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The suffix is used in some medical terms denoting mental disorders. It has also entered standard English and is affixed to many different words to denote enthusiasm or obsession with that subject. Madness or obsessions with different subjects include:
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arithmomania, counting beatlemania, the Beatles bibliomania, collecting books decalcomania, transferring pictures, an artistic technique dipsomania, alcohol drapetomania, fleeing from slavery erotomania, being loved by someone else hypomania, general mania, a symptom of manic-depression islomania, islands kleptomania, stealing megalomania, wealth and power monomania, a single object, type of object, or concept. mythomania, lying nymphomania, having sex (women) pyromania, fire or starting fires theomania, religion trichotillomania, hair removal Trudeaumania, the Canadian politician Pierre Trudeau tulipomania, a metaphor for an economic bubble WrestleMania, the annual flagship pay-per-view event of World Wrestling Entertainment
The English suffixes -phobia, -phobic, -phobe (of Greek origin) occur in technical usage in psychiatry to construct words that describe irrational, disabling fear as a mental disorder (e.g., agoraphobia) and in biology to descibe organisms that dislike certain conditions (e.g., acidophobia). In common usage they also form words that describe dislike or hatred of a particular thing or subject. Many people apply the suffix "-phobia" inappropriately to mild or irrational fears with no serious substance; however, earlier senses relate to psychiatry which studies serious phobias which disable a person's life. For more information on the psychiatric side of this, including how psychiatry groups phobias as "agoraphobia", "social phobia", or "simple phobia", see phobia. Treatment for phobias may include desensitization (graduated exposure therapy) or flooding. The following lists include words ending in -phobia, and include fears that have acquired names. In many cases people have coined these words as neologisms, and only a few of them occur in the medical literature. In many cases, the naming of phobias has become a word game.
Note too that no things, substances, or even concepts exist which someone, somewhere may not fear, sometimes irrationally so. A list of all possible phobias would run into many thousands and it would require a whole book to include them all, certainly more than an encyclopedia would be able to contain. So this article just gives an idea of the kind of phobias which one may encounter, certainly not all. Most of these terms tack the suffix -phobia onto a Greek word for the object of the fear (some use a combination of a Latin root with the Greek suffix, which many classicists consider linguistically impure). In some cases (particularly the less medically-oriented usages), a word ending in -phobia may have an antonym ending in -philia - thus: coprophobia / coprophilia, Germanophobia / Germanophilia. See also the category:Phobias.
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1 Phobia lists o 1.1 Standard "-phobia" description template 2 Psychological conditions o 2.1 Zoophobias 3 Non-psychological conditions 4 Biology 5 Ethnic/national/religious phobias 6 Joke phobias 7 External links
A large number of "-phobia" lists circulate on the Internet, with words collected from indiscriminate sources, often copying each other. Some regard any attempt to create a list of phobias as an irrational endeavor because, theoretically, a person could become conditioned to have a fear of anything. Also, a significant number of unscrupulous psychiatric websites exist that at the first glance cover a huge number of phobias, but in fact use a standard text (see an example below) to fit any phobia and reuse it for all unusual phobias by merely changing the name. For a couple of striking examples. "... Poor performance or grades. Promotions that pass you by. moths phobia will likely cost you tens, even hundreds of thousands of dollars over the course of your lifetime, let alone the cost to your health and quality of life. Now Moths Phobia can be gone for less than the price of a round-trip airline ticket."
