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1. d dx d dx d dx d dx d dx d dx d dx
d dx d dx d dx
(
xn+1 n+1
) = xn, n ≠  1 1 x
xn dx = 1 dx = x ex dx =
xn+1 n+1
+ C,
n≠1
2.
( log x ) =
log │x│ + C
3.
(
ex
) = ex
ex ax loge a
+C
4.
(
ax loge a
) = ax ;
a>0, a≠1
a dx =
x
+C
5.
(  cos x ) = sin x
sin x dx =
 cos x
+C
6.
( sin x ) = cos x
cos x dx = sec2 x dx =
sin x
+C
7.
( tan x ) = sec2 x
tan x
+C
8.
(  cot x ) = cosec2 x
cosec2 x dx =  cot x +C
9.
( sec x ) = sec x tan x
sec x tan x
dx =
sec x + C
10.
(  cosec x ) = cosec x cot x
cosec x cot x
dx =
 cosec x + C
11.
d dx d dx d dx d dx d dx d dx d dx d dx d dx d dx
( log sin x ) = cot x
cot x dx =
log │sin x│ + C
12.
(  log cos x ) = tan x
tan x dx =
 log │cos x│ + C
13.
( log (sec x + tan x ) ) = sec x
sec x dx =
log │sec x + tan x│ + C
14.
( log (cosec x  cot x ) ) = cosec x
cosec x dx =
log │cosec x – cot x│ + C
15.
( sin1
x a
) =
2
1 a –x
2 2
1 a –x
2
dx =
sin1
x a x a
+C
16.
( cos1 x a ( 1 a 1 a 1 a 1 a
) =
1 a2 – x2
1 a +x 1 a +x 1
2 2 2 2
1 a2 – x2 1 a2 + x2 1 a2 + x2 1
dx = cos1
+C
17.
tan1
x a x a x a x a
) =
dx =
1 a
tan1
x a x a x a x a
+C
18.
(
cot1 sec1
) = ) = x )= x
dx = dx =
2
1 a 1 a
cot1 sec1
+C
19.
(
+C
x a 1
2
2
x
x a 1
2
20.
(
cosec1
dx =
1 a
cosec1
+C
x2  a2
x
x2  a2
[ k1.f1(x) ± k2.f2(x)……. ± kn.fn(x) ] dx =
k1 f1(x) dx ± k2 f2(x) dx ……. ± kn fn(x) dx
2
METHODS OF INTEGRATION
1. Integration by substitution 2. Integration by parts 3. Integration of rational algebraic functions by using partial fractions
1. INTEGRATION BY SUBSTITUTION:
i)
If Φ(x) is a continuously differentiable function, then to evaluate integrals of thef(Φ(x)) Φ’(x) dx, form we substitute
Φ(x) = t
and
Φ’(x) = dt. f(t) dt
f(ax + b) dx = 1 a Φ(ax + b)
The above integral reduces to If f(x) dx = Φ(x), then
ii) In rational algebraic functions if the degree of numerator is greater than or equal to the degree of denominator, then always divide the numerator by denominator and use the result. Nr. Dr. =Q + R Dr.
