. which may be of the solid round form. seen and unseen. The essential relation between the bubble line and the line of collimation of capstan-headed is usually restored by means of the antagonistic pair and one with less than diaphragm screws. more like tripod. Traversing not a necessity. which must be treated with care. but there is a difference." but virtue was found in this vice when the instrument was in skilful hands." that is. instruments may be thrown out numerous causes. to it was regarded as the next ottence experience. of course. should be kept in starting-point. Even this was considered "a matter for the .LEVELLING Tie levelling 65 head of the model shown is of the Tribrach. Earlier instruments were provided with Four Screw Parallel Plates. fectly. or Three Screw pattern. even undue admiration in shop in the interim between pledging and redemption.. The levelling up of the instrument and the focusing of the telescope mounted instrument are preparatory to taking observations with any is from Permanent Temporary Adjustments. Another condition that has somewhat fallen into abeyance by the restoration of the old principle of the tilting screw in the modern level is that the bubble should "traverse. The causes and effects of maladjustments of adjustment mind. undertake the the engineering degree standard of training should not from men ot practical making of permanent adjustments apart. by staffmen sitting on the cases. careless transport. Apart from accidents. so that when the bubble collimation is centralised by means of the foot or plate screws. that of a photographic camera. The one condition essential to accurate levelling is that the line of collimation shall be parallel to the bubble line. Nothing is so disconcerting to a student as a proper level the a fact that is evinced in closing a circuit of levels upon adjustment. In fact few levels traversed perscrew soon put matters right. the line of be horizontal. The sight line is known as (i) the "line of collimation " and is the line between the centres of the object-glass and the horizontal cross wire.

Although numerous "readings. and measure the staff reading b 2 up to the centre of the eyewire the piece. at an esti(1) Select two points. the outlook has changed. the Philadelphia. which is the only absolute field test as to the accuracy of any levelling instrument. and are detailed at length in the writer's Field Manual. say. it must be known if it is the level that is really at fault. and if these are equal the level is in adjustment. while the latter are usually 10-ft. for as you will doubtless find. the third length. such as occur in levelling across a wide valley or river. to-day. The various ways of applying this test are described in most textbooks on surveying. or 12-ft." or modes of division. Telescopic staves have the advantage heaviest at the bottom and are not top-heavy like the folding patterns. A and B." The maker will certainly adjust the instrument most satisfactorily. have been so called because designed. the error E^\ ((a l ~b l )~(a 2 -b 2 )). and apparently they were seen at the time Alice in Wonderland was written. fully in all cases. the numerals of which are shown in red on the left of the staff. and even 18-ft. so that when the to vertically on that peg or point it will be possible to measure directly up the eyepiece a staff reading a^ (3) Sight through the telescope. In this connection. the Target Rod (the Boston. Levelling staves are made in two forms: telethat they are scopic and folding. and at these points drive pegs firmly in grassland or chalk crosses on concrete or asphalt surfaces. (4) Now set the level up likewise near B. another form is also used. the prevalent one is the Sopwith "ladder. (5) Sight through the telescope and observe at the horizontal is reading a 2 on the staff now held on the peg or point A when the bubble central. and the errors of curvature and LEVELLING STAVES. though the motor car has removed possibility of the case being thrown out of the luggage van. and there may be a surveyor in the locality who will undertake the adjustment with a little persuasion. on a fairly level piece of ground mated distance of about 4 chains or 300 feet apart. The type of staff when extended used mainly in this country is the Self-reading it is read from the telescope. gently slackening one screw and taking up the slackness more gently with the other in moving the diaphragm over an image. "traditions die hard. (b) Secondary divisions of tenths . but this embodies the disadvantage that the uppermost. (6) Find the differences (a^-b^) and (a 2 -6 2 ). In the present connection the best plan would be to introduce the method of "Reciprocal Levelling" the process used to eliminate instrumental defects refraction in the very long but necessary sights. noting the reading b^ when the bubble is central. though 16-ft. are obtainable. 48. made commonly in 14-ft. Target staves are sometimes used in precise work in this country. The former are is very narrow and therefore more difficult to read. but this involves the trouble of careful packthe ing and certain risks of transport. which is also real. lengths." shown in Fig. but if this is not the case.66 ELEMENTARY SURVEYING men who have left very substantial monuments behind them. and read at the horizontal wire the (same) staff held vertically on the peg or mark B. There is little difficulty in testing the adjustment by the "two peg'* method. which is corrected by means of the diaphragm screws. staff is held (2) Set up the level near one point. a target being set by the staffman under the directions of the surveyor at the instrument. A. This shows (a) Primary divisions in feet. and the New York patterns). but in America staff.

black and white. six 5-ft. Feet are read at the tops of the red black spaces.. could be instance. with two similar vertically. subdivisions height on the right of the staff. each one-hundredth of a alternately foot. Also . a circular disc with a pin-hole centre be soldered in as an eyesight at one end. wide. 48 Improvised Staves. would serve the purpose of spirit the horizontal web. cut into 10-in. both 3 in. Otherwise some stiff form of ball joint could be improvised. black space placed at the bottom of the middle shorter to denote each half of a tenth of a foot reading. can be constructed from FIG. light brass tubing. The chief difficulty. thick and the upper 1-in. so that the three represent diaphragm webbing. so that the bubble could be set central when the line of sight is established truly horizontally in the manner described in the Two Peg test. plate. This may mean a piece of work for a fitter. as in the case of Abney levels. denote of the alternate black portions. even though they may prove excellent substitutes for theodolites. about 4 in. square ash or pine. the lower being 1 i-in. so as to avoid top heaviness. An older must be available if only for model can be purchased A could A other end a horse hair could be stretched across from small hairs holes in the horizontal diameter. bolts through lugs projecting from opened a triangular plate.17 small red numerals are painted at intervals along the staff to provide against the event that a large red numeral in the field of view of the telescope. does not appear A real levelling instrument Military instruments will not serve the purpose of an engineer's level satisfactorily. black numerals. long.LEVELLING of ft 67 which are indicated alternately in black figures of that and (c) Steps. diameter. Pairs are screwed together . Light frame tripods are easily constructed from 1-in. number of sighted levels and staves Impiovised Levels. Folding staves two 5-ft. with its upper edge rectangular plate soldered at this end across the horizontal diameter. These should be given two coats of white paint. about U-in. and then painted to show alternate tenth-of-a-foot black blocks across. a drill and screw taps are available. A attached to the top of the sighting tube by means of adjustable clips. The tops and bottoms are also in line with the tops of these wider black figures Sometimes a black diamond and a dot are spaces. figures in line with the wider the pointings of the secondary as at all tenths. foot in height. lengths. lengths of well-seasoned pine. demonstration purposes. also one-tenth. which here. out to fit on J-in. For reading to tenths might be constructed if necessary. is the means of attaching the level to the tripod in such a way that the bubble can be adjusted. or 5 in. similar to that into which the levelling thumbscrews are threaded. however. though much can be done with thumbscrews and J-in. and at the at a reasonable figure. if while the tops are pointed at the toes (desirably shod). and lengths being required. or blocks. could be level. in a metal container.

The lengths should be secured the together with a strong brass butt hinge. It is desirable that the backs and sides of the wood should be lightly stained and varnished. The bubble will move towards the screw that is (in worked in the clockwise direction as viewed from above. and press the toes of the legs into soft ground. The bolt should shoot from the upper length into the loop on the lower. (A) and B. The small o in the O f D centre is the plan of the verti- cal axis about which the tele- scope or instrument rotates. in Fig. who supply these. B. Although A with the theodolite. always B . they will be detailed routine here to avoid interruptions in the procedure of the Practice of Levelling. staff papers for renovating old staves could be purchased from any of the surveying instrument makers. the lower 5-ft. 10-ft. by means of this screw A (and (A)) bring the bubble to the middle of its run the case of a pair of screws A.68 ELEMENTARY SURVEYING being inserted at the edges of the white spaces. to avoid repetition when the subject arises in connection added in order TEMPORARY ADJUSTMENTS. (a) Setting up the Instrument. otherwise the staffman's ringers are exposed to great risks. Otherwise. these are best readings. In the following instructions FIO 49 it must be remembered that in levelling up an instrument cannot be acquired from mere aptitude words: there is that little something else which practice alone gives. Since these arc usually divided for telescopic staves. length should be planed out with a rectangular channel. and a bolt should be fitted at back to retain the upper length in position when extended. Consider the three (and four) dots. these are a part of the field with both the level and the theodolite. (2) Turn the telescope so that it lies with its eyepiece over the screw A.'* and the remarks relative to the four P* ate screws will be enclosed in brackets. or place them in crevices in hard surfaces. with full instructions. 49 to represent respectively the plan(s) of the tribrach and plate screws of a surveying instrument. so that a narrower upper length will lie in it when folded. (1) Plant the tripod firmly with the telescope at a convenient height for sighting. painted as above on fabric. working the screws equally in opposite directions. and by means of these screws B. plain or varnished. but attached to a staff with the zero exactly at the foot. lettered A. then. For brevity. working these equally in opposite directions). note will be the important subject of the following subsection. (A). bring the bubble to the middle of its run. . could be used. and especially that a brass sole plate should be fitted. thus protecting the divisions in transport. these will be B ^B A A called "foot-screws. B. (3) Turn the telescope through a right angle so that it lies parallel to (or over) the other screws. and particularly when proper levels are used. so that the lower sprang (or parallel plate) is fairly horizontal.

though often with the aid of an auxiliary circular bubble. y (b) Focusing the Telescope. since in most patterns of dumpy levels this would derange the all-important parallelism of the bubble line and line of collimation. or the deviation will be so small that a mere touch to the foot screw nearest to the eyepiece will set matters right. The foci of the object-glass and eyepiece must both be in the plane of the cross wires. Inexperienced surveyors are always tampering with the eyepiece. and not to the oft-innocent eyepiece. but try refocusing with the screw before eyepiece to eliminate parallax. Now direct the telescope towards the levelling staff. the bubble will remain central for a complete rotation of the telescope. and in a class seventy per cent of the eyepiece adjustments are unnecessary. and by means of this screw (and its opposite fellow (A)) restore the bubble to the middle of its run if necessary. and these can be set parallel to the lines B. for the bubble must always be central when reading the staff. but this must not be attempted. and then move the eyepiece with a screwing motion until the cross wires are seen clearly and sharply. . Hence we had better look at a sheet of white held obliquely in front of the telescope and set the eyepiece when paper sighting this. modern levels are levelled . it suggests that adjustment of the level tube is necessary. not a necessity. *Whcn a bubble departs considerably from its mid-position on repeating the foregoing routine. otherwise the accuracy of the reading will be impaired by "visual parallax. a "traversing" bubble is a convenience. right angles to each other. But our is levelled up. and the fellow with spectacles might often oblige by removing them.LEVELLING 69 (4}%Return the eyepiece over the screw A. B and A. and instrument by means of the focusing screw obtain a clear image of the for parallax. glass Usually it is better first to point the telescope to the clear sky with the parallax. The main bubble is then set to its mid*position for every sight by means of a tilting screw. which is brought to the centre of a circle etched on the glass cover. After all. If the level tube is in adjustment. in the case of theodolites." Parallax can be detected by moving the eye up and down when sighting the staff or a station or if it and noting if the moves relative cross hair appears fixed to the (inverted) image to that image. two small plate levels are fitted at Usually. The latter condition denotes which in many cases is due to incorrect focusing of the objectwith the focusing screw. thus avoiding the necessity of turning the telescope through a right angle in the second step. focusing tube well in. Test moving the A perennial source of annoyance in an instructional class is the focusing of the telescope to suit the real and unreal idiosyncrasies of many eyes. staff. Some approximately on similar lines. leading to wear if not damage to the instrument. (A).

Reduced levels are connected with the datum through the medium of "benchmarks. PRACTICE OF LEVELLING Even now \ve cannot proceed until we acquaint ourselves with a few more terms and definitions. and is taken on a benchmark at the beginning of thus. (By the way.M. this symbol was taken from the armorial bearings of an early chief of the Ordnance Department. the centre of the horizontal bar being the reference line.. levelling is peculiar in that the point at which the staff is held is the station. Benchmarks improvised in small jobs or on the cessation of a day's levelling are known as Temporary Benchmarks (T.M. rule: Add the backsight to the reduced level for the Height of Plane of Collimation (//. etc. and all levelling operations must close on a benchmark. and not the position of the instrument. but this has no effect upon the work. the height of the horizontal plane in which the line of collimation revolves is 54-24. and the observed backsight reading is 4-24. the contraction for Hence the feet being understood (and.) or even " Collimation. A 62-3. It is the first reading taken on setting up the level anywhere.70 ELEMENTARY SURVEYING II. Backsight./. Finally.S.) An interesting excursion after studying an Ordnance sheet would be a search for the benchmarks indicated in a given area. and are likewise indicated by the symbol alone cut into the walls of buildings. or any convenient horizontal plane of reference is assumed.C. A backsight (B." which may be official or local according as the Ordnance datum is adopted. say. is not in the immediate neighbourhood. as it is variously styled." it was observed that a benchmark hunt in Richmond Park would be equally exciting.P. or "height of Instrument" (//. for if the reduced level of the staff station be known. on the official maps. and that the "reduced is the elevation of a point above this datum surface (or below in the case of soundings at sea). . 50-0.B. even for the day.) is a reading taken on a staff held at a point of known elevation. all levelling operations.). which may be anywhere within sight and reason. except that legal requirements may demand due respect for the Ordnance datum. and it has no connection whatever with Dartmoor.M. unprofessional). Ordnance benchmarks are indicated B. the latter serving in the case of small or instructional surveys.). which may be temporary with an assumed value (50-0 or 100-0) if an Ordnance B. Benchmarks on posts and boundary stones have a ghostlike habit of disappearing and reappearing. The state recognition of a benchmark may give a sense of dignity. When the motor hunts of twenty years ago were the thrill of "the bright young people. ^Backsighting is equivalent to measuring up from the datum. therefore. On page 60 we saw that the Datum is the level" plane or surface to which elevations are referred. All levelling operations must begin at a benchmark.

the term "Shift" is used the cold (or weary) staffman colloquially." a column for distances being provided when measurements are made between staff stations.. since both the continuity and the accuracy of the work depends upon these. or turning point. Hence the rule: Subtract the foresight from the height of collimation for the reduced level of the staff station. Common to both It is the level books are columns for B. All level .) is a reading taken on the staff held on of unknown elevation in order to ascertain what distance that a point point is below the plane of collimation.S. is a staff station on Change Points. An intermediate sight (Int. A change point is characterised by two features: (i) that two staff readings are taken at it. A which two level staff readings are taken. sight Incidentally.S. simply because they refer to the same point. or even footplates.5. and the foresight reading is 5-26. There are two methods of booking level notes: (1) The Rise and Fall System. for if the reduced level of the plane of collimation is 54-24. 71 A foresight (F. Int. the reduced level of the foot of the staff is 54-24 5-26=48-98. level.LEVELLING 'Foresight. for often a back- foresight are taken in the same direction. and "Remarks. It has the of one. Foresighting is equivalent to measuring down from the horizontal plane of collimation. 4-24 --- 1-02 Backsights and foresights are taken on firm ground. and (ii) that these readings must appear in the same line in the level book.. F. embedded stones. but not the importance often booked to the nearest tenth. but this involves risk." change point. Level Books. Now these two terms in no way denote direction. unnecessary to say that it is bad form to note a change point in book when it is thus evident. It is the last reading taken before removing the level anywhere.. especially on rough ground. the difference 5-26 denoting that the ground has fallen from 50-00 to 48-98. Intermediate Sights. and a backsight again setting up the a foresight prior to removing the in order to fix the new collimation height on Occasionally. being algebraical sense of a foresight. and thus to determine the reduced level of the ground at the foot of the staff. as in running vertical sections along a line. These will be considered together as we run our first line of levels.S. since "That's a Shift" as a welcome command. and merely conceives the difference of the back and and a foresight readings as a Rise or a Fall. and is taken on a benchmark at the close of a day's operations. The may misinterpret importance of hard points for shifts is again emphasised.S. the original method of reducing levels ignores the plane of collimation. and (2) The Collimation System. All readings between the backsights and the foresights are "intermediates.) is virtually a foresight taken solely in order to ascertain the reduced level of a point or to establish a point thereat to a given reduced level.



notes should read

down the page, the notable exception occurring American method of contouring and cross sectioning on


Level books should be simple and adapted to the immediate demands of the work in hand and not complex or wasteful so as to comprehend all the various work that may arise. But let us draw up a page for each system, adding two columns for

Rise and Fall in the former, and one for Collimation in the latter. Now us move on to the benchmark on the wall of the "Spotted Dog" (B.M. 50-0). The staffman already stands there with the foot of the staff held exactly at the centre of the cross-bar, which is about a couple of

above the ground. He will find it easier in the open when he stands behind the staff with the foot between his feet, holding it vertically with a hand on each side, never covering the divisions with his fingers.

Fig. 50 shows the instrument levelled up at A, a convenient distance to the east of the licensed premises. From here a reading 4-24 is taken on the staff (a) still painfully held on B.M. 50*0. This is entered as a backsight in both books, while the staffman moves to (b). The reduced
level of the B.M. Remarks column.

also recorded

and a note

as to


location in the

(Added to 50-0 the B.S. of 4-24 gives the height of collimation (54-24) shown above the level, and also booked in the Collimation column of System (2).) The reading taken on the staff held at (b) is
an intermediate sight of 4-14, which is entered as such in the proper columns. The readings at (a) and (b) suggest that the ground has risen 4-244-14, and 0-10 rise is entered in the appropriate column of System (1), where, added to 50-0, the reduced level of the point (a) it gives 50-10 as the reduced level of (b), which is entered in the column
provided. (In System (2), the intermediate sight is merely subtracted from the collimation height of 54-24, giving the value 50-10, which is

at (c).

in the


column for reduced levels.) The staffman is waiting him that is a change point so that he can make a firm

footing for the staff. This is a foresight of 5-26, which is duly recorded. 1-12 is observed and recorded, and In System (1), a fall of 5-26 4- 14

subtracted from 50-10 to give the recorded reduced level of 48-98. (In System (2) the reduced level of (c) is found by merely subtracting



of 54-24 for the recorded reduced level 5-^6 from the collimation height of 48-98 of this change point.) Instruct the staffman to turn the face of the staff towards the position you indicate as the second position B of the level. Set up the instru-


at B and level it carefully. Now take a backsight on (c\ and check it

before booking


as 3-64;

and above

System (2) a new collimation is established, and the backsight must be added to the reduced level of (c) for the new collimation height, which is booked


in the


line as 5-26


48-98. (In

as 52-62 in the

column provided.) Direct the staffman

to hold the staff

an intermediate sight of 4-02, and is entered as such in both books. In System (1) a fall from (c) to (d) of 4-023-64=0-38 is recorded and subtracted from 49-88 for the reduced level of 48-60. (In System (2) the reading 4-02 is subtracted from the new collimation height of 52-62 for this reduced level, which is recorded

on the point



as 48-60.) Direct the staffman to go to that mark on the step at the church gate, as indicated by (e). It was a temporary B.M. of 47-12, interpolated during the main drainage scheme. Record this foresight of 5-52 in both books. In System (1) this shows a fall from (d) to (e) of 1-50 which, subtracted from 48-60, gives the reduced level on the T.B.M. of 47-10 against 47-12. Excellent work for a first effort! In System (2) the reading 5-52 is subtracted from 52-62 for the reduced
level 47- 10.

The error of 0-02 would represent fair work with an engineers' level, but an error of 0-10 to 0-20 ft. might be expected with a sighting tube leveltenths of feet only being read

on the


The notes of the
appended forms:

line of levels

run as in Fig. 50 are recorded on the


Rise and Fall System





50-00 47-10






Collimation System





the checks; two Fall System:
(1) Diffs.

Checking the Book. The figures at the bottoms of the columns are common to both systems and a third in the Rise and
of sums of RS.'s and F.S.'s



(3) Diffs.

of first and last reduced levels of sums of Rises and Falls.

These are merely checks on the arithmetic, and never on the levelling work, though they have often raised the surveyor's spirits until he discovers that a drastic mistake has occurred outside. On the other hand, more than one line of levels has been run again unnecessarily when the arithmetical check would have shown what a simple slip in addition can do. Choice of Systems. In the following points of comparison it must be remembered that these refer to the booking and not to levelling operations, which are identical: (1) In the Rise and Fall System the remainder of the reduced levels may depend upon the reduction of a single intermediate sight. But there is a check upon the intermediates, whereas in the Collimation system any intermediate sight may be wrongly reduced without affecting the remainder of the levels. Age and habit are apt to exaggerate the merits of the Rise and Fall System; and it is a matter of visualisation as to whether rises and falls are more readily evident in a figure than
in the field.
(2) Also in the Rise and Fall System there is either one more addition or subtraction in each reduction whenever intermediate sights are taken, and thus there is a considerable saving in bookwork in the Collimation system when numerous spot levels occur. (3)


the spcprid decimal place

from backsights and


etc. If a sewage disposal scheme. curves for the purposes of preparing a longitudinal section from which the gradients and earthwork volumes can be estimated. railway. When a highway. at convenient points throughout the area. that there (2) Flying Levels. a foot. These distances are best recorded in a "Distance" column rather than in the remarks. 50. the Collimation System emphasising the relatively greater importance of backsights and foreis more scientific. or back to the B. it would be necessary to have numerous temporary benchmarks. Hence the following summary of the applications of spirit levelling. under construction. Cross sections are also run in connection with roads and railways at right angles to precise spirit levelling. When exceedingly . but whether this system related to fundamental principles. levels are intermediates taken in areas reserved (4) Spot Levels. through the benchmarks in the middle of the area. Spot for building or the construction of public works.M. The length of sight with a telescopic 5 chs. as in much highlines are done interpolated railway surveying. on the wall of the Spotted Dog.. similarly in connection with surveys for between the staff reservoirs.. Whereas in the Collimation system the intermediates can be taken only to the nearest tenth when desired. It would be unfair to dismiss the subject without a word as to what all the fuss is about.M. though this is often in cross-sectioning. Suppose in Fig. closing on the outer benchmarks of the system. checking on the starting-point. the surface levels are taken to the nearest tenth of a foot. being sights in the field. Sometimes contour between spot levels. closely Levelling Operations. it is necessary to run levels along straight lines or around projected. it Church Gate the longitudinal sections. either individually or in sum. and as far as levelling instrument should not exceed the lengths of the foresights should equal the lengths of the possible in order that the small errors of backsights.LEVELLING 75 mu|t be carried through the intermediates in the Rise and Fall System unless direct subtraction between backsights and foresights are made. and. without giving thought to the backof sights and foresights.M. or other works. is again a matter of opinion. at the would be necessary either to run levels forward to the next Ordnance B. sights and are run solely to check or other scheme is (3) Section Levels. LEVELLING DIFFICULTIES. way and adjustment may not affect the accuracy of the work. is (1) Check Levels.B. or 350 ft. Sections require that the distance stations shall be measured. A main circuit is established and levels are run cross lines are run carefully round. Usually this is carried out by accurate or had been no T. In these. based upon the Ordnance datum. which are necessarily read to the hundredth has the indisputable merit of (4) Finally. Flying levels consist only of backsights and forethe accuracy of the work.