see. love sickness. does not classify as a phobia. The expert phobia team at CTRN's Phobia Clinic is board-certified to help with Russophobia and a variety of related problems. The actual phobia manifests itself in different ways. sweating. While technically we can call anything a phobia. nausea. Whilst the original catalyst may have been a real-life scare of some kind. because such encounters carry a possibility of harm or death. or perhaps seeing someone else experience trauma. to have a fear of (say) cotton balls or of feathers classes as an irrational fear and falls into the correct category of a phobia because such things could in no way cause harm to you. This does not necessarily mean that they sell snake oil. although everyone experiences <something>phobia in their own way and may have different symptoms. rapid breathing. and overall feelings of dread. . irregular heartbeat. avoidant personality disorder. TV. Probably.g. e. like other phobias. as a rational fear. It can cause panic attacks and keep people apart from loved ones and business associates. myriad. drugs do not "cure" <something>phobia. at some point in your past. Everyone has their own unique formula for when and how to feel bad. an event occurred linking failure or defeat and emotional trauma.. the actual definition of a phobia involves having an irrational fear of something that can cause no physical harm or trauma. The unconscious mind creates <something>phobia. The success rate of our 24 hour program is close to 100%" Standard "-phobia" description template Substituting the string "<something>" with the name of any specific phobia in the text below will give you a fairly correct description. <Something>phobia means "fear of <something>". Some sufferers experience it almost all the time. Moreover.". Whereas a fear of (say) a large predatory animal or of a hurricane. Category:Personality disorders. Though doctors often prescribe various potent drugs for <something>phobia. severe side-effects and/or withdrawal symptoms can ensue. Symptoms typically include shortness of breath.. Numerous websites that promise cures for thousands of phobias take this template approach. Psychological conditions In many cases specialists prefer to avoid the suffix -phobia and use more descriptive terms. anxiety disorders. love-shyness. because the psychological mechanisms of most specific phobias resemble each other. benign events can also trigger the condition: movies.. The condition often significantly impacts the quality of life. At best they temporarily suppress the symptoms through chemical interaction. as a protective mechanism. others just in response to direct stimuli. For example.
Cainotophobia. Fairyphobia . Nyctophobia. Dental phobia — Fear of dentists and dental procedures. Aphenphosmphobia. novelty.Fear of short people. Cenophobia. Aviophobia. Laliophobia — Fear of speaking. crowds or uncontrolled social conditions. Belonephobia. Brontophobia. Altophobia — Fear of heights. Hydrophobia — Fear of water. same as Neophobia — Fear of newness. Homophobia — Fear of sameness. same as dental phobia . (This word has become a common political term. Clinophobia — Fear of going to bed or falling asleep. bacteria. — Fear of males. novelty. Chiraptophobia. Astrapophobia. Emetophobia — Fear of vomiting. ignored or forgetting. Keraunophobia — Fear of thunder. Aquaphobia. It occurs especially commonly in young children. Erotophobia — Fear of sexual love or sexual questions. Bacteriophobia. specifically the morbid fear of drowning. Centophobia. Haptephobia — Fear of being touched. Ligyrophobia — Fear of loud noises. Dentophobia. Ligyrophobia — Fear of darkness. Anthropomorphobia — Fear or dislike of anthropomorphic traits. Bathophobia — Fear of depth. Odontophobia. Gymnophobia — Fear of nudity.• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Acrophobia. Bacillophobia. Cibophobia — Aversion to food. Aichmophobia. Enetophobia — Fear of needles or of pointed objects. lightning and storms. novelty. Microbiophobia — Fear of microbes. same as Neophobia — Fear of newness. Kainolophobia.) Hexakosioihexekontahexaphobia — Fear of the number 666. Algophobia — Fear of pain Androphobia. Cainophobia. Kainophobia. Astraphobia. or a surgeon's fear of operating. Haphephobia. Athazagoraphobia — Fear of being forgotten. monotony. Ergophobia — Fear of work or functioning. Lalophobia. Agoraphobia — Fear of the outdoors. Odontophobia. Lygophobia — see Nyctophobia Mysophobia — Fear of germs. and many people interpret it as a slur. Aviatophobia — Fear of flying. Genophobia — Fear of sexual intercourse Glossophobia — Fear of speaking in public or of trying to speak. contamination or dirt Neophobia — Fear of newness. homosexuality or of becoming homosexual. Ergasiophobia. Claustrophobia — Fear of confined spaces. Ephebiphobia — Fear/dislike of teenagers. Coulrophobia — Fear of evil clowns.
