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NOVEMBER 2006

Vol. 13 No 2 Registered by Australia Post PP No. 229640/00002

White Rust on Zinc Coatings - Causes, Effects & Remedies


Duplex Coating Ensures Long Pipe Bridge Life
Commodities & Coating Costs

INTERNATIONAL STRENGTH IN GALVANIZING AND MANUFACTURING


Industrial Galvanizers Corporation operates a network of galvanizing and manufacturing facilities throughout Australia, Asia and the USA. In Australia, these operations include: INGAL Hot Dip Galvanizing INGAL EPS steel pole engineering and manufacturing INGAL Civil Products steel highway safety products INGAL Building Systems - Lintels, T-beams Webforge - Grating, handrails Auszinc Alloys - Zinc alloys and chemicals

GALVANIZING AUSTRALIA www.industrialgalvanizers.com.au Queensland Industrial Galvanizers (Brisbane) Ph: 07 3000 7900 Fax: 07 3260 2244 Industrial Galvanizers (Delta) Ph: 07 3271 268 Fax: 07 3271 2295 Industrial Galvanizers (North Qld) Ph: 07 4774 8333 Fax: 07 4774 8444 New South Wales Industrial Galvanizers (Newcastle) Ph: 02 4967 9099 Fax: 02 4964 8705 Industrial Galvanizers (Sydney) Ph: 02 9636 8244 Fax: 02 9631 8615 Industrial Galvanizers (Kirrawee) Ph: 02 9667 4328 Fax: 02 9693 2104 Industrial Galvanizers (Port Kembla) Ph: 02 4275 2755 Fax: 02 4276 1277 Victoria Industrial Galvanizers (Melbourne) Ph: 03 9480 2866 Fax: 03 9484 7144 Tasmania Industrial Galvanizers (Tasmania) Ph: 03 6344 8822 Fax: 03 6344 7691 Western Australia Industrial Galvanizers (WA) Ph: 08 9418 2122 Fax: 08 9434 1377

Brisbane Ph: 07 3271 3369 Newcastle Ph: 02 4964 8206 Melbourne Ph: 03 8470 0082 Perth Ph: 08 9451 4100 Fax: 02 4964 8705 Fax: 03 9480 1834 Fax: 08 9451 4200 Fax: 07 3271 3299

WEBFORGE www.webforge.com.au Head Ofce Ph: 03 8551 2456 New South Wales Ph: 02 9997 8555 Queensland Ph: 07 3260 1064 Victoria Ph: 03 9551 1911 Western Australia Ph: 08 9361 8933 New Zealand Ph: 001164 6356 1246

Fax: 03 8551 2454 Fax: 02 9997 7546 Fax: 07 3260 1130 Fax: 03 9558 0730 Fax: 08 9361 7057 Fax: 01164 6356 7782

INGAL EPS www.ingaleps.com.au Western Australia Ph: 08 9493 9222 Queensland Ph: 07 3323 2555 Victoria Ph: 03 9793 3670 New South Wales Ph: 02 9545 5199 South Australia Ph: 0500 533 833 Australian Capital Territory Ph: 02 6247 4555 Tasmania Ph: 03 6273 0577 Northern Territory Ph: 08 8947 0870 www.indgalv.com.au

Fax: 08 9493 9234 Fax: 07 3344 5422 Fax: 03 9701 3907 Fax: 02 9545 0276 Fax: 08 8345 1740 Fax: 02 6247 4777 Fax: 03 6273 0575 Fax: 08 8947 0764

United States of America www.indgalv.net Asia www.industrialgalvanizers.com MANUFACTURING INGAL CIVIL PRODUCTS www.ingalcivil.com.au Head Ofce Ingal Civil Products Ph: 02 9710 5555 Fax: 02 9542 3667

Industrial Galvanizers Corporation Pty Ltd, 1585 Ipswich Rd, Rocklea 4106 Australia, Ph: 07 3373 2875 Fax: 07 3373 2827

co ntents

CORROSION MANAGEMENT
CORROSION MANAGEMENT is published for those interested in the specication, application and performance of protective coating systems.

CONTENTS EDITORIAL FEATURE ARTICLES


Duplex Coating Ensures Long Pipe Bridge Life Commodities & Coating Costs Why Do Coatings Fail? White Rust on Zinc Coatings - Causes, Effects & Remedies 3 5 8 15 2

INDUSTRY NEWS
Preserving Metal Masterpieces Cathodic Protection of Steel in Concrete with Zinc Metal Spray New Era For Dy-Mark Aerosols New Website Resource for Galvanized Coatings Suite of Revised Galvanized Coating Standards Molded Fiberglass Companies FRP Pile Repair Sleeves Extend Timber Pile Life Munters Preventing Coating Failures
PUBLISHER: Industrial Galvanizers Corporation Pty Ltd. EDITOR: John Robinson 312 Pacic Highway Hexham NSW 2322 Ph: +61 2 4967 9088 Fax: +61 2 4964 8341 Email: jrobinson@indgalv.com.au www.indgalv.com.au DESIGN: MAP Marketing Villa Franca, 2 Scott Street Newcastle NSW 2300 Ph: +61 2 4929 7766 Fax: +61 2 4929 7827 Email: maria@mapmarketing.com.au www.mapmarketing.com.au ADVERTISING: MAP Marketing Villa Franca, 2 Scott Street Newcastle NSW 2300 Ph: +61 2 4929 7766 Fax: +61 2 4929 7827 Email: maria@mapmarketing.com.au www.mapmarketing.com.au

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Cover: Andy Scott Stallion on the Beach.

CORROSION MANAGEMENT is published by Industrial Galvanizers Corporation, which operates internationally through a network of galvanizing and manufacturing plants. Industrial Galvanizers Corporation is involved in the application of protective coatings for industrial, mining, domestic and commercial projects, using the best available technology and is not afliated with any specic suppliers of corrosion or abrasion resistant coatings. The opinions expressed herein are not necessarily those of the publisher.

In Australia (Newcastle Harbour NSW), old timber piles are in the process of being removed from this deteriorated wharf - Page 26.

edito r ia l
John Robinson - Editor

The main theme of this issue of Corrosion Management reects the dark side of protective coatings, with a feature on why coatings fail (both organic and metallic), and a major technical article on causes, problems and solutions associated with white rust and zinc coatings. Understanding why coatings fail is as important as understanding why they work. In a number of cases in which I have been involved in the consulting side of my business, apparently adequate anti-corrosion specications have not worked, giving rise to very costly litigation, as well as equally costly remediation. These costs are dramatically disproportionate to the original cost of the coatings used. In two separate instances, the cost of the coatings used was less than $3,000 on each project, while the remediation costs, excluding legal costs, exceeds $150,000 in each case. White rust problems have become a particular headache in our global economy, as larger numbers of galvanized products are shipped around the world. Galvanized products that are in good condition when they are dispatched from the galvanizing plant, may have been severely degraded by white rust by the time they reach their destination after being containerised and crossing the equator. Another signicant issue facing the suppliers of protective coatings and corrosion resistant materials has been the unprecedented increase in costs of both metals and petroleum products over the past 2 years.

Metals such as zinc, the principal anti-corrosion solution for the majority of the words steel, is a good example of skyrocketing costs. In the past year, zinc prices have increased by 180% and do not look like heading south any time soon. In this issue, Corrosion Management has gathered information from suppliers of protective coating products, galvanizers and the stainless steel industry to put these cost rises into perspective so that end-users can understand their impact in ensuring the durability of construction products. In delivering certied coatings to the market place, suppliers and speciers rely on Australian or international standards to provide guidance in ensuring a quality outcome. As Corrosion Management goes to press, a suite of revised galvanized coating standards has just been published by Standards Australia and we are pleased to be able to preview these standards in this issue. From January 2007, recent issues of Corrosion Management will be published on the Industrial Galvanizers Web Site. More information on the comprehensively upgraded web site can be found in the Industry News section of this issue.

NOVEMBER 2006

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DUPLEX COATING ENSURES LONG PIPE BRIDGE LIFE

Two cranes (300t and 200t) were used to lift the 40t bridge section into place. The duplex coating is expected to provide more than 50 years maintenance free service life in this environment.

I N T R O D U C T I O N
A signicant structural bridging project was recently undertaken by the NSW Department of Commerce (now incorporating the NSW Public Works Department), to design a pipe bridge for Sydney Water to cross Mallaty Creek, on private property near Appin, NSW. To eliminate the need to access private property for maintenance, the DOC specied a duplex (paint over hot dip galvanizing) protective coating for the large prefabricated bridge structure.