The effect c is 8 inches per mile. since this average eliminates instrumental errors and the effects of the earth's curvature and atmospheric refraction. as in sighting across a wide river. this suggests a method of checking the accuracy of a level. and zigzag scopic sights by setting up the level to the sides of the line as nearly as possible a balance of the total lengths thus so as to obtain of backsights and foresights. also in testing the adjustway A ments of the (4) level. and it is truly fro towards avoid very short tele(2) When working up and down a steep hill. Anyway. bending ab so that b is depressed r } (be) towards c. 43. and could not be summarised in a book of this nature. should be resorted to. target improvised in this is necessary in taking very long sights. invert the staff (foot on the B.M. as suggested on page 66. instruct (3) When sighting the staff very near to a telescopic level. the method of Reciprocal Levelling. The averages of the differences of level as observed in each direction is taken as the true difference of level. of the (Incidentally. But the difficulties that arise in levelling are legion. as the case may be. which is regarded . a change point. support the staff on each side and regard the spike as Also a lake of still water too wide to be sighted across can be regarded as a single change point if pegs are driven flush with the water surface. there is bound to be something omitted. possibly a the level is taken into difficulty that will be encountered the first time the field. the distance being in statute miles. a distance at which no ordinary staff could be read directly. The value of r is really uncertain. When a benchmark is considerably above the level. in 10 chs. encountered. It is therefore about 0-01 ft. The effect of curvature c is indicated by be in Fig.) and record this (and regard it) as a negative backsight or foresight. Refraction is a very = f(Z)) D important correction in trigonometrical levelling and astronomy. drive pegs in the line on either side staff to the top of the wall. the staffman to hold a piece of paper against the staff as a target from which the reading can be taken directly. as refraction becomes very capricious near the horizontal. When reading near the top of the staff. but preferably with the use of a target staff. the matter is largely academic in spirit levelling. as under an arch.76 ELEMENTARY SURVEYING long sights are necessary. drive a spike through to (5) When a board fence crosses the line. In conclusion.. and the net correction c r is taken at 2 ft..) collimation adjustment (6) When a wall is and measure with the a change point. Nevertheless a few hints (1) may be given among others. where it is evident that it increases the staff reading and thus makes very distant points appear too low. Refraction reduces the effect of curvature. ensure that vertical by instructing the staffman to wave it gently to you so that you can record the lowest reading. varying as the square of the distance.

stating the reasons for your choice.) (G. He took staff readings on A and B as points for temporary benchmarks in both the outward and homeward directions. 0-94.LEVELLING CLASS EXERCISES 3 da). (B. 3-1.) The following levels were taken along the bed of a water course. in running a line of levels.) (G.) (G.S. the surveyor started at a benchmark and returned to it.M. In taking the following readings with a dumpy level. the nearest tenth of a foot being taken in the case of intermediate sights: The following readings were recorded (B. (b) Colllmation System. 1 in 119. 4-12 Reduce these in the system you prefer. (Read 9-92 for 5 (r\ last F.S. in order to check his work.M. 3-6.S. 63-3) 2-4. Record and reduce the levels on a page of a level book. Reduce the levels and rind the rates of inclination along the bed of the water (1 in 148. 77 Draw up (a) the headings of a specimen page of the following level books: Rise and Fall System. and indicate where a mistake was made in reading the staff. 62-4) 3-12. on A.) 5 (b). (No error.) .S. 1 in 108. 2-84. 1 in 88. 1-8.

2-06. ORIGINAL PROBLEMS . tripod.LJ A surveyor runs flying levels down a hill from a temporary bench- mark (162*40) to follows: an Ordnance B. the assumed reduced level of A being 100-0. Submit these on an appropriate form. (U.M. 12-88 (B. ) is . reduces to 123'38. etc. intervals are required. and arrows. 9-16. Determine the reduced levels of these and find the error Problem in closing the circuit on A. chain. 43-8. staff. 1-04. 6-78. and check the book.) FIELD EXERCISES 5 (a).. Equipment: Level on tripod. (b). 12-44. Find the reduced in 5 (a).M. Equipment: as in 5 (b). Problem 5 (c). 5-66. D. around the (specified) building are selected as temporary benchmarks. C.) Interpret these notes in a level 5 (e). Problem 5 Run ( A convenient B.S.M. Equipment: Level on tripod. 11-74.) (O.M. ELEMENTARY SURVEYING The following staff readings were taken in levelling down a hill between benchmarks 76-4 and 43-8: (B. and surface levels at 50 ft. staff Equipment: Level on and chalk. record and reduce the above (G. 7-22.78 5 (d). 1*62 (123*4). two pegs.B. ). The pickets A and B indicate the direction for a proposed drain. and on readings. book of the "Collimation" System. levels of the survey which is being made Equipment: as Problem 5 (e).M... recording his staff readings as 11-44 2-86 12-68 0-82 it 12*80 1-24 8*64 Prepare a page of a level book. the levels for a longitudinal section between the stations indicated by the range-poles A and B. B. Problem 5 by Group ( (d). The points marked A. Test the accuracy of adjustment of the assigned level by the Reciprocal Method. and a mallet. 3-68. staff. 76-4) 3-44.

"Acclivity" and terms used synonymously with these. being until he finds a point the foot of the object and moves along the height h of also be seen. the relation is simply and the horizontal distance between the vertical height >.tan. a (1) H H= D where a line is the vertical angle of elevation if above the horizontal AB. (Fig. various reducing 79 on the instrument . the accuracy thus increasing base.CHAPTER VI ANGULAR LEVELLING In the preamble to Chapter V it was stated that the methods of angular fundalevelling are based on Inverse Polar Co-ordinates. The observer sights a point near 90. The term inverse polar co-ordinates is coined somewhat loosely. the eye being afterwards added. This little instruwhich are accessible to direct linear at ment is essentially an optical square which reflects at 45 instead of held edgewise in sighting. from low to high. or of depression if below AB.) In angular levelling the horizontal sight "declivity" are determined by triangulation. is a simple This fixed relation is embodied in the Apecometer. such as AB. since tan 45- 1. though mentally they are dependent upon a horizontal line. the bases measurement. but directly or indirectly the right-hand lines correFig. The Brandis "Hypsometer" is really a clinometer for finding heights data being inscribed generally. H= D. the horizontal distance Base known or accessible. being found graphically by the intersection of rays on the distance is AB or by photo-interphotogrammetry. which of instrument for measuring heights of trees and buildings. If a is 45 in (1). 52 the case of triangulation. 51. the height // is found from the intercept observed on a plane table in sections staff at B. is involved. which is determined by gravitational methods in which the plumb-line may take the form of a weighted sector or the guise of a spirit level. 51 shows the case of an accessible and meters. Then can from which the top AB X C XB=H. 51 (a) D FIG. 51. or the theodolite. In tacheometry. sponding instrument for measuring It is evident that the method requires some be one of the numerous forms of clinovertical angles. for both in trigonometrical and tacheometrical levelling. with those in Fig. and this may the sextant. Fig.

as. Frequently it is necessary to determine the . so that vertical angles could be read as such. EC being the height Geometry. DB) may is known H even though B is inaccessible as it so often is. as the case can be found as be. which is specially adapted to work with the plane table. Our few principles go a long way. and very large clinometers are mounted on tripods. in other words. After all. various scales being engraved on the plumbing sector. levelled with a bubble. which can be set to the observed vertical angles or their tangents. the horizontal distance AB (or DB) is calculated from the observed angles Co-ordinates). In Practical determine the point C. the pioneer of photogrammetry (1854). and a sighting-arm could be pivoted at the centre 0. Also various improvised forms could be suggested. this is known as rabatting the triangle ABC into the horizontal plane or. and for great distances curvature and refraction may important considerations.. In by (Angular the case of the plane table B is fixed by intersecting rays drawn first from A and then from B the end stations of a measured base. not as an elevation. be calculated in plane tabling. Fig. This is the . Here the N. on the outer edges of the square.80 ELEMENTARY SURVEYING is The "Dendrometer" with a forestry 10-ft. 52 illustrates the case of triangulation. The height is calculated in the case of the theodolite. the height may be found by setting off a right angle at B. With the theodolite. the board of which serves as a base for the instrument. we have our improvised clinometer (page 17). introduced this graphical process in determining the heights of points from pairs of photographs taken from the ends of bases. with AB the horizontal projection of AC. so as to to scale.. such as AD. t 8 and and the base AD Since the horizontal distance AB (or or plotted. Mention must be made of the India Pattern Clinometer. but as a plan.E. the principle of Fig. the height above. 24. Some of and preliminary survey. another form of instrument used in connection these devices are exceedingly handy in Road tracers are clinometers on rod. or their slope ratios. quadrant could be a frame. sometimes by means of a rack and pinion also are H H movement. 52 is seen. graphically or by calculation. for example. Laussedat. but since this method is graphical. we are not finding the height of the Tower of Babel. and constructing the angle 6 at A. stands used in connection with sighting targets. Fig. A pin-hole sight is used in conjunction with a sighting index. p. (b) Base Inaccessible. Failing a better instrument.

In this case it of length L in the vertical plane of is necessary to measure a base from which the elevated point C and the instrument stations A and and 9 are observed. and is provided with a pin-hole sight on the right. is of known elevation above datum. the tangents of the angles of slope are shown. these are co-tangents. as in Fig. 53. the staff station. and. however. the primary function of all clinometers. giving instrumental heights /2 A and h D on a staff held as near as possible to the base of the h D algebraically. the instrument at A: AB=HA cot L=ABBD=HA cot But //A ^=//D . 52. Often. and is HA =-cot cot 9 (2d) and 1 if the instrument divided with slope ratios. object. //A If the 7/D cot 9. The sighting tube in Fig. the best known of all clinometers. the base of which is inaccessible. and (2d) becomes //A 'A ^B where and r B are the ratios for the angles observed at A and B in Fig. the edge of a . axial with this.-h. the Abney level. the general the two angles D Fio. Also. if the point S. with h^h Then for the height of the point C above 0. ~Abney Level. 54 is square in section. r horizontally to vertically. (2) =L - and h cot 9 6 cot cot 9 ground is level. an instrument which extends be the principle of the reflecting spirit level to the measurement of vertical angles. otherwise gradients. Mention must be made of what is possibly. and it would be inexpedient to resort to triangulation. or nearly so. the reduced level will rA HA +d. 1 vertically in r horizontally. Consider Fig.ANGULAR LEVELLING AD 81 eleyation of a point. /*= 0. 53 case in which the slope of the ground is appreciable. 53.

respect. slopes. Some patterns are telescopic. Thus. it is well to note that a "bipod" of surprising steadiness can be improvised by inserting the knob end of a walking-stick in the left-hand jacket pocket. but the innovation is questionable. and the observed point is read on the vernier of the index arm.82 ELEMENTARY SURVEYING sighting plate at the object end. Inside the tube is a mirror. known as a "Jacob. so that the bubble can be read by reflection. the bubble tube is fixed on the top of the sighting tube. the upper edge of which FIG. the the instrument. Abney levels can be used eyes as they lie on the boards of plane tables. Although barometrical levelling is outside the scope of Elementary Surveying. or gradients. An index arm is also fixed to this axis. the barometer and the boiling-point thermometer (also alias the Hypsometer) are strictly the ." In the Abney level. to the top of a 5-ft. The arc is also provided with graduations giving the tangents of these angles. and this was made possible by Torriinvention of the mercurial barometer. staff. it is usually sufficient to sight the of an assistant of one's own stature. and the bubble tube and arm are turned by the little wheel in the front of the figure. Pascal demonstrated that the variation in the density of the atmosphere with changes in altitude might be applied celli's to the determination of heights. for any inclination of the line of sight. with the of division either vertical. its image line level is in contact with the horizontal sight on a levelling staff. this chapter affords the temptation of introducing the third mode of levelling to those who may proceed further in the subject. In 1647. being embedded in an open recess. with a view to engineering. or aerial navigation. being strapped. An objection to clinometers and other hand instruments is the In this difficulty of keeping them steady when taking observations. as with any hand instrument. the bubble tube is carried on an axis which forms the centre of a graduated arc fixed to the sighting tube. also in similar connections in various mechanical experiments. thumb and one or two fingers supporting *BAROMETRY. except the sextant. Thus. In the reflecting spirit level. the mirror being half-silvered. however. with the right hand. or coincident with the line of vision on the horizontal edge of the silver. the bubble is moved so as to give the reflected coincidence that corresponds to its middle position. 54 leans towards the object end. or the corrections to be made in chaining vertical angle of the In the latter connection. geography. or otherwise attached. the readings of which are found to decrease in geometrical progression as the altitudes increase in arithmetical progression. and gripping the stick at the height of the eye. This hand used extensively in route contouring in America.

on top of no knowledge of physics. of wool paid out with her ruler. she was a born surveyor. she may have seen a similar method used in transferring levels down the shaft of a mine.000 ft. and more than one experienced surveyor considers this to be the proper place. will not give absolute heights to within 200 ft. and good results will follow if the instrument is used with care and understanding. an ingenious piece of work. Household barometers are meteorological instruments. and often an excellent solution to the problems of presents. as given in respect to the diagram of Fig. The principle of the instrument. is used in addition. Eminent physicists prepared tables with different initial assumptions." and then measure the her not in travellers' stories. The barometer as a meteorological instrument is not the barometer as a surveying instrument. for she was evidently aware that the wool would have broken had the instrument been sufficiently large and sensitive to respond to a difference in elevation of (say) 180 ft. should be used. being small. Usually a statoscope. or differential aneroid.. or prizes at sports meetings. Often the wrong tables with the right instrument." may have heard who was asked how she would Possibly you jumper. so that the variations can be more accurately determined. But in the field a surveying model. The aneroid is indispensable in exploratory and pioneer work. find the height of a tower if she had a pocket aneroid. and fault of the maker. 55. where tenths of feet matter. but. and always with respect for the instructions supplied by the maker. Her answer was to the effect that she would unpick let down the "thing like a watch. less than The surveying aneroid its idiosyncrasies are no in itself is the limit engraved on the fixed altitude scale. never less than 4 in. is exceedingly simple. Also. The aneroid consists of a circular metal case the base plate carrying the entire mechanism and the cover the dial. Incidentally. the altimeter used in connection with air survey cameras is a form of aneroid. C Fixed to the base plate B is the all-important vacuum chamber V. Whatever the examiner thought. the working range should always be taken to about 2. even if they do length the story of the fair young examinee. The portable form of barometer is known as the aneroid. and the surveyors were not infrequently bewildered with apparently confusing data and corrections. which merely signifies "no liquid. 55 with a glass cover c. FIG. .ANGULAR LEVELLING 83 preserves of Physics. For instance.

The only correction that has to be considered with the aneroid is for the temperature of the intermediate air. also the results should be compared with those of a boiling-point thermometer for absolute altitudes. as though it were the mercurial form. CLASS EXERCISES 6 (a). which and the indicator /. the instrument being sluggish in responding to a descent after an ascent. and constructed of German silf/er. The following vertical angles were read with a clinometer at A and B respectively. It is merely to eliminate "stiction. keeping the chain s taut. per sq. Hence. the motion being resisted by the turns the drum hairspring d. there is a "lag" effect. in the vestibule Possibly you have observed the tapping of the glass of the barometer of an hotel. second crank of this system / transmits them to the chain s. It is possible to make an approximate correction by comparison of the height and altitude scales. The peculiarities of the instrument should be studied. spindle In addition. A t Bt and being in the same vertical plane: 13 20 .84 ELEMENTARY SURVEYING which is circular and corrugated. Care must be taken to ascertain the initial temperature for which the instrument is divided. when a scries of journeys is made and downhill. These movements are transmitted and magnified by means of the compensated lever L.) on the dial A. 32 F. which is surrounded by a high hedge about 25 ft. analogous to that which occurs in other connections. of suction. Surveyors often work to the height (of barometer) in inches." which is statical friction with a following here the mechanism ending in the of the indicating needle. On uphill mean returning from the peak station B to the base station A. in. and would immediately collapse under the outside pressure except for piece m. or 50 F. if carried out with the solemnity of one. the material support of the mainspring M. which is fixed to the bridgevariations in the outside atmospheric pressure are as in the pans of a delicate balance. You are required to find the height of the bottom of a tank on a water tower. preferably by comparison with a standard mercurial pattern. The tank is fitted with a gauge and the zero (0) of this is level with the bottom of the tank.) and pressures (in. which transmits them to the crank system /. they can deduce the probable height in inches at A at the instant the reading was taken at B. from the tower. The walls of this chamber are under 10 to 15 Ib. and these induce pulsatiny weights tions in the vacuum. which are accompanied by movements of the Now mainspring. say. reducing the altitudes either by formulae or by means of tables. Compensation for temperature refers to the instrument and not to this correction. the greater importance should be attached to the value reduced from the ascents. The pulsations are thus finally A D read as altitudes (ft. This is not a religious rite.

and E with a clinometer. showing the limitations of the *6 (e). *6 (c). Problem 6 (d). P and Q. Determine graphically or otherwise the reduced levels and E. Determine the height of the spire on the (specified) building. chain. Outline three essentially different modes of levelling. Supply Group with the elevations of the stations of the plane table survey they have in hand. 336-5 ft.S. Determine the height of the bottom of the tank above Ordnance datum. above A and B. (249-0. arrows. (during excursion or field class in the country). Medium Great Explain elevation. Determine the difference in elevation of the two (specified) points. and set of pickets. to each of the following: (a) (b) (c) one applicable Small differences of reduced level.ANGULAR LEVELLING 85 In each case the eye was 5 ft. and arrows. above the table station O. a peg at a reduced level of 155-5. explaining carefully how the instrument functions in determining altitudes. A 760' B 420' C 315' D 880' E 1260' +7 +14i +16 -10 + 12* of A. altitude. Problem 6 (b). preferably India pattern or Abney level. Equipment: Clinometer. (186-41 ft. ORIGINAL PROBLEMS . Determine the height of (specified) hill with the aneroid. chain. 0-6. Draw a sectional view of an aneroid barometer. The horizontal distances scaled from O to the observed stations were as follows: *6 (b). 264-3. which was 4-5 ft.) During a plane table survey. Equipment: as in 6 (b). tions of absolute heights? methods you suggest. D. "Problem 6 (e). FIELD EXERCISES Problem 6 (a).) (G. How can an explorer in unknown country obtain rough determinafully. between which the ground was level. sights were taken to points A. 6 (d). Determine the heights of the accessible points indicated on the (specified) building.). 245-9. /). . and the reduced level of A was 64-6. . U. B. Problem 6 (c). C. Equipment: Clinometer. AB measured 185 ft. Equipment: Clinometer. C. .

These instruments were used extensively on land surveys. the types used in navigation. etc. and even old pattern levels. and (4) the Window. or deputising someone to read the divisions for him. but the compass brought harmony of another kind.D. and this will be described in detail in order to emphasise the points essential to a good compass.. (2) the Dial. but reappeared with some slight alterations as the "mining dial. This instrument was invented in 1814 by Captain Kater. and that there are indications that it was known in China in the eighth century B. (2) Reconnaissance Compasses. The origin of the compass is lost in antiquity. compasses are made in three forms at the present time: (1) Occasional Compasses. excluding. tiny Compasses are made in at least fifty-seven varieties. The prismatic compass is the type best known to British surveyors.C." the compass needle still holding a prominent place. and the prismatic non-luminous dials. is essential in surveying. The characteristic feature is the prism reading. incidental to the plane table. 86 . Harmony between measurements.CHAPTER VII THE COMPASS The compass may be defined as an instrument in which a magnetic needle assumes a more or less definite line of reference from which angular direction lines known as bearings can be measured. In England the surveying compass faded out as the "compass circumferentor. and fitted with a pair of vertical sights.. ^Prismatic Compass. The prismatic compass consists of four main parts: (1) The Compass Box. (3) Surveying Compasses. both angular and linear. ranging from the charms on watch-chains to the most elaborate forms of mining of course. particularly in dense forests and jungles. as used extensively on preliminary and route surveys. giving us "Dixie. As surveying form. as found in pocket dials. and had the merit that their accuracy was consistent with that of chaining. In America. which enables the surveyor to observe bearings without resting his compass on the ground or a wall. All that is known is that the mariner's compass was used by the Italians or the Portuguese in the twelfth century A. usually mounted. whose famous pendulum is a source of anxiety in most physical laboratories. Mason and Dixon ran the disputed boundary between Maryland and Pennsylvania in 1767. instruments. the last class stands as designated. including the service forms of luminous compasses. (3) the Prism." on the advent of the small theodolite. It is the most convenient instrument for rapid traverses. theodolite. to adopt the common phrase." when those two English surveyors. trough compasses.