usually specific to spiders. a symptom of rabies. Elurophobia. Photophobia — aversion to light Biology A number of "-phobia/-phobic" terms are used in biology to describe predispositions by plants and animals against certain conditions. Helminthophobia — Fear of being infested with worms. Suriphobia — Fear of mice and/or rats. Terdekaphobia. Scoleciphobia. Triskaidekaphobia — Fear of the number 13. (see also "sociopath") Technophobia — Fear of technology. synonymous to Anorexia nervosa Sociophobia — Fear/dislike of society or people in general. Hippophobia — Fear of horses. (Also the orchid genus Entomophobia) Equinophobia. Musophobia. Radiophobia — Fear of radiation or X-rays. Apiphobia. Cynophobia — Fear of dogs or of rabies. Melissophobia — Fear of bees. • • • • Acidophobia/Acidophobic — Preference for non-acidic conditions Cryophobia/Cryophobic — Fear of extreme cold. Psychrophobia/Psychrophobic — Fear of cold. Osmophobia — Fear of smells. . Gatophobia — Dislike of cats. Insectophobia — Fear of insects. Sitophobia. Murophobia. Ornithophobia — Fear of birds. Olfactophobia. Sitophobia — Aversion to food.• • • • • • • Paraskavedekatriaphobia — Fear of Friday the 13th. foreigners. Mottephobia — Aversion to moths and butterflies. Xenophobia — Fear of strangers. Zoophobias • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Ailurophobia. Having a superstition. Vermiphobia — Fear of worms. Entomophobia. See for antonyms in "Biology" section of the "-phil-" article. Galeophobia. Felinophobia. Ophidiophobia — Fear of snakes. Arachnophobia — Fear of arachnids. Non-psychological conditions • • Hydrophobia — Fear of water. Myrmecophobia — Fear of ants. or aliens. Heliophobia/Heliophobic — Aversion to sunlight. Herpetophobia — Fear of reptiles Ichthyophobia — Fear of fish. Zoophobia — Fear of animals.
"-logy" basically means "the study of ____". Anatidaephobia — Fear that somewhere. 4). From $1497 and up. Such words are formed from Greek or Latin roots with the terminal -logy derived from the Greek suffix -λογια (-logia). "hippopotamus"). from a Gary Larson cartoon published in The Far Side Gallery. For example. the bio part of biology stems from Greek βιος (bios). speaking. Arachibutyrophobia — Fear of peanut butter sticking to the roof of the mouth.g.means "big" due to its allusion to the Greek term hippopotamos (= "river horse". e. sesquipedali comes from "sesquipedalian" meaning a long word. at the CTRN Phobia Clinic website (in a way described above." Luposlipaphobia — The fear of being pursued by timber wolves around a kitchen table while wearing socks on a newly-waxed floor (fictional. to speak. using (of course) a palindromic word. Xerophobia/Xerophobic — Fear/dislike of dryness. Etymology The word ology is a back-formation from the names of these disciplines. life. and -ophobia means "relating to the fear of". The English suffix -ology or -logy denotes a field of study or academic discipline. from λεγειν (legein). a duck is watching you (fictional. -monstro means "monstrous". Ethnic/national/religious phobias One can readily use the suffix "-phobia" to coin a term that denotes a particular antiethnic sentiment. and -ologist describes a person who studies that field. Joke phobias • • • • • Aibohphobia — A joke term for the fear of palindromes. This is why some of the words do not end in -ology (such as mineralogy). Hippopoto.. It had circulated in the Internet for some time until it landed. . with guaranteed lifetime elimination of Sticky Peanut Butter Phobia. The word ology is thus misleading as the 'o' is actually part of the word stem that receives the -logy ending. anti-Polonism. such as Francophobia. Often a synonym with the prefix "anti-" already exists: polonophobia vs. somehow. in the section "Standard "phobia" description template"): "Working one-on-one with one of our team.• • Thermophobia/Thermophobic — Fear/dislike of heat. See "List of anti-ethnic terms" for more examples. also from Gary Larson in the cartoon series "The Far Side") Hippopotomonstrosesquipedaliophobia — Fear of long words. Anti-religous sentiments are expressed in terms Christianophobia and Islamophobia.
"Anthony. such as beer-ology or Wiki-ology. for example theology/theologian. haplology means the mistake of saying one letter. This usage is also widespread in medicine. syllable or word when two or more are required." she insists. but aren't called ologies – midwifery is one example.Other words ending in "ology" Not all words ending in -ology are ologies in the above sense. "-ology" is sometimes used to describe a subject rather than the study of it. word. "Ology" can be appended to any word. He is disappointed that he has only passed Sociology.0–9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z . you're a scientist!" The term "Ology" is often used. pathology is often used for specific disease ("We have not found the pathology yet"). In some words such as tautology and haplology. perjoratively. for example. "if you get an ology. For example. It should also be pointed out that some words mean to study something. to indicate that a subject is a pseudoscience. humorously. Technology is a typical example. as in the example of pronouncing the word February somewhat like "Febuary". A famous British television commercial of the 1980s has a Jewish student calling his grandmother (played by Maureen Lipman) to confirm his exam results. See also • • classical compound -ism List of -ologies Contents: Top . and does not meet the same standards of rigour as more hard sciences such as Physics as Chemistry. and denotes not a field of study but a type of speech or writing. but his grandmother will have none of it. There are a few irregular exceptions to the ending "-ologist". when describing its study. the -logy suffix is from the Greek λογος. Usage Although technically incorrect.