T H E

P R O J E C T

The Mallaty Creek bridge was prefabricated by JBK Engineering (Unanderra, NSW) for the DOC. The pipe bridge was designed to carry a 1200 mm steel cement lined water main across the creek. The bridge structure is substantial, being 38 metres long, 4.5 metres wide and 3.5 metres high, with a total weight of 40 tonnes. The heavy construction was required to carry the design loads of over 1000 kg/metre that are imposed by the operating water main. The bridge was assembled in two sections at JBKs Unanderra workshop; the sections transported to site and fully assembled, then lifted into position using a 300 tonne and a 200 tonne crane.
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The fabrication and coating application was supervised by DOCs Frank Barnes, one of the departments most experienced inspectors with many years experience in this area, including participation of the construction of the Sydney 2000 Olympic venues.

A Dulux paint system was applied over the hot dip galvanized surfaces. The system was as follows: Primer Coat Second Coat Top Coat - Dulux Luxepoxy 4 white primer to 50-70 microns DFT - Dulux Luxathane R to 50-75 microns DFT - Dulux Luxathane R to 50-75 microns DTT

T H E P R O T E C T I V E C O AT I N G S Y S T E M
All the steelwork was hot dip galvanized by Industrial Galvanizers, either at its Port Kembla facility for the smaller components, or at its larger (12.5 metre) bath at Girraween, in Sydney. The galvanized coating was specied to comply with Australian Standard AS/NZS 4680:1999. Coating thickness of the hot dip galvanized coating as was found to generally exceed the minimum thickness nominated in the Standard by at least 30%. The recommended surface preparation procedure is also listed in Appendix I of AS/NZS 4680. This states: INFORMATION ON THE USE OF SWEEP (BRUSH) BLAST CLEANING OF GALVANIZED STEEL PRIOR TO PAINTING (Informative) I1 GENERAL Abrasive sweep (brush) blast cleaning is a method used for the preparation of a galvanized coating prior to the application of an organic (paint) coating. The purpose of this procedure is to remove the oxide lm from the zinc surface. NOTE: It is important that this procedure be performed carefully to ensure that no more than 10 pm of zinc is removed. Organic paint coatings should be applied as soon as possible after galvanizing or abrasive blasting. I2 PROCEDURE The following procedure should be observed when sweep blast cleaning is carried out to ensure that a good surface is produced for painting, without severely damaging the existing galvanized coating: (a) Use ne abrasives of a size which will pass through a test sieve of nominal aperture size 150 pm to 180 pm (80 to 100 mesh), e.g. ilmenite or garnet (b) Use a venturi nozzle which has an orice diameter of 10 mm to 13 mm (c) Set the blast pressure at 275 kPa (40 psi) maximum (d) Keep the venturi nozzle at a distance of 350 mm to 400 mm from the surface of the work piece and at an angle no greater than 45 to the surface This procedure is intended to produce a light surface prole of 5-10 microns.

Total minimum DFT system thickness was specied at 225 microns. The surface preparation and system application was undertaken by Waldeans Industrial Painters at Port Kembla, and through careful handling of the bridge section in transport and erection, no additional coating remediation was needed on site.

C O N C L U S I O N
The duplex coating system used on the Mallaty Creek pipe bridge should ensure that the structure will remain corrosion free for a period exceeding 50 years. The combination of high quality paint systems over hot dip galvanizing has a synergistic effect in producing a coating system whose performance will exceed that of the sum of each of the coatings if they were used independently. A factor of an additional 50% has been suggested.

Mallaty Creek Bridge, trial assembled in JBK Engineerings Unanderra workshop.

NOVEMBER 2006

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COMMODITIES & COATING COSTS


John Robinson Editor Corrosion Management

Commodity prices affect everyone. This galvanizing plant in Virginia USA, has experienced the same cost impacts for its zinc as have Australian galvanizers.

I N T R O D U C T I O N
Over the past 18 months, the commodity boom has been in the news almost every day. For most Australians, it is good news in that unemployment is at record low levels and the economy is in a very healthy condition. At street level, we have all been affected by oil price rises and their impact on fuel costs, many commodities have doubled or tripled in cost over this relatively short period, and do not look like their cost will be heading south in the near future. One largely hidden impact of these commodity cost increases is the impact on the cost of protective coatings for steel, the full impact of which is yet to be felt. In addition to the rapid cost increases in some of the major ingredients used in protective coating manufacture, particularly zinc and petroleum, corrosion resistant

materials such as stainless steel and brass have been similarly impacted by commodity cost increases of its major constituents.

Z I N C

&

G A LVA N I Z I N G

Zinc is the primary anti-corrosion component for protecting steel in its various forms, and is used for electroplating, continuous galvanizing of wire, sheet and tube and for the hot dip galvanizing of structural steel. World zinc usage exceeds 9 million tonnes, of which nearly half is used for galvanizing, and around 20% is used for alloying with brass or bronze. Nearly 10% is used for the manufacture of zinc chemicals, a signicant proportion of which are used as pigments in paints.

Since the beginning of 2005, zinc has increased in cost from around $US1,450/tonne to over $US4,000/tonne in November 2006 an increase of almost 200%. In Australia, the zinc price is also inuenced by the $A exchange rate with the $US. At an average exchange rate of $0.76, the cost increases in $A from January 2005 to November 2006 have been from $A2,000 to $A5,400. The biggest impact has been on galvanizing costs. The amount of zinc used in a galvanizing process will be determined by the thickness of the steel (this determines its surface area), the zinc (galvanized) coating thickness and the type of process (this determines the residues generated by the process). The average zinc usage for general (jobbing) galvanizing ranges from 6% of the weight of steel dipped for structural fabrications, to 10% for smaller parts that are galvanized in a centrifuge process. The chart illustrates the cost impact of the zinc cost increases for these types of products.

In addition to the zinc dust cost for zinc-rich primers, zinc is also a major component of zinc phosphate pigments used in almost all solvent-based steel primers. These types of primers have around 50% volume solids in the paint and while only some of pigment components are zinc-containing, there is an inevitable cost impact. The other major factor inuencing industrial paint costs is the rise in the oil price, which has essentially doubled since 2004, from around $US30 per barrel to the current cost of around $US60/barrel. The ingredients used in most industrial paints are largely from petrochemical sources, which obviously have a direct connection to oil price movements. While the cost of a barrel of oil is listed on the news every night, few people know how this relates to litres or gallons. The attached chart shows the common conversion factors for petroleum. Table 1
Convert From Convert To Cubic Metre Barrel (Petroleum) U.S. Gallon Barrel (Petroleum) Litre Barrel (Petroleum) Litre Litre U.S. Gallon Litre Multiply By 0.158910 6.292 42.0 0.02381 158.910 0.006292 3.785 4.546 0.2642 205 Barrel (Petroleum) Cubic Metre Barrel (Petroleum) U.S. Gallon Barrel (Petroleum) Litre U.S. Gallon Imperial Gallon Litre Drum

Zinc cost/t - $A $2000 $5400 Increase

Fabrications - 6% Small Parts - 10% Zinc Pick-up Zinc Pick-up $120 $324 $204 $200 $540 $340

The other costs associated with the hot dip galvanizing process include energy, labour, materials, overheads and margins. In normal times these make up typically 75% of the costs, with zinc being the remaining 25%. For project tonnages of structural steel, a competitive cost for hot dip galvanizing, with zinc at $2,000/tonne, would be in the order of $550/tonne. This same steelwork would need to be galvanized for $754/tonne to recover the additional zinc costs. A typical cost for small part (centrifuge) galvanizing in contract quantities would be in the order of $850/tonne at the $2,000/t zinc price. $1,190/t small part galvanizing prices are now required to recover the increased zinc coat.

There are 42 US gallons in a barrel of oil, or nearly 159 litres. This equates to $0.38 per litre. Given that numerous rening and processing stages are necessary to convert a litre of oil to a litre of epoxy, polyurethane, acrylic or solvent, the oil cost impact is less signicant than that of the cost of the pigments used.

C O R R O S I O N M AT E R I A L S

R E S I S TA N T

PA I N T

C O S T S

The biggest impact on industrial paint costs has again been in the zinc component used in high-performance organic and inorganic zinc-rich primers. Zinc dust is sold at a premium to ingot zinc. This premium is in the order of $US700, and accounts for the manufacturing costs associated with zinc dust production. This has pushed current $A zinc dust prices beyond $6,000/t. Although the metallic zinc content of a zinc-rich pant coating is about half that of a galvanized coating, the cost impact remains signicant.

The metals most commonly used on anti-corrosion applications are stainless steel (Iron, nickel, chrome alloy), brass (copper-zinc alloy), bronze (copper-tin alloy) and aluminium. While there have been increases in the cost of chrome, tin and aluminium, they have been at levels normally experienced in the metals commodity area in times of high demand of around 20-70%. Copper, nickel and zinc prices, on the other hand have gone into another territory all together. Table 2 shows the approximate price movements of these metals from early 2005 to late 2006.