56 the use.) (2) The dial. which is desirable with the heavier patterns. lid is A glass cover is fitted to the box. diameter. The hinge so that the prism box can be folded back for compactness when out of use." or rhumbs. It is to 360 in the clockwise direction. in order from north by way of east. and (c) a tripod.) The needle is usually mounted with a bearing centre B of agate or chrysolite. USE. the base pressing for compactness. "Boxing the Compass" does not refer to the last step. in nautical language. consists of an open frame fitted with a central which. (This can wear the pivot and impair accuracy if the needle is not raised by its Lift during transport. diametrically opposite. S. a metal case. but means. On the rim is fitted the pivot prism P and. the vertical sighting window V. damps ful oscillations (or fixes the reading with a very doubt- degree of accuracy). (4) The window F. can be slid is fitted up and down by means of a thumb-nail stud T. (b) sunshades. down the outer end of the lifting lever L. as though they appeared at the forward or window end of the dial. when turned down sight slit. which. touching the its dial. and. in sighting. at C. 2| in. calling the "32 points. vertical hair M . The window-frame lifts the needle A from its pivot. (Remember forward end of the needle for forward bearings. instrument out (By the way. for focusing. but has its numbers figured from reversed (as seen in a looking-glass) and advanced 180 so that bearings can be read directly through the prism P. carries the needle or bearing at the centre of its base. which may be placed in front of the mirror in solar observations. a pin is inserted to actuate a light check spring which. and a metal to provided protect this glass is when of Fio. is used in conjunction with the is hinged. and is hinged to a projection. which is carried by the magnetic needle A. for sighting points Additional parts may include (a) the mirror considerably above or below the horizon. Under the win- The dow B'. (1) Remove the cover and open out the prism and window.) one face. and to 90 on the other two faces. is made of card in small instruments and of aluminium in larger patterns. to 6 in.THE COMPASS {!) 87 box. The prism box is provided with a sight slit S. Sometimes a ring is fitted under the prism box for attaching H the instrument to the person as a precaution against accidents. (3) The prism is cut to 45 on which are worked to a convex surface so as also to give magnification of the numbers on the dial.

a more or less fixed line of reference for forward bearings existing at . but were undergoing instruction in marching with the compass. v The bearing read will be a "forward" bearing and normally a "whole circle" bearing. both figured to 360. which are also used in connection with (a) and (c) in for direct readings. to work in conjunction with two men by mutual alignment in order to maintain the direction. when an old lady was informed that the officers were not holding an egg-andspoon race. focus the prism by raiding or lowering its case until the divisions appear sharp and clear. Some knowledge as to the identity of conspicuous stars and their apparent positions and movement is obviously necessary. the observer will soon find himself moving in a direction parallel to AB. and if B is not a visible landmark or station. If necessary. Hence. (3) Two sets of dial divisions. as she surmised. holding the compass as level as possible. a clockwise angle between and 360. sight through the slit S and the hair-line V at the object or station. the box being about diameter. provided with a luminous patch (#). which is used in connection with the patch (a). (4) The lid carries a circular window. At the extremities of this line are two patches (c). The advantages of the compass as a surveying instrument may be summarised generally. bearing from A to B. (2) Holding the compass box with the thumb under the prism at T and the forefinger near the stud C. without the use of the prism. or. it (1) Running rapid traverses without regard to preceding lines. the 2 in. divided to 360 in the counter-clockwise around the circumference of the box. (2) A movable glass cover. follows: (1) direction. The more conspicuous differences from the larger pattern just described are as service patterns are usually of the prismatic class. would be possible for the observer to keep on a given But on foot or horseback this is impossible. on page 82 (Chapter VI) is were supported in gimbals and constantly in view. dial is night operations.e. provided with a finger-ring under the prism. lowering the eye to read the required bearing as soon as the dial comes to rest naturally (or by cautiously damping its swings by pressing the stud C). its simplicity and portability being recognised. Military Compasses. Although these are made in various forms. failing this. placed eccentrically. the inner set being normal is fitted On top of the i. Down this window is scribed a vertical line which serves as a sighting vane in daylight operations. The walking-stick "bipod" described also useful with this instrument. in marching on merely a given bearing at night it is often necessary to work to a selected series of stars. Some advice might be found in a story of the last war. lower the needle on to its pivot. An external ring. as Now if a compass on a ship. a luminous pointer (b). is fitted in a milled ring over the box and secured by means of a clamping screw.88 ELEMENTARY SURVEYING and.

making an angle with the earth's centre of about 1 at the present time. This line differs from the true meridian. as it is in this country to-day. Now we encounter the true British profusion of terminology. an application of the surveying compass in the U." Its disadvantages are (1) that lines of great length cannot be run with great accuracy unaided by a telescope. (3) Facility of fixing positions by resection on two or three points.B. But the Pole Star actually rotates about the north pole. and that local attraction may rapid work impracticable or II. where the angle NOnis the declination.C.A. being to the west. so that its direction lixes the true north only when it is vertically above or below the pole. to 360. since at best bearings cannot be read within five to ten minutes (of arc) under the most favourable conditions. or at upper or lower transit. The true meridian NS is shown faintly and the magnetic meridian boldly as ns in Fig. known as the magnetic declination. and may be true or magnetic bearings accordingly. in astronomical language. but once and for all let us classify the two modes observing bearings as and "Bearings. 57. particularly if the circle is divided in the "quadrant system. impossible. are angles (a) Whole Circle Bearings (W. BEARINGS compass needle serves as a reference line known as a magnetic meridian.THE COMPASS all '89 (2) Running lines through forests where obstructions ^tations.S. the line of sight are more easily overcome than with other impeding instruments. In general." but in mind the synonymous uses of the terms. by a horizontal angle of which more will be said later. already mapped. (2) that at best the method is not precise. keeping or simply Azimuths. Most measured clockwise from the north point from air force text-books define these simply as geographical and army and of "Azimuths" . bearings are horizontal angles measured from the north and south points of reference meridians. (5) Facility with which bearings lend themselves to the use of latitudes and departures. (4) Retracing lines which were run with the compass before the introduction of the theodolite. as would be given by a line between the observer O and The axis of the the north pole.). or n and s line. and render (3) that the needle is unreliable.

and followed by the terminal letter E or W. Thus. the forward azimuth of AB Fio. it is now desirable to work S. a W. Y. directly. and its back bearing S. and S. .. p W.g. N. or S. a E. the initial letter They are read directly on circles divided in the Quadrant System. since (The true meridian MS N ings as follows: (a) (e. or simply Bearings. and its back with the bearing N. . to 90 to 0.. P. (b) Reduced Bearings (R.40E. as suggested by progress from A to B.Y) and y) . 50 for 8.30E. the angular value being preceded by either direction from or S.. the forward bearing of BC is S. Thus the bearing. 230. with azimuths we merely add or subtract angles exceeding 90 to or from 180 (or 360). and the back bearing. which are read directly. forward bearing of a line AB. 57.) N. while with bearings we merely interchange the initial letters (N.) with the compass Thus the azimuth of OA is a. line has two bearings: a forward bearing and a backward the forward bearing being understood in plotting. to the angles we have adopted as bearings. 8. as suggested by sighting Every from B to A. the forward bearing of AB is N. is merely P or N. Possibly you will appreciate the process better if you write 30 for p. to 90 to Otherwise they are readily reduced from observed whole circle bearat present.(360-S)W. The graduated and compasses are divided in the Whole Circle System. in are to 90. Hence. and 60 for a.) a p Y S 30 N. not only because back bearings are readily evident. p W. 58 is simply p and its back bearing azimuth its tack azimuth (360 180+ p. but have to be reduced we are working and booking magnetic bearings. forward bearing of DA. N. Y W.) and the terminal letters (E. which obviates reduction in later methods. . 140 230 S.(a)E..90 ELEMENTARY SURVEYING circles of bearings. 140. 58. and W. . 40 for Y. but that azimuths have little future in front of them until they are converted -180)W. nautical bearings. of OC. Also. p E. of OB. of OD.(180-p)E. Y E. may be forgotten a while.( Y 300 (b) (e. in Fig. and 300 in Fig. N.B.60W. but not altogether without reason. as simply read on the circle.50W. to bearings.).g. . S. horizontal angles measured from the north and south point. the forward of BC (180. . (2) Although azimuths are read with bearings. British theodolites to 360* clockwise. being respectively 30. S. and its back bearing S. is 180+ p.). p E.

In physics. . exclusively (a) Secular variations occur with the lapse of years.a). the lines of zero declination being Agonic Lines. the term "variation" is often used and synonymously with the term declination. and volcanic eruptions. and then increasing during the following nine months. decreasing to midsummer. and (c) Diurnal. (b) Annual. Hence the mine surveyor relies upon the notices issued as to magnetic storms by the appropriate department of the Royal Observatory. (4) LOCAL ATTRACTION. and imply some magnitude at any given date. THE COMPASS azimuth of DA (360 a) 91 though these . when it may amount to 15' at places. (1940). and is now 10 45' W. Local Attraction .and its back azimuth would be read merely as 30 and 210. {b) Annual variations are cyclical changes in which the year is the period. since the magnitude at any given place and date is itself subject to variations. lines of equal declination on maps are known as Isogonic Lines. Thus. in 1663 (three years before the Annus Mirabilis) it was zero. (c) Diurnal variations are the more or less regular changes in the needle from hour to hour. centuries revealing that the motion is periodic in character. something like that of a pendulum impelled to oscillate in a complex vibration. varies at different times and at different points on the earth's surface. such Whitakefs Almanack. the declination was 11 36' East in 1580. There are also disturbances of the magnetic needle which can be attributed to Acts of Man. one day near London. and 300 and 120 on ordinary whole circle divisions. the variation being greatest at springtime. The cause is attributed to the influence of sunlight. being less in winter than in summer. and 320 The conjoint use of forward and backward bearings is an important artifice known as working "fixed needle" in the presence of magnetic witfy the forward . disturbances. The term expresses the fact that magnetic and true meridians are not coincident. This variation differs for different localities and for different seasons of the year. Annual variation is totally different from the progressive angular change due to secular variation. (3) MAGNETIC DECLINATION. value for any year can be found from some reference work. The magnetic declination. with an increasing annual movement. the needle becoming extremely capricious. which arc of the following three kinds: (a) Secular. earthquakes. the horizontal angle between the magnetic and the true meridian at any place. but in military surveying and mathematical geography. leading to a total difference of ten minutes in any. This is incorrect. There arc also irregular fluctuations which seem to coincide with the appearance of the aurora borealis. at Greenwich. and is therefore of secondary Its as importance. and in 1818 it reached Since then it has decreased steadily its most westerly value of 25 41 '. 140 (180. At most places it amounts to less than a minute. or changes.



denotes (facetiously known as the feminine of magnetic interference) which renders compass bearings inaccurate in the neighthe influence bourhood of certain bodies, particularly iron, steel, and certain iron

even nickle, chromium, and manganese. steel spectacles, keys (cigarette cases), and knives cause trouble, and the unassuming chain and arrows are not may always above suspicion. Also, steel helmets and box-respirators have been known to have been overlooked; and, by the way, a well-meant needle. cleaning of the glass cover may electrify it so as to attract the Outside these avoidable sources there are enough fixed sources to fill a catalogue. Fences, manhole covers, railway metals, trolley wires, steel structures, etc., in view; and, unseen, underground pipes, ironwork,
ores, or

Thus disguised

etc., etc.



time you have doubtless agreed that the compass



suited to exploratory work, and the safest place for it is a forest, desert, or jungle. On the contrary, local attraction can be "bypassed," and this a mere detail of the mine surveyor's work. Suppose we return to Station A of Fig. 58. Here we observe the

forward bearing p of AB as N. 30 E. (30). Next we proceed to B. Here we find the back bearing, BA, is also p, as S. 30 W. (210). Hence it is fairly safe to assume that neither A nor B is under magnetic influence, and with confidence we take the forward bearing r of BC, reading S. 40 E. (or 140). Then we proceed to C, and, lo! the back bearing of CB, is Y ', not N. 40 W. (320), but N. 45W. (315).



the needle to

us take the forward bearing 8' of CD (which we believe 50 W. (230), even though we record S. 45 W. (225). Here we observe a back bearing, S", as let us proceed to D. Also, N. 55 E. (55), and suspect that D is also unduly influenced. But here we are near to our starting-point, A, which we know to be immune.

B was immune, C is suspected, local attraction causing assume the dotted position n^^



should be

S) as S.

Hence we take a forward bearing, DA, of C (305 ). Therefore we hurry to A, and observe
as S. 60



this is




the back bearing

E. (120).

Now we

review our notes and see that our false reference meridian


to the west at
it is



to the east at C.


evident that the exterior angle at
interior angle at


and that the
interior angle



this value subtracted

360 -(180
In fact,

+40 +50 )-360 -(180 +45 +45)-90 at D is simply (60 +50 )-(55 +55)-110

from 360, But the


existed at all

would not have mattered if magnetic interference had the stations. The record of forward and back bearings

would have enabled us to find the true interior angles of the polygon with just one geometrical defect. The polygon would be orthomorphic (correct shape), but it would be displaced on the drawing-paper by



the error in the magnetic meridian we assume for our first station. Hence, it is desirable that one station should be unaffected, and this can be ascertained by taking a bearing at an intermediate point in a line and noting if this agrees with one of the end bearings. This process is known as working "fixed needle." Free need^
traversing is the normal method by forward bearings. No regard is thus taken of back bearings, so that each line is independent; but if local attraction exists, the configuration of the traverse will be incorrect. Finally, the sum of the interior angles should be equal to twice the


N of right angles as the figure has sides, less four right angles,

(2N 4)90. Naturally you will seldom obtain this apart from local attraction, there are those natural ailments, errors of observation; and the error of closure, as it is called, may be
or, algebraically,


(J to 1)\/N". degrees difference from (2N 4)90, according to the size and quality of the compass. simple polygon should be traversed with a compass influenced


by suspended keys, to wear one.

or, better, the

shadow of a







good compass would have been exceedingly welcome when we were running the open traverse of the stream in Fig. 19, or fixing the traverse angles around the pond in Fig. 20. This would have obviated the use of those terrible ties, essential to fixing directions when only the chain is at hand. Also the field notes would have been simplified, since the mere entry "N. 12 E.," etc., would have superseded the entries relative to the lengths and positions of the angle ties. At the same time, it is always desirable in all traverses to keep a tabular record, showing Line, Length, Bearing, with further columns for future calculations if likely to be required. However, an illustrative example of the application of Polar Coordinates, ihe fourth principle of surveying,



traverse surveys of quiet country lanes are very interesting, particularly if they are run between definite landmarks shown on, say,


the 25-in. Ordnance sheets. Starting at a point, or station

A on the roadside, a sight is taken a heap of stones, or a mark, and the forward bearing of AB is observed. Then the distance AB is carefully paced, aided desirably by that useful present, the passometer. (Notes as to buildings, width of road, etc., are jotted down.) Also, if there is a prominent landmark, say, a church spire, a bearing should be taken to this, in order to serve as a check on the work. From B, another station C is seen, possibly at a definite point near the bend of the road. The bearing of BC is observed, and the distance BC is paced, notes with estimated distances to objects being recorded
on a
distant point




Possibly from B, the church spire


again be visible,



FIG. 59

but, if not,
until the


may be


F is

sighted from C. So the open traverse is made, reached, which might be a guide-post on the grass

verge near the cross-roads. En route, various inaccessible objects, such as hill-tops, might be located by "intersections," or Angular Co-ordinates, the third principle

of surveying. If a clinometer were at hand, the heights of conspicuous points might be found by the method outlined in Chapter V. A pocket prismatic compass has been in view in this traverse. If

a larger pattern were available the distances might be measured with a convenient length of R.E. tracing tape. This is fairly safe in traffic. But, of course, chaining thus makes it a two-man job. Now the explorer actually does the same thing, measuring distances by time on foot, or horseback, etc. His distances will be very much greater, and the scale of plotting very much smaller; but the principles are the same. In fact, Tom Sawyer would see our prosaic country lane
as a rough



Grand Canyon, and the twin

valley, the little river, the Mississippi, the church, hills as Council Bluffs.

But we are anxious to see



first effort

works out on paper,


on the

scale of


The work

be simplified

we summarise our

notes in tabular form, as follows:

Adjustment of Traverse Surveys.

Although the following process


particularly applies to closed traverse polygons,


also used

scale (or some convenient fraction thereof) the consecutive lengths of the traverse lines along the horizontal base Af in Fig. or definite points on the 6-in. The sheet. y y Obviously these corrections are in the required ratios of the lengths . and this based upon the method devised by the celebrated mathematician. Nathaniel Bowditch (1807). This requires that the correction to each is There traverse line shall be in the proportion that the line bears to the total length of the lines. b c d FIGS. 60 and 61 e t protractor. c. dD. eE. and at / erect a perpendicular to Af equal to the error of closure fF. and erect perpendiculars to the base Af giving bB cC. often implicitly in the arithmetical adjustment of theodolite traverses. or other Ordnance sheets. as we understand it. and e. in Fig. Join AF. and e. 60. as is usually the case with the theodolite. This process affects both bearings and lengths alike. d. 59. the corrections to be made at the stations 6.THE COMPASS 95 in correcting open traverses. made with accurate surveying compass are adjusted arith- metically. the theodolite. d. and was devised for the compass. showing Let AbcdefbQ the traverse as plotted to the given scale with a good fF as the error of closure on the point F on the sheet. but those Rough and medium grade compass traverses are adjusted graphically. when these begin and end at points accurately surveyed. is as follows when applied to the traverse of Fig. where A and F are the points or stations on the Ordnance from which a tracing has been made for the sake of econony. is only one rational method of graphical adjustment. 61. as in the case of the triangulation stations of a main survey. the correction being carried out through the rectangular co-ordinates. Yet to-day many surveyors use the method and wisdom would be graphical process folly when this blissful ignorance achieves its end. Ordnance Draw Set off on the same parallels to the direction fF through b. or the perimeter of the traverse. c. and departures of the lines. the latitudes. being beyond the dreams of the land surveyor at that time.

being p a and 9. and DA'. and the direction assumed for the magnetic meridian might be true only for a part of the area if tensive. The direction of the magnetic meridian np thus becomes of little importance. CD. one-quarter. the magnetic declination might vary considerably over the area. 60. and they would be the fame if Af were one-half. Then if P on the tracing is pricked through to the map the required position is fixed. Cc> Dd. so as to obtain the adjusted traverse ABCDEF. But. since Q and 9 would be the same whatever the extent of local attraction. as shown in Fig. A'. etc. particularly useful in fixing positions at which observations for altitudes have been carried out with the aneroid or of a circle. but with the outline of the traverse the left of A. The solution will fail if A. 61.. and in selecting positions for stations in an extensive scheme of triangulation. and C at the same time. A y B. C." is usually associated with the plane table. the latter were very exHence. and C are reproduced on a piece of tracing-paper with the aid of a protractor. it has numerous applications with the compass in exploratory and preliminary surveys. In theory a point to P any two visible and mapped can be fixed by the bearings observed from P stations or points. B. AE. and C. Copy is ABCD four lengths. and by subtracting their bearings from P. and Ee along the parallels at b. IV. No! Run round an irregular pentagon with the compass and chain. and e. EC. 20. giving an error of closure AA'. and the tracing is shifted over the map of the area until the rays pass through A. B. above and to Then proceed as above.96 ELEMENTARY SURVEYING of the sides of the sum of these lengths. B. and then see what you have to say about it. . say J in. y p. COMPASS RESECTION Although the method of Trilinear Co-ordinates. set off the corrections Bb. but with the horizontal base divided only into The method polygon. A applied in a similar manner to a closed traverse in Fig. to find the angles & and 9 as subtended by AB and BC at P. Finally. A. The rays from P to A. apart from the sluggishness or other defects of the compass. 60. B. the scale value of the total length to /in Fig. the magnetic north serving as the third point. it is advisable to observe three points. as indicated in thick lines in Fig. c. as understood in the "three-point problem. P thus having an indefinite is The method the boiling-point thermometer. d. and P are all on the circumference number of positions.

B. giving (if possible) a sectional view.S. 314. and observes the following compass bearings from O to A. 299. B being respectively 475 ft. Both forward and backward bearings were taken as suspected. State the values of the corrected magnetic bearings with which you would plot the survey. CD. 294. and P is determined in a manner similar to that described for compass re-section. local attraction was . a coastguard station.S.) (Tracing paper will be supplied if required.THE COMPASS Here is 97 an idea for an adventure story in your magazine. B. OFFICE AND CLASS EXERCISES (G.S. with introduced through the medium of a complex code. 129. 1 Describe any form of prismatic compass. 9 134) (G. In practice this is not so simple as it appears to be. 84.) 7 (a). both he would find the position of O with a compass bearing and from B. affected (C and J and 5. CD. which were fixed by triangulation. DE. 219. and 1. a castle. Plot the survey from the notes given on Plate V. Plot the survey from the notes given on Plate IV. being horizontal and 2 in. (a) (b) State concisely what you Magnetic declination know about and the following: variation. smuggler hurriedly buries some treasure at a point O. BA. so that the direction of the vertical A plane of the aerial can be determined when it is turned edgewise towards the transmitting stations so as to receive the signals at maximum strength. DC. at P is fitted with a horizontal circle. The following bearings were taken with a prismatic compass in an open traverse through an area in which magnetic interference was ABCDE suspected: AB. and running in clockwise order.. A and B.S. 267. and respectively: 36 135 230 A A C Show how distance. B. BC. DC. above the bottom of the page. (G. 1 19. due N. of A with reference to the true meridian. B. with A. and all along the paths of the wireless waves. and C. or 405 ft. for there is "local attraction" above and below.000. and C. the directional frame aerial positions of which are shown on a map. which mystery gives clues both to points and bearings in finding the hidden secret.S. A. (G. 122. side to represent a triangle ABC. the scale of the man being 1 in 1. (G. and due E. this fifth principle of surveying is also the basis of fixing the position P of a wireless receiving station with reference to three transmitting stations of known wave-length. D + DE 7 (b). and 315 from B.) equilateral triangle of 6 in. 39.) (c). CB. Incidentally. ED.) 7 (d). Draw an C CB represents a spire. 7 (B). The following compass traverse was run between two stations.) 7 (A).) (4-85 in.200 ft. From the divided circle the angles 6 and 9 are found. Magnetic interference in surveying.