which are passively transported by the air.g.. the study of the effect of light on chemicals Aerobiology. the study of pollen grains and spores (palynomorphs) in the atmosphere Aetiology. the study of geology of celestial bodies (e. the study of plant nutrition and growth in relation to soil conditions Agrology. the study of the effects of radiation upon living organisms Actinology. a branch of medicine Angelology.Insert non-formatted text here===A=== • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Acarology. the study of the causes and treatment of allergies. the study of spiders and their kind Archaeology. the study of things of which we are by nature ignorant. fungal spores. the study of the nature of values and value judgements . the study of the free atmosphere Aeropalynology. the study of purported influences of stars on human affairs Atmology. the study of humans Apiology. a branch of medicine Andrology. the doctrine of atoms Audiology. a branch of medicine Autecology. the study of bees (apiaries) Arachnology. the study of anesthesia and anesthetics. Axiology. the study of the ecology of any individual species Auxology. Aerology. the study of Mars Assyriology. the study of human growth. the study of Grasshoppers and Locusts Actinobiology. very small insects and pollen. the study of ancient history Archaeozoology. the study of male health and disease Anesthesiology. the study of the Assyrians Astacology. the study of the anatomy of blood and lymph vascular systems Anthropology. the study of the laws and phenomena of aqueous vapors Atomology. the medical study of the causation of disease Agnoiology. the study of origin of life Astrogeology. the study of algae Allergology. the art and science of agriculture (Canada) Agrology. or of things which cannot be known Agrobiology. comets) Astrology. such as bacteria. the study of ticks and mites Acridilogy. planets. the study of hearing. the study of relationships between humans and animals over time through examination of animal remains at archaeological sites (also see Zooarchaeology) Areology. a branch of biology that studies organic particles. asteroids. the study of angels Angiology. the study of soils (not Canada) Algology. the study of crayfish Astrobiology.
the study of shells and of molluscs Cosmology. the scientific study of crime. Cryology. the study of dust in the atmosphere and its effects on plants and animals. bathing and of their application to disease Bioclimatology.B • • • • • • • • • Bacteriology. the study of the structure of seeds and fruit Cereology. the study of turtles Christology. the study of bacteria Balneology. the study of dogs Cytomorphology. Cryptology. the study of the structure of cells Cytology. the study of crop circles Cetology. or ecogeomorphology. the scientific study of baths. the study of beetles Coniology. the study of the heart Carpology. for example of corporate org charts. the study of bryophytes C • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Campanology. the study of very low temperatures and related phenomena. the study of life Biometeorology. the study of the effects of climate on living organisms Biogeomorphology. Conchology. the study and the art of bell ringing Cardiology. Bryology. the study of the characteristics of the skull Criminology. the study of cells D . the study of cetaceans . the study of the effects of atmospheric conditions on living organisms Boxology is the study of schematic layouts. the theological study of redemption (christos > christein: to sacrament). the study of the relationship of organisms to each other and to their environment Biology. the study of the relationship of biological or other phenomena to their locations Chronology the study of things in order of time or the study of time Climatology. also spelled "koniology". dolphins. not only speaking of Christianity but also extended to religion in general Chorology. and porpoise Chelonology. the study of the climate Coleopterology. the study of animals that may or may not be mythical Cynology. the study of the cosmos or our place in it. the study of interactions between organisms and geomorpholoigcal processes Bioecology.whales. Craniology. the study of how to encrypt and decrypt secret messages Cryptozoology.