NOVEMBER 2006

Table 2
Metal Aluminium Chromium Copper Nickel Tin Zinc Early 2005 cost $A $2,100 $7,900 $4,000 $18,500 $10,500 $1,800 Late 2006 cost $A $3,550 $12,100 $10,000 $44,000 $13,500 $5,000 Increase $A $1,450 $4,200 $6,000 $25,500 $3,000 $3,200 % change 69% 53% 150% 138% 29% 178%

The impact on common stainless steel anti-corrosion grades such as 316 is that the nickel and chrome components that make up over 25% of the alloy will have increased the cost (from early 2005) by almost $5,000/tonne by late 2006.

S U M M A R Y
While demand continues to exceed supply for the metals used for anti-corrosion applications, it is unlikely that there will be any downward price adjustments to more normal levels in the foreseeable future. The lack of investment in new zinc mines and production facilities and the closure of a number of smelters in the 1990s and early 2000s will put pressure on zinc supply for some time to come, and this is likely to have the biggest impact on protective coating costs for steel. It will be up to suppliers to ensure that the coating processes bare as efcient as possible to ensure that zinc-based protective coatings remain competitive in delivering long-term anti-corrosion protection for steel.
Stainless steel costs have dramatically increased because of the signicant increase in nickel cost, with manufacturing cost increasing by over $A5,000 since 2004.

Zinc is used as a component in paints and other industrial chemicals, such as zinc oxide, being manufactured along with zinc dust in this facility.

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WHY DO COATINGS FAIL?


Corrosion Management Staff

Paint quality and application standards are critical in military projects such as this maintenance operation on HMS Parramatta at Forgacs Dockyard in Newcastle, NSW.

NOVEMBER 2006

I N T R O D U C T I O N
All protective coatings are designed to do a certain job of protecting steel for a specied time. It is on this basis that they are chosen by speciers and end-users. To make a protective coating decision, the designer has to either trust the supplier to recommend the correct product, have personal experience with the performance of the coating and its application or be knowledgeable about coating performance and the environment to which the protective coating will be exposed. All protective coatings will fail eventually. It is their job to sacrice themselves to protect what is underneath. When coatings fail prematurely, the costs of remediation are frequently out of all proportion to their initial cost of supply ad application. There are many reasons why coatings fail. Some are predictable and some are not that easily identied. In most cases, however, the reasons for premature coating failure are largely human rather than technical. This article has been prepared to provide information about the mechanisms of coating failure for both paint and metallic (galvanized) coatings.

Metallic coatings fail through progressive oxidation of their surfaces. The metallic components of the coating; zinc and zinc-iron alloys in the case of galvanized coatings, are consumed by exposure to oxidation or dissolution by chemicals and/or the action of atmospheric moisture. Over 150 years of laboratory and eld experience with galvanized coatings has determined that: The corrosion rate of galvanized coatings is approximately linear The coating life is largely determined by the coating thickness The coating mass (g/m) is important in providing cathodic protection to exposed steel The failure of a galvanized coating will thus be determined by the rate at which the coating is consumed. This rate of consumption will vary depending on the exposure conditions. A large amount of performance data that has been accumulated on zinc coatings allows the parameters causing failure to be accurately dened. These are: 1. pH Levels: Zinc is an amphoteric metal that will react with either acids or alkalis. Galvanized coatings perform poorly in low pH (acid) exposure when pH drops much below pH6. At low pH levels, very rapid dissolution of the zinc will occur. At alkaline pH levels up to about pH 10, galvanized coating will provide adequate performance. 2. Time of Wetness (TOW): The TOW is an important factor in the failure of galvanized coatings. Zinc is a reactive metal and like aluminium, requires the presence of stable complex carbonate oxide lm on the surface (visible as the characteristic grey colour of weathered galvanizing) to give the coating its durability. Where galvanized surfaces are constantly wet, particularly with a moving moisture lm, the stable oxide lms have difculty in forming or may be washed off, with re-oxidation of the surface accelerating the consumption of the coating. 3. Presence of Chlorides & Sulfates: Chlorides and sulfates will react with the zinc surface to form soluble zinc salts and will prevent the formation of the carbonate lms. Galvanized coatings exposed in marine splash environments perform poorly for this reason. 4. Contact with Cathodic Metals: Zinc is high on the Electrochemical Series of metals. It will dissolve sacricially when in contact with metals lower in the Series. This property is used on pre-galvanized sheet, wire and tube products to prevent corrosion of the steel exposed at cut edges during processing. The thicker the section, the more stress is placed on the zinc coating at the interface and its corrosion rate is accelerated in order to provide cathodic protection to the exposed steel. When galvanized coatings are in contact with large areas of metals such as stainless steel or copper, rapid dissolution of the galvanized coating can occur.

G A LVA N I Z E D

C O AT I N G S

All galvanized coatings are applied by some type of factorybased process that involves the chemical cleaning and surface preparation of the steel followed by immersion in molten zinc or a zinc alloy. For this reason galvanized coatings are never subject to hidden application problems caused by surface preparation or application because the coating will not form unless the surface of the steel has been properly prepared. Galvanized coatings never fail from underneath because: They are metallurgically bonded to the steel surface Zinc is anodic to steel and will prevent steel from corroding as long as any zinc is present Contaminants cannot penetrate the metallic coating. While there are some differences in the various types of zinc coatings, their durability is always determined by the way in which the galvanized coating reacts to its environment. Like most protective coatings, galvanized coatings are relatively thin, ranging from around 15 microns in thickness for the thinnest coatings on pre-galvanized sheet, wire and tube products up to 200 microns or more for hot dip galvanized coatings on structural steel. To put these coating thicknesses in relative terms, a plastic supermarket bag is about 15 microns thick, a sheet of photocopy paper is about 100 microns thick and a business card is about 250 microns in thickness.

5. Youth period: Newly galvanized products are very susceptible to aggressive attach by pure water (rain or condensation) if they are not well drained and ventilated. This occurs because the newly applied zinc has not had time to develop its stable carbonate-based oxide lm. This phenomenon is dealt with in detail in the White Rust feature in this issue of Corrosion Management.

W H Y

PA I N T

C O AT I N G S

FA I L

How is a paint failure identied? The denition of failure in an architectural application will not be the same as that in an industrial application. The symptoms of organic nish failure include the following: Peeling, aking or scaling Blistering Chalking Alligatoring or checking Wrinkling Poor gloss retention or fading Runs or sags Failure to dry The following is a summary of the causes and effects of generic organic paint coatings in a range of applications, and highlights the need to fully understand the products performance, application requirements and service environment.

D E S I G N FA C T O R S I N G A LVA N I Z E D C O AT I N G FA I L U R E
As with all protective coatings, design plays a big part in the performance of galvanized coating in service. The following design elements will accelerate galvanized coating failure: Poor Drainage: Allowing rain, condensation or process water to accumulate on the coating and extend the Time of Wetness will rapidly accelerate failure of the galvanized coating. Poor Ventilation: Zinc requires access to air as a source of carbon dioxide to allow the formation of the stable oxides that provide its atmospheric corrosion resistance. Galvanized items that are stacked in packs in poorly ventilated conditions will suffer rapid degradation of the coating if moisture is present. Also, good ventilation will allow rapid drying and reduced TOW when climatic conditions produce rain or condensation cycles on the galvanized surfaces. Poor Housekeeping: Allowing debris (spillage, dust) to accumulate on galvanized surfaces can accelerate corrosion if moisture is present. Purlins are a specic case in point where poor soil shedding design of some purlin forms al lows corrosive debris to accumulate in lipped channels. Contact with Dissimilar Metals: Exposure to large areas of uncoated steel, stainless steel or copper, or runoff from some of these materials may accelerate consumption of the galvanized coating. Local accelerated corrosion may occur if the galvanized coating is in contact with incompatible fasteners. Good design can reduce corrosion stress on galvanized coatings by 50% or more. Because of the mechanism of failure of galvanized coatings, performance benets can be obtained by improving the resistance of the galvanized coatings surface to oxidation through the application of a polymer barrier coating. This is commonly done with some continuously galvanized products with thin (15 micron) zinc coatings to provide early protection and defer the onset of consumption of the metallic component of the coating. For heavy duty applications in aggressive environments, the application of heavy duty paint coatings over hot dip galvanizing can defer the onset of corrosion of the galvanized coating considerably.

B A D

M AT E R I A L S

Improperly manufactured materials should be considered when organic nishes fail, but the number of such instances is small compared with other possible failure causes. Types of defects include: 1. Improperly manufactured material (incorrect or faulty constituents, incorrect proportions) 2. Improperly stored material (stored at too high a temperature) 3. Shelf life exceeded 4. Incorrect mixing (wrong 2-pack proportions, incorrect solvent)

A galvanized coating will continue to protect the base steel while any zinc remains. In a marine exposure such as this, rapid corrosion of the steel occurs when the zinc is gone and the corrosion of the zinc adjacent to the exposed steel is also accelerated.

