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Many talented people have contributed to the successful completion of this work and I would like to extend a word of thanks and appreciation to all of them.

First, I pay my heartiest gratitude to Mr. V.K






Badli me




immense knowledge about telephone and for his continuous guidance during my training period. Second, I take this opportunity to acknowledge my institution Maharaja Agrasen Institute Of Management Studies, Indraprastha University where I am pursuing my degree Bachelor of Business Administration. Third, I empress my thanks to Mr. RIYA SHARMA, Internal Project Guide, for her guidance, support and encouragement which helped me in completing my project. Above all, I would like to thank the Almighty God without whom this work could never have been completed.

The world of marketing is moving more rapidly than ever. The intelligent and successful people

Executive Summary History of telephony Parts of a telephone system About MTNL Badli Exchange OCB-283 Switching system Various services provided by MTNL

Landline / Basic connection Broadband Garud Intelligent networking ISDN DOLPHIN Answering Machine Service

Complaint System (IVRS)


The current millennium has unfolded new business rules most the significant of them being that company has to constantly look into minds of the customer. Customer loyalty plays a significant role and today securing that loyalty requires quality right price and of course last but not the least i.e. creating awareness about their service. As a trainee, I was given knowledge about the way and style of their working, their routine and their environment. It was a great experience in getting under such a reputed company, which has in it the ability to retain customer.

Telephone was invented by Alexander Graham Bell in 1876. At that time telephony was carried out as a direct point to point communication link. Then an interface was being introduced called exchange. The first exchanges were manual; a human operator at the exchange would connect the caller to its destination on a switchboard. Auto telephony eliminated the need of the operator. The first auto telephony system developed was the Stronger system. It had various mechanical selectors. Dialing a digit sent several ON & OFF pulses which caused the mechanical movement of the selector arm. If a line is occupied a busy signal was sent back. Its main drawbacks were high electric consumption and high space requirements. There was a lot of noise and heat dissipation and efficiency was low. Then came was Belgium / Crossbar exchange. These exchanges used 32 vertical bars and 8 horizontal bars per frame with a U-

bent at the centre. This again being an electromechanical system used to occupy large space, produced noise and its power consumption was high. The first exchanges to use digital systems were SPC (Stored Program Controlled)exchanges. But the user lines and the junctions continued to remain analog. In India, these exchanges were provided by Fujitsu (Japan), as the product Fatex 100L. These exchanges were installed in 1983. They were highly efficient with negligible fault rate; its dial-tone was continuous. It had most of the necessary features but it lacked some of the latest technologies like ISDN, fast signaling, and CCS-7. So in 1988-89 these exchanges were withdrawn. The SPC exchanges were replaced by complete digital exchanges. The first digital system to be brought to India was E10B, E stands for electronic and 10 signify that it is a digital system. These were distributed control systems, where different systems decided their control individually. Another system introduced was AXC10 from Ericsson, Sweden. Then came OCB-283 switching systems from CIT Alcatel, France and the 5-ESS system given by AT&T. Another system, EWSD was provided by Siemens, Germany.

Formation of mtnl :

Till 31st December 1984 the postal, telegraph and telephone services were managed by the Post and Telegraph Department. In January 1985, two separate Departments, for the Post (Indian Post) and the Department of Telecommunications (DoT) were created. Bombay (Mumbai) and Delhi Telephones were separated to create the new entity called MAHANAGAR TELEPHONE


On 1st October 2000, the department created BSNL, a new entity to operate

services in different parts of the country as a public sector unit.

Parts of telephone system

The telephone communication system can be physically visualized as:

Outdoor plant:- The part of the

telephone system from the exchange to the telephone subscribers premises.


Indoor plant or the Switching Unit: The switching devices employed

within the exchange comprise the Indoor Plant. The Main Distribution Frame

(MDF) acts as an intermediary between

the indoor plant and the outdoor plant.


Transmission Unit: It is the link from

one exchange to another. Traditionally, the media used for links between the exchanges used to be junction cables or the

coaxial cables. These have been now replaced by the optical fibers.

About Mtnl badli exchange

Badli Telephone Exchange uses OCB-283 switching system. It is provided by CIT Alcatel, France, which has two vendors in India: Alcatel

Modi Network System (AMNS), Gurgoan, and

Indian Telecom Industries (ITI), having offices at Manakpur (manufacturer of subscriber line cards), and Balghat, Kerala.