the study of the interrelationships between living organisms and their environment. the speech of Praise (not a proper ology. the study of insects Enzymology. Same as posology. the study of the process of biological evolution Evolutionary psychology. the study of dosages of medicine and drugs. the study of the process of (usually) human psychological evolution. in ethics. but more often the collecting of picture postcards Demonology. the study of. usually non-western music Ethology. or separately the study of the Christian Church Ecogeomorphology. the study of dialects Dosology. the study or knowledge of emetics Endocrinology. the study of race Ethnomusicology. the study of animal behaviour Etiology. Doxology. the study of duty. same as Aetiology Etymology. the study of ligaments Dialectology. or biogeomorphology. the study of the ancient Egyptians Electrophysiology. the study of epidemics Epistemology. the study of demons Dendrochronology. the study of wine and winemaking Entomology. the study of music in society. Ecophysiology.• • • • • • • • • • Deltiology. the study of Church architecture and decoration. Dermatology. the study of internal secretory glands Enigmatology. the study of enzymes Epidemiology. the study of embryos Emetology. the study of puzzles Enology (or Oenology). the study of the interrelationship between an organism's physical functioning and its environment Edaphology. the study of trees Deontology. the study of life in outer space . Exobiology. a branch of theology concerned with the final events in the history of the world or of mankind Ethnology. Egyptology. the study of interactions between organisms and geomorphological processes Ecohydrology. the study of the nature and origins of knowledge Eschatology. the study of interactions among organisms and the water cycle. the study of the relationship between electric phenomena and bodily processes Embryology. Ecology. the study of word origins Evolutionary biology. Sometimes spelled "œcology". a branch of soil science that studies the influence of soil on life. the study of the age of trees and the records in their rings Dendrology. see below) E • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Ecclesiology. the field of medicine that deals with the skin Desmology.
the study of handwriting for the purpose of analysing the character of the writer Gynaecology or Gynecology. the study of the Sun Helioseismology. the study of the writings and practices of historians Horology. Sometimes spelled foetology. See Vermeology. popularized in the 1960s by Jacques Derrida Graphology. the study of present-day landforms. the study of the liver. traditionally on Earth but with increasing frequency on nearby planetary objects Gerontology. the study of the therapeutic use of plants Herpetology. the study of living tissues Histopathology. a henological argument attempts to prove the existence of God by reasoning from a multiplicity of virtues backwards to show that they must have one source (God). measuring time and timekeeping Hydrogeology. the study of old age Glaciology. the study of the fetus.study of refuse and trash Gastrology or Gastroenterology .  Hepatology. In natural theology.F • • Formicology. roughly. the study of parasitic worms. the study of unity. the study of relationships within families particularly with a view to constructing family trees Genecology. the study of underground water . a branch of medicine Herbology. the study of the Earth Geomorphology.diseases of stomach and intestines Gemmology or Gemology. or of women in general H • • • • • • • • • • • • • Hematology/Haematology. the study of the (microscopic) structure of diseased tissues Historiology. Geochronology. the study of reptiles and amphibians Histology. the study of the biosphere and its relations to the lithosphere and atmosphere. the study of making timepieces. the study of medicine relating to women. Henology. G • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Garbology . the study of genetic differences in relation to the environment Geobiology. Also the study of deconstructive literary criticism. especially when within the uterus. the study of gemstones and ornamental materials Genealogy (commonly misspelt and mispronounced as "geneology"). the study of glaciers Grammatology. the study of writing systems. the study of vibrations and oscillations in the Sun Helminthology. the study of the age of the Earth Geology. the study of ants Fetology. the study of blood Heliology.
a branch of medicine Lepidopterology.• • Hydrology. the study of the Islam J • • Japanology. the study of butterflies and moths Lexicology. and extended: Judaism K • • • • • • Karyology. the study of mammals Mereology. tracks and burrows Immunology. the study of fish Ichnology. the study of the Jewish People. the study of the signification and application of words Limnology. the study of sleep (also: somnology) I • • • • Ichthyology. the study of the lymph system and glands M • • • • • • • • • Malacology. Mineralogy. the study of waves or wave motions L • • • • • • Laryngology. the study of fossil footprints. the study of microorganisms and their effects on humans Micrology. the study of karyotypes (a branch of cytology) Killology. the study of motion or of moving bodies. the study of the immune system Islamology. the study of rocks Lymphology. the study of movement in relation to human anatomy. the study of Japanese people Judeology. the study of mollusks Mammalogy. a branch of physics. a branch of logic focusing on the study of part-whole relationships Meteorology. the study of communist Soviet Union Kymatology. the study of water Hypnology. the study of weather Methodology. particularly lakes Lithology. the study of human beings killing other human beings (Grossman's Theory) Kinesiology. the study of fresh water environments. the study of minerals . (properly) the study of methods Metrology. the study of measurement Microbiology. the science of preparing and handling microscopic objects for study. Kremlinology. or voice box. the study of the larynx. a branch of medicine Kinology.