iii) To evaluate integrals of the form
sinm x dx and cosm x dx where m ≤ 4,
we express sinm x and cosm x in terms of sines and cosines of multiples of x by using trigonometrical identities given below. sin2 x = 1 – cos 2x 2 3 sin x – sin 3x 4 cos2 x = 1 + cos 2x 2
sin3 x =
cos3 x = cos 3x + 3 cos x 4
3
iv) To evaluate integrals of the form
sin mx sin nx dx, cos mx cos nx dx, sin mx cos nx dx,
and
cos mx sin nx dx
we use the trigonometrical identities given below. 2 sin A cos B = sin (A + B) + sin (A – B) 2 cos A sin B = sin (A + B)  sin (A – B) 2 cos A cos B = cos (A + B) + cos (A  B) 2 sin A sin B = cos (A  B)  cos (A + B) f’(x) f (x)
v) Integrals of the form
dx
If the numerator in integrand is exact differential of the denominator then its integral is logarithm of the denominator. f’(x) f (x) dx = log [ f (x) ] + C
4
vi) Integrals of the form
[ f (x) ]n f’ (x) dx [ f (x) ]n+1 n+1
[ f (x) ] f’ (x) dx =
vii) Integrals of the form
n
,
n≠1 m, n Є N
sinm x cosn x dx,
Algorithm: a) If the exponent of sin x is odd positive integer, put cos x = t. b) If the exponent of cos x is odd positive integer, put sin x = t. c) If the exponent of both sin x and cos x are odd positive integers, put either sin x = t or cos x = t. d) viii) If the exponent of both sin x and cos x are even positive Some Special Integrals: integers, express them in terms of sines and cosines of multiples of x by using trigonometric results or De’ Moivere’s theorem. Expression Substitution a2 + x2 a2  x2 x2  a2 x = a tan θ x = a sin θ x = a sec θ or or or a cot θ a cos θ a cosec θ
a–x a+x x–α β x
or or
a+x ax (x – α) (x – β)
x = a cos 2θ x = α cos2 θ + β sin2 θ
5
i)
2
1 a +x
2
dx = dx =
2
1 a 1 2a
tan1 log 
x a xa
+C  +C
ii)
2
1 x a
x+a a+x ax +C
iii)
2
1 a x
2
dx =
1 2a
log  x a

+C
iv)
1 a2 – x 2
dx = sin1
v)
1 a2 + x2
dx = log  x +
a2 + x 2
 +C
vi)
1 x2  a 2
dx = log  x +
x2  a 2
 +C
6
ix) Integrals of the type
1 ax2 + bx + c
dx
Algorithm: a) Make the coefficient of x2 unity, if it is not, by multiplying and dividing by it. b) Add and subtract the square of the half of coefficient of x to express ax2 + bx + c in the form
a[{x+
1 a +x
2 2
b 2a
} +
x a xa x+a a+x ax dx
2
4ac – b2 4a2
+C
]
c) Use the suitable formula from the following:
i) ii)
2
dx =
1 a
tan1
1 x a
2
dx =
1 2a
log 

+C
iii)
1 a2  x2
dx =
1 2a 1
log 

+C
x) Integrals of the type
ax2 + bx + c
Algorithm: a) Make the coefficient of x2 unity, if it is not, by multiplying and dividing by it. b) Find half of the coefficient of x. c) Add and subtract (½ coeff. of x)2 inside the square root to express the quantity inside the square root in the form.
{x+
b 2a
} +
2
4ac – b2 4a2
1 a –x
2 2
or
4ac – b2 4a2
 {x+
b }2 2a
d) Use the suitable formula from the following:
i)
dx = sin1
x a
+C
ii)
1 a2 + x2
dx = log  x +
a2 + x2
 +C
iii)
2
1 x a
2
dx = log  x +
x2  a2
 +C
7
xi) Integrals of the type
px + q ax2 + bx + c
dx
Algorithm: a) Write the numerator in the following form: px + q = λ { d dx (ax2 + bx + c)} + μ
i.e. px + q = λ (2ax + b) + μ b) Obtain the values of λ and μ by equating the coefficients of like powers of x on both sides. c) Replace px + q by λ(2ax + b) + μ in the given integral to get px + q ax2 + bx + c dx = λ 2ax + b ax2 + bx + c dx + μ 1 ax2 + bx + c dx
d) Integrate R.H.S. in step c and put the values of λ and μ obtained in step b. P(x) ax2 + bx + c
xii) Integrals of the type
dx
where degree of P(x) is ≥ 2
Divide the numerator by the denominator and express the integrand as R(x) Q(x) + where R(x) is a linear function of x. (ax + bx + c) P(x) ax2 + bx + c dx = R(x) Q(x) dx + ax2 + bx + c dx
2
8
xiii) Integrals of the type
px + q ax2 + bx + c
dx
Algorithm: a) Write the numerator in the following form: d dx
px + q = λ {
(ax2 + bx + c)} + μ
b) c)
i.e. px + q = λ (2ax + b) + μ Obtain the values of λ and μ by equating the coefficients of like powers of x on both sides. Replace px + q by λ(2ax + b) + μ in the given integral to get px + q ax2 + bx + c dx = λ 2ax + b ax2 + bx + c dx + μ 1 ax2 + bx + c dx
d) Integrate R.H.S. in step c and put the values of λ and μ obtained in step b.