Date of commission : 2000


SMC: SMX: SMA: SMT: Capacity: CSNIL:

08 04 15 07 56k 11K

Power supply to our exchange = 50+ 2 V.D.C.


The Badli Telephone exchange uses OCB-283 switching system. It is by CIT Alcatel, France. The main functions carried out by OCB-283 are Connection & Control and Operation & maintenance.

OCB-283 mainly comprises of 5 multiprocessor

stations. These are:

a. SMC b. SMA c. SMX d. SMT e. SMM

Main Controller System (SMC):- It

performs various functions like:-

a) b) c) (PC) d) e)

Multi-register (MR) Translator (TR) Signaling link handler Group selector (GS) Marker (MQ)

Auxiliary Equipment Control Station (SMA):- Its main functions are:a) Tone generation (busy/ring back tone)

b) c) d) e)

Time base generation Conference (CCE) Message routing CCS-7 signaling

Switching Multiprocessor Station:-

It is

the part of the exchange where switching connections are made. Analog switches are based on SSS-space Space Space of TST-Time Space Time. Digital switches are bated on TTTTime Time Time. So, SMX perform switching functions based on time-slot matrix system. The SMX works in duplicate mode, A- Chain or B-Chain.

Trunk Multiprocessor Station (SMT):-

Exchange to Exchange communication requires the generation of channel stream. This is generated by SMT. The first SMT comprises of 32 ICT-RQ cards. Each ICT-RQ card generates 4 x 2Mb. Each 2Mb comprises of 32 channels from 0 to 31. Ch 0 is used for synchronization & Ch 31 is used as signaling channel. In all we have 4 x 32 = 128 Mb PCM streams. These carry voice data having bandwidth from 0.3 to 3.4 KHz. Signaling is needed to check status & establish communication.

Main Maintenance Multiprocessor Station (SMM) :- It is a very important

section of the complete system. It is used to check all multiprocessor stations, performs tests & maintenance. It can hence perform functions like:-

a) Peripheral connectivity b) Check faults c) Raise alarm

Signaling in the telecommunication Introduction:A telecommunication network establishes and realizes temporary connections, in accordance with the instructions and information received from subscriber lines & Inter-exchange trunks, in form of various signals. Therefore, it is necessary to interchange information between an exchange & it external environment i.e. between subscribers lines & exchange, & between different exchanges. Through these signals may differ widely in their implementation, they are collectively known as telephone signals.

Types of signaling information:The signaling information can be categorized under four main heads:

Call request and release information:Call request information i.e. calling subscriber off hook or seizure signals or an incoming trunk, indicates a new call. On its receipt the exchange connects appropriate equipment for receiving address information (called). Release information i.e. on hook or release signal on a trunk indicates that the call is over.

The exchange release all the equipment held out for the call, and clears up any other information used for setting up the call.

Selection (address) information:When exchange is ready to receive the address information. It sends back a request which is known as proceed to send (PTS) signal in trunk signaling and dial tone in subscriber signaling. Address information essentially comprises of full or part of the called subscribers number and possibly additional service date.

End of selection information:It specifies the on / off hook condition of a called line after the connection has been setup 1. Called subscriber off hook condition of a subscriber has answered and charging may commence. 2. Called subscriber on hook:- Called subscriber has hung up to terminate the call & the call is disconnected after a time delay, if the calling subscriber does not hand up.

Various services provided By

Mtnl Landline / Basic connection Broad band GARUD Intelligent networking ISDN DOLPHIN Answering machine service Complaint System (IVRS)

Mtnl broadband service

Introduction MTNL is providing Broadband Internet Service (ADSL2+) to its users in Delhi. MTNL is the first service provider in India to introduce ADSL2+ technology based

Broadband Internet Service. It enhances the web browsing speed and consumes less power. It provides simultaneous availability of phone & internet on the existing telephone line. For broadband internet access there are no call charges.


from 256 kbps to 2 Mbps.

SPEED:- High speed data download starting EASY COMMUNICATION:- Talk & surf
at the same time.

SHARING:- Can share connection to

create your own network.

EXPENSIVE:- Affordable tariff plans. SECURITY:connection. Password secures

Always on internet. HELP:- 24 hours helpline & technical

support on phone.

Easy registration on phone & web.

Connections & installation For extending cable the service, to a the the

telephone the

coming using

customers premises is connected to



splitter. The ADSL2+CPE acts as an interface the telephone The POTS cable and the computer.

