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# Functions

Definitions

1. A function from set X to a set Y is a particular type of relation with the property that each element in in X is mapped to exactly one element in Y a. Thus making it well-defined i. To test if it is well-defined, do a vertical-line test ii. It is not well-defined if the line cuts the graph more than once or does not cut the graph at all (but the line is still within the domain) 2. A domain(Df) is the set of values which may be mapped by the function (the set of values that the function can process) 3. The maximal domain is the largest possible domain that can be assigned to the function 4. A rule governs how an element from X should be mapped to its corresponding image in Y 5. A range(Rf)is the set of elements in Y to which elements in X are mapped to a. Usually found through graphical representation 6. The domain and range can be expressed though set notation (i.e. ) or brackets (i.e. ( = point exclusive, [ = point inclusive, Rf = (1,4] ) 7. A restriction of a function is another function that has the same rules, but the domain is a subset of the original function 8. A function is one-one if each y-value has only one corresponding x-value a. Do a horizontal line test to check if it s one-one b. It is not one-one if the line cuts the graph less than twice (not cutting at all is allowed) c. To answer: The line of , cuts the graph of ___ at most once/ more than once / twice. Therefore 9. An inverse function is one that maps the y-values back to the x-values (

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a. Conditions for to exist: i. has to have a defined domain ( which equals to ) ii. has to have a defined rule (which is found from the original rule) iii. The original function must be 1-1 b. Properties of the inverse function i. The range of = ii. The domain of = iii. It intersects the original graph at (1,1), and y=x is the line of symmetry 10. A composite function is a function which is composed of two or more functions performed one after another a. The domain of the composite function is the domain of the first function b. The range of the composite function will be a subset of the range of the last function c. A composite function containing a function and its inverse will produce an identity function (a function who s output is the same as the input) d. Conditions for the composite function to exist: i. The composite function has a defined domain (see point a)

Done by Nickolas TeoJia Ming, CG 12/11

ii. The composite function has a defined rule ( which is found by applying the first function to the second function) iii. The composite function must be well defined Things to note when doing questions involving functions 1. When drawing the graph, do indicate the points (starting and ending ,if applicable) with a full dot or empty circle 2. If when finding the rule you get , you need to decide on the sign (based on the range of the inverse function), as keeping both will result in a not well-defined function 3. does not usually equal

Done by Nickolas TeoJia Ming, CG 12/11