) . *7 (e).98 ELEMENTARY SURVEYING Plot the traverse with the corrected true bearings. directional aerial he ascertains the magnetic bearings of three transmitting stations he identifies as A. An explorer has mapped three stations as P. as determined using the tracing paper supplied. He Magnetic Bearings Observer's to Transmitting Stations (a) Plot the traverse on the scale stated from the given distances and by the wireless signals. and R.) Closing error from 60 to 75 ft. QR. of P. and C. Q. adjust the traverse lines to fit between the main stations A and B. R. of respective survey traverse stations. Q. are situated in clockwise order at the vertices of an equilateral triangle of 6 in. Q. P being 34-8 mis. S. located by wireless signals approximately 2-4 mis. 3*2 mis.. N. and 5-9 mis. B. of C.E. on i\ line 60 N. (b) Plot the positions of P. W. and C. bearings. with the following t magnetic bearings and distances: PQ. 30|. taking the magnetic declination to be 13 W. and using a scale of 1 in 2. 37-8 mis. If necessary. Q and R. and R. corner of the page. Three wireless transmitting stations A..) (Station c affected +5. from the S. and R. Q. and by means of a then uses his wireless receiver to check his positions at P. (Stations P. side on a map plotted to a scale of 20 miles to the inch. 62..400... 43-8 mis. reasonable. N. (Place the true north parallel to the short edges of the Answer Book and assume A about 2J in. B.

parallel to the short scale of 50 ft. placing the true N.0 o 3 s AF O The above pages of Copse. and edges of the paper. with A about 4 inches from the lower and left-hand edges.PLATE V AC 2. all Field Notes refer to a Compass-Chain survey of a measurements being in feet. . Plot the survey on a S. to 1 inch.

points. The bearings are measured E. from A): diameters. . and S. N.100 ELEMENTARY SURVEYING PLATE VI The following notes refer to the survey of a meadow which was mainly under water except alongside a stream running through the area. place the Magnetic North parallel to the short edges of the paper with A l\ in. where the stream bears N. B. above the bottom edge of the paper. from the left-hand short edge and 6\ in. From the stations A. C.B. Bridge over R. and W. In consequence a straight backbone ABCD was run near the southern bank of the stream up to Station C. 12 ft. compass bearings were taken in order to fix the boundaries.E.S. Footbridge. following the notes given on the right of the notes. 210 ft. between walls. entering the river near Station h. outside. which were straight.. using a protractor and scale. inside. (G. 4ft. from / (21 ft. Dee: 35 ft. In doing this. from the N. wide near B. Add as much of the detail as possible. 15 ft. Plot the triangulation network for the survey on a scale of 50 feet to 1 inch. D.) COMPASS SURVEY OF BRAY'S PIECE Details: Centre of culvert. clear span: 40 ft. except along the bank of the river on the north of the area.

as obtained Finding the treasure buned at P from the bearings of A. tape. Determine the error in the sum of the interior angles of the polygon indicated by the range poles A. Make a compass-pacing traverse between . and C. (e. Equipment: Compass. Equipment: Compass. . Problem 7 places). Run an open traverse of the (specified) road (or stream). is influenced by (e. chain.g. . (c).) . C. two pickets. arrows. and clinometer. (two specified and passometer). ORIGINAL PROBLEMS Measuring the interior angles of a polygon when the compass needle an attached key). Equipment: Small prismatic compass (clinometer Problem 7 (d). chain. Equipment: Compass. Problem 7 (<?). Survey the chain and compass. B.g. arrows.THE COMPASS FIELD EXERCISES Problem 7 (a). compass. 7 (b). . from Group (the smuggling party). . Determine the distance and height of the (specified inaccessible points) from and above the station indicated at the range pole A. D. Problem Equipment: As in 1 (a). . (specified) 101 pond (or wood) by means of the and a set of picket*. and E. B.

using these pins as sights. such as the compass. made in numerous forms and sizes. sextant. but instead arc constructed directly. That is the sole geometrical principle of the plane table. but the base rules of alidades are seldom divided. 63 and compass. or angle measurer. B. the plane table be described as a drawing-board mounted upon a tripod to form a table upon which surveys can be plotted concurrently with the field work through the medium of a combined sighting device and plotting scale. The Table is light patterns Sight rules are often engraved with a scale on each edge. The sighting device may also range from a simple Sight Rule with vertical eye-sights to a Telescopic Alidade. which may be simple or the upper part of a complete transit theodolite mounted upon a rule. but high-class ~~ . 63. even to carrying a continuous roll of drawing-paper. then to the other. is you glance through them first to one corner A of the room. and place this on a table at a point O\ then. fitted In simple pat- levelling the board is sometimes as a terns the spirit level for cross bubble to the sight rule. with a simple board and thumb-nut attachment to the tripod. thus necessitating the use of independent plotting scales.CHAPTER VIII PLANE TABLING Although may it scarcely needs any introduction to-day. as in the case of any goniometer. Hence angles are not observed in magnitude. and theodolite. to elaborate boards with every refinement for levelling the drawing surface and rotating the board. so that the instrument a goniography or angle plotter. a separate trough compass being supplied In more expensive patterns a large circular compass sometimes carries two large bubbles at right angles to each other. shown Common to all patterns are the spirit levels FIG. A is simple plane table in Fig. the angle A OB could be constructed if lines were drawn along the edge of the ruler. Simple tables are levelled up solely by manipulation of the legs of the tripod. Suppose you insert two pins vertically at the ends of a ruler. ranging from small.

or in lower grade work. and. Terms and Definitions. however it may be specified: 10. On small scales. should be drilled to take the screw which protrudes from the underface of the board. (Iks. to which the halves of the tripod legs are secured. or 100-ft.. as suggested on page 67. or improvised from American cloth. Sight rules should be purchased. so that a mark on a station peg can be transferred up to the board through the medium of a plumb-bob attached to the undcr-arm of the plumbing bar. or headpiece. to 1 mile would suggest a man's job on a half imperial drawing board. no board and tripod can be too good in practice. their use impedes the work in instructional classes. Scale plays an important part in plane tabling. size should be selected. tenths." the board field: (a) Orienting the Board. Boxwood patterns in he 10-in. arc seldom rigid enough. Wooden camera tripods. line of the case may be easily transferred to the plotting paper. the thumb-nut. or 12-in. Useful plane tables arc readily constructed from half-imperial drawing boards. as the case may be.) to the inch. while on the other. tripods. exactly at the centre of the board. The 1 2. and only on very large scales is the bar justified. In larger models.500 means access to the 25-in. etc. and size should not be sacrificed in order to lighten the board. speed multiplied by accuracy equals a constant. Orienting the board means turning it on the top of the tripod so that plotted lines are parallel to (or coincident with) the corresponding lines in the field. Incidentally a waterproof satchel should be made. On small scales. in a way. A hard wood or metal plate is secured to the centre of the under face of the board. Ordnance sheets. "more accuracy Scale also suggests two terms we must know before less speed. Military sketch-boards are set in this manner. and S. though they possess the merit of telescopic poitability. and these are very expensive in classes. (Iks. the error from orientation . with one of the scales showing inches. while the 6 in. plumbing It is a kind of denominator which fixes the speed of the work. battened rather than framed patterns. and turning the board until the compass needle going into the (a) comes to rest in the common magnetic meridian. though the tendency is to make this unduly elaborate. A 3-in. a Plumbing Bar is supplied. (6) Setting the board means orienting it roughly by placing the north end of the compass box over the north end of a magnetic needle drawn on the board. In the writer's opinion. The thumb-nut serves to secure the board to the top of the tripod and to clamp When it is really necessary to construct it in any desired position in the field. Some of the scales engraved on sight rules are of little use in classes.PLANE TABLING 103 models are fitted with a tribrach levelling base. and (b) Setting the Board. or 4-in. and a long screw with a thumb-nut is inserted in this.). or 100. and the compass should be of a type that the N. a refined clamp and slow motion is provided. Also the clamping of the board in an important position is effected solely with that unsatisfactory device. Plausible as these scales may sound. on the one hand. as also are certain rough plane table maps. these should be of the framed pattern. I : is regarded a point. the work being kept normally to 50-ft. bubble in a metal case will serve for levelling purposes. The triangular plate. and a telescopic alidade is essential.




be very small, but on large and even medium scales the defects of compass will soon be evident. Perhaps you will understand the distinction in the following emergency You are stranded at the junction / of five roads, where the guide-post has been removed as a war-time precaution. But you have

of the locality; say 1 in 10,000, or the 6 in. to 1 mile. You find your position on this without difficulty, and you also see that church C in the distance. Then, if you spread the map flat, and turn it while looking along the line between / and C on the map until the church comes into view, the map will be oriented, strictly, if not accurately. But if the country around is thickly wooded, you will need a compass


in addition.

You lay your map on the ground, an d place the compass with the north end mark ^on the compass box exactly over the north end of the magnetic meridian of the map. Then you turn the

slowly until the needle comes to rest in the common magnetic meridian. If only the true meridian is shown on the map, a magnetic meridian must be pencilled across it at the declination for the date


place. This is "setting'* strictly, though both processes are referred to as such in military surveying. Notation. The edge along which rays are drawn on the paper in plane tabling is known as the "fiducial edge of the alidade," which we

will contract to "ruling edge/* "Centring the alidade" (or sight rule) at a point or station on the plan means placing the ruling edge over the plotted position of that point. "Centring the sight rule" is facili-

tated by inserting a bead-headed pin at the point, edge in contact with this pin.

and keeping the


such as A, B, C,

far as possible capital letters will denote stations in the field, etc., and the corresponding small letters will indicate

the corresponding points

on the board,
It is

as a y b,

c, etc.

not without reason that the plane table is considered the simplest and best instrument for demonstrating the principles of surveying, tKough, even in this capacity, it is seldom treated as a versatile demonstrator. A student from the Orient is said to have observed that the plane table is the best of all surveying instruments because there are only two things to be remembered about it. If he meant, as he presumably did, the processes of intersection and three-point resection, he had the academic outlook
fairly well assessed.



Apart from economic and climatic considerations, a place for all the five principles in practice, which is not all solving the three-point problem for resection's sake. Now there are three primary methods of surveying with the plane

(1) Radiation; (2) Intersection;


(3) Progression,

Although seldom used

in entire surveys, they are

or Traversing. commonly used

in filling in the details of triangles and polygons surveyed by more accurate methods.

(1) Radiation,


(a) Reconnoitre the ground, making an index sketch, notes to one copied from an existing map. Select as the or adding station O a point from which all points to be surveyed are visible, say, A, B, C, and D, as in Fig. 64. (b) Level the table over the station O, and, referring to the index sketch, clamp the board in the best position

for placing the survey on the paper. Fix a pin in the board at o, to represent 6, selecting this point so that

the entire survey can be plotted on the proposed scale. (Using the compass, insert a magnetic N. and S. line in a convenient place to serve as a

dated meridian, and in large surveys

roughly orienting the board.) Centre the sight rule against
pin, and, sighting the stations A, etc., in order, draw rays to-



c the

wards them, but only round the margins, and not in the body of the paper, which is the place for the map. Reference these A, B, C, etc.,
in the


to A, B, C, etc., and set them (d) Chain the radial distances from off to scale as oa, ob y oc, etc. Connect ab, be, cd, etc., with firm lines,


these are actually straight boundaries.

In practice, however, this method is used for details, such as inserting contours, where the radial distances may be found also by means of the tacheometer, or on



In simple suris







auxiliary to progression. Intersection, (a)


Prepare an index sketch, as stated above, in-

cidentally obtaining






distances and lengths involved.


a suitable FIG. 65 the base line PQ, observing that all points to be plotted must be visible from both ends of the base. Chain the one direct linear measurement, the base PQ with great care, using a steel tape if one is available. Fix a

situation for

pole at Q.



(c) Set up the table, centring and levelling the board over one end of the base P. Clamp the board in the most convenient position 'for placing the survey, and, having carefully selected the position for the

a pin at /?, to represent P, the station occupied. (Insert a meridian by means of the compass.) magnetic (d) Centre the sight rule against the pin at /?, and sight at A, B, C, etc., salient points in the survey, drawing rays near the margins and

base pq,


referencing them accordingly A, B, C, etc. Sight the pole at Q with the ruling edge still centred against the pin at p. Draw a ray towards Q, and along it jet off PQ to the scale adopted to represent the measured

P on vacating the station. the table, and centre and level the board over the other end of the base, Q. Fix a pin at q to represent Q. Orient the board
Fix a pole at


by sighting with the ruling edge along qp to the pole at P, and clamp the board thus. Centre the sight rule against the pin at q, and, sighting the points A, B, C, etc., draw rays towards them to intersect the corresponding rays from P in a, b, c, etc. Avoid intersections that are very oblique, or very acute, bearing in mind the rule for all triangulation


at the point intersected. chief objection to intersections as a sole method of surveying the difficulty of selecting a base so proportioned that definite inter-

to 120

sections will result, and of plotting that base with respect to both scale and position so that the resulting map is neither absurdly small nor

so unduly large that certain intersections


outside the limits of the

success by by intersections around the boundaries, and then measuring between them in order to take offsets. Too often, however, the more accurate chain measurements will not agree with the intersected positions of the stations, which must be adjusted. Here we have fair linear measurements not mixing with poor angular measurements; and, as hinted before, the surveyor's headaches are not all due


The method has been used with some measure of



to eye-strain. In general, the method of intersections is best used as an auxiliary to some other method, particularly for locating inaccessible
objects, such as mountain peaks, points across rivers, etc., etc., also outlying and broken boundaries. It is particularly interesting to note that plane tabling by intersections is analogous to ground photographic surveying, particularly as regards

determining elevations, the clinometer being used in conjunction with and the vertical arc with telescopic alidades. The India pattern clinometer is especially suited to determining elevations in plane table surveys, the tangents of the vertical angles being read
sight rules

Here the elevations above the table are found from V as described in Chapter VI, being the horizontal distance to the observed point as scaled on the board.





But there


this great difference

graphic surveying.

between plane tabling and photoPlane table surveys are plotted almost entirely in

PLANE TABLING the field. using the sight rule. in general. (Using the compass. and ascertain from the index sketch. Sight at the forward station B. and on vacating A. short offsets must be used. fix a pin at next forward station. now (a) used in connection with aerial surveys. the fences are straight. and plot it to scale as ab on the board. measure offsets place to the in the usual way while chaining from A to B. As before. etc. draw a fine or dotted line towards C as a check sight. Sight back on the rear station with the ruling edge centred against TIG. (Offset detail may . No difficulty arises in this respect filling in the details of a previously surveyed polygon by when more accurate methods. (c) Set up the table over one of the stations A. but. board D (While the rule is still centred on a. pin to 6. While the topic is still before us. but if the fences are undulating. it might be noted that the plane table was the forerunner of the elaborate plotting machines (3) Progression. remove the line in the this will magnetic meridian. work in photographic surveying is brief.. This will intersect later with the line drawn from B towards C. In fact. bearing in mind that if the boundaries are straight. But checks must take second main measurements. the best position for the board and a point indicating the station A. assists in orienting when it is necessary to resort to resection. a photographic survey was being made at Sedan at the time the city capitulated in 1871. Prepare an index sketch of the area. (Radial distances are measured just as though station A were station O in the first method. but at the expense of protracted office work. 66 the pin at a.) Measure AB. as described first with reference to radiation. fixing c as a check. B. Thus photographic surveying is and the field field whereas the especially adapted to observations in exposed or dangerous situations. etc. as in ordinary land surveying. incidentally considering the line traverse on the proposed scale.) over (d) Centre and level station A. but if the fences are crooked. Here merely serve as a magnetic it meridian for the finished survey. A. (Z?) Select and establish the stations. C. though they are very helpful in unseen movements of the board. draw a the a. and up the table clamp the in the most suitable position. NT/ work is protracted at the saving of office work. still keeping the sight rule centred on A. these may be more distant from the boundaries. Draw a line towards B. Draw a line towards D.) checking if (e) Locate detail near A by radial distances.

(2) Mechanically. etc. never letting it supersede a chained measurement except when a serious movement has occurred. it often happens that a point of excellent command and general usefulness to the survey as a whole is not a station. and (4) Analytically. Incidentally draw a D for a similar check on d\ but regard this as a check. (3) Graphically. CD. Actually there is little to commend trial methods. (/i) Occupy in order the stations C. and p is plotted by orienting the board by sighting along the line drawn through a towards P and fixing p by a sight through b to B. The former is simple resection. buildings. near B by radial distances. which is often regarded as resection proper.. the last applying more particularly to the theodolite. mountain peaks. There are many occasions when resort to the method is expedient. and the like. and draw a line. Progression is the best method of making purely plane table surveys. after ail. but it is seen at its best in traverses of roads and rivers. and this can be Now occupied and plotted at once resection if three known points are visible. etc. giving a check.. in order. one of the known points. particularly in exploratory work. Fix a pole at B on vacating this station. beyond that an . any known point.) Locate fence corners. The second introduces the well-known "three-point" problem. etc.. B. D. in order to draw a ray through A towards P. The three-point problem can be solved (1) By trial. for. where intersections are invaluable in fixing lateral detail. a great distance often. levelling dotted fine line towards and orienting the board and chaining and plotting the traverse lines EC. is drawn. it is merely incidental in actual work. called known points: (a) when the line through P and A. Strictly there are two general cases of plotting p from not less than two visible and plotted points.10* ELEMENTARY be plotted either in the field or the office. Centre and level up the board over the next forward station B. as detailed in (f). or C. The value of radiation can only be assessed by surveying contour points and other features from a table set up at stations previously traversed by means of the theodolite and chain. and (b) when P is no way connected with still Resection. Sight at the next forward station C with the sight rule centred on b. if otherwise offsets have not been taken. (Note that this line will intersect the dotted line from a. Clamp the board thus. Combined with tacheometric measurement the method has a well-deserved place in topography. (/) Orient the plan by sighting back at A with the ruling edge along ba. The characteristic feature of resection is that the point p plotted is the station P occupied by the table. Simple would possibly involve a return journey to A. even though it may be made a matter of great academical moment.) Fix a pole at A and proceed to station B. and time and weather are * the deciding factors. (g). A. But the three-point problem should never be resorted to for resection's sake.

and measurements which might otherwise looked are at once detected. cramped and tiring. then prick through the point /?'. Orient the board by sighting through p and a to A. . (a) notes. under certain and the observer's position is conditions of weather and climate. and C. line the along the meridian drawn on the map. Otherwise set the board by eye. In contour work it is superb under good climatic conditions. as they really are. B." The value of the plane table is often wrongly assessed in practice. being exceedingly trying in the Also no notes are available for precise calculations of areas and the like. Unfasten the tracing-paper. (Place the compass with its box N. at the (2) Centring the sight rule on this point /?'. and check by sighting through b and c to B and C respectively. the three rays (3) Move the tracing-paper about on the board until pass through a. and c. assume a point p' to represent the station occupied by the table. thus obviating mistakes recorded measurements. but the following mechanical artifice will meet demands of most cases. The paper is the property of the map and not the place for a confusion of efforts at trial solutions. b. and. and turn the board until needle comes to rest in the common meridian. Graphical methods may be good in the expert hands." The marine surveyor performs this operation with a three-armed protractor known as a "station pointer. Also FIG. paired by But field plotting is disagreeable. B> and C. heat of the sun.PLANE TABLING 109 of error" which may expert can readily eliminate a small "triangle result from the mechanical method. the plotted positions of A. The plane table dispenses with field and the survey is plotted concurrently field with the the area in plotting work. if not impossible. If the check rays do not pass exactly through p. It is difficult enough to keep the paper clean without cultivating dirt from erasures of unnecessary lines. and features that mean little in field notes are seen Even the finest photographic methods are imshadows and other defects in the negatives. say/?.) (1) Fasten a piece of tracing-paper on the board. they will form a "triangle of (4) error. sight successively three points A. Mechanical Solution. as near its correct position as can be estimated. obtaining its true position on the map. and draw rays accordingly along the ruling edge. and S. It is frequently compared combinations of other instruments rather than judged by its own with peculiar merits. 67 be overis in view.

but to correctly and effectively demands considerable skill'. The paper should be fastened to the board so that neither the wind nor the movements of the alidade can disturb it As few drawing-pins as surface of the board The best possible should be used on the drawing plan is excess length. Both points should be kept sharp. it is unsurpassed in certain topoin a given time than graphical work. covering more ground Inany other instrument. not actually drawing them. and the other to HH HHH this round point for indexing.110 (6) Little ELEMENTARY SURVEYING knowledge it is required to use the plane table. surveys where the skeleton has been surveyed with Used discriminately in this way. and short. will both radiation and intersection. Withal ally it is good results not intended for extremely accurate work. except for clearness in the case of main survey lines. and elevations are accessible points can be plotted without trigonometrical calculations. It is rapid. though pages could be devoted to the technique of plane tabling from the surveyors' point of view. or parts of lines. and notes should never be written in the vicinity of points. half an inch or so in length. except at the margins. is the filling in of details of (c) The chief use of the instrument the theodolite. yet exceptioncan be obtained if due care and understanding are exercised. should be avoided. A very good plan is to produce lines. at the station and a similar one near the estimated position of the observed point. to cut the sheets barely the width of the board. and for purpose a sandpaper block should be suspended from the top of a leg of the tripod. turn under the and fix pins either in the edges or underneath. It manipulate is cumbersome and awkward to carry and requires several accessories. and if this is not at hand desirable in the case more than two A the board must be removed and turned upside down. There is never any need for continuous lines. be used for surveys proper. of sudden showers. never using is waterproof cover pins on the upper surface. when plotting is also taken into account. Also the facility of three-point resection permits the occupation of unknown points which give excellent command without working through obstacles or areas devoid of detail. A line. readily found from the graphical construction of the tangents of vertical angles observed with a clinometer or the vertical arc of a complete alidade. Good quality paper should the cheap grades being admissible only to rough exercise work Faintly tinted papers are best in intense sunlight They relieve eye-strain and obviate the necessity of coloured spectacles in bright sunlight. Either a a being sharpened to a chisel point for ruling lines. where suffice in . a few practical hints must suffice. Lines should be few. fine. and unnecessary lines. or pencil should be used. Some simple system of referencing and indexing the lines should be adopted. In conclusion. one end (2) Plotting. (1) Paper.