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I M P R O P E R

D E S I G N

Improper design includes selecting the wrong material for the location and conditions and requiring an improper installation. The following design problems can lead to organic nishes failure: 1. Selecting materials of inappropriate composition. 2. Selecting incompatible system components. 3. Selecting organic materials that are incompatible with the substrates, including existing nishes. 4. Requiring or permitting use of materials with different VOC type or quantity than that of existing paint without proper preparation. 5. Improper preparation or application methods. 6. Insufcient dry lm thickness (not enough coats).

I M P R O P E R

P R E PA R AT I O N

1. Failing to remove mildew, moss, ivy, and other plant growth, eforescence, laitance, oil, grease, dirt, dust, rust corrosion, loose mill scale, wax, calcimine, loose existing paint, and other contaminants that interfere with proper application, or damage or telegraph through the nish material. 2. Failing to remove sources of moisture and water that affect the nish and to ensure that the substrate is completely dry. Water and moisture can cause a nish to dry slowly, aiding mildew, moss, and other plant growth. 3. Failing to neutralize alkali in masonry substrates or use alkali-resistant paints can cause peeling. Alkali residue can cause a paints gloss to be poor or inconsistent. 4. Failing to remove natural salts from previously painted surfaces results in peeling and under-lm corrosion. 5. Failing to remove loose, peeling, or otherwise unsound nish materials from an existing surface before applying a new nish. 6. Applying nish materials over a slick or glossy surface. Failing to remove gloss from an existing surface or undercoat before applying a succeeding coat results in failure of the nish to adhere.

7. Failing to prime water-stained surfaces before painting. 8. Failing to remove chalking before repainting. 9. Failing to remove rusted nails, other fasteners and other rusted items or to clean the rust off and apply a rustinhibitive primer. 10. Failing to countersink nails and screws, ll the holes, and spot prime. 11. Failing to remove discolorations caused by colour extractives in wood substrates and provide a stainblocking primer. 12. Failing to clean and apply a knot primer to knots that are already bleeding or may bleed in the future. 13. Failing to sand shoulders at the edges of sound paint or otherwise feather the edges of existing paint where new paint is applied. 14. Failing to properly prepare wood substrates, including removing residue from knots, pitch streaks, cracks, open joints, and sappy spots; applying a coat of white shellac to pitch and resinous sap wood before the prime coat is applied. 15. Failing to properly prepare metal substrates. 16. Failing to ll holes and imperfections in the substrate.

I M P R O P E R

A P P L I C AT I O N

1. Failing to follow the design and recommendations of the manufacturer and recognized authorities. 2. Applying organic nishes before the building has been completely closed and wet work, such as concrete, masonry, and plaster, have dried sufciently. or where concrete or plaster is not at the proper level of alkalinity. 3. Applying paint to damp or wet surfaces can cause poor adhesion and blistering. 4. Applying nish materials when humidity exceeds the level recommended by the manufacturer. 5. Applying primer or nish material at temperatures below the minimum specied by the manufacturer. Low temperatures can cause wrinkling and prevent adhesion.

This steel lintel coating has failed after only 3 years. Probable cause is poor surface preparation and a costly repair.

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6. Applying organic nishes when the temperature of the air, surface, or nish is too high. High temperature can thin the nish material and make it cover poorly, set too rapidly, and form too thin a lm. Surfaces, or air that is too hot can also cause a paint to wrinkle or the paint not to adhere. 7. Permitting drastic changes in temperature before a paint has completely set can result in alligatoring or checking when the paint expands or contracts. If the top coat is not elastic enough, it will crack. 8. Permitting a wide temperature differential between the nish and the surface, which may cause blistering and peeling. 9. Failing to remove dust, dirt, moisture, and other contaminants between coats, causing blisters, peeling, cracking, aking, or scaling. 10. Failing to ensure that the surfaces of previous coats are conditioned before the next coat is applied. 11. Using the wrong type nish for the installation. 12. Applying organic nish materials that are incompatible with previous coats, existing nish materials, or substrates. 13. Applying damaged organic nish materials, regardless of whether the damage was inherent in the manufactured materials or occurred during shipment, storage, or installation. 14. Using the wrong primer. 15. Using the wrong, defective, or poor-quality thinner. Such solvents may evaporate too quickly. resulting in wrinkling, alligatoring, blistering, checking, peeling, aking, cracking, or checking. Or they may dry slowly, causing the nish to dry too slowly or never dry completely. 16. Using too little thinner, resulting in orange peeling, aking, cracking, or scaling. 17. Using too much thinner. Failing to properly agitate and mix paint before and during application can cause colour separation, resulting in alligatoring, checking, peeling, aking, cracking, or scaling. Improperly mixed paint may not dry. 18. Mixing incompatible paints. 19. Adding lamp black or another pigment material to paint materials to make them hide better with less paint. 20. Adding too much oil to paint, causing alligatoring or checking and improper drying. 21. Using pigments incompatible with other ingredients, resulting in alligatoring. checking, peeling. aking. cracking, or scaling. 22. Failing to properly apply paint or transparent nish materials, including not using enough material. 23. Failing to apply a uniform paint lm. 24. Applying nish coats that are too thin. 25. Applying nish coats that are too thick.. 26. Applying a coat of organic nish to a still wet undercoat, causing the nish to dry slowly or wrinkle. 27. Applying a hard nish coat over a relatively soft undercoat can cause wrinkling, alligatoring, checking, or peeling of the top coat. 28. Permitting water in the air line used in solvent based paint spray applications. 29. Applying sprayed paint using too high an air pressure, causing wrinkling.

30. Applying paint using incompatible spray equipment - incorrect mixing, nozzle pressure, nozzle size.

P O O R M A I N T E N A N C E P R O C E D U R E S
1. Failing to clean nishes regularly. Grease, dirt, and other contaminants can result in permanent stains. 2. Cleaning using abrasive or caustic cleaners can severely damage organic nishes. 3. Failing to keep vegetation from growing on or close to building surfaces. Vines can penetrate the surface, permitting water to enter. Mildew and moss can grow on the wet surfaces. Water can force eforescence from the substrate, causing paint to peel or ake off. 4. Water in a wood substrate can set up a chemical reaction between the water and the natural extractives in the wood, staining the paint.

N AT U R A L

A G I N G

Organic nishes lose their properties over time for the following reasons: 1. Failure to renish at proper intervals. Finish materials exposed to the suns UV rays fail faster than those in other locations. All organic nishes fail eventually and need to be maintained and repainted at proper intervals.

This paint failure was caused by applying the solvent-based paint over a damp surface, causing subsequent blistering.

12 NOVEMBER 2006

Paint manufacturers put a lot of effort into developing their products to determine their performance and subject them to exposure testing in facilities such as this.

2. Bleeding of natural nished wood. Unprotected wood exposed to weather turns dark over time as water-soluble impurities bleed out. The appearance of bleeding on transparent-nished exterior wood surfaces indicates that the nish has failed and water has reached the substrate. The worst woods for bleeding are redwood and cedar. 3. Mildew growth due to a failed nish permitting water to reach the substrate. 4. Loss of elasticity. Old paint loses its elasticity and becomes hard and unable to respond to expansion and contraction in its substrate. The result is crazing, alligatoring, aking, or peeling. 5. Permeability of the paint lm. Moisture penetrating paint lm or entering through cracks or holidays in the steel surfaces will initiate rusting under the paint lm. 6. Natural erosion. Weathering paint slowly wears away until it eventually does not properly protect the substrate.

1 .

F o l l o w M a n u f a c t u r e r s R e c o m m e n d a t i o n s

Products that appear similar may have entirely different preparation and application requirements. A prudent specier will call the manufacturers technical representative for advice. A mistake speciers often make is failing to verify that manufacturers listed in the specications actually make products that comply with the specied requirements. The variety of products is so broad and their chemistry so beyond the knowledge of most speciers that it is not wise to guess at which products are compatible. The only positive way to ensure quality is to specify a particular product and then enforce its use. Make sure that the products specied are compatible with existing solvents,nishes and with each other. Specications should require that all components of a system are the products of the same manufacturer. Government specications sometimes present real obstacles to controlling the quality of nishing products. An agency may prohibit naming products. More often, products may be named to establish quality but not to limit supply to the named products. Beef up the specications where the agency will let you do so, to control more closely nishing products and their application.

P R E V E N T I N G

FA I L U R E S

Speciers cannot absolutely control what happens during construction, but their specications and what they do during the construction phase can greatly affect the outcome.