the study of anatomical organs Ornithology. a branch of pediatrics/paediatrics Nephology. the study and design of machines at the molecular level Neonatology. the study of the structure. more precisely the study of the grammatical structure of words. the study of oceans Odonatology.• • • • • • • • • Mixology. the study of the structure. the study of existence Oology. watermills and animal engines. a branch of linguistics Musicology. the study of mountains and their mapping Osteology. the study of bones Otolaryngology. and abnormalities of the teeth Oikology. and pathology of the ear . alternatively. the study of diseases and the care of newborn infants. the study of musical instruments (not just organs). the study of diseases Numerology. the study of nerves Neuropathology. the study of the kidneys and their diseases. a book by Leibniz on the study of his theory of monads. the study of housekeeping. the study of grasshoppers and crickets Orology. Monadology. the study of music Mycology. the study of numbers (often in a non-mathematical sense) O • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Oceanology. the study of dragonflies and damselflies Odontology. a branch of medicine Neurology. the study of the eyes Organology. the study of neural diseases Neurophysiology. the study of fungi Myology the scientific study of muscles Myrmecology. the study of birds Orthopterology. which has been used in a manner similar to the way the word widget is used in economics textbooks Oncology. Morphology. the study of the ear and throat. the study of forms. facetious name for the non-existent medical specialty that treats of navels. the study of ants Mythology. Omphalology. the study of eggs Ophthalmology. the study of the functions of the nervous system Nosology. Molinology. the study of myths N • • • • • • • • • Nanotechnology. the study of windmills. the study or skill of preparing mixed drinks. a branch of medicine Otology. development. function. the study of cancer Ontology. the study of clouds Nephrology.
a synonym of Pulmonology Pomology. and other instrumental data Paleoecology. and throat. by studying the shape of their skull Physiology. the study of climate prior to the widespread availability of records of temperature. the study of rocks Pharmacology. the study of plankton Pneumology. the study of parasites Pathology. the study of fire . the study of drugs Phenology. the study of vocal sounds Phrenology. Petrology.• Otorhinolaryngology. the scientific study and cultivation of fruits Posology. migration. usually of animals Phytology. see dosology Primatology. Phenomenology. the study of pollen Parapsychology. the study and science of phenomena as distinct from the science of actual existence or being. the study of primates Psychobiology. the study of plants. breeding. the derivation of a persons character traits. the study of mental processes in humans Psychopharmacology. nose. Pyrology. the study of periodic biological phenomena such as flowering. the study of ancient creatures Paleoanthropology. the study and psychology of organisms with regard to their functions and structures Psychology. the study of past environments using the fossils of plants and animals Palynology. the study of paranormal or psychic phenomenon that defy conventional scientific explanations Parasitology. botany Planetology. etc. also a movement founded by Husserl which studies conscious experience without its metaphysical concerns Phonology. the study of planets and solar systems Planktology. the study of the physiological bases of psychological processes Pulmonology is the specialty in medicine that deals with diseases of the lungs and the respiratory tract. the study of ancient humans and human origin Paleoclimatology. the study of prison management and criminal rehabilitation. the study of psychotropic or psychiatric drugs Psychophysiology. the study of bodies. the study of illness Pedology (soil study) Pedology (children study) Penology. a branch of medicine P • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Paleontology. the study of the ear. precipitation.