Splitter is used to separate voice and data signals enabling both Voice & Internet, simultaneously, on the same telephone line. One cable out of POTS splitter is connected to the telephone instrument. Your MTNL

Broadband connection comes a user account consisting of a username & password. This is used by the CPE in

establishing connection to the MTNL Broadband network. The user name and password are pre-configured in When it the the

to the

switched establishes ON, a



Broadband Network.


Garuda 1x WLL Mobile Service is the most affordable Mobile Service in Delhi, working on the latest CDMA

3G Network with a lots features &

various phone plus facilities.

Superior Voice Clarity SMS WAP High speed internet connectivity at speed of up to 144 kbps. Call waiting Call diver Call conference Voice Mail Service STD / ISD dialing with call barring

Attractive tariff plans Zero registration & activation charge

Intelligent networking
This service is commonly known as toll free service & provides an ideal opportunity for business promotion. By subscribing this service Business, Trade, Commerce & Industry, can advertise & sell their products & services on telephone telemarketing is the fastest means of improving revenues. Those who subscribe to this service are called FPH subscribes & are allotted FPH numbers. One FPH number can have multiple telephone numbers.


Reverse charging: The caller can call the FPH number free of charge, in this case the called
party will be charged.

Call Forwarding: The service has the facility

of re-routing the incoming calls to an alternative

number if the FPH subscribers line is busy or there is no answer.

Time dependent routing: The service also

provides time dependent routing which enables the FPH subscriber with one FPH number to several telephone installations in the network & specify flexible routing or different call treatments depending upon time, date, day & holiday.

Origin dependent routing: It also provides location dependent routing whereby the FPH
subscribers can have several installations (or several directory numbers) & can specify flexible routing depending upon the area of origination of the incoming calls.

You can apply on a prescribed application form (available free) along with the registration fee of Rs. 3000/- in form of DD/Pay Order/Crossed Cheque in favour of MTNL, New Delhi at Customers Service, Ground floor, Khurshid Lal Bhawan, Jan path, New Delhi-110050. The registration charges are refundable through adjustment in bills.

Any user in the telephone network can access the FPH by dialing access code 160211 followed by the four digit FPH subscriber number. The call will automatically be routed by the Intelligent Network to the desired telephone number.

All the charges will be levied on the FPH service number.

What is ISDN ?
Integrated service digital network (ISDN) is a state-of-the-art Public Switched Network for provisioning of different services voice, data & image transmission over the telephone line through the telephone network.

ISDN service is available in all the major cities of India. Also ISDN has overseas
connectivity with the following countries:

Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Malaysia, Netherlands, Norway, Philippines, Singapore, Switzerland, Thailand, U.A.E, UK, USA.


The following services are offered on a dialup basis between two ISDN subscribers: Desktop Video Conferencing on using three ISDN lines at 64/128 kbps. b) High quality video conferencing by suing three ISDN lines at 384 kbps. c)Video telephony.

d) High speed data transmission at 64/128 kbps. e) High speed facsimile at 64/128 kbps with G-4 fax terminal.

SUPPLEMENTARY SERVICE ISDN, being a value added service, offers

many supplementary features / services:1)

Call Line Identification Presentation 2) Advice of charge 3) Line hunting 4) Closed user group 5) User to user signaling 6) Call forwarding: i. On busy ii. On no reply iii. Unconditional 7) Multiple subscriber number


The signal on the ISDN line-voice or date is sent in the digital mode. 2. The signal level at subscribers terminal equipment is independent of line length. 3. An ISDN subscriber can establish two simultaneous independent calls which could be voice, data,


image or combination of any two whereas only one call is possible on ordinary telephone lines. The call set-up time between two ISDN subscribers is extremely short.


Dolphins GSM cellular mobile network supports a number of features & supplementary services. MTNL is providing International roaming on its GSM cellular mobile services in more than 170 countries world wide covering all the major countries of the world.


Voice Mail Service (VMS) Calling line identification presentation (CLIP) Call hold Call waiting Call conference

Short Message Service (SMS) Call forwarding / diver facility.

*****The health industry recommends that a minimum separation of 6 (Six inches) be maintained between the mobile phone 7 a pacemaker to avoid potential interference with the pacemaker & do not carry it in a breast packet when it is switched ON.


The voice mail service works exactly like a post box number, a facility offered by the postal service. A VMS number is just like a telephone number where anyone can call and leave a message in total secrecy. The VMS subscriber can then retrieve these recorded messages by keying in a pass code from any tone switch able instrument or a compact DTMF keypad.

NOTE :- This is a free service to all

the telephone users in DELHI.