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2 . W r i t e C o n t r o l s S p e c i f i c a t i o n s

I n t o

C O N C L U S I O N
All coatings will eventually fail and understanding the reasons for failure will allow the best cost/ performance compromise to be reached. Quality coatings will rarely deliver quality performance with second rate application. Quality coatings will rarely deliver quality performance if they are used in an inappropriate application. Every generic coating type has particular characteristics that will suit it for specic applications. With rapidly changing technology, particularly in the areas of industrial paint coatings and continuous galvanizing, it is becoming increasingly difcult for speciers to evaluate the long term performance of coatings and their reliability as these new coatings have yet to establish their own set of successes and failures as have the well established coating technologies.

Contracts that prohibit specifying products and manufacturers by name will require more submittal data than projects where the products can be limited. When not permitted to specify products by name, write descriptive specications. Specify requirements that t within every acceptable manufacturers recommendations and every product specied. Always require that repair work be done by the original installer.

3 .

S p e c i f y A p p r o p r i a t e P r o d u c t s & S y s t e m s

Apart from specifying paint systems of the appropriate generic type for the application, it is necessary to be aware of development on OH&S legislation on the availability of certain types of paint. Approval of certain types of long established pigments has been withdrawn (lead, chromates, coal tar) and other paint system components used in two pack systems are under review (isocyanates). Restrictions have been placed in volatile organic compounds (VOCs) or solvents in paints in many jurisdictions and this will force changes to established painting technology away from solvent based systems to water based, high solids or solventless products.

R E F E R E N C E S
1. Hot Dip Galvanizing, 14th Edition. Galvanizers Association of Australia (1995) pp 25. 2. Porter, F.C., Corrosion Resistance of Zinc and Its Alloys, Marcel Dekker Inc, (1994) pp 83-98. 3. Simmons, H.I, Field Applied Organic Finish Failures, The Construction Specier, July 1996 pp 54. 4. Robinson, J.C., Design for Galvanizing Manual, 2nd Edition, Manual Industrial Galvanizers Corporation, 1996 pp 28-32. 5. Hare, Clive H., Paint Film Degradation, SSPC 01-14 (2001) Part 4 pp 113-407.

4 .

S p e c i f y C o r r e c t P r e p a r a t i o n & A p p l i c a t i o n P r o c e d u r e s

Follow the specic preparation and application procedures recommended by the manufacturers of the products specied. Pay particular attention to the need to ensure that the surface is not contaminated with invisible contaminants such as diesel fuel residues (from truck exhausts) or chlorides. Guide specications often overlook problems that can occur when existing nishes are involved. A properly administered quality assurance plan is required and the applicator should be certied to an acceptable Australian or ISO standard.

5 .

E n s u r e

C o m p l i a n c e

The nal thing a specier can do to avoid potential organic nish failures is to carefully review the credentials of both supplier and applicator. Make sure that the products submitted are right for the job and comply with specications. Make sure that the applicator is qualied to an acceptable quality standard. The cheapest bidder will rarely have the best application credentials. The person who handles eld observation must enforce the specied requirements related to preparation for and application of organic nishes. Ignoring even apparently small faults can lead to disastrous results.

All successful paint coatings rely on good surface preparation.

14 NOVEMBER 2006

featu re a r tic le

WHITE RUST ON ZINC COATINGS CAUSES, EFFECTS & REMEDIES


John Robinson, Mount Townsend Solutions Pty Ltd

When steel is rst galvanized, the zinc coating has not developed its protective oxide lm and is most prone to rapid oxidation when in contact with pure water.

I N T R O D U C T I O N
Zinc is among single most widely used coating materials used to protect steel from corrosion. It is applied to steel components by a number of industrial processes. These include zinc electroplating, the continuous galvanizing of sheet, wire and hollow sections, and the hot dip galvanizing of fabricated steel items. While many of these coating processes use alloying elements in the zinc (such as aluminium), most products are coated with largely zinc-based coatings.

A problem common to all these products, is the phenomenon of white rust, or more euphemistically referred to as white storage stain. While its mechanism is well understood, its occurrence presents a major difculty to both the manufacturers and the galvanized products end users. This problem arises because it is often difcult to allocate responsibility for damage that occurs to galvanized products due to white rusting as the coating may be in 100% good condition when it leaves the galvanizing facility.

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This is a particular difculty when product is exported or imported in containers, is stored for an extended period and transits from temperate to tropical climatic zones. On delivery, the galvanized coating may be rejected by the customer because of white rust problems in transit. Who is responsible?

While this type of corrosion is called white rust, it may have a dark gray or even black appearance on the galvanized surface. It is standard galvanizing practice in hot dip galvanizing facilities, to cool the work by quenching it in water. In most operations, the quench water contains a low concentration of sodium dichromate (usually less than 0.5%). The quenching of the hot steel in this weak dichromate solution creates a passivating lm on the galvanized coatings surface that provides some initial protection for the zinc, and gives to time to develop its own protective oxide lm. Some proprietary coatings are applied to continuously galvanized products to perform the same function. These treatments must be considered temporary. In periods of heavy rain, the dichromate passivation lm, which is slightly soluble in water, can be washed off the surface and can increase the propensity of the zinc surface to white rust when exposed to pure water. Short-term exposure to rain water is not necessarily a problem, and wetting and drying cycles may in fact assist in the development of the protective oxide lm. Carbon dioxide is required to initiate the development of the stable carbonate based oxide lm, thus good access to air is an essential part of the process. Poorly ventilated, damp conditions are conversely very detrimental in white rust formation.

T H E M E C H A N I S M O F R U S T F O R M AT I O N

W H I T E

Zinc is a relatively reactive metal and it will react vigorously with both acids and alkalis. Its delivers its best anti-corrosion performance in neutral pH conditions, and is thus well suited as a protective coating in most atmospheric exposure classications, other than severe marine. However, zinc, like aluminium, relies on the formation of an oxide lm on its surface for its durability. Once this oxide lm is formed, the rate of corrosion of zinc (galvanized) coatings is very slow typically 2 microns or less in thickness per year in normal environments. When steel is freshly galvanized, the zinc has no signicant oxide lm on its surface. The chemical reactions that occur to form this lm take some time. They are: 1. The oxidation phase 2Zn + O2 = 2ZnO 2. The hydration phase 2Zn = 2H2O + O2 = 2Zn(OH)2 3. Carbonation 5Zn(OH)2 = 2CO2 + 2ZnCO3.3Zn(OH)2 + 2H2O

It is the formation of the zinc carbonate oxide lm, that is highly water insoluble, that provides the underlying zinc with its good anti-corrosion performance. Other reactions can occur in the presence of chlorides, sulfates and other corrodents that may accelerate the degradation of the zinc-based coating at a rapid rate. It is the exposure of `young zinc-coated surfaces to pure water that is the principal mechanism associated with white rust formation. Pure water (H2O) contains no dissolved salts or minerals and zinc will react quickly with pure water to form zinc hydroxide, a bulky white, and relatively unstable, oxide of zinc. Where freshly galvanized steel is exposed to pure water (rain, dew or condensation), in an oxygen decient environment, the water will continue to react with the zinc and progressively consume the coating. The most common condition in which white rust occurs is where galvanized products are nested together, tightly packed, or when water can penetrate between the items and remain for extended periods. In favourable (for white rust) conditions, very rapid consumption of the zinc can occur and corrosion rates 20-50 times higher than those normally experienced.
Heavy white rusting on guard rail assembly caused by water trapped between nested components. 16 NOVEMBER 2006

The galvanized products in the foreground have been passivated with a more concentrated sodium dichromate solution, giving them a slightly yellow tinge and higher white rust resistance.

AV O I D I N G W H I T E F O R M AT I O N

R U S T

The following treatments are recommended to deal with white rust on galvanized products.

There are a number of simple steps that can greatly reduce or eliminate the formation of white rust. These are: 1. Keep the packed work dry 2. Pack the items to permit air circulation between the surfaces 3. Stack the packed items at an angle to allow water to drain out 4. Treat the surface with proprietary water repellent or barrier coatings to prevent moisture contact with galvanized surface 5. Provide adequate ventilation when transporting galvanized items for extended periods

1 .

L i g h t

W h i t e

R u s t i n g

This is characterised by the formation of a light lm of white powdery residue and frequently occurs on freshly galvanized products during periods of heavy rain. It is particularly evident on areas that have been buffed or led during quality assurance operations. These treatments remove the passivated surface from the galvanizing and expose unoxidised zinc to attack from rainwater. Provided the items are well ventilated and well drained, white rust rarely progresses past this supercial stage. It can be brushed off if required but will generally wash off in service with normal weathering. No remedial treatment is generally required at this level.

T R E AT I N G G A LVA N I Z E D S U R FA C E S A F F E C T E D B Y W H I T E R U S T
Once the galvanized surface has been attacked and the zinc hydroxide compounds have formed, it is desirable to remove the oxide products from the surface because: a. Their presence inhibits the formation of stable carbonate based oxides b. They are unsightly The effect on the galvanized coating can range from very minor to extremely severe. Various levels of remedial treatment are available to deal with white rust problems at the levels at which they are likely to occur.

