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The formulas and calculations which appear below should be used for estimating purposes only. It is the responsibility of the customer to specify the required motor Hp, Torque, and accelerating time for his application. The salesman may wish to check the customers specified values with the formulas in this section, however, if there is serious doubt concerning the customers application or if the customer requires guaranteed motor/application performance, the Product Department Customer Service group should be contacted.

**Rules Of Thumb (Approximation)
**

At 1800 rpm, a motor develops a 3 lb.ft. per hp At 1200 rpm, a motor develops a 4.5 lb.ft. per hp At 575 volts, a 3-phase motor draws 1 amp per hp At 460 volts, a 3-phase motor draws 1.25 amp per hp At 230 volts a 3-phase motor draws 2.5 amp per hp At 230 volts, a single-phase motor draws 5 amp per hp At 115 volts, a single-phase motor draws 10 amp per hp

Mechanical Formulas

HP x 5250 Torque in lb.ft. = rpm HP = 5250 Torque x rpm rpm = No. of Poles 120 x Frequency

Temperature Conversion

Deg C = (Deg F - 32) x 5/9 Deg F = (Deg C x 9/5) + 32

**High Inertia Loads
**

WK2 x rpm t= 308 x T av. WK2 x rpm T= 308 x t Load rpm inertia reflected to motor = Load Inertia Motor rpm 2 WK2 = inertia in lb.ft.2 t = accelerating time in sec. T = Av. accelerating torque lb.ft..

Synchronous Speed, Frequency And Number Of Poles Of AC

0 -5.3 -7.0-9.19 11.99 20.0 -8.0-17.99 14.54 3.99 Code S T U V KVA/HP 16.14 3.0-11.0-22.99 10.Motors 120 x f ns = P f= 120 P x ns P= ns 120 x f Relation Between Horsepower.99 4.n % Slip = ns Code KVA/HP A B C D E 0-3.49 4. And Speed Txn HP = 5250 T= n 5250 HP n= T 5250 HP Motor Slip ns .99 Code L M N P R KVA/HP 9.4 & Up x 100 Symbols I E KW KVA HP n ns P f T EFF PF = current in amperes = voltage in volts = power in kilowatts = apparent power in kilo-volt-amperes = output power in horsepower = motor speed in revolutions per minute (RPM) = synchronous speed in revolutions per minute (RPM) = number of poles = frequency in cycles per second (CPS) = torque in pound-feet = efficiency as a decimal = power factor as a decimal Equivalent Inertia .0 -4.99 8.59 5.29 6.99 Code KVA/HP F G H I K 5.0-19.6 -6.15-3. Torque.1 -7.55-3.99 18.49 12.39 22.5 -4.5-13.2-12.09 7.0-15.

ft. plus the WK2 of the load times (1/3)2.ft. PM RPM PM RPM 2 Note: reducer RPM = Load RPM 1 WK 2 EQ 1 2 + WK 2 Load = WK 2 pm + WK 2 Red.2 (as seen at output shaft) 3:1 GEAR REDUCER WK2 = 27. inertia should be calculated first at low speed. . RPM WK 2 EQ Load RPM 2 + WK 2 Load = WK 2 pm + WK 2 Red.000 lb.ft.2 PRIME MOVER WK2 = 900 lb. when a part is rotating at a speed (N) different from the prime mover.2 LOAD The formula states that the system WK2 equivalent is equal to the sum of WK2parts at the prime mover's RPM. 3 3 2 The WK2 equivalent is equal to the WK2 of the prime mover. WK2 = 100 lb. Thus. plus the WK2 of the load. Let's look at a simple system which has a prime mover (PM). all rotating parts do not usually operate at the same speed. or in this case: Red. we need to determine the "equivalent inertia" of each moving part at a particular speed of the prime mover.In mechanical systems. referenced to prime mover speed. plus the WK2 of the reducer times (1/3)2. This relationship of the reducer to the driven load is expressed by the formula given earlier: Npart WK2EQ = WK2part Nprime mover 2 In other words. the WK2EQ is equal to the WK2 of the part's speed ratio squared. a reducer and a load. For variable-speed devices. The total equivalent WK2 for a system is the sum of the WK2 of each part. This is equal to the WK2 of the prime mover. The equation says: Npart WK2EQ = WK2part Nprime mover 2 This equation becomes a common denominator on which other calculations can be based.

ft.ft. E = Volts.2Red + 3.ft.000 lb.2 The total WK2 equivalent is that WK2 seen by the prime mover at its speed.000 lb. pf = Power Factor.73 x E x Eff x pf Kw x 1000 Three-Phase HP x 746 I = Amperes.ft.73 x I x E x Eff x pff 1000 1.2 1 3 2 Finally: WK2EQ = lb.2pm + 100 lb.73 x I x E x pf 1.ft2Load WK2EQ = 3200 lb. the result can be obtained as follows: The WK2 equivalent is equal to: 1 WK2EQ = 100 lb. Eff = Efficiency.ft. Kva = Kilovolt-amperes. Electrical Formulas Alternating Current To Find Single-Phase HP x 746 Amperes when horsepower is known E x Eff x pf Kw x 1000 Amperes when kilowatts are known E x pf Kva x 1000 Amperes when kva are known E I x E x pf Kilowatts 1000 IxE Kva 1000 I x E x Eff x pf Horsepower = (Output) 746 746 1000 1.73 x E 1.73 x E x pf Kva x 1000 1.2 + 900 lb.73 x I x E 1.2 3 2 + 27.ft. Kw = Kilowatts .In the example.