Also spelled "sitology" Sociology. study of the mouth and its diseases Symbology. the study of symptoms Synecology.com: the humanistic discipline that attempts to reconstruct the transmission of a text (especially a text in manuscript form) on the basis of relations between the various surviving manuscripts (sometimes using cladisitc analysis) Stomatology. a treatise on diet. neurology. originally the study of reflexes or of reflex responses. but see also non-study list Rheology. also: hypnology Soteriology the study of the doctrine of salvation. the study of China Sitiology. a parody of astrology Stemmatology. the study of blood serum Serpentology. a branch of geology that studies sediments. the study of snakes Sexology. the study of rheumatic diseases. the study of the nose and its diseases S • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Sarcology. Sporalogy. It includes myology. or a set of symbols. the study of rays. Also. and splanchnology Scatology. a subsection of anatomy that studies the soft parts. the study or exploration of caves Splanchnology. a branch of medicine Rhinology. the study of the ecological interrelationships among communities of organisms T . the study and interpretation of symbols. the study of the moon Semiology the study of signs Serology. dietetics. Also used for types of barcodes Symptomatology.R • • • • • Radiology. usually ionising radiation Reflexology. the study of sex Sinology. from dictionary. the study of feces Sedimentology. the study of the viscera. the study of society Sociobiology. the study of earthquakes Selenology. angiology. the study of sleep. the study of communist Soviet Union Speleology. the study of flow Rheumatology. especially as related to Christianity Sovietology. Seismology. the study of diet. the study of the effect of evolution on ethology Somnology.
the study of the practical arts (but see above) Teleology. the study of worms. the study of classification U • • Urology. Sometimes spelled "ourology". the study of flags Victimology. Tocology. the study of intonation in speech Topology. V • • • • • • • Vaccinology. a branch of medicine Traumatopsychology. the study of volcanoes and related phenomena (traps) X • • Xenobiology. neotestamentology: the study of the New Testament. the study of wonders. the study of friction and lubrication Trichology. the study and treatment of diseases of the urogenital tract. the study of wounds and injuries caused by accidents or assaults and their surgical treatment and repair. the study of ends or final causes Teratology. the study of victims of crime. the study of physical. the study of hair and scalp Typology. the study of breeding domestic plants and animals Tidology. the study of non-terrestrial life Xylology. the study of venereal diseases Vermeology. or monsters Testamentology. Tonolgy. psychological and social problems associated with dying. the study of a religious testament. the study of psychological traumas Tribology. the study of mammals (also. Theology. sometimes spelled "tokology". a branch of medicine. the study of heat. the study of childbirth. the study of vaccines Venereology. the study of poisons Traumatology.• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Technology. but less used: mammalogy) Thermology. archotestamentology: the Old Testament Thanatology. the study of wood . Theriology. often applied to characterizing the criminal Virology. the study of tides. Vexillology. the study of God Thremmatology. the study of Unidentified flying object (UFO) phenomena. Ufology. the mathematical study of closeness and connectedness Toxicology. the study of viruses Volcanology (also spelled vulcanology). See helminthology.
animals. Menology. or the set of phrases or the choice of words used by any particular group of people. a type of register. a dissimilarity of parts often attributable to a difference in origin. a collection of literary pieces (such as poems). o an explanation for or justification of beliefs. Docimology. therefore the style being used in a sentence. Chronology is the arrangement or setting out of past events in order of occurrence. indeed. the study and analysis of animal remains at archaeological sites to reconstruct relationships between people. or a calendar of the lives of the saints for each day of the year. enlightment or rational argument. a treatise on the art of testing. Philology. and their environment (also see Archaeozoology) Zoology. Hagiology is literature dealing with the life of a saint or. Misology is the hatred of reason. foolish discourse. human life or culture. This is not a ology in the strict sense. Apology o a statement of regret. Phraseology is the way words are put together. the recording of historical events in date sequence. though not an -ology. Francology -. Romania. a similarity often atributable to common origin Ideology. and thus not "ologies" in the sense of this article.Z • • • Zooarchaeology. then. e. Eulogy. a biography of an individual. Examples . but the love (philo-) of literature (logia).there is an institute of Francology in Bucharest. Dilogy is ambiguous or equivocal speech. sometimes spelled idealogy. a spoken or sung end of a prayer. Doxology. is a system of ideas about politics. the historical study of languages. are: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Anthology. any revered person. rather than a study of saints. sainthood or saintliness in general.g. is a commemoration of a person's life at his/her funeral. that reflects the form of language used in a certain social situation in which particular subjects are being discussed. a register of months. in assaying metals. Heterology. the study of fermentation Ologies that are not fields of study Words ending in -ology that are not fields of study. Onology. the study of animals Zymology. the art and career of using cosmetics to improve beauty. because it is not the study (-ologia) of love (philo-). joke religion worshiping Kibo. Kibology. Homology. Cosmetology.