" which is now being ousted by the affectation "orientated. a chain." 8 (a). Fine bead-headed pins are the best. ill half-inch lengths can be referenced without the possibility of conCleanliness is of highest importance. In a plane table survey it is essential to occupy as a station a point P . When vertical angles are observed. Describe with reference to neat sketches the use of the India pattern clinometer in connection with the plane table. (c) a crooked boundary with a stream running along the inner side. etc. the cleanings flicked off the paper. and also test near the edges. erasures should be as few as possible. line. Fix a pin in the board at stations and keep the ruling edge against it when sighting. (b) a flat open field with straight fences. rather than thinking you know how it is done. Aim at getting a level board. State clearly. See that the legs of telescopic or folding tripods are secure. and Orient it by use of the sight rule. (3) Manipulation. pickets. Avoid unnecessary with the board a little below the bent elbow.S.PLANE TABLING fusiRn. and pickets being included in your outfit. oriented and centred over the station. Finally. and 1 minute represents the highest grade work. and that 1 inch means 1 minute in error in 280 ft. the base of the rule should be kept clean. station. Describe (a) A large isolated wood. Pencils should never be sharpened over the board. tape. particularly if metal. in centring over a station when working to medium scales. Level up with the spirit level central in two positions at right angles near the centre of the board. 8 (d). and heavy alidades should be placed in position. Always draw a magnetic meridian with the compass in the top lefthand corner when levelled up and oriented at the first station.) 8 (b). which of these two methods you would use. and press these into the ground lengthwise. Describe how you would carry out the following surveys with the plane table. giving reasons. scruples Remember that eccentricity between point and station varies inversely as the observed distance. 8 (c). how you would (a) Set the map by means of the compass. they imply that you will aim at making a proper plan.. (b) CLASS EXERCISES An unfinished map is fixed to the board of a plane table at a station A. Always sight at the lowest possible points of station poles. ensure that the board is level. and the paper can be messed up with the slightest provocation. (G. do not mind if you are corrected for using the original term "oriented. Brief as these words of advice may be. Avoid undue pressure or leaning on the board and keep all accessories oil the table when not in immediate use. never slid. The map contains a magnetic north and south but only one plotted B y is visible. and place table pattern clinometers as nearly as may be at the centre of the board. never crosswise. (4) Sighting. or alidade. It may prove useful besides giving a necessary detail in the finish of a plan.

Problem 8 (c). and C. Equipment: Plane table with sight rule and compass. Equipment: Plane table with sight rule and compass (passometer). B. and c. are visible and are already plotted as a. and c respectively. have been plotted as a. Problem 8 (b). Survey the (specified) pond (or lake) by means of the plane table. Survey (specified owner's) in 8 (a). Equipment: As Problem 8 (d). Select three prominent points on the 6-inch Ordnance sheet attached to the board of the assigned plane table. Make a rapid plane table survey of the (specified) lane between (named points). tape. the tracing-paper supplied. Your outfit consists of a light plane table with sight rule and compass. Find the horizontal distances and heights of these with respect to the station at which the table now stands. clinometer. b. The proposed scale is 1 in 25. The points indicated. A. A B.000. . Problem 8 (e). a rapid survey of a mountain valley. and a set of pickets. on the board of the assigned plane table.112 ELEMENTARY SURVEYING from which three stations. Problem 8 (a). ORIGINAL PROBLEMS Survey a part of the (specified) building by means of the plane table. and a passometer. chain arrows. fail. Determine and plot the position of P with the aid of y b. which now stands at an unknown station P. and C. field with the plane table. + Describe with reference to a sketch how you would plot the position of P and orient the board at the point for further plotting. and three pickets. Equipment: As in 8 (a). Describe how you would make FIELD EXERCISES Survey the (specified) wood by means of the plane table. determining the heights and positions of mountain peaks en route. Under what conditions would your method 8 (e).

regular The difference in elevation. at intervals of 4 cubits. railways. would be the sea-level datum to which the water ultimately recycled. of successive contour lines is known as the contour interval. The uses to which contours are put may be summarised concisely as follows: of the (1) Giving general information as to the surface characteristics country and showing if points are intervisible. to 10 ft. (3) Giving data for the calculation of earthwork volumes indirectly. where the corresponding distance is called the horizontal equivalent (H. and the layout of engineering schemes. if not by that of the scientist..I.) cot. as in the case of impounding reservoirs. for (2) Giving data for drawing trial vertical and oblique sections the construction of roads. or 10 metres.I.I. such as 5 ft. Contour intervals vary from 1 ft. each map. own elevation. and at noon each day had left a permanent watermark on the face of the earth. 5 ft. and directly.I.CHAPTER IX CONTOURING A contour is a line drawn through points of the same elevation on any of the earth's surface as represented on a map.) in geoin graphical and military surveying. as in military surveying. from 10 ft. or horizontal plane of reference. and the ground plane. portion Contour lines are figured with that elevation above datum as an at integral or whole value. In solid geometry these watermarks would be defined as the traces of horizontal section planes. in preliminary and pioneer surveys. 50 ft. leading to the relation plan (H. which approximate to our fathom units so easily conceived by the mind of mankind. as in the case of cuttings and embankments. in engineering work. the waters had receded from the peak of Mount Ararat with solar regularity. Among the various characteristics of contour lines to its the following should be noted: (a) Contour lines close upon themselves somewhere. 'Uses of Contours. Characteristics. if not within the limits of the 113 . with a the angle of slope between successive contours. and upwards in exploratory surveys.).. There would have been no reason for the inclusion of this chapter if. and successive contour lines are inserted increments from that value. etc. a. being the usual interval in English-speaking countries. to 50 ft. or reduced level. during the Great Flood.)=(V. or vertical interval (V. and 100 ft..

The staffman thinks he is forgotten until the levelman discovers that the line of sight is really "yards" above the top of the staff on account of a forgotten bubble.. increasing elevations. or Horizontal in Control. and concave slopes when becoming closer together with . latter 3 inches in signals are soon evolved into acrobatics and clamours. (1) Direct. and there is no branch of surveying in which so many combinations of levelling is instruments and methods have been employed. and no single line can ever run between two of higher or lower elevation. etc. points on the (1) Direct Contouring." Then a lull. the procedure in vertical control appears to be tedious (as it is really is at the outset). among students. He then directs the staffman by signals until a point is found at which the (level) line of from paper. (It might be noted here that a traversing bubble is really necessary. Contouring involves both surveying and levelling. with one possible exception. all METHODS. though only one is selected primarily. in fact the first five principles are employed in surveying. the clamours will subside . and the two geometrical principles the use of hypsometrical levelling. the of the nature: "Go back. actual contour lines are found on the surface by spirit levelling which. and As the term should imply. which locating 5 ft. as it may be called. and exhausting in body to the staffman (and in soul it for the levelman) on intervals of 10 ft. two and sometimes three. though resorted to in the case of great intervals." "Up yards.114 (b) ELEMENTARY SURVEYING Contour lines cannot intersect one another. reserve for parts where the primary method would prove inexpedient.. attaches these targets to the levelling staff. though it may prove tedious on intervals of 2 ft. whether they Ije of the same elevation or not. since the modern tilting level is of little use in trial and error work. There are two general methods of Contour Location: (2) Indirect." "Up a bit. and any of the methods of horizontal control are at the surveyor's another being in disposal. At first sight. is the sole practical method of vertical control. Contouring is the prime feature of topographical surveying. or in Vertical Control. pocket handkerchiefs.) But after a few points have been found.. are equally (d) Contour lines indicate uniform slopes when they convex slopes when becoming farther apart with increasing spaced elevations. The levelman improvises straps. collimation strikes the target. of ridges and in the bottoms of valleys (c) Contour lines on the tops either close or run in pairs within the limits of the map. may be as wide as Unfortunately. These contour points are then surveyed in the horizontal plane." and (that gesture of comfort) "Down a millimetre. intervals. but on ground of definite surface character often best for intervals of 5 ft." "Come nearer.

flatness which is in topography. that hours of when direct contouring is done. In this method salient points in the area of the general are selected as ruling points of elevation representative the elevations of these are found and the points are surface character. the reduced level. blue These coloured whites into paint pots.. thus devoted only to one station. character. 1 ft. the staffman inserts which carries white laths for the 50 contour. Something sensational. in Dual Control Otherwise. selected surveys.CONTOURING and the staffman will 115 contours. thus. for practical reasons. The question arises. undulatory ridges and furrows. green for the 65. again all the methods of horizontal but he chooses one primarily and never makes surveyor's disposal. Also. which is to say. though analogous to when photographic plate pairs are inserted in a Stereohappens or relief model.. with a page located. etc. contours wandering mark moving robot-like along the like a willing (and silent) staffman. prepared by dipping the tops can then be located in Detached Control. even on hillnothing features are sides are of indefinite character. More arise when detachment is advisable control is kept. or in extensive scope. when "What is surface is devoid of surface character. though occasionally in the field on the plane table. x (57-6). character?" The flattest area certainly has character. Singularly the method the ground best for very small intervals. or 2 ft. all for the 55. or even 5 ft. A . And begin to sense the trend of the is done. as in the case of indirect methods. is seen with a comparator. black for the 60. are best. The work is then a short length of coloured lath.. at best a very carried out in the office. though occasions (2) Indirect Contouring. often than not dual his notes an encyclopaedia of methods. conveniently recorded by a cross with are used in indirect contour locaAll the methods of vertical control control are at the tion. as the plane table with a immediately with some instruments. where a single plastic. tabular notes the interval number in a circle. to 20 ft. Contours are inserted between these ruling points (x) by inter- monotonous undertaking which is usually polation. the above process. for the 70. that the In small parties the levelman signals to the surveying party which may be located staffman awaits them at a contour point. the surveying party working convenience and collecting the sticks as the points are at their own convenient plan of booking contour points is to enclose and in general. red from a haversack. such or the theodolite provided with stadia lines in the telestadia alidade. if pronounced definitely . be conIndirect location is the only method that can reasonably is also sidered for intervals over 10 ft. it monotonous office work will not follow. but hill and valley in the immediate landscape.

Let A. the contour points may be from 100 ft. cleft twigs may be used with coloured tickets. apart. the sights being up to 500 ft. have been run solely with the Fig. but on sharp curves they may be as close as 20 ft. When the contours are nearly straight or are flat curves. chaining (or even pacing in rougher work) would hold up the levelling party. represent positions of the level.C. Also let Y 1$ Y 2 points on the contours. and afterwards plotted on the board of the plane table. giving a height of collimation at Yj of 68-92. A backsight of 4-32 is taken with the dumpy level on a staff held on B. to 200 ft. Hence for a reading of 8-92. and the etc. Control. The staffman is ready to move in search of contour points as soon as he has attached paper targets to the staff at these readings. then points on the 60 contour. Assuming that working uphill is the more convenient. for. while readings of 13-92 and 3-92 will likewise give the 55 and 65 contours respectively. sight rule or simple alidade is at our disposal. B y and C in (1) Plane Table (H. which length is permissible in work of this nature.. . failing paint. 64-6. (V.).) and Dumpy Level (F. Hence sticks of conventional colours should be fixed at the contour points. Intersections certainly may be used in horizontal control wherever possible. the points on the 55 contour are found first. rectangles the board at the stations. the foot of the staff will be on the 60 contour. since it is . though as a rule the use of these in proper assumed that only a contouring is more restricted than what it may appear. obviously.116 ELEMENTARY SURVEYING will Fieldwork. or even less.C. or.C. methods A description of one combination of each of the general be given with an outline as to how these are varied with other instruments in particular cases. 68 represent a traverse which may (4-32)BM plane table and chain or by means of the theodolite and chain.).M.. and then on the 65 contour. It will be best to work in detached control.

commanded from B till are surveyed. the staffman turning the face of the staff towards the plane table as soon as the levelman has signalled that the staff is on a contour point.. in Sometimes compass-chain traverses are run through the contour and the latter are fixed by offsets. ideal method the radial distances The .. arc intersected with arcs centred on YI. or 2 ft. the plane table is set up at B. The positions of Y! and Y 2 are plotted by radial distances or by intersections from A to B. Y 2 etc. and the contour is inserted.C. working in a manner to reduce walking to a minimum. The paper targets will now be shifted to 12-64. as in the case of boundaries land surveying. Dual control is then possible in small surveys. 6. but ofcou. and 65 contour points respectively. . and points on the contours on each side of the centre line are fixed with being measured with the tape. 7-64. the radii being the stadia distances from these positions of the level. a circle and dot is inserted to represent each contour point. This is one of the most effective methods on ground that displays little or no surface character. Occasionally straight lines can be run likewise. or a theodolite with a stadia telescope. represented by a pin at a. special application of direct location is the American method of con- A touring the proposed routes of railways and highways. could be stationed beside the table. Then the rays drawn from #. sports grounds. the distances right (2) (a) left and Grid Squares (//. to the staff. etc.. which will be found in the manner described.C. could replace the plane table and the contour points could be fixed by back angles or azimuths.CONTOURING 117 After a while it will be necessary to move eastwards to locate the contour points in the vicinity of C. Meanwhile the plane tabler draws rays towards the different contour points from A. and is duly oriented by sighting back along ba to A.se all the plotting would be done indoors. and it is applicable to intervals up to 10 ft. points... Dual control is sometimes possible by using the stadia lines in the telescope of the dumpy level at YI Y 2 etc.). In the latter connection it .). A reflecting hand level is strapped to the top of a 5 ft. Y 2 etc. thus obtaining from the staff the distances from YI. A foresight (of 3-92) is taken on the contour point (65 C. and with this as a change point the level is set up at Y 2 whence a backsight of 2-64 is read. and directs the chainmen to measure the radial distances rapidly to the nearest 2-ft. the table is moved to C. staff (called a Jacob). After all the points have been surveyed in this manner.) and Dumpy Level (F. of horizontal control is to use a stadia alidade so that can be found by the length of staff seen inteicepted between the stadia lines of the telescope. better.C. a tacheometer.P. These distances are then scaled off along the corresponding rays. etc. and so on the work is completed. in connection with building great rapidity. 60. but its more immediate use is for intervals of 1 ft. When the points . Similarly the tacheometer. . or.). giving a new coliimation height of 67-64. introducing the same principle. advantage being taken of the fact that the ground is in view. (H.. particularly in areas with a general slope in a definite direction. or constructional sites. and 2-64 for the 55.

).. The field work will be more expeditious than in the direct other method. the staffman removing the sticks as soon as the levelman has recorded the great deal of thought is staff reading and its position in his notes. of notes from which the corner levels can necessary in devising a form A be found at a glance. or 100 ft. Cards "O" the right inserted in the clefts of the sticks are used. or at definite changes in the surface bottoms of tops valleys. 58-4. Now Method 1 (a) (2) (b) Plane Table (H. distances along each of the perpendiculars. etc. 250' R.)." corners of the squares 100 ft.C. .) and Dumpy used for contour points are replaced by can be used if the signs crosses x denoting points figured with irregular reduced levels. and the points to and left "Line 2.. and 250 ft. As the the truncated prisms term implies. side. Level (V. the levelling party take the levels FIG. the theodolite being 50 ft.C. 69. beyond the knowledge respect there is little difference in the character." meaning the L. sticks are inserted in right and left of AC. and 65. 66-6. It is convenient to number as "Line the perpendiculars to "Line 2. to the left of AC on Line 2.. At optical square. Starting at a benchmark.. not taken along 55. the horizontal control consists merely in covering the area with a network of squares of 50 ft. (V. is the skeleton of a chain survey. so that effect the entire area is covered with a grid." etc.118 ELEMENTARY SURVEYING from also provides a ready means of calculating earthwork excavation of which the unit squares are the plans." Meanwhile the topographer can interpolate the contours in the manner field A described at the close of the present chapter. of ridges. Along (H. 66 ft. 69 at the corners of the squares. though in every field work. to the right of AC on Line 6. 100' "Line 6. (say) points perpendiculars are erected by means of the cross staff or the used in highest class work. as surveyed with the chain only..C. 60. and at each of these 50 at distances of ABCD AC ft.C. but values such as 47-6.). and very often dual control is possible. with this and 1. good plan is to bring the table only of the plane table into the and appoint a topographer who will reduce the staff readings to corner elevations as soon as they are brought to him by someone in the humbler (though none the less useful) capacity of "runner. or the theodolite or compass and chain. basing these on the most convenient side of the survey skeleton." AC along AC. sticks are inserted. In Fig.

beyond which the representaordinary spirit levelling ceases to be economical. C. control. as angles 4.C. such as would be carried out in a valley with eminences of considerable height on cither side of the traverse.CONTOURING 119 the laborious process of interpolating contours is yet to come.). to 20 ft. are chosen along lines in which the ground surface has a fairly uniform slope. interpolate contours in accordance is the distance between the contours on the direction lines and D^V where D Kthe interval. V=D D A the ends of the traverse points being fixed by bearings observed from lines. This. India pattern clinometer is exceedingly useful and the work becomes the more of the nature of an exploratory survey. Clinometer (V. The ruling points for elevations would be conspicuous which would of necessity be fixed by intersections in horizontal beside the plane table. C..) and and pioneer work it is sometimes possible to run "direction" lines which radiate from the stations of a compass traverse. tive method of low interval contouring. and D being found by pacing. a. the distances between the traverse stations A. as described in Chapter VI. This combination is best adapted to intervals up to 10 ft. Also the work with the plane table would be greatly an independent tacheometer expedited by the use of a stadia alidade or The elevations of the ruling points would be found from the with tangents of the vertical angles a observed with the clinometer. In reconnaissance work the compass may supersede the plane table. in the best applications. B. which should not be under 20 ft. the ruling points. In reconnaissance (2) (d) Compass (H. The compass bearings.. where tan a would be read directly and similar process is used in ordinary distance scaled from the map. with the relation. is best carried out with a tacheomcter in both horizontal and vertical control for intervals of 10 ft. direction lines.C. the horizontal tan a. or. When the contour interval exceeds 20 ft. etc. as here. which are fixed by riding. . etc. B. where. meter.C. 6. preferably.. are known.). as cotangents of Fio. or by range-finder. the elevations above the camera photographic surveying may be found graphically. it is possible to cot. 70 If the reduced levels of A.. and the slopes are observed with the clinoa. (2) (c) Plane Table (//.

. 71 the values 0. contours would follow at even horizontal spacings of 286 ft. 2. if A in Fig.. there is only one method really worth considering. made by other observers. to 6 cm. with this as a pivot. The elevations of salient points are found with the aneroid.. contours between two points x and y of respective elevations 37-3 and 48-7 by means of a strip of 1 inch divided transparent squared paper. is 20 = Finally. and it is possible to estimate here to 0-1 ft. Each of the (nine) intermediate lines will then represent 0-5 ft. and the contour intejval then along the N. strips of transparent squared paper are cut in widths from 1 in. 1 ft. the next main ruling 40 ft. and the work is Now very different from the days when the surveyor was compelled to rule tracing cloth. 4 in. Prick through x with a needle point.. 4-= 16 x 14.) Assume the zero ruling to represent an elevation of 35 ft. ruled Interpolating Contours. and so on. the use of the compass and aneroid may be mentioned in regard to intervals of 100 ft.. or widths 2 cm. that accurate transparent papers. A system of diagonal decimal division is thus at hand and the^-in. direction line... Place the strip so that the cross x is between the 4th and 5th lines from 0. spaces. and are then fixed in horizontal control either by compass three-point resection by a lone observer. or 1 mm. 32 E. and 3. or even 10 ft. 77. according to the range of elevations and the scale of the map. also to the scale of the map.. to 6 in. are merely shown for illustrative purposes. In general. (Fifths only are shown for down on Let it clearness in Fig. and. 71 have any temporary values. be required to interpolate 5 ft. turn the strip . and.. 460. 1. spaces. as indicated by the bracketed figures jotted the left. fixed a strip of paper on the left from time to time for jotting down the values he assigned to the thicker rulings. For example. long. as an idea of the scope of indirect contouring. long.. In Fig. or by compass or plane table intersections... may represent 0-5 ft. above datum. etc. accurately in tenth-inch or millimetre squares. after which the 440. the next 45 ft. and the elevations actually assigned to the main rulings may Fio. 10 to 15 cm. and upwards. are readily obtainable. which is the lowest reading usually observed in contouring. the horizontal distance from A for the 420 contour would be 16 cot. 3 229 ft.. to preserve this. 70 is 404 ft. being 0-6 of a small spacing above the 4th for 37*3 ft.. to 3 in.120 ELEMENTARY SURVEYING ft.