2 .

M o d e r a t e

W h i t e

R u s t i n g

This is characterised by a noticeable darkening and apparent etching of the galvanized coating under the affected area, with the white rust formation appearing bulky. The galvanized coating thickness should be checked to determine the extent of attack on the coating. In the majority of cases, less than 5% of the galvanized coating will have been removed and thus no remedial work should be required, as long as the appearance of the affected area is not detrimental to the use of the product and the zinc hydroxide residues are removed by wire brushing. If appearance is unacceptable, the white rust affected area can be treated as follows:

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a. Use a wire brush or abrasive pad to remove all white corrosion products b. Using a cloth pad wet with aluminium paint, rub the surface with the pad to apply a thin lm of aluminium paint to the affected area to blend it with the adjacent unaffected galvanized surfaces.

From this research, two systems were found to be effective in both removing white rust and re-passivating the cleaned zinc surface. These combinations were: 1. 420 g/l chromium trioxide + 0.5% nitric acid 2. 200 g/l chromic acid The chromic acid solution proved most effective in removing white rust residues with minimum effect on the substrate, while the chromium trioxide/nitric acid combination was best at reinstating the passivation properties of the zinc surface. The removal of white rust by each of these methods needs to done with due diligence with respect to environmental constrains and OH&S issues related to handling chemicals of this type. These processes are also suited to localised treatment of white rust affected areas. Where large areas of the products are white rust affected, re-galvanizing may be the most economical option.

3 .

S e v e r e

W h i t e

R u s t i n g

This is characterised by very heavy oxide deposits. Items may be stuck together. Areas under the oxidised area may be almost black of show signs of red rust. A coating thickness check will determine the extent to which the galvanized coating has been damaged. Remedial treatment to reinstate the coating should be undertaken as follows: a. Wire brush or buff the affected area to remove all oxidation products and rust if any b. Apply one or two coats of approved epoxy zinc-rich paint to achieve required dry lm thickness of 100 microns minimum

C H E M I C A L R E M O VA L W H I T E R U S T

O F

Pasminco (now Zinifex) has researched the effectiveness of chemical removal of white rust and reported the results in its Technical Project Report No. D713C (6th July 1995). This research report evaluated the effectiveness of several chemical treatments based on sodium dichromate, chromium trioxide, sodium hydroxide and chromic acid respectively.

C O N C L U S I O N
White rust is a post-galvanizing phenomenon. Responsibility for its prevention lies in the manner it is packed, handled and stored prior to the galvanized products installation and use. The presence of white rust is not a reection on the galvanized coatings performance, but rather the responsibility of all those involved in the supply chain to ensure that the causes of white rust are recognised and the risks of its occurrence minimised on newly galvanized steel.

Severe white rusting has occurred on the edge of this guard rail. The dark area has had almost all the zinc coating removed in less than 12 weeks duting storage in damp conditions.

18 NOVEMBER 2006

in du s tr y n ews

PRESERVING METAL MASTERPIECES


Corrosion Management Staff

Andy Scott and Lady Sculpture.

Scottish sculptor and artist Andy Scott has produced metal masterpieces of public art, initially from his home base in Glasgow. Australia has also been a recipient of Andy Scotts skill in the form of four metal sculptures that he has produced locally. These works included a woman depicting timeless elements of the human experience which stands 6 metres tall with outstretched arms 3.9m, was a centre piece for the SWELL Currumbin Sculpture Festival 2004 followed up a life size stallion, which was a centre piece for the SWELL Currumbin Sculpture Fest 2005.

When the ArtsCape sculpture exhibition asked Andy Scott if he wanted the prime location of the most eastern point of Australia to display another of his works of art, how could he refuse? Argestes (which means the east wind) Aqua is a 5m high steel mosaic masterpiece of man made from small 3mm plates of steel individually welded together. The topography of the Byron Bay headland created logistical challenges for the installation of the Argestes Aqua. With the assistance of a local helicopter the sculpture was airlifted in two sections to its nal display location.

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Andy Scott has continued to wow the artistic world of sculpting. Recently Andy has been commissioned to public works on behalf of the Gold Coast City Council (Lady + Child Sculpture) and Southport Rotary Club. Each of these Andy Scott steel sculptures is extremely complex with myriads of connected steel elements making up their forms. Providing these metal masterpieces with an appropriate level of corrosion protect that would also satisfy the aesthetics and nal quality requirements of the artist, along with the physical size of the sculptures, made hot dip galvanizing Andy Scotts preferred option. Each of these sculptors was galvanized in Brisbane by Industrial Galvanizers Corporation. The larger sculptures needed to de double-dipped because of their dimensions. The complete immersion of the sculptures into the molten zinc ensured that all internal surfaces, welds and connections were uniformly coated with a heavy zinc-based coating that is highly abrasion resistant, along with its corrosion resistant properties. Another advantage of the hot dip galvanizing process, is that at some future time, when the coating has reached the end of its service life, each artwork can be quickly re-galvanized to reinstate it to its original level of durability. More information on Andy Scotts wonderful works can be seen on his website at: www.aqza25.dsl.piper.com/andy/work.html

Top Right: Argesta Aqua at Byron Bay. Right: Lady + Child just out of the bath - the Industrial Galvanizers galvanizing bath in Brisbane, Qld.

20 NOVEMBER 2006

in du s tr y n ews

CATHODIC PROTECTION OF STEEL IN CONCRETE WITH ZINC METAL SPRAY

Zinc metal sparing onto concrete structures to provide cathodic protection for the reinforcing bar has proved an economical solution on a number of major projects in Europe and the USA.

For many years industrial companies have fought to protect steel reinforced concrete from corrosion. The prime causes of corrosion in concrete include salt, chloride and de-icing treatments. The salt seeps into the concrete and erodes the steel reinforcing bar (rebar) causing cracks and spalling in the concrete and eventually the potential for failure of the structure. One very effective, long-term solution is metal or thermal spraying the concrete with zinc or a variety of zinc alloys. This is a technology that protects or extends the life of a wide variety of products in the most hostile environments. The majority of metallised zinc cathodic protection systems are operated in galvanic or sacricial mode. However, metallised zinc cathodic protection systems can be, and are in many instances, operated in impressed current mode. The sprayed coating, a high purity zinc alloy, is connected to one pole of a DC power supply. The steel rebars are connected

to the other pole of the power supply. The electrical circuit is completed between the rebar and the zinc by the presence of moisture in the concrete. The action of the corrosion cell causes the zinc to corrode in preference to the steel rebars, therefore protecting the rebars from corrosion. The process of spraying the zinc onto the substrate ensures that there is a good, even connection path between the coating and the rebars through the concrete. Prior to metal spraying, damaged sections of concrete need to be repaired with rebars also repaired or replaced. The surface needs to be lightly blasted to remove any surface dirt and provide a good key to enable the coating to bond. The coating would then be applied with either a Metallisation Arc140, Arc701 or Arc170 system, depending on the size and accessibility of the structure. Typical bond strength is in the region of 3MPa for zinc and coating thickness would be between 300 and 500 microns.

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The costs to apply metal sprayed coatings to large concrete structures is not insignicant, particularly when many structures are difcult to access, such as bridges. However, the long-term benets can make the process extremely commercially attractive. If performed correctly and depending on the coating applied, the process can offer corrosion protection for up to 20 years before the next signicant maintenance is required. The protection offered can greatly prolong the life of the structure and also prevent costly accidents from cracked sections falling from the structure. Once applied, the coating requires minimal maintenance. If required for aesthetic purposes, zinc coatings can also be painted. A recently developed alloy of aluminium, zinc and indium has been used in a small number of applications. This material is more active than zinc and it is claimed to not require an impressed current to provide adequate levels of corrosion protection. A recent example of corrosion protection using this alloy has been trialled by Aeroports de Paris at Charles de Gaulle (Roissy) airport. Aeroports de Paris, responsible for the maintenance of most of the Roissy airport infrastructure, recognised deterioration in some of the concrete panels at the airport and sought a long-term corrosion protection solution. The precast concrete panels, which are 2.6 x 2.8m of lightly reinforced 8cm thick units, form the underside of the concrete viaducts carrying road trafc to and from a busy terminal complex. Run-off from de-icing salt has lead to an important level of chloride in the panel concrete. Although the panels are not structurally signicant, spalling could present a hazard to passing trafc. Following a stringent review and testing of the panels to establish the deteriorating condition, an anode was applied to the panels in a test area. After grit blasting the panel surface, the anode of aluminium/zinc/indium alloy was applied by a Metallisation arc spray system to an application thickness of 300 microns. The anode connection plate in the centre of each panel is clearly visible by its red anode cable, which would not normally be on show in a typical commercial application. The other cables run to connections to the rebars and to embedded reference electrodes. As this is a test site it was necessary to install monitoring equipment. This was to allow the connection between the anode and cathode to be interrupted for measurement of electrochemical performance. After two years the system appears to be well adapted to treat corrosion of the viaduct panels and is deemed to be a successful test. Another signicant application of the Al-Zn-In alloy in the US is the San Luis Pass Bridge near Galveston, Texas. More than 30,000 m2 of concrete beams and caps are protected with this alloy, installed using Metallisation ARC 700 units by Corrosion Restoration Technologies of Jupiter, Florida. Oregon Department of Transportation (ODOT) demonstrates another success story for cathodic protection on concrete. In a bid to reduce the high costs of bridge reconstruction,