Trilogy (although not strictly an -ology) is a body of writing in three parts. a set of words and/or phrases. External links • • • • • What's OLogy? List of ologies Another list of ologies The famous British "ology" advert A list of science ologies -scope is a suffix used in English denoting viewing and observing. finderscope fluoroscope gastroscope gonioscope gyroscope horoscope iconoscope . the jargon of the racecourse. It derives from the scientific Latin suffix -scopium. Reflexology. Other words such as pentalogy. List • • • • • • • • • • • • Cinemascope cystoscope electroscope endoscope Episcopal from Greek episkopos. an abnormality of the heart consisting of four deformities that often occur together. to examine. or the special words or phrases used in certain occupations. A Zumology is a treatise on the firmentation of liquors. meaning "overseer" and hence "bishop". as only a few of a very numerous category. which in turn originates from the ancient Greek verb skopein. and heptalogy or septology cover larger series.g. therapy or pressure on certain points of the sole of the feet as a means of relieving nervous tension. Tautology. Scientology. meaning a viewing instrument. 'mathematical terminology'. the belief system/cult religion founded by L. selfdescribed as a study of knowledge. the use of tropes in speech or writing. Ron Hubbard. a self-affirming truth. hexalogy. journalese. Tropology. Terminology. as tetralogy is that in four parts. Piphilology seems to be a borderline case with some aspects of a field of study. usually in relation to some particular canon or field of study e. Tetralogy of Fallot.• • • • • • • • • of register (phraseology) are: (obscene) slang. legal language (legalese). alternative method of massage. but not a scientific discipline.
One should not confuse these with similar retail groupings which use the separate suffix "-wear" such as menswear. especially the various manifestations of software. such as freeware or shareware types of products named after their constituent materials (such as glassware or copperware). childrenswear or sleepwear. List of examples Examples include: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Abandonware Adware Baitware Basketware Be-ware Beerware Bloatware Careware Chinaware Copperware Corningware Crippleware Cyberware Donationware Drinkware Firmware Flatware .• • • • • • • • • • • • interscope kaleidoscope kinescope kinetoscope laryngoscope macroscope microscope oscilloscope periscope spectroscope stethoscope telescope Words that end in "-ware" seem to fall into different categories: • • • computing terms. classified mainly according to their method of distribution. this and the following usage comes from the word ware meaning manufactured goods such those stored in a warehouse general groupings of items available for sale or use (such as giftware or noncomputer hardware).
"to write".) is an English suffix derived from the Greek verb γραφειν (graphein). This is why some of the words listed below do not end in -ography (such as calligraphy).root of biography stems from Greek βιος (bio s). as the <o> is actually part of the Greek root that receives the -graphy ending. Some non-study ographies are the following: • Autobiography.• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Freeware Giftware Glassware Guiltware Hardware Ironware Kitchenware Malware Metalware Middleware Nagware Netware Payware Postcardware Scareware Software Shareware Silverware Spyware Stemware Tableware Tupperware Vaporware Wetware See also • warez -graphy or -ography or -igraphy (etc. life. the bio. -ography is not a suffix but an informal word (noun form -graphic) denoting a field of study or academic discipline ending in the noun combining form -ography. The word ography is thus misleading. then French. the biography of a person written by that person . In other contexts. The word ography is therefore a back-formation from the names of these disciplines. For example. before becoming English -y. which passed through Latin. plus the abstract noun suffix -ia in Greek.
the art. distribution. the art of writing hidden messages Stenography. the study and making of maps Demography. the study of spatial relationships on the Earth's surface Hagiography. an account of a person's life Calligraphy. such as size. the art of creating and arranging dances or ballets Cryptography. the art of writing in shorthand Tasseography. the science and study of mountains Selenography. the art of fine handwriting Choreography. the study and mapping of the physical features of the Moon Uranography. the study of saints Historiography. the study of the study of history Oceanography. the study and mapping of stars and space objects . the exploration and scientific study of the ocean and its phenomena Orography. practice. the study of the physical features of the planet Mars Cartography. the study of the characteristics of human populations. the language of flowers Orthography. the art of reading tea leaves Some study-related ographies are the following: • • • • • • • • • • Areography. rules of correct writing Photography.• • • • • • • • • • • Bibliography. the art of hiding the content of information Floriography. or occupation of taking and printing photographs Steganography. and vital statistics Geography. a list of writings used or considered by an author in preparing a particular work Biography. density. growth.
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