xiv) Integrals of the type
1 a sin x + b cos x + c 1 (a sin x + b cos x)2 dx,
2 2 2
dx,
1 a + b sin x 1
2
dx,
1 a + b cos2 x dx
dx,
a + b sin x + c cos x
2
Algorithm: a) Divide the Numerator and the Denominator by cos2 x. b) Replace sec2 x, if any, in Denominator by 1 + tan2 x. c) Put tan x = t, so that sec2 x dx = dt. This reduces the integral in the form 1 dt at2 + bt + c d) Evaluate this as explained earlier.
9
xv) Integrals of the type
1 a sin x + b cos x 1 Algorithm: a) Put sin x = b) Replace c) Put a sin x + b cos x + c 2 tan x/2 1 + tan2 x/2 and 1  tan2 x/2 cos x = 1 + tan2 x/2 sec2 x/2 dx, 1 a + b sin x dx dx, 1 a + b cos x dx,
1 + tan2 x/2 tan x/2 = t
in the numerator by
so that ½ sec2 x/2 dx = dt 1 dt
This reduces the integral in the form d) Evaluate this as explained earlier.
at2 + bt + c
xvi) Integrals of the type
1 a sin x + b cos x Alternative Method: Put a = r cos θ, b = r sin θ so that, r = √(a2 + b2) a sin x + b cos x c sin x + d cos x dx
and
θ = tan1 (b/a)
xvii) Integrals of the type
Algorithm:
dx
a) a sin x + b cos x = λ (c cos x – d sin x) + μ (c sin x + d cos x) b) Obtain the values of λ and μ by equating the coefficients of sin x and cos x on both the sides. c) a sin x + b cos x c sin x + d cos x dx = λ log  c sin x + d cos x  + μ x + C
10
xviii) Integrals of the type
a sin x + b cos x + c p sin x + q cos x + r dx
Algorithm: a) a sin x + b cos x + c = λ (p cos x – q sin x) + μ (p sin x + q cos x +r) + ν b) Obtain the values of λ and μ by equating the coefficients of sin x and cos x and the constant terms on both the sides. c) a sin x + b cos x + c p sin x + q cos x + r dx = λ log  p sin x + q cos x + r  + μ x + 1 p sin x + q cos x + r d) Evaluate the integral on RHS of Step c by using the method discussed earlier. dx
2. INTEGRATION BY PARTS:
If u and v are two functions of x, then du u v dx = u v dx  { dx v dx } dx
i.e. The integral of the product of two functions = (First function) x (Integral of second function) – Integral of {(Differentiation of first function x (Integral of second function)} NOTE1: Proper choice of first and second function If one of the two functions is not directly integrable, we take it as the first function and the remaining function is taken as the second function. If there is no other function, then unity is taken as the second function. If both the functions are easily integrable, then the first function is chosen in such a way that the derivative of the function is a simple function and the function thus obtained under the integral sign is easily integrable than the original function. NOTE2: Choose the first function as in “ILATE”
11
i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi)
ex { f (x) + f’ (x) } dx = ex f (x) + C e sin bx dx = e cos bx dx = a x
2 2 2 a x a x
eax a2 + b2 eax
2 2
(a sin bx – b cos bx) + C (a cos bx + b sin bx) + C a2  x2 a2 + x2 x2  a2 + + 1 2 1 2 1 2 a2 sin1 x a +C a2 + x2 x2  a2  +C  +C
a +b dx = 1 x 2 dx = 1 x 2 dx = 1 x 2
a +x x a
2
2
a2 log  x + a2 log  x +
2
vii) Integrals of the form
ax2 + bx + c
dx
Algorithm: a) Make the coefficient of x2 as one by taking ‘a’ common to obtain b x+ c x2 + a a 4ac – b2 b 2 b 2 } + b) Add and subtract ( ) to obtain { x + 2a 4a2 2a c) Use any of the form given in (iv), (v) or (vi).