ODOT has applied a system of metallised zinc anodes and impressed current cathodic protection. This process has been used to protect its Cape Creek Bridge from corrosion and subsequent reconstruction. The bridge is exposed to a coastal environment and is subject to attack by chloride from the salty air. Prior to the cathodic protection project on the bridge, it had suffered substantial concrete spalling on its columns and underdeck. By selecting to protect the bridge in this way ODOT saved over $13 million by not having to reconstruct the bridge. The cost of cathodic protection is quite expensive. This is due to the requirement of a movable work platform, which is enclosed to contain the abrasive blasting and zinc spraying residues. These measures are critical when spraying zinc to protect the environment. However, when compared to the cost of reconstructing a bridge the size of Cape Creek Bridge the savings are phenomenal. Dave Wixson, Metallisation distributor in the US says: Cathodic protection is a cost effective way to stop rebar corrosion in existing structurally sound structures. Rebars in dry alkaline concrete are protected by a passive ferric oxide lm, however, when the rebar is hit with 250 ppm chloride solution, generally from salt, the protection breaks down. The protective ferric oxide lm is converted to red rust and corrosion begins. Concrete thickness >4cm (>1.5 in), will prevent chloride penetration. For exposed rebar and thin concrete, where there is chloride concentration in excess of about 250 ppm, rebar corrosion will be initiated with the red rust spalling adjacent concrete. Protecting the rebar with a barrier using an impressed or passive cathodic protection system, counters the corrosion. Many thanks to Palmer Consulting of France, TMS of the USA and Corrosion Restoration Technologies Inc (now part of Structural Group, Inc.) of the USA for information supplied.

For more information on thermal spraying please contact Stuart Milton on +44 (0)1384 252 464 or visit www.metallisation.com

22 NOVEMBER 2006

in du s tr y n ews

NEW ERA FOR DY-MARK AEROSOLS


Australian owned aerosol manufacturer Dy-Mark Coatings has ofcially launched its new divisional name, corporate ID and eight new product lines at launches around Australia. Dy-Mark Coatings has extensive experience and knowledge in aerosols, paints and inks and is recognised as one of the leading suppliers of quality identication products in Australia. A two new product range of particular interest is the new Anti-Slip Industrial paint and Rust Reformer paint Dy-Mark. Anti-Slip Industrial paints creates a durable slip-resistant surface for most interior and exterior metal, concrete, ceramic and wood surfaces. Dy-Mark Anti-Slip aerosols apply easily and provide uniform coverage with a low-lustre satin nish. The aerosols dry tough and are resistant to substances like oil, petrol and mild chemicals, with a durable nish that resists peeling and cracking. Dy-Mark Rust Reformer aerosol chemically converts rust into a tough non-rusting barrier in one easy step which protects against further corrosion. Ideally suited for metal equipment, railings and furniture the coating dries to a hard at black nish. Aerosol is extremely useful for spraying complex shapes and other hard to reach areas. Rust Reformer aerosol can be top coated with compatible nish products such as alkyd and modied alkyd resin systems. In addition, the coating can be top coated with a water-based product if the reformer is allowed to dry for 24 hours. Dy-Mark Rust Reformer aerosol is available in a 350g can. For further information please contact: Sandy Hollows Group Marketing Manager Dy-Mark Group Ph: 07 3723 8083 M: 0424 509 022 sandyh@dymark.com.au

NEW WEBSITE RESOURCE FOR GALVANIZED COATINGS


An upgraded website will be launched in December 2006 by Industrial Galvanizers Corporations Australian Galvanizing Division to enhance its value as a resource for speciers seeking information and services associated with the specication, use and availability of hot dip galvanized coatings. The new Ingal website is designed for easy information access and incorporates a number of new features. These include: The complete Ingal Speciers Manual - 40 chapters of technical information on all aspects of hot dip galvanized coatings and other industrial coating systems. The Ingal/CSIRO Corrosion Mapping System - corrosivity maps for anywhere in Australia. Recent and previous issues of Corrosion Management Magazine - online. Galvanizing plant locations and capacities. Online quote requests. Special services - Galvanized Coating Guarantees and Custom Coating Packages. Case studies - Case histories of the performance of hot dip galvanized coatings on major projects. Online technical inquiry service. The majority of technical and reference information on the site is designed to be downloadable in PDF format should hard copy be required. The website address is www.ingal.com.au

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in du s tr y n ews

SUITE OF REVISED GALVANIZED COATING STANDARDS


I N T R O D U C T I O N
Standards Australia has recently published four revised galvanized coating standards that relate to the majority of galvanized products produced in Australia. These updated standards replace similar standards that were last revised in the late 1990s. The updates cover both continuously galvanized products (tube, wire and open sections) and batch galvanized products. AS/NZS 4680:2006 - Hot dip galvanized (zinc) coatings on fabricated ferrous articles . AS/NZS 4680 - Is specic to after-fabrication galvanizing and species the heaviest galvanized coatings. In most cases, the hot dip coating will always exceed the specied minimum thickness because of the nature of the application process. Minimum coating thickness is specied on the basis of steel thickness. The coating is specied in grams/m2 which is usually converted to average coating thickness in microns so non-destructive measurement of the coating can be done. This standard has some minor changes but is very similar to the 1999 edition. AS/NZS 4680 has been aligned with the related international standard ISO 4680 as part of Standards Australias policy of aligning Australian Standards with ISO (international) Standards. AS/NZS 4791:2006 - Hot dip galvanized (zinc) coatings on ferrous open sections applied by a continuous or specialised process. AS/NZS 4792:2006 - Hot dip galvanized (zinc) coatings on ferrous hollow sections applied by a continuous or specialised process. AS/NZS 4791 - Open sections AS/NZS 4792 - Hollow sections These two standards were developed specically for OneSteels Duragal continuously galvanized hollow and open sections and Palmer Tubes and Orrcons hollow sections manufactured from continuously galvanized (CG) strip. Some sections may be hot dip galvanized using a semi-continuous galvanizing process. Where the hot dip galvanized coating is used, the coating class is designated by the classication HDGXXX, where the XXX numerals are the coating mass per square metre on each surface. e.g. HDG200 is 200 g/m2 average. Where CG strip is used, the coating class is designated by the classication ZBXXX/XXX. The ZB indicates `zinc both sides and the XXX is the coating mass per side in g/m2. e.g. ZB100/100 represents 100 g/m2 coating mass average on both sides. Where the coating is applied by an in-line process (Duragal ), the coating class is designated by the classication ILGXXX, where ILG indicates in-line galvanized and the XXX is the single-side coating mass in g/m2. e.g. ILG100 represents 100 g/m2 on the outside of hollow sections and all surfaces of open sections.

W h a t s

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The coating specications have been updated to reect Australias industry conditions and the latest technology. They are more user-friendly. AS/NZS 4534:2006 - Zinc and zinc/aluminium coatings on steel wire. AS/NZS 4534 - Is specic to continuously galvanized wire. The coating is applied in a continuous process. A number of coating classes are available that vary with wire diameter. A WXX identication system is used, with W10 being the standard class against which the other classes are rated. e.g. W20 is double the coating mass of W10 and W05 is half the coating mass of W10 for the same wire diameter.

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Changes to the coating provisions - operating in the building, construction and engineering industry, you need to be aware of coatings that are readily available from manufacturers and coating specications - outlines an easy-to-use guide of coatings.

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Costs for the revised standards in hard copy from SAI Global are:
*Member AS/NZS 4680:2006 AS/NZS 4792:2006 AS/NZS 4791:2006 AS/NZS 4534:2006 AS 1397-2001 $51.14 $51.14 $51.14 $62.04 $45.87 Retail $69.52 $69.52 $69.52 $82.72 $61.16

Internet ordering and online catalogue www.saiglobal.com/shop Customer Service Centre GPO Box 5420 Sydney NSW 2001 Ph: Fax: Email: 131 242 1300 65 49 49 sales@sai-global.com

Delivery and handling: $15.95


For printed copies of these publications, order from: Reply Paid 5420 SAI Global, Customer Service Centre Sydney NSW 2001

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MOLDED FIBERGLASS COMPANIES FRP PILE REPAIR SLEEVES EXTEND TIMBER PILE

New York Citys Passenger Ship Terminal was the recipient of one of the rst major pier encapsulation projects to extend the life of the timber and concrete piles.