1. giving sketches.000 ft. insert the spot levels and. 1. *9 (d).500 ft. sometimes with the aid of a scale. being 0-4 of a small space respectively main readings 1 on the 40 and 45 contours.650 ft.530 ft. (G. and the line has a true bearing of N. 9 (a). as far as approximate contours at 100-ft. how you would carry out this work with the following equipment at your disposal: Plane table with sight rule (or alidade). but at a place where there is a regular slope the map shows 5-ft.) 9 (c). . A. >. The notes are tabulated below. are four points on a straight line in a valley. the plus and minus signs indicating respectively angles of elevation and depression along the direction lines. The and 2 will intersect the line between x and y for points Is CLASS EXERCISES trained assistant and two men..840 ft. Using a scale of possible. The process is simplified in connection with unit squares. (100 ft. The slope of the ground was found by means of a dumpy level. tape. and in many cases the crossings of contours between x and y are estimated. The following notes were recorded in a reconnaissance survey in mountainous country. 45 E. Describe your procedure with the aid of sketches. B. to 1 inch. intervals. interpolate 1 inch to 1. 1. chain and arrows. and a bundle of laths. contours on a plane table survey of an area in which it is advisable to trace the actual contours on the ground. C. *9 (e). The four points are useJ as stations in determining the angles of uniform ground slope in the area by means of a clinometer and the bearings of these direction lines by means of the compass. contours spaced exactly 0-9 inch apart. As a surveyor with a Describe concisely. altitudes being determined with the aneroid barometer and the positions of stations fixed by compass bearings on two known points P and Q. seen between the 7th and 8th lines above the main above the 7th line for 48-7 ft.) 9 (b).. and a fall of 2-5 ft.CONTOURING until the cross 121 y ruling 2.. The scale of an old map is unknown. and CD.S. AB being EC. The magnetic bearing of the line PQ was 82 and its length 5. was observed in a horizontal distance of 45 ft. range-poles. You are required to make a survey of a small lake to show underwater contours as well as the plan of the lake. dumpy level and staff. you are required to insert the 5-ft. Draw a scale for the map.

ft. Plane table with sight rule. and C. and bundle of laths. Survey the (specified inaccessible) portion of . . and tape. tape. and set of pickets. Equipment: Plane table. with reference to the stations A and B. aneroid. contours may be interpolated within the area pqr.. Trace the 5-ft. sight rule. Problem 9 (d). . inch to 1. Hills by means of the plane table..) Problem 9 (e)... b.. . The points indicated (on rough ground) are plotted as a triangle pqr on the board of the assigned plane table. (B. (a). dumpy level and levelling staff. contours. map in very hilly . and a set of pickets. Equipment: Plane dumpy level. and c on the board of the assigned plane table. as surveyed by Group . Equipment: Compass. contours. Problem 9 the . 11. Equipment: Chain. FIELD EXERCLSFS Problem 9 the pickets A. as indicated by flag-poles.. and laths. are at points on and .M. 350. Group II. arrows. . .. arrows.. levelling staff. junction with Group II. Problem 9 (c). and insert the 300.. Equipment: Group I. chain. Obtain the data for interpolating contours at an interval of 5 ft. by means of grid squares and spirit levelling. Survey the positions of these by means of the compass. and plotted as table. arrows. chain. chain. The flag-poles A and C are at the end stations of the diagonal of (specified) field. plot sufficient ruling points in order that 10-ft. arrows. to be indicated. and make sufficient observations of prominent points so that contours at 20 (50) ft.. arrows. chain. intervals can be interpolated. contours within the triangle indicated by a. (b). and 6 inch Ordnance country. ORIGINAL PROBLEMS Excursion with compass.122 ELEMENTARY SURVEYING 1 and Plot the survey on a scale of 400-ft. Working in conlaths. ft.000 ft. set of pickets. The coloured laths inserted by Group . chain. clinometer. levelling staff. cross staff (or optical square). dumpy level.. ft.

"by the rod make one rood" It was generally or "furrow regarded as an area 10 chains in length. but the square yard and square foot are used in construc- tional projects. selecting the method to meet the particular requirements of the work in hand. in a practical mistakes. and cylinders may be something more than geometrical solids. which is 1 furlong. a single arithmetical slip can lead to a very material loss. A being uppermost and also to the left in the case of quadrilaterals. and.CHAPTER X AREAS AND VOLUMES la a way this chapter brings us back to the seeming drudgery of arithmetic. AREAS The is British and American unit of square measure in land valuation the acre. avoiding unnecessary repetitions and cumbersome arithmetical processes. I. and the opposite sides by a. The rules for the areas A of simple plane figures be summarised only.C. C=J ac. The acre was the estimated amount of land that could be ploughed by a horse in one day. Altitude h and base a. can always intrude. possibly thousands of pounds (sterling) in a contract.(120 B. The altitude. (Z>) at the angular points in counter-clockwise order. or height above a horizontal plane or base line. with a breadth of 1 chain. The calculations that arise from surveying notes require three things: (a) System in setting out the data simply and methodically. with all four sides equal. as distinct from errors. r. but the present would be untimely. In the following rules the angles will be expressed the semiby A. and little is ever lost of what has been learnt in mensuration. and (c) Certainty in arithmetic. will be denoted by h. and radii by an outer or larger concentric radius. 10 square chains=^43. A=\hb^ ab sin. and c respectively. will A= include Apart from the square and rectangle. B. Also the formula attributed to Hero of Alexandria. C. A. square mile--640acres. Simple Plane Figures. sin. b. which was divided into 72 furrows of long" 1 acre=4 roods^=160 perches 1 eleven inches.560 square feet. for subjecting the results to checks. sum of the sides being j=J (a -\-b-\-c). and C. plane rectilineal figures will be considered with the letters A. the other (1) Parallelograms the Rhombus. and therefore to the things that really count. B=$bc sin. Wherefore. since the computation of these is common mensuration. Those prisms. the letter R indicating in magnitude Triangles. world. preferably by simple processes. pyramids. and Quadrilaterals including (2) 123 .): V* (sa) (s-b) (s~c}. B. Much more could be said. (b) Soundness.

but the outlying strips by involve tedious calculation by trapezoids between offsets. (1) Parallelogram: sides a. and (4) the Trapezium. .4=2/3 hC. separated by perpendicular distance h. A=4n:r*. (a) and (b) as above. METHODS.124 (3) the Trapezoid. A=bh=ab sin. Ellipse. (2) Graphically. BD(hi+h 2 ). no sides being parallel. Fio. B. the general case of a quadrilateral. which also can be facilitated by a co-ordinate method. When Annulus with outer and inner radii R and r. A=nr a . When /r=2r. The areas of surveys may be determined cally. A=n (# 2 r 2 ). 4=4". B. subtending angle of radians at the centre. and often the names of the trapezoid and trapezium are interchanged. BD. parallel section planes. = (4) Trapezium. usually of the altitudes and bases of the constituent which is more accurate and expeditious than the artifice of reducing polygons to triangles of equal areas. 72. and sometimes as (ii) Entire areas. ELEMENTARY SURVEYING with two sides parallel. Sphere: radius r. or by Mid-ordinates. and (3) Mechanically. . as indicated on the right of Fig. and (b) outlying skeletons are readily found by the co-ordinates. (6) Although the actual offsets introduced in plotting might be used as in the foregoing method. b. usually as (a) Occasionally areas are calculated directly areas of skeletons. The areas of rules. areas at boundaries. for the entire circle. 0=2Tc. measurements. A =s nab. AD. with semi-major and semi-minor axes a and b respectively. from the field notes. The Euclidian definiJon given is not rigidly adhered to. Zone intercepted between two A=2nrh. or above trigonometrical (2) Graphical Methods. diagonals AC. A (3) Trapezoid: parallel sides BC. 72 The areas of the strips may then be calculated by Trapezoids^ or by Simpson 's Rule. Approximation to area of a segment intercepted between a chord of length C and the circle. Circle. distance h apart. (2) Rhombus: side a. the perpendicular distance being h at the middle of the chord. . with perpendiculars hi. (a) triangles. h 2 let fall from A and C on the diagonal BD. Sometimes the area is calculated from (i) Partial areas. the usual plan is to erect false offset ordinates at regular distances along the survey line. Sector of radius r. l (ACxBD)=a* sin. altitude h. The area of the skeleton is taken off by scale (i) Partial areas. (1) (1) Arithmeti- Arithmetical Methods. A= A=lr*6.

the better known of the two rules. the boundaries are really curved to such an extent that appreciable error is likely to . x the common distance between the ordinates. >> 3 etc. particularly with comthe false offset puting strips. Fig. DEA. If.) Sums of Ordinates Width f 3 LOnce End+Twice Even Tour Odd |- methods applied to whole areas are (1) By Division into Triangles and (2) By Division into Trapezoids. the areas should be calculated by Simpson's parabolic sometimes called Simpson's First Rule. resulting triangles ABC. In this method the resulting outlying of triangles are not wholly boundaries or identical with those of the survey skeleton. etc. pencilled into triannlcs The for treatment by this method. etc. y l9 y 2 y& etc. however.. y Q and y n be the end ordinates. Let y Q and y n be the end ordinates. are inserted so that their outlying sides 9 9 each takes into its own area portions equal to those CD Fo 73 9 9 AB BC CD DE and it EA which gives . but are such that they balance out the inequalities of the boundaries by serving as "give and take" lines. In this case the trapezoidal rule becomes: where w is the sum of the ordinates m l9 ra 2 w 3 etc.) Both the foregoing methods are based upon the assumption that the several offset figures are trapezoids. as shown dotted at +2 Y+y n). //" A.AREAS AND VOLUMES . be introduced.. the Intermediate ones. (3) By Simpson's Rule. 125 (1) By Trapezoids. 9 . it is necessary to divide the area into an even number of strips of the same width x the odd number of ordinates again being the several false offset distances to the boundary. is to insert ordinates midway between ordinates. introducing the computing scale and (ii) Entire Areas. and Y the sum of the intermediate ordinates.)+4 (yi+y*+y 6 . A common method. and x the common distance between them. Then the area A by the trapezoidal rule: A=\x If the 0> ends converge. y l9 j> 2 . In applying this. A=x/3 (y*+y n +2 (yt+y*+y 9 . By Mid-ordinates. and (2) A=xY. . 73 shows a survey with irregular sides inside the boundaries. as before. the intermediate ordinates. (1) By Division into Triangles. A and B 9 the terms y and y n disappear. If. (Fig. and this leads to results that are sufficiently accurate for most purposes. The chief the use of Simpson's rule. 72. then rule.

This is done by measuring 1 ^^^^. the small squares serving in obtaining the lengths aa'. but preferably on a sheet of tracingpaper. . and the map area afterwards reduced to acres. etc. bb'. Acres. In fact. and is shifted about so that the area is exactly enclosed (2) By Division into number of parallel between avoiding extremity. Every inch length of the strips will then represent an acre and every tenth of an inch one square chain. the areas of which are found by multiplying half the respective altitudes by the corresponding bases. for instance.). 74. is of convenient width. taken out in square inches. as indicated by in Fig. resolving the area into triangles. it is possible to rule a sheet of tracing-paper so that the acreage can be found directly for any given scale. This is done by if making the common width x between the parallels that value in inches which would be expressed by 10 divided by the square of the number n of chains to the inch in the scale of the survey.126 outside. the lines are drawn. 1 inch. say. according to the width Commonly strips are used. This tracing-paper is placed over the plan. four. and \eE-AD. where mm the dotted line reduces the length to that of an equivalent rectangle. by using a couple of set squares. In principle the area is divided into a strips of the same width x. Trapezoids. A^x (aa'+bb'+cc x employed. extreme an odd parallels. since the portions equalised are small in comparison with the areas of the corresponding triangles. figure. along After a little adjustment. or. indirectly in square inches or directly in acres.^ x *_ the mean lengths of the strips. Thus the area of the survey. ELEMENTARY SURVEYING These outlying sides are found by stretching a fine thread the boundaries. etc. large areas can be dealt with on small sheets of squared paper the survey is appropriately divided into parts. Square Inches. which are This method has the advantage that transparent squared paper can be used. 1 . The method is far more accurate than it first appears to be. better still. thus: \dD-AC\ IbB-AC. . thus area at one f \ ^ The process of taking out an area consists in finding the area of every constituent strip of the . not by ruling equidistant parallels across the plan. Even if only an ordinary decimally-divided inch scale is available. the area of which is equal to the width x of the strip multiplied by the length mm'.

the distance between the parallels 10/4=2J in. 74. 75. 10/9 = 1-11 in.AREAS AND VOLUMES will'be 127 Thus. summing up the strips until the other end of the groove is reached. as at a'. chs. Some patterns are divided for use with J-inch strips and others for strips representing one chain widths. is then slid until the wire cuts the end of the strip. FIG. The use of the computing scale needs little explanation. 75 *The best-known device for computing areas in this way is the computing scale. 1 in. 4 chains to an inch. as before. and against it the acreage of the first double travel is recorded. the scale being held firmly in position.. will be 10 n" -. and therefore each scale can be applied directly only to maps on the scale for which it is divided. 10/16= | Because on a scale of n chs. one form of which is shown in Fig. A mark is then made at the wire. These instruments can be obtained in various divisions. Then. squaring the boundary. for 2 chains to an inch. The acreage is then cast up for the number of double noted plus the final reading of the scale. and since an inch length will of the strip represents n chs. the product of these measurements 10 represent n=lQ sq. Next the scale is set right way up again." as at a in Fig. with the wire cutting the The frame scale it beginning of the first strip. and the scale is placed parallel to the rulings. for 3 chains to an inch. as at b. and the process is repeated until all the strips have been measured.n-- the width A. A mark is now made under the wire and the scale is inverted and placed with the wire at the mark. the scale is held firmly in position while the frame is moved until the end of the groove in which the frame moves is reached. "squaring the boundary. The indicator of the sliding frame is set to zero on the scale. to 10 this will represent -~^. The is then lifted and placed parallel for the second strip by moving bodily until the wire cuts the beginning of the second strip. after which the frame is moved as before. once the survey is enclosed between parallels on tracing-paper appropriately divided. and chains on the map. = l acre. *Simpsori s Rule. ranging from two ordinary scales to universal patterns with six chain scales and two Ordnance Survey scales... The method described on page 125 is sometimes used in computing entire areas from figures divided into an even travels > . and for in..

can be fitted to an ordinary decimally-divided scale. This instrument. fractional parts being read with a vernier at the edge of the rolling wheel. In simple patterns one revolution of the indicator corresponds to ten revolutions of the rolling wheel. with a sheet of transparent paper. which shows the number of units of area encompassed. Obviously the area may also be determined by covering the survey. a brass frame. Connected with a gear to the rolling wheel is the index wheel. while at the extremity of the other arm is the tracing point T9 a tiny handle being provided for guiding it over the plan. The theory of the planimeter is beyond the scope of this book. In later patterns the tracing arm was made in many of scales. Near the joint is the rolling wheel. Therefore it is circle following the boundary lightly and carefully. as stamped on a weight which fits over P. the point being pressed into the drawing board. stopping with the zero of this wheel at the vernier index. and this means that the sums of the first and last ordinates is zero. (Otherwise the initial reading must be subtracted from the final reading of the instrument. must be added. Also the instrument is made had arms square patterns. *(3) Mechanical Methods. or a portion of it. and to this is added the fractional part as read on the rolling wheel and . odd and even. which is used less in surveying than in other connections. a pointer at the upper edge serving in summing up the sets of ordinates. in its bestknown form. and at the extremity of one arm is the fixed pole P. Often this is shifted so as to enclose the 'area exactly between parallels. adjustable. If P is inside the area. The most popular mechanical method is by means of an instrument known as the planimeter.) The tracing point Tis then guided round the area in the clockwise direction. The nearest lower value on the index wheel is recorded. a square or always desirable to test an instrument by running it round of known area. some designs even allowing for shrinkage of giving maps. and stopping at the starting point. Since an open frame is unnecessary when linear ordinates are measured. preferably on a sheet of tracing-paper. since it involves a knowledge of integration. Usually it is quicker to work in square inches on prepared paper and afterwards reduce the acreage. or cursor. which is divided into 100 divisions. or dial. being divided to correspond with official areas directly. giving areas in square inches or centimetres. The index wheel is then set to zero by rotating the rolling wheel. consists of two arms jointed together so as to move relatively to each other with perfect freedom.128 ELEMENTARY SURVEYING number of strips at regular intervals x inches apart. though the original Amsler instrument fixed length. a tenth of each division being read by means of the vernier. if possible. as the case may be. a correction. In use the pole P is set outside the area. or paper may be ruled so that each square contains so many square chains.

the vernier. Also the constant value must be added


the point

P was

necessarily inside the area during the operation. Thus with a simple instrument divided for square inches, if 9


reading on the index wheel, and 72 on the rolling wheel, with coincidence at 3 on the vernier, the area is 9-723 sq. in. It is interesting to note that a planimeter has been improvised with a jack knife, though with indifferent success on the part of many. In emergencies areas have been cut out of cardboard of uniform
after careful weighings

and compared in weight with a square of the same material on a chemical balance.


unit of cubic content, or volume, in earthwork estimates is the yard cube, which was regarded as the amount that could be hauled in a one-horse cart. It is also used in the measurement of concrete and


brickwork. In related connections, the cubic foot and the bushel may be used, while brickwork may be measured in rods and timber in cubic
feet or standards.


The following summary shows the volume content V of certain simple A being the base area, r the radius generally, and h the altitude as

measured perpendicularly to the base.
Prisms, right or oblique. V^A.h\ square rectangular, trapezoidal, etc. z 2 z r ) h. Cylinders, right or oblique. y=A.h=^nr .h. Hollow K-TT (R Frustrum of right cylinder. V=far*(hi h 2 ), where h t and h* are the




least heights.

Cones, right or oblique. V=\A.h^\Ti^.h. Frustrum of cone or pyramid, /* (A f VAa'^a), with h between sectional areas A and a.

Pyramid, right or oblique.

x (radius). most commonly associated with earthwork calculations may be defined as (1) Section Prismoids; (2) Truncated Prisms, and

V= Jjcr = i





Contour Prisms.
Section Prismoids.



vertical section of the earth's surface as

found by

levelling along the centre line

of a projected railway or

as a longitudinal section and vertical sections at to these are known as cross sections, the shapes of which right angles are also determined by levelling.



(Although the subject of sections is dealt with at the end of this it might be consulted during the reading of the present section.)

The solids in the present category are derived from the irregular cross sections of cuttings and embankments in the construction of railways and highways, The method consists in finding the areas A l9

A2 A3



of successive cross sections, usually


ch. (or 100


apart, and using these in the trapezoidal or prismoidal rules for volume content. The solids approximate to irregular truncated pyramids, and may be considered prismoids, which are solids having for their ends



any dissimilar

parallel plane figures of the same number of sides and faces plane figures. Three standard types of cross sections will be considered. In these

be the centre line (C.L.) depth of cutting or banking, w the half formation width, s the side slope ratio, s horizontally to 1 vertically, and r the crosswise or lateral slope of the ground, r 1 likewise. Thus s and r are the co-tangents of the angles which the side slopes or the ground surface make with the horizontal, but s is commonly 1, 1 |, or 2, whereas r can have a wide range of values. In Cases (a) and (b) of the following treatment, the imaginary formation triangle OPQ, which is neither excavated nor made, will be incorporated in order to simplify the formulae. Its area a is con-





w 2 /s and volume v is w 2 /sx I



a length

and, being a right triangular prism, this value will follow from all rules. Hence, whole areas A' will

be calculated from whole depths

D=d+wls, and

the true areas


be A'


(Fig. 76).

Ground Level Across


the side widths are

the whole area

A = sD ^s(d+w/s) =(2w+sd)d+w










But since the area of the formation triangle a--=w 2 ls the true area

A=(2w+sd)d: a very inconvenient expression. The values would be precisely the same for a


for a cutting in which the formation width 2n> is 20 ft., and the centre line depth of cutting d is 10 ft., and the side slope ratio 1:1, the whole 2 \ x(20) =400 sq. ft., ft., the whole area A'=sD* depth and the true area A'=A'-\v*ls=4W- 100-300 sq. ft.



Case (6) Ground Sloping Across (d>wjr) (Fig. 77). Here the side widths are different, being W\ and r on the left and right respectively: l T=W~-s(RT)=W-sWi tan a







= W+S'T' =




= W+ W*\r

\-slr~~\The whole area A '= J(

W + W )D = rzrai s





the latter expression being that for ground level across in (1) divided 2 2, Also the former expression in (2) frequently occurs in "three by 1 /r
level" sections in the

American method of


Similar expressions would follow witi the higher ground on the left.


an embankment were considered

slope area

for an



which the formation width




the centre

line height


of bank 10 ft., the side slope ratio 1J 1, the whole depth D-=IO {- 10/1



and the sidelong ground 16-7 ft., and the whole








since the area of the formation triangle

Also the true area w 2 /s=66-7 sq. ft.


= 363*5







(Fig. 78). Cross sections of this nature are best treated right away as true areas since one portion is in 'cut"


and the other

in "fill."


the side slope s' is necessarily flatter for the banking than
for the cutting, "made ground" being less stable than that

under excavated earth.

Flo> 78

Here h=(w+x+sh)llr and h ^(w-x+s'h')l/r



True area

true arca




, ---If these areas are equal, ~

^= yr




side widths




+x=hr +x

W =h

cot. a

It is not strictly confined in but has been used in calculating practice to solids with plane faces. . 'and . which was the basis that the surface of the ground between MacNeill's tables. . is the area is A 2 Now A m in midway between sections proper.132 ELEMENTARY SURVEYING rules are used in the calculation of Two 100 ft. If the surface slope is the complex same as at A 1 and A 29 the area A m may be calculated from the mean and depth K^i+^a) or \( D \+ D *)> as the rule will apply to both whole But if the end sections have different lateral slopes. the end areas not necessarily being similar. Zy etc. such as A l and not the mean or average of the areas A l and A* and it should be determined. central depth will still be the mean of the end depths. . An . it is assumed any two vertical cross sections is such that the volume content is a prismoid. Hence for a series of areas A ly volume will be A2 A3 . the centre line distances being in Gunter chains. . provided the surfaces between their perimeters can be regarded plane. In this rule._> where A m . apart. but the lateral The prismoidal slope will be the harmonic mean of the end slopes. curved volumes. Viewed from when the solid if Now standpoint the prismoidal rule becomes applicable not strictly a prismoid. AJ cu.. the total V=$l(A 1 +2A 2 +2Az+2A 4 + . the even numbered sections are used as the middle sections. The well-known earthwork tables of Bidder were based upon this rule. the true areas. The trapezoidal rule is commonly used in preliminary estimates.. ft. sometimes by applying "prismoidal corrections" to the trapezoidal rule. 79 According to this rule. In this. . but of any shape whatever. Thus K=J/(^ 1 +^ 2). |A 3 PIG. volume content from cross / being usually 66 ft. of Sir John (2) Prismoidal Rule. the average end area rule. this is . . sections rule is used in final estimates. A l and A 2 being true or whole areas. convenient submultiples being introduced. sectional areas A l9 A 2 A / units apart. is calculated from the mean of the areas at the ends of horizontal lengths / along the centre line. the volume (1) Trapezoidal Rule. all / ft.