viii) Integrals of the form
Algorithm: a) Express px + q as px + q = λ { d
( px + q )
ax2 + bx + c
dx
dx
(ax2 + bx + c)} + μ
i.e. px + q = λ (2ax + b) + μ
b) Obtain the values of λ and μ by equating the coefficients of like powers of x on both sides. c) Replace px + q by λ(2ax + b) + μ in the given integral to get (px + q) ax2 + bx + c dx = λ +μ (2ax + b) ax2 + bx + c ax2 + bx + c dx dx
12
3.
INTEGRATION OF RATIONAL ALGEBRAIC FUNCTIONS BY USING PARTICAL FRACTIONS:
CASE – I:
When denominator is expressible as the product of nonrepeating linear factors. Let g(x) = (x – a1) (x – a2) ……(x – an). Then, f(x) A1 A2 An = x – a + x – a + …... + x – an g(x) 1 2 where A1, A2, …… An are constants and can be determined by equating the numerator on RHS to the numerator on LHS and then substituting x = a1, a2, …, an.
CASE – II:
When denominator is expressible as the product of the linear factors such that some of them are repeating. Let g(x) = (x – a)k (x – a1) (x – a2) ……(x – an). Then, f(x) A1 A2 A3 Ak = + + + 2 3 + …... x–a (x – a) (x – a) (x – a)k g(x) + B1 x – a1 + B2 x – a2 Bn + …... + x – an
CASE – III:
When some of the factors of denominator are quadratic but non – repeating. Corresponding to each quadratic factor ax2 + bx + c, we assume partial fraction of the type Ax + B ax2 + bx + c
where A and B constants to be determined by comparing coefficients of similar powers of x in the numerator of both the sides. In practice it is advisable to assume partial fractions of the type A (2ax + b) ax2 + bx + c + B ax2 + bx + c
13
CASE – IV:
When some of the factors of denominator are quadratic and repeating. Corresponding to each quadratic factor we assume 2 k partial fractions of the type { A0 (2ax + b) ax2 + bx + c + A1 ax2 + bx + c } + { A1 (2ax + b) (ax2 + bx + c)2 A2k (ax2 + bx + c)k + A2 (ax2 + bx + c)2 } (ax2 + bx + c)k,
+…..+ {
A2k1 (2ax + b) (ax2 + bx + c)k
+
}
4. INTEGRATION OF SOME SPECIAL IRRATIONAL ALGEBRAIC FUNCTIONS:
i) Integrals of the form
Put Q = t2. To evaluate (ax + b) 1 (cx + d) Φ (x) P Q 1 (ax2 + bx + c) (px + q) Φ (x) P Q dx where P and Q both are linear functions of x. Put cx + d = t2.
dx
ii) Integrals of the form
Put Q = t2. To evaluate
where P is a quadratic expression dx and Q is a linear expression. dx Put px + q = t2.
iii) Integrals of the form
Put P = 1 / t To evaluate 1 (ax + b)
Φ (x) P Q dx
where P is a linear expression and Q is a quadratic expression.
dx Put ax + b = 1 / t
(px2 + qx + r) Φ (x) P Q 1 (cx2 + d) dx dx
iv) Integrals of the form
To evaluate
where P and Q both are pure quadratic expression in x.
Put x = 1 / t and then c + d t2 = u2
(ax + b)
2
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