Editors Note: While this is a US project, the circumstances of aging harbour infrastructure is a common one that also affects Australias maritime installations. This New York project offers a solution to preserving existing timber piling in critical operating harbor facilities.

As part of the New York City Economic Development Corporations $50 million PST improvement plan, stabilizing the facilities infrastructure and restoring its structural integrity were essential to the world-class terminals trade and transport capabilities. As severe structural infrastructure deterioration caused by corrosion exists in concrete, steel and wood all over the world, nding restoration vs. replacement solutions is vital to economic growth and stability. Each year nearly 1 million passengers pass through the PST, therefore nding the best pile restoration solution vs. replacing the PSTs deteriorating piles (which would mean an extremely costly, extended shutdown) was the projects goal.

P R O J E C T P R O F I L E C H A L L E N G E

A cleaner Hudson River is in everyones best interest; just not the piles supporting the New York City Passenger Ship Terminal (PST) at the Port of New York. In recent years the pollution-laden waters of the Hudson have become cleaner which has invited the return of wood-boring marine worms that have inltrated and eroded the timber piles of the PSTs three, approximately 1,000 feet long and 125 feet wide, nger piers.
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E N C A P S U L AT I O N PA R T N E R S O U R C E / S E L E C T I O N
An FRP (Fiberglass Reinforced Plastic) Pile Encapsulation system was chosen as the projects pile restoration/ protection solution. The encapsulation system is comprised of a molded FRP jacket, epoxy grout and aggregate mix. Divers abrade and clean each pile and then place the jackets around them. Epoxy grout and aggregate mix is then pumped by the divers from the bottom up, displacing the seawater. The aggregate mix enhances the bond as it scours the substrate further. Durable in seawater, lightweight and relatively easy to install, the FRP jackets then provide maintenance free protection for long periods of time. Phase II of the project was awarded to Trevcon Construction Company, Inc. (Liberty Corner, NJ) who had extensive marine construction experience and knowledge of underwater environments. MFG Construction Products Company (Independence, KS) was selected as the FPR pile sleeve source as MFG provided a single tube solution which meant less assembly time and a single seam which was stronger. According to Trevcon President Ron Treveloni, MFG was recommended and chosen based upon service and the fact that they could provide the required length and diameter of pile sleeves needed for the project; thus, avoiding costly custom-built sleeves. Additionally, Treveloni noted, The MFG jackets rough nish also strengthened the bonding epoxy, which was supplied by Sika Corporation (Lyndhurst, NJ), to the shell. After testing concrete epoxy solutions, which were too heavy and would result in unnecessary weight added to the piers, Sika devised an epoxy resin solution. In combination with the MFG sleeve design, the solution provided a smaller annulus (space between existing pile and the interior of the jacket) at a weight that was lighter than the cement ller.

E P OX Y

S O L U T I O N

SIKA USA utilized its Sikadur 35, Hi-Mod LV/LTL which is a 2-component 100% solids, moisture-tolerant, low-viscosity, high-strength, multi-purpose, epoxy resin adhesive. Conforming to the current ASTMC-881 and AASHTOM-235 specications, the epoxy is an aliphatic amine blend offering low viscosity-long pot life which increases the materials working time.

C O N C L U S I O N
According to Trevcon Project Manager Dennis Mullins, Not only did MFG provide pile jackets that met the standard criteria for the project, they responded quickly to eld modications that needed to be made based on the pumping applications required by the divers after pile cleaning and measurement analysis of the diameter of the annular space with relation to the Sika epoxy infusion. MFG made these modications to achieve the maximum savings on each pile lled. A total of 1,500-2,000 jackets were produced for the project, which began in 2004 and is scheduled to be completed by the end of 2006. For more information on MFG products and services, contact: Molded Fiberglass Companies Jim Williams Plant-Project Manager, MFG Construction Products USA 800-225-5634 (#102) jim@mfgcp.com

P I L E

S L E E V E

S O L U T I O N

To help restore the structural integrity to the deteriorating piles, MFG provided its one-piece FRP pile repair sleeve. Designed to be left in place, the sleeves are chemically resistant to acids, alkalis and most solvents, thus providing long-lasting, reliable protection. For underwater assembly, the MFG sleeves offer a slip joint closure which makes divers jobs easier. Standard diameters are available in 12-36 and custom sizes can be accommodated. Lengths are produced to specications and ultraviolet resistance accommodations are available. Combined with the correct epoxy bond the MFG sleeves provide the ability to refurbish (vs. replacing) the existing timber (or steel/concrete) piles and strengthen them to their original or better strength. In addition to replacement savings, the easy-use MFG sleeve also accommodates the efciency of requiring no terminal shut-downs.

MFGs FRP jacket sleeves being prepared for installation at the New York PST. The sleeves are placed around the piles and are then lled with waterproof epoxy resin.

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MUNTERS PREVENTING COATING FAILURES


Munters is world leader in humidity control with services for dehumidication, humidication and temperature control. Project Report: The Ravensthorpe Nickel Mine in Western Australia - owned by BHP Billiton - is currently under construction and Munters have been called to assist. Our brief was to prevent weather related delays and avoid conditions suitable to coating failures in lining/coating applications of the internal of nickel rening process tanks. Munters supplied temporary desiccant dehumidication and heating systems which were sized to achieve the climatic specications for application and curing. The use of Munters dehumidication and heating equipment has ensured specied conditions are being maintained, preventing the ash rust blooms that reduce the adhesion of coatings while also eliminating the risk of inter-coat de-lamination. The dry conditioned air has also decreased weather related delays to the project, helping to maintain the completion schedule of the overall tank lining.

C O R R O S I O N M A N A G E M E N T A D V E R T I S E R R E S P O N S E P l e a s e
Name Company Type of Business Phone ( ) Fax ( ) Email

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PLEASE Yes, I would like to know more about the products offered by the following companies appearing in Corrosion Management (Please Tick) FAX 02 4929 7827 Outside Back Cover Inside Back Cover Inside Front Cover [ ] Ingal EPS [ ] Zinifex Limited [ ] Industrial Galvanizers Page 25 Page 28 [ ] Australian Taxation Ofce [ ] Munters

28 NOVEMBER 2006

AUSTRALIAS WORLD CLASS ZINC MANUFACTURER & SUPPLIER


Headquartered in Australia, Zinifex is one of the worlds largest zinc manufacturers and suppliers, with production facilities spanning three continents - Australia, Europe and North America. Worldwide our zinc nds extensive use for corrosion protection of a multitude of steel products - steel fabrications, sheet, tubular and wire products, and fasteners. Each year, over 7 million tonnes of steel are protected with Zinifex zinc globally. Our zinc is used for: Hot dip galvanising of steel fabrications In-line & continuous galvanising of sheet steel, tubulars & wire products Electroplating of steel Manufacture of zinc dust for zinc-rich paints Manufacture of zinc anodes for cathodic protection of steel structures Zinifex is committed to providing quality zinc products and to supporting its customers with expert technical service. Insist on zinc for superior corrosion protection. Rely on zinifex for quality products and service.

Zinc products: SHG (99.995%) Zinc Ingot & Blocks Continuous Galvanising Grade Zinc Alloys Galvanising Zinc Toning Alloy EZDA Zinc Die Casting Alloy

For Sales Enquiries:

Steve Dunlop Sales Manager - Metals P: +61 3 9288 0281 F: +61 3 9288 0208 E: steve.dunlop@zinifex.com

Zinifex Metals Ltd. Level 29, Freshwater Place 2 Southbank Boulevard Southbank VIC 3006 P: +61 3 9288 0333 F: +61 3 9288 0208 www.zinifex.com

Have a burning desire to use timber poles?

By investing in treated timber poles, your wallet might not be the only thing that gets burnt. As concern over the ongoing fire safety of timber poles mounts, INGAL EPS is pleased to offer a superior alternative. The high strength to weight ratio of steel, combined with the increased durability and sheer toughness of the hot dip galvanized coating ensure that the steel pole is highly resistant to bushfire damage. Steel poles are an extremely light weight product delivered in sectional supply making it ideal for installation in remote or difficult terrain and the modular design system allows easy upgrades throughout the life of the pole. Poles can be either in-ground or base plate mounted and are designed in accordance with AS 1170.2, AS 4100 and AS/NZS 4600. Being highly resistant to insects, rot
axiom / EPS-CM04

and fire, maintenance costs are substantially reduced and steel poles are also environmentally friendly, being a fully recyclable product.

For more information please Freecall 1800 623 302 or visit www.ingaleps.com.au
A DIVISION OF INDUSTRIAL GALVANIZERS CORPORATION