11-9 283-2 450-0 438-1 sq.+2A. 50 + 2(450) + 438-l)=71. though its use is justified by the assumption common to Simpson's rule for volumes. and the rule reduces to that of corresponding to y in Fig.333 ~6~ Net 2. apart. which possibly lies between the given values.360 cu. Distance 6-2 Centre line depth d Whole depth />=</+ w/j 11-2 250-9 Whole area A'=sD* 50 6-9 100 8-4 13-4 359-1 ft. ft. sections serving as the middle area^. ft. 79. yds. intervals for an embankment with a formation width of 20 ft. Whenever a considerable width of surface is be excavated. Even 9 etc. Such statements or plane usually refer to areas with straight boundaries between ordinates surfaces between sections. Trapezoidal Volumes: (a) in length. yds (d) 100 (250-9+ 4(283-2)+2(359-l)+4(450)+ 438-l) 2. Example. the most accurate method is that of taking out volumes series of vertical truncated prisms.661 cu. The following notes refer to actual sections taken on level across ground at 50 ft.309 Since both (b) and (d) introduce two more measurements. and by the Prismoidal Ride applied as Simpson's rule. 72: y= 2 ^(A l +4A 2 +2A 3 +4A. yds. if practically. one often of areas. 200 = 370 cu. ft. Prismoidal Volumes: 200 (250-9+4(359-l)-f438-l)=70.(End Sum+4 As in the case Sum+2 Odd Sum) method overestimates or it is inadvisable to say dogmatically that this that underestimates the content.079 cu. sq. or other sites.AREAS AND VOLUMES / 133 becomes 21 as indicated Simpson.000 Cu. ft. squares being laid out and taken at the corners. 100 - (250-9+2(359-l)+438-l) = 70. In order to show the are calcudiscrepancies that can arise from calculations alone. as in the case or rectangular reservoirs. Also the comparisons are not always consistent.840 ft. yds. yds. they will more closely represent the true content. The volume of the formation prism. since (d) is not strictly. yds.cu. = 10.606 2 (b) Net. cu. yds. (250-9 h2(283-2)+2(359-l 2. (b) for the 50 ft.) =.254 cu. yds. 9-8 14-8 ft. and not as would really be given by field measurements or levels.661 Net 2. ft. the 50 ft. cu. yds. =2. with sections. Although a single comparison is poor evidence. apart.236 cu. apart and (d) with these 100 ft. applied to the prismoid. is to be deducted. 150 10-0 15-0 200ft. -~ = 2. = 72. and side slopes 2 horizontally to 1 vertically.847 cu. ft. being in fact an approximation. to Truncated Prisms.291 cu. 2. cu. Ax in Fig. building. (c) extreme sections 200 ft.= ~2 (c) Net 2. the volumes lated by the Trapezoidal Rule (a) for sections 100 ft. as described in Chapter IX with reference from a levels . it shows that a small disof 0-8 per cent occurs between (b) and (d) against 2-4 per cent crepancy between the two applications of the prismoidal rule in (2) (c) and (d).

. or finished surface. the comer reduced levels having been taken by means of a dumpy level. if the corners abed of the squares indicated are 51-8 ft.. there will usually be parts of the area which are to be excavated and parts which are to be banked. Also the volume of any right truncated prism is the area of its right section multiplied by the distance FIG. signifying cuts and + fills respectively. but the same rule applies as to the height of the truncated prisms. areas at formation level being After taking out the content by the foregoing rules. 53-9 ft. These will be mainly trapezoidal in section. is the average reduced level of the corners less the reduced level of formation. to distinguish left white. In practice. the mean height of the truncated prism will be volume of the prism will be If the finished surface will KH-8+13-9+12-7+ 14-8) = 13-3. yds. is to be inclined or graded. side.134 ELEMENTARY SURVEYING method of contouring with grid squares in horizontal to Fig. 52-7 ft.250 cu. while the areas will be merely those of trapezoids or triangles. Fig. The cuts will be separated from the fills at formation level by irregular lines which are actually contours in the case of level formations. Sometimes these areas are given a light wash of colour them from each other.. Hence it is convenient to prefix the values at the corners or . in Fig. 1. 80 between the centres of its bases. Now if /I the reduced level of the formation. 80. ft. which for a level formation. and the formation level is 40 ft. above datum respectively. side. 69 in the control. but the mean height is taken as the differences between the reduced levels of the corners in the surface and in the formation. a number of irregular solids will occur at the boundaries. being the average difference of the reduced levels at the corners. and. account must be taken of the fact that earth expands on excavation and shrinks to . Obviously the area to be levelled or graded may not be exactly rectangular. and the total volume of excavation or filling will be the sum of the volumes of the constituent truncated prisms.. triangles occurring now and then. the 1 3-3 x 50 x 50 =33. is fixed. is the area of a unit square multiplied by the mean difference of reduced level of the four corners. 80 shows a portion of an area marked out in unit squares of (say) 50 ft. and in this case. the difference of reduced level will be the cut or fill at each corner. or 100 ft. while if the square is of 50-ft.321 cu. and 54-8 ft. the right section of which is a unit square. Hence. the calculations be the same.

S. (Fig.A. filling. to 1 in. 81. Hence. 82. and reversing the process by finding the corner ft-. it is usual to raise the datum. in depth from Y=\Q(\A - 80 + in millions of gallons. or laminae.AREAS AND VOLUMES some difterent earths 135 extent after being placed as and materials. A^ and A 6Qr The volume 10 ft. and waste of paper. the vertical scale could be 20 50 ft. III. to 1 in. called "profiles" in the U.. their areas found graphically or by and the corresponding volumes arc calculated rule. 5 Thus. in order to obtain a neat section. A 7o~l~^fio+^5o) cu which may be expressed elevations by interpolating between the contours on the map.W. above datum. wide vertical cross-sections means of the planimeter. Contour Prisms. stating the fact thus along the base A B 09 "50 ft.. however. with a horizontal scale of If the horizontal base were the actual ft. to 1 in." as in Fig. so that points in elevation are not vertically above the same points in plan. The vertical scale is roughly 8 to 10 times that of the horizontal scale taken to the nearest convenient figure.) being 80 ft. Also. with a horizontal scale of 200 ft. 81. is then calculated for the several layers... ft. estimates are sometimes taken from the horizontal sections given by contour lines.L. as in the case of the water content of the impounding reservoir in Fig. Sometimes. Another of the various methods consists in covering the contour area with a grid. They are false sections because the vertical scale which shows reduced levels is larger than the horizontal section which shows the corresponding horizontal distances along the centre line of the proposed railway. this datum of the survey would often lead to an unsightly section. with 6-24 gallons to the cubic foot. shown AB the top water level (T. or sewer. by the average end area even the prismoidal method. Here a dam with a vertical water face is shown. as in geometrical projection. or (3) Graphical Methods. are plotted. Also. the sections are opened out like a screen unfolded. the allowance varying with since the calculations are The foregoing methods are mainly arithmetical made directly from the field notes. the The successive areas at contour elevations are found graphically or mechanidifferent cally as >4 80 . road. as indicated near the contour. LONGITUDINAL SECTIONS Longitudinal sections.) ^ 70 . The fact that . are an important feature in engineering plans.. to 1 in.

" which the lowest point on the interior. Also. a rapid means of estimating the earthwork volume is at the surveyor's disposal. a neat array of information being tabulated along the base A^Q. 82 (a) it will be seen that a cutting will occur between 21-0 and 23-3 chs. never with a free curve as in the case of a graph.136 ELEMENTARY SURVEYING is longer than the plan is evident in Fig. which shows the traverse and section of a portion of a proposed railway. they will have this value divided by 1- 5. if lines ab and a'b' are drawn will parallel to AB at depths w/s Z>. be whole depths cross-sectional areas will above or below formation. and it is a rule in plotting sections to join the tops of the ordinates with straight lines. 82 PLAN is The straight line AB in the section is drawn at formation level. The section shows the reduced levels at 1 chain intervals along the centre line. or as a percentage. These points and the beginning and the end of the section are shown with thicker lines than the rest of the ordinates. or 1 /80. a bank between 23-3 chs. the ordinates above or below AB are the centre line cuts and fills. the gradient of pipes is taken at the "invert.. the distances "running through" in chains continuously from the beginning of the the section line.3 -^ as explained in of page 130. Thus. 82.. Incidentally. which in the days of more elaborate plans is were often tinted red and blue respectively. according as it is rising (upgrade) or falling (downgrade). 1-25 per cent. and a cutting between 26-6 and 30-4 chs. and known as the gradient. . In Fig. which is expressed by the tangent of the 1 vertical angle. Now if the gradient is settled upon from the section. and 26-6 chs. (a) VERTICAL SECTION 23-6 (b) Fio. these and if the ground surface is level across the be sD* while for ground with a lateral slope t of r to (2) 1. being sometimes prefixed with the plus or minus sign. as in x horizontally. with additional values at the points at which the direction of the traverse changes.

x2i in. and describe with reference to this figure two methods of determining its area olhe r than by the use of squared paper 10 (c). and back answers. 10 (Z>). at least. obtaining the right data and applying it with reason. Thus. there may be some satisfaction in using the complex. but getting ahead confidently. the width of the track being 29 ft. and the latter drcreet and careful calculations with appropriate checking. It has been said that there are computations. ridiculous request for a statement But this presupposes that the reader will proceed further with the subject and will learn that much truth is said in jest. the former utilising graphs. since the word "accuracy" alone might suggest the use of an approximation that would fully satisfy practical requirements. the term "correctness" was used to imply arithmetic devoid of mistakes.S. in that a feature which appears even marked to the eye may be trifling as a part of the whole. and areas of in this is frequently the case in ascertaining the cross-sectional rivers. it often happens that elaborate rules are really ineffec- tive. to this chapter. Now there are not only arithmetical approximations in calculations. level ground should not suggest a bowling green.500. charts. Thus.) ways in which you would determine its acreage. and other artifices. Briefly. reverently. a guesses. since old heads cannot be put on young shoulders. 10 (a). estimates. A rectangular plot which exactly encloses the track is to be purchased for the purpose at 400 per acre. and the length i mile. Earlier engineers and surveyors held the mathematician awe. and a 137 when drawn. the last suggesting an absurd response to in an unreasonable period of time. and exIn the preamble perience is something that cannot be imparted by words. to represent of 1 in 2. and misapplied his teachings. x 3 in. arc plotted on (Jommon horizontal and vertical scale. and describe with reference to this area two (G. Simplicity is the surest path until experience proves its limitations. It is a difficult matter to write a conclusion to a chapter of this character. to represent a survey on a scale of 5 chains to 1 inch. each of which has its place. Apart from these there are economic factors that demand rapid or good estimates. when information is required the methods should be adequately accurate and the calculations arithmetically correct. but anything up to a general slope of 3. A race track is to consist of two straight portions and two semicircular ends. little realising that the natural errors of their work overwhelmed any refinements these rules might otherwise have introduced. Hence. the work should be kept to the first two categories.AREAS AND VOLUMES Cross-sections are true sections. Draw an irregular closed figure about 3i in. or a surface warped to a series of slight irregularities. but also visual approximations in the field. CLASS EXERCISESAREAS irregular figure about 4J in. measured around the inner edge of the track. Draw an scale a pond on a . Of course. and this means no juggling with rules or scrupling with trivialities.

yds. of water = 6 gallons. (G. (c) Simpson's rule. 6 in. is being cut through a plane hillside which slopes 1 vertically in 9 horizontally at right angles to the road although it is level in the direction of the road. Calculate the volume of the embankment by Simpson's rule. 1 in 2. given that the side slopes are 3 horizontally to 1 vertically. ft.S. sections on a proposed railway. overestimate. 94-1 The invert level of the drain 88-6 at the beginning and falls 1 in 100. to in. on the centre line of the road. per cu. while the surveyor recommends (6) that the outer radii should be 110 ft.) A 10 (B). Calculate the volume of excavation in a horizontal length of 500 ft. Plot a section of the ground surface and the bottom of the trench on a horizontal scale of 25 ft. If the trench is rectangular. It is to hold one million gallons of water with a depth of 15 ft. You have you are required a computing scale divided into inches and decimals. to find acreages directly on the following scales: 1 and 4 chs. The following sectional areas were taken at 50 ft. 5 chs. The following distances nection with a drain: (95-44'. 4rf. The following heights of embankment were reduced at 100 ft.) Sketch an irregular figure approximating to a rhombus of about 4 in.720 cu.) 10 (D).. ft. (G. 185-44'. &/. 10 (e).S. The side slopes of the cutting will be 1 vertically in 1 horizontally and the depth of the cutting will be 10 ft. 7 12 14 13 9 8 4 Oft.S. (b) Division into trapezoids. 36-0 35-0 33-0 32-5 In calculating. calculate the cost of excavation at Is. to 1 inch and a vertical scale of 10 ft. Calculate the dimensions of the surface and bottom rectangles. (12. The formation width is to be 30 ft. 10 (C). side to represent an area on a scale of 2 chains to 1 inch. wide.) 7.) (5. ft. (G.. to 1 inch..) CLASS EXERCISES VOLUMES 10 (A). Calculate the saving that would result by taking the surveyor's advice. Determine the error in cu.648 cu.. yd.138 ELEMENTARY SURVEYING The committee suggest (a) that the straight portions should oe equal in length to the outer diameters of the ends. A reservoir is to be constructed with a flat rectangular bottom in which the length is 1 times the breadth. (4 llj. due to this misapplication of the rule. on tracing-paper (0-625 in.016-7. straight and level roadway. level 91-8 25 92-0 50 92*4 is 75 93-6 100 94-2 125 95-2 150 96-4 175 95-7 200ft. 2 ft. 6.) . x 153-63'. \d. Determine its area by the following methods: (a) Give and take lines. intervals in a straight trench: 38-0 sq.. State the spacings of the parallel rulings scale.491-7. (75 cu. the prismoidal rule was used with only the end and middle areas. yds. 1 cu. 0-40 for use with the in. and the side slopes 2 horizontally to 1 vertically.) (245 10 (d). 65.) and reduced levels were taken in con- Distance Red. 20 ft. x 63-63'. the ground being level across. 1-03 in. wide. to 1 in.) 10 (E).500. yds.

to 1 in. . plot the corresponding vertical section with a horizontal scale of 25 ft. Estimate the earthwork in levelling a plot for a tennis-court with 15 ft. level margins around. starting from an imaginary benchmark 50-0 Take staff readings at the 50 ft. to 1 in.) ORIGINAL PROBLEMS Calculate the areas of the surveys in Problems Find the subaqueous contours of a pond. points and reduce the level (chalked A)on a form you have prepared in the Answer Book. (G. .S. wide.AREAS AND VOLUMES FIELD 10(F). below ground level at B. and from these and the survey estimate the water content.. and 3 ft. Afternoon: (B) Using your level notes. Imagine that a trench for a drain is to be dug with its bottom" 2 ft. Morning: 139 AND PLOTTING EXERCISES levelled with stuff (A) The range-poles indicate a line AB which is to be readings at intervals of 50 ft. (b) Calculate the volume of excavation in cubic yards. . Calculate the volume of earth in a knoll from contours directly located. given that the trench is uniformly 3 ft. Finish the section neatly in pencil and insert the horizontal scale. and a vertical scale of 20 ft. below ground level at the lower point A. . on your section and find (a) Insert the line of the bottom of the trench its gradient.

. the entire instrument being mounted upon a stand. though it is desirable that any description should refer to an actual instrument rather than to an improvised model. the most perfect of known surveying instruments. in particular. is made in sizes ranging from 3. the modern theodolite vertical planes. and fitted with a centred. It was not until the close of the eighteenth century that the theodolite assumed its present form.horizontal circle divided and figured up to 360. ranging from the Great Theodolite of the Ordnance Survey and Borda's Repeating Circle to the modern geodetic and engineering models. is already been concluded. The theodolitus consisted merely of a. i. the inventor of the Y-level. the transit principle. Also. by which the telescope could be rotated in the vertical plane.in. The first mention of the rudimentary form of the instrument in English literature concerns the "theodolitus" of Thomas Digge's "Pantometria. The name. It is gratifying to know that English makers have been foremost in the design and construction of surveying instruments. some patterns of which very closely resembled the American Surveyors' Compass.e. sighted alidade. derived from theodicoea. the size being specified by the diameter of the horizontal graduated circle. opportunely. Quite a romance could be written about the evolution of the theodolite. and some of the pioneers of American instrument-making received their early training in this country. was. this chapter may ease the passage to the more advanced branches of surveying. there are grounds to believe that an equivalent Arabic root has given us the word "Alidade. to 12 in. and in the early years of the nineteenth century Ramsden added substantial improvements. largely at the hands of Jonathan Sissons. As may have theodolite angles. in that old writer's sense of perfection. In an elementary text-book it is impossible to describe theodolites in general.CHAPTER XI "THEODOLITE SURVEYING would seem unfair to the reader if his curiosity were not appeased by some mention of that instrument which has come to be regarded as the embodiment of surveying: the Theodolite. the most perfect of all It goniometers. Thus. or angle-measuring instruments." which is associated with the plane table or the upper part of a modern theodolite. For this 140 . introducing its various forms. The nearest instrument of this form is the almost-extinct "circumfercntor" of about seventy years ago. the primary function of the the accurate measurement of horizontal and vertical angles respectively in the horizontal and Apart from special designs." 1571.

THEODOLITE SURVEYING 141 reason. which carries the two verniers TV (their magnifiers n being omitted). In the model shown the levelling head carries the clamp L of the to . in order that the essentials of theodolites may be explained. and IV. III. hereafter called the "Vertical Motion" Sometimes the level B is fitted as an altitude level on the top of the m clipping or vernier frame. These consist of (4) the standards (here A frames) which at the tops provide a trunnion bearing O for the horizontal axis 0. The Vertical'. for levelling the instrument. The Plate-Standards'. The theodolite consists of the following four primary portions. I and II together form the "Alidade" of the instrument. (3) the clipping frame with its clipping magnifiers screws 77. the levelling being regulated by the position of the bubbles of the plate levels p. The Levelling Head. I. (ii) which fits into the outer hollow spindle (iii) of III. Vertical. (5) the upper horizontal plate. Fare the plate screws with which the instrument is levelled after the tripod has been planted. and the outer hollow spindle (iii) N which fits into the bearing afforded inside the levelling head. the lower parallel plate being bored and threaded in order that the entire instrument may be screwed to the top of its tripod. Plate-Standards. hereafter called the ''Upper M Motion" are stamped A and B 9 the former being Frequently the verniers understood unless qualified. II. 83. and (behind) the clamp Kand tangent screw or slow-motion v to the vertical circle. I. This is shown dissected in Fig. as described on page 68. and from this hook a plumb-bob is suspended. This comprises (1) the telescope with its eyepiece E the azimuthai level B. The Limb. which are shown separated. The horizontal axis fits into the bearings at the tops of the standards (4) and is secured with little straps and a screw. and the clamp U to the upper plate with its tangent screw or slow motion u. F. and the horizontal or transverse axis o\ (2) the vertical circle and (behind) its two verniers A/. and also carry the plate levels. Frequently the verniers of the vertical circle are stamped C and D. Limb. Centrally at the bottom of the upper plate is the solid inner spindle the limb. A small hook is inserted in the nut which secures the spindles (ii) and (iii) in position in the levelling head. a vernier pattern of a general purpose transit theodolite will be considered as the representative instrument. but usually the former is understood as the vernier. />. and ray shade 7?. Here the older pattern four-screw device is shown. Some levelling heads are fitted with a centring stage or shifting plates so that the plumb-bob can be set exactly to a cross OD a peg at the station beneath the instrument. IV. the being omitted. the reference letters corresponding to those on the diagram. This simple component consists of the horizontal circle divided and figured in degrees on silver. p. Levelling Head. II.


the vernier the horizontal circle. the upper plate is means of /. the upper plate and superstructure are turned until U N (i. lOOg. This quadrant division is favoured in by surveyors who prefer to observe bearings directly. some confusion usually arises as to what the Simple circle division should read when the upper. and the most rational system or Quarter circle division (0-90 -0 -90 -0 ). The magnitude of the angle POQ vernier (Fig. and after a near sight at the foot of the station pole. until the foot of the station pole is seen inverted near the intersection of the cross-wires of the telescope. Hence. not angles. say magnifier n. being equal to 90. say (normally to the right of P). (60'). a station P. the outer spindle the instrument has been re-assembled and can be clamped to the levelling head by means of L. dividing the circum(A. 85-165) actually ference of the circle into 360 equal arcs. ancient nomenclature of the first and second subdivisions of the degree: minuta seconda" although Ptolemy '"pars minuta prima" and "pars worked in arcs. as nearly as may be. say. is at 360. the upper plate thus moving relatively to the horizontal is then read on the A circle. Whole Circle Clockwise (0 to 360) is the division of horizontal circles used for vertical exclusively in this country. or slow motion /. and turning an axis. as it sounds. the upper plate can be clamped by means of U. or vernier. and the inverted image of the foot of the pole exactly bisected by the vertical wire by turning the tangent screw u. 85). can be moved relatively to the divisions being slack. The Continental anguhu are divided into the Sexagesimal division of l'=60 seconds the circle of 400 grades. the vernier being viewed through its thus clamped. the zeros being in a horizontal line. hereafter called the "Eower Motion" Manipulation. particularly North America.e..D. the inner spindle moving inside the clamped outer spindle. Circles and Verniers.THEODOLITE SURVEYING limb and its 143 tangent screw. circles is the measure is Quadrant. With the upper motion the clamp (normally the one to the left) can be sighted by slackening the entire superstructure about the outer spindle. whole . plate is turned in the counter-clockwise direction. the lower motion is then clamped by means of/. the telescope can be directed towards the station Q. Circles of British and American instruments 1 degree (1)=60 minute? This system actually follows from the (60"). as L. or limb. while if the inner spindle is undamped. in each case subsidiary to the whole circle division. and the image of the foot of the pole is the vernier index the tangent screw /. in setting the A vernier to on zero 360). where the Half Circle (0 to 180 in both directions) is also used. exactly bisected by the vertical wire by turning If now the upper motion is undamped by slackening T7. and the index is set exactly at 360 by then clamped by means of the tangent screw u. There seems no better answer to this than to say that if a clock stops at 20 minutes to 5. levelled When up at a station O.

.\c=- if c=i on the circle and =30 on the vernier. v=c f . 84. finally with that of the O pole or point exactly bisected by the vertical wire. The instrument must now be levelled up in the manner described on page 68. In more accurate work it is usual to read and take the mean value from both verniers. on re-winding at 11. Next the telescope must be focused.in. in the case of the circles subdivisions of a main division.. Much trouble would be saved if these were marked plus and minus. Let us assume that the tripod has been with the telescope at a convenient firmly planted at the station height for sighting.20. the smallest division on the circle. and the images of the station poles will appear at these. of theodolites. then cv=-fcfo(Yo) ^-^ T^ * n which is the least count. from the fact that it would be indiscreet to turn the hands of a striking movement in the retrograde direction. the bubbles of the plate levels being central. - ^ No difficulty need ever arise with surveying instruments. signifying that the vernier will read to T in. Merely divide the angular value of c." which is seldom encountered to any appreciable extent except in old or damaged instruments. necessary to take the readings of the verniers through a magnifier or reader. in the manner also described. Most of the smaller patterns of theodolites are fitted with verniers. Verniers of vertical circles are often read upwards and downwards. always read the vernier with its numbers counted in the same direction as the it is figures on the circle. it will read 20 minutes past 11 whether the hands be turned backwards or forwards on re-winding. in width.144 ELEMENTARY SURVEYING then.' of course. apart. scale Named after its inventor. This device must not be confused with the fitted instead of verniers on the more elaborate instruments. this often corresponding This simple rule merely follows from: ^ A ---and x=c (nl)c=nv. by n is not the number n of corresponding divisions on the vernier. Now necessarily the number to even minutes only. v=i Jc. and are frequently figured in both directions. . then x=fo =l'. attached near the vernier. and 9 of these are equal 10 divisions v on the vernier. The cross-wires will appear as in Fig. stamped on the vernier. the lower plate of the levelling head being fairly horizontal. Thus. MEASUREMENT OF ANGLES. Anyway. which would require a diagonal scale 1 in. the vernier is a small sliding on which n divisions of length v are equal to n 1 scale divisions of length c. eliminating parallax. This is a micrometer microscopes which are precaution against "eccentricity. the simplest and most reliable mechanical contrivance for reading exact or J. Thus if the scale divisions c are^fe. Since the graduations are finely etched on the circles. 1. the A and the B on the horizontal circle and the C and D on the vertical circle.

83).THEODOLITE SURVEYING 145 (Some diaphragms will also be webbed or etched with the stadia lines shbwn dotted in Fig. and obtaining exact coincidence by use of the tangent screw /. (4) Read the A vernier and record of the angle PO Q (Fig. (1) Clamp the lower motion by means of the clamp L. . and obtain an exact bisection of the image of Q by means of the tangent screw u. and sight the pole at the right-hand clamp U. When vertical angles are observed. will result if the (2) Set the bubble of the leve^ B central by means of the clipping screws jy. known as Reductions to Horizontal. this reading as the magnitude Fio. Vertical Angles. The bearing of OP (or OQ) is then read on the A vernier. and finally set the vernier index at 360 by means of the tangent screw (2) u.) Horizontal Angles. the lower motion and sight the lowest point of the pole at the left-hand station P\ clamp L. these should be carefully "plumbed. and the lower motion should be undamped and the alidade turned until the magnetic needle comes exactly into its meridian. D being 1005. clamping U and obtaining an exact bisection of the image of the station by means of the tangent screw u. (1) Set the C vernier to zero by means of the vertical motion. Unclamp the upper motion. and set the A vernier at zero. 85). Then the station P (or Q) should be sighted by means of the upper motion. 84 FIG. 84. The object of these is that of determining horizontal distances D from the amount of vertical staff seen intercepted between them. greater accuracy azimuthal or altitude level B is utilised in a more exact levelling-up of the instrument. clamping at O by means of V. clamp U. but always subject to corrections for vertical angles above 5. the A vernier should be set at zero by means of the upper motion. the process being the same whether the level is on the clipping frame or on the telescope (Fig. clamping L. Unclamp (3) Unclamp station Q\ the upper motion. and setting the vernier index precisely by means of the tangent screw v." If the magnetic bearing of a line is required. 85 If it is impossible to sight the lowest points of station poles. and obtain an exact bisection of the image of P by means of the tangent screw /.

where TV is the number of sides or angles. or as Back Angles. conveniently N. say. provided each angle is measured with equal accuracy. BC.0 0' E. this "normal" position being Face Left preferably. cross-wires and the image by means of the tangent screw v. these back angles will be the interior angles of the skeleton. transiting the telescope. it is possible to "transit. if the pond in Fig.. to any convenient so-called theodolites are provided with a magnetic sometimes in the trough or the telescopic form. and obtain exact coincidence of the intersection of the clamp F. but it confines the work to one vernier. These are known as the Face Left (F. When angles are observed with both faces thus. Both faces are used thus when great accuracy is required. which are the angles measured clockwise from a zero reading on the preceding rear station.nt. as in triangulation surveys. taking is counted in the proper direction. AB. The characteristic of direct angular measurement is that all angles are measured separately. as above. 20 is traversed with the lines. Thus. and errors are is may be repeated not carried through to succeeding lines. and this is convenient in applying the check of the angular sum. This expedites the work and gives a direct reading of the total angular error on the horizontal circle. angles sighting . In North America. and sight the elevated poi. reduced bearings are required for plotting by co-ordinates. or if AB is assumed to have some bearing. (27V 4) 90. one of which is retained in ordinary usage.L. azimuths and bearings are observed directly by on the preceding rear station face right. or equal weight.) and Face Right (F. but this is never the case care that the vernier with vertical angles. then the bearings of the remaining sides can be reduced from the observed interior angles.146 (3) ELEMENTARY SURVEYING Unclamp the vertical motion." or rotate the telescope about its horizontal axis 0.R. Face Left and Right. a practice commonly followed in town surveying. thus eliminating the effects of instrument errors. If then the bearing of one side. Any error in the observed sum of the angles may then be divided equally among the angles. CD. these must be calculated with the bearing of one side of the traverse. and somecompass. AB. Read the magnitude of the vertical angle on the C vernier. horizontal angles are usually measured directly. Back Angles and Bearings. In the case of transit theodolites. north and south Most observed. as described hereafter. and then sighting forward face left consistently. as it is called. and DA running in the counter-clockwise direction. observed with reference to the magnetic or the If true meridian or assumed with reference line. In British practice. which means that the vertical circle may be either on the right or the left of the observer's eye. times in the form of a dial. the mean horizontal angle will be free from instrumental errors of adjustment. and each part applied appropriately as a correction to the observed angles.) positions. Its advantage is that angles with alternate faces of the instrument.

19 and 20 will be more precise than when the compass was used (page 93)." The Y-axis of F g. and also exaggerates the effects of errors of instrumental adjustment. in fact. simply because the crude and precise cannot mix.S. If the bearing of the first line is observed the compass need not be consulted again. so is it fit and proper that this little book should return to the coordinates of the opening chapter. Latitudes and departures are nothing more or less than Cartesian co-ordinates. lines in other quadrants having signs prefixed to them as in the four quadrants Simply from the l . the survey will be run "fixed needle. and E.E. then its latitude will be the projection on the N." Thus." The angular measurements of the surveys shown in both Figs. 1 merely becomes the N. and. east bearings give plus departures. the accuracy of the chaining should be raised. North bearings give plus latituc^s. as given in the rhyme. strictly. the origin still remaining at O. LATITUDES AND DEPARTURES Like as the traverse of a polygon should close upon the first station. axis. and west bearings . and S.S. Now if S T be the length of a survey line OA and NfiE its bearng. and W. II. or "Westings. respectively. while \ and S 3 are both minus.^ive minus departures. or the results may appear disappointing. or "Northings". N.THEODOLITE SURVEYING 147 to one measurement. Xj and ^ are both plus. or "Eastings". south bearings give minus latitudes. or "Southings". which H FIG. axis of Departure. 86 Howare these signs determined? initial and final letters of the bearings. for. more commonly known as "graphs. axis of Latitude and the X-axis the W.

either the algeAdjusting Traverses. etc. 2 2 the observed sum of the interior angles of the figure and the geometrical sum. problems Now latitudes and confusion. of BC. S. or the perimeter of the traverse. and the total co-ordinates of any point are the individual latitudes and departures summed N -& ^ algebraically - from this origin. but will be small values which are the total errors in latitude and departure. or northing. as indicated by the dotted braical sum of The true error of closure of the traverse is linear. so that the forward reduced bearing of AB is S.. the total latitude y be O. N. EI and E4 respectively.-O. the total plus Now g departure. Bowditch's method is easily applied by finding the ratios: m^ and n=~ where S y=5 1 +j a +J 8 t . On returning to A by way of CD and DA.148 ELEMENTARY SURVEYING all of Fig. 86. . while the total departure x also be 0. as with graphs.W. since +(S 1 -S 2)-(S 3 +8 4)-0. total is P plus latitude. which is the most westerly station. The origin O is taken at A. and (b) Total stations the existence of the co-ordinate axes must be imagined when thinking of individual latitudes and departures. at C.. At all be styled departures are used in two forms. as found from 2(N 4)90. of CD. x ^=Jr (8 l or Sj). with the origin at the most westerly station of the survey. and the is easting. line AA' in Fig. and is E=\/Ei +Ej while the angular error of closure a is found from the difference of ._87. which is the basis of adjusting traverse surveys arithmetically. where N is the number of sides.. Now it seldom happens that the latitudes or of the departures is exactly zero. which. latitudes and the individual and departures X appropri- and ately 8 are written on the diagram. while in working with total co-ordinates these axes exist in fact.. Algebraical signs are of utmost importance in which introduce latitudes and departures. which a quadrilateral traversed the in counter-clockwise direction. and of DA. will will This introduces a very important principle.E. 87. I 6 j is Consider Fig. since +(x a x^ (X 4 X 3 )==.W. to avoid (a) Individual Co-ordinates. may Co-ordinates. N.W.

and the latitudes and departures are calculated with reference to the resulting "false" meridian. and </ 1 =/w di~ns 1.. . and right-hand sides pass through the most northerly. the most westerly station being on the left-hand side.THEODOLITE SURVEYING corrections in latitude and departure will be to the sides s l9 s 29 etc. When. The vertical dimension of this rectangle is given by the arithmetical sum of horizontal dimension the greatest total northerly and southerly latitudes. known as "antiquarian. it is best to draw a reference rectangle which will exactly enclose the skeleton to scale. The values thus tabulated are the co-ordinates with which the stations of the survey are plotted with reference to the origin." might be found. /a =tfw a .. while the upper. and easterly stations respectively. They are then duly corrected. 29 etc. lower. and the is merely the greatest total easterly departure. But before the latitudes and departures arc calculated. etc. etc. it is advisable to plot the traverse roughly with the did of a protractor. since each pair of values requires four to five minutes in reducing with five-figure mathematical tables. Otherwise it might station.. It might happen that an extra-outsize sheet of paper. they say they have too much negative latitude. The method of total co-ordinates provides possibly the best and most accurate method of plotting surveys. In general. they sum up the latitudes and find that Et is negative. and the total departure always plus. Likewise for the departures. for instance. This will not only reveal which is the most westerly but will indicate the angle 6 through which the entire survey must be twisted so that a meridian will run parallel with the vertical is then subtracted from all edges of the sheet. it is advisable to consider how the survey is to be "placed" on the drawing-sheet. accordingly: etc?. with the approach road along the bottom of the sheet. / 2 . 149 l lt /2 .. the total latitude of a station being either plus or minus. and The the most westerly individual latitudes and departures are added algebraically from station adopted as the fixed origin. which usually will mean that the meridian will not run parallel to the vertical edges. which arc prefixed with the sign of the corresponding total error in latitude and departure. These corrections are then subtracted algebraically from the corresponding calculated values for the corrected latitudes and departures to be used in plotting the survey. as. for example. as explained in the preceding paragraph. Some even value of the bearings. The etc. On reaching the origin again the sum will be zero. Many practical men do not worry about signs. southerly. be necessary to re-calculate the entire set of latitudes and departures. Plotting Surveys. and merely increase the plus latitudes and decrease the minus latitudes by the values of the corrections /!. d l9 d 2t /!=/fWi. Consequently. this is no small undertaking without traverse tables. and from this the modest "imperial" sheet could be cut out after plotting.

with their total scale distances. which It will be seen that the back angles sum up exactly with theodolites reading to single minutes. frequently happens in careful work The bearings may now be reduced. and n can now be calculated. although the The correction factors fractions are more conveniently run off on a slide rule: m Ei - " 7273 * Zs 7273 .150 ELEMENTARY SURVEYING in surveys with much detail by covering with a graticule or grid of unit squares. Ed + 10-4 minus Adjusting the Traverse. north and south and east be The work may be expedited of the origin O. plotted Reducing Bearings: Line Back angle to 540 00'. of course. in which back angles were observed. and of plus departure of 10-4 Iks. each sid* of the rectangle which shows on the scale of the plan a convenient unit of latitude and Otherwise the stations would have to departure. the latitudes and departures may be calculated and tabulated also. The principles are also used in (c) calculating areas. the magnetic bearing of AB being S. The foregoing methods may be illustrated through the medium of the following closed theodolite and chain traverse. etc. 64 36' E.. It will be seen that there is an excess of latitude of 9-6 Iks. and (/) overcoming obstructions where no other would be effective. * EXAMPLE. The foregoing are only two of the uses of the method of latitudes and departures. and since this survey may be plotted with the magnetic north at the top of the sheet. (e) parting method boundaries. It is. 1 chain. possible to plot from the two nearest sides of the rectangle by subtracting the tabular distances of the stations or points from the lengths of the sides of the rectangle. Calculating Latitudes and Departures: fl -9-6. in a perimeter of 7273 Iks. 100 ft. land and rectifying (d) supplying omitted measurements.

and + and departures as eastings and westings respectively a great convenience in summing algebraically. are calculated and n by the lengths of the sides thus: AB I BC -1-0 +1-0 CD -1-4 +1'5 DE -1-2 +1-3 EA -3-0. a Traverse Sheet is drawn up with sufficient columns for the entire notes. its horizontal length will be width will be (1067-4+ 1228-8)=2296-2 Iks. and so curtailed in latitudes in separate columns width that it is impossible to show + and as northings and southings respectively. / and d. Now A also happens to be the most westerly station of the traverse. is 2549-5 25-50" and its vertical 1 to scale. Plotting the Traverse. giving the corrected values in the following table. Hence the tables ate separated. to scale. sum -3-1 - 9-7 d+3-4 latitudes +3-2 +10-4 now subtracted algebraically from the observed and departures. On a scale of used in plotting. In practice. chain to 1 inch the dimensions would thus be x 22-96". and the following total co-ordinates are summed algebraically from that station. which is not desirable in a book of this nature. but this would require a folding sheet. These corrections are E/+0-1 If Ed 0-0 a boundary rectangle Iks.THEODOLITE SURVEYING The corrections to the latitude 151 by hiultiplying respectively m and the departure. .

152 ELEMENTARY SURVEYING CLASS EXERCISES (a). BCD. N. 31 15' W. 7 had a forward Reduce these to magnetic bearings. 11 (c). The following notes were recorded in a theodolite and chain traverse in which the length and bearing of the closing line EA were omitted: . S. 24 12' E. S. 96 50'. N. State what errors will be eliminated by the various steps of your procedure. (563. 70 40'. 11 (e). The following back angles were observed in a traverse survey. (N. 24 12'. The following notes show the co-ordinates of a closed traverse with straight boundaries. (check)). assuming that the total error is to be distributed equally among the angles. the nfcan reading of the two verniers being given in each case. 148 42'. 66 10' W. and state the corrected values. 82 32' W. 78 05' E. the stations running in counter-clockwise order. in a triangle ABC. -5-63 126 acres). EFG. Iks. S. 1 1 (d).126 sq. zndFGA.. 24 12' E. 102 17'. Tabulate the mean observed value of each angle. Plot the survey and calculate the area from the co-ordinates.. N. given that the line 11 (b). 172 48'. 128 43'. the area being traversed in the counter-clockwise direction: ABC... DBF. when CDE AB bearing of N. 1 1 The following readings were obtained BAC CBA ACB 49 10 15 79 04 35 51 44 40 49 10 25 79 04 45 51 44 50 Observed 179 59 30 Corrected 1 80 00 00 Discuss the measurement of a horizontal angle with the theodolite great accuracy is required.. 17 00' E.

brook. . wood.. .. DE: 462 ft. Calculate the latitudes and departures. priate note form. S. ^ . 38 24' W.THEODOLITE SURVEYING 32' 153 AB: 2342 ft. Bearing EA = the signs indicating the quadrant.. Equipment: as in 1 1 (/)). reduce the corrected bearings.. S.. given that the reduced level of the peg A is and levelling staff.) FIELD EXERCISES Measure the angles of the triangle ABC. Equipment: Theodolite and five range-poles. two pickets. (inaccessible) (specified point) on . . chain.. Hill Determine the true north from the a circumpolar star at equal altitudes mean on each horizontal angle when observing side of the pole . assuming that all the measurements (EA^= V(X^) : that K^ =744 : make the entire X and S are the latitude and the departure ft.). 11 (D). Make a theodolite and . polygon Observe the magnetic and record these on an approbearing of AB. Tower above the 1 1 (C). and three range-poles.. 88 and bearing of the missing closing were made with uniform accuracy.. . . and hence determine the length line. Equipment: Theodolite. and and chain traverse of (specified) road between 1 1 (E).. BC: 782 W. 80 20' W. Equipment: Theodolite. 84 21' E.. S.. where sums both algebraically zero. Tan. . Record the results in close. between . . .. . S. N. or pond. and adjust the triangle to Equipment: Transit theodolite.. tape. and . appropriate form. ft. chain or band. set of pickets. arrows. (or . Determine the height of the fmial on (specified) ordnance datum. Plot the skeleton of the survey by latitudes and departures. Make a theodolite and chain traverse of the (specified) field. \ 1 (B). CD 1510 ft. ORIGINAL PROBLEMS Determine the height and distance of .. .. 14 44' E. using both faces of the instrument and taking the mean of both verniers. Determine the error in the sum of the interior angles of the ABCDEby observing the back angles with a theodolite. 11 (A).


Chains.120. 67. needle. plane tabling. 37 Contours. 108 Plumb-line level. 135 Magnetic needle. 74 93. 130 Cross staff. 23. square. 89. field code. 144 Level book. Computing scale. 39. 68. 3. 71 Levelling. 18. 79. local attraction. 17 Longitudinal sections. 119 Compass. 65. 127 Conventional signs. 79. 34. 81 Barometer. 64.INDEX Angles: construction of. spirit. 147 Cross sections. 86. Field-work. 11. angular. 8. 143 level. 92 Benchmarks. 83 Bearings. 9 24. 48 Horizon. 81 Collimation. 113 Co-ordinates. 149 Prismatic compass. 86 Prismoidal rule. compass surveying. 89. by clinometer. 89. Divided 70. 91. adjustments. 22. 60. 53. adjustment of. 53 Offsets. Ordnance. obstructed distances. 70. 99. 75 Levelling stores. true and magnetic. 13 Ordnance maps. 70. 75 Boundary lines.3. 105 Obstacles. 3 Plane table. 86. 43. 70 Elevations: by aneroid. 17. aneroid. by theodolite.110. 65. chaining. 26 Optical. 110. 123 Abney Level. 66 Linear measurement. 91 Magnetic bearings. 1 2 Datum. declination and variation. 75. 145 Enlarging and reducing maps. 145. 32. contouring. enlarging and reducing. 135 circles. affected. 14 Latitudes and departures. plotting and finishing. measurement of. system of notes. 41. 1. 104. 45 Clinometer. 79 Areas. 41 Field-book notes. Dumpy use of. 70. 147. three-point problem. angular levelling. 61 Plotting plans and maps. 147 Level. 83. reduction to. 36.149 Meridian. 132 155 . 4. 68. 24. 89 Maps. 79. 116 field geometry. 26 Chain surveys. 65.

143 Vertical angles. chain. stepping. 25. 93 Surveys. cross. Jacob. 6. 99. 8 Reciprocal levelling. theodolite. 130. 45.156 Ranging-out lines. 108 Traverse surveys. 139 Staff. longitudinal. 135 Signals. 96. trigonometrical. 93. 140 Table. INDEX 48 Range-poles. 48 Resection. levelling. 9. 69. theodolite surveying. 24. 67. 7. 140 Three-point problem. 24. 129 Water level. 14. signalling. 13 Stations. adjustment Triangulation surveys. 16 Spirit levelling. 96. 62. 30 Sections. compass. 141 Theodolite. 62 . 80 Verniers. 50 Telescope. 154 Tapes. 20 Sloping distances. 8. 145 of. 6. 7. ranging. 119. 95. 73 Scales. 148 Volumes. 10. 108 Rise and fall systems. 64. 80. 66. 17. 27. 93.

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