460 Volts.000 ft-lb of work per minute.9 Amperes (possible range) See: KVA/HP Chart Effect Of Line Voltage On Locked Rotor Current (IL) (Approx. = 107 Amperes Basic Horsepower Calculations Horsepower is work done per unit of time. 3 Phase. Code F.) ELINE IL @ ELINE = IL @ EN/P x EN/P EXAMPLE:Motor has a locked rotor current (inrush of 100 Amperes (IL) at the rated nameplate voltage (EN/P) of 230 volts.6 or 6. HP = 33. or 2 TM When rotation is at the rate N rpm. 577 x 10 x (5. the work done is: radius x 2 x rpm x lb.250 TN . What is IL with 245 volts (ELINE) applied to this motor? IL @ 245 V.25 or 78. the HP delivered is: radius x 2 x rpm x lb. = 100 x 254V/230V IL @ 245V.29) IL = 460 IL = 70. When work is done by a source of torque (T) to produce (M) rotations about an axis.000 = 5. One HP equals 33.Locked Rotor Current (IL) From Nameplate Data 577 x HP x KVA/HP Three Phase: IL = E 1000 x HP x KVA/HP Single Phase: IL = E EXAMPLE:Motor nameplate indicates 10 HP.

in. Developed Pressure varies with square of fan speed. the eff. Per sq. to be raised by motor S = hoisting speed in feet per minute E = overall mechanical efficiency of hoist and gearing. x Specific Grav. For purposes of estimating E = .For vertical or hoisting motion: WxS HP = 33. HP = 1713 x Mechanical Efficiency of Pump Or . ft.) HP = 3300 x Mechanical Efficiency of Fan Or Volume (cfm) x Pressure (lb. Note: Air Capacity (cfm) varies directly with fan speed. of a fan or blower may be assumed to be 0. For pumps: GPM x Pressure in lb. Hp varies with cube of fan speed.65.65 for eff. in. Per sq.) HP = 229 x Mechanical Efficiency of Fan For purpose of estimating.000 x E Where: W = total weight in lbs. of hoist and connected gear. For fans and blowers: Volume (cfm) x Head (inches of water) HP = 6356 x Mechanical Efficiency of Fan Or Volume (cfm) x Pressure (lb. Per sq.

) 2 WK = Equivalent Inertia 308 = Constant of proportionality Or WK2N TAcc = 308t The constant (308) is derived by transferring linear motion to angular motion.G. pump efficiency may be assumed at 0. we have simply a prime mover and a load with no speed adjustment: Example 1 PRIME LOADER WK2 = 200 lb. times the change in RPM. and considering acceleration due to gravity. for example.) ACCELERATING TORQUE = 308t Where: N = Change in RPM W = Weight in Lbs. starting or accelerating the system requires extra energy. K = Radius of gyration t = Time of acceleration (secs.ft.ft.2 .70. Accelerating Torque The equivalent inertia of an adjustable speed drive indicates the energy required to keep the system running.ft.GPM x Total Dynamic Head in Feet x S. If. However. HP = 3960 x Mechanical Efficiency of Pump where Total Dynamic Head = Static Head + Friction Head For estimating. The torque required to accelerate a body is equal to the WK2 of the body. divided by 308 times the interval (in seconds) in which this acceleration takes place: WK2N (in lb.2 LOAD WK2 = 800 lb.

enough information is available to find the amount of torque necessary to accelerate the load. in 60 seconds. At any speed of the blower. The formula states: WK2EQN TAcc = 308t TAcc = 97. of torque must be applied to get this load turning at 1800 RPM.2 (WR2 of driven machinery must be referred to the motor shaft). Note that TAcc is an average value of accelerating torque during the speed change under consideration.lb.2 If we want to accelerate this load to 1800 RPM in 1 minute.ft. t = Time the motor takes to accelerate from the initial speed to the final speed. Figure A shows the speed-torque curves of a squirrel-cage induction motor and a blower which it drives.4 lb. Example 2 The time that it takes to accelerate an induction motor from one speed to another may be found from the following equation: WR2 x change in rpm t= 308 x T Where: T = Average value of accelerating torque during the speed change under consideration. 97. or moment of inertia. Reference to Figure A shows that the accelerating torque may vary or 308 x 60 1000 x 1800 or 18480 1800000 . If a more accurate calculation is desired. The Application of the above formula will now be considered by means of an example.ft. for the driven machinery plus the motor rotor in lb.4 lb. the difference between the torque which the motor can deliver at its shaft and the torque required by the blower is the torque available for acceleration.ft. the following example may be helpful. WR2 = Flywheel effect. In other words.The WK2EQ is determined as before: WK2EQ = WK2pm + WK2Load WK2EQ = 200 + 800 WK2EQ = 1000 ft.

ft.ft.26 ft. T4 = 43.8 lb. The solid horizontal lines in Figure A represent the boundaries of strips.ft.greatly with speed.4 lb. T3 = 47 lb. T6 = 36. the lengths of the broken lines the average accelerating torques for the selected speed intervals. T9 = 11 lb. And the total time of acceleration is: WR2 308 Or 18.lb.ft.2.8 lb.ft.2 and the WR2 of the blower referred to the motor shaft is 15 ft. In order to calculate the total acceleration time for the motor and the direct-coupled blower it is necessary to find the time required to accelerate the motor from the beginning of one speed interval to the beginning of the next interval and add up the incremental times for all intervals to arrive at the total acceleration time. When the speed-torque curves for the motor and blower intersect there is no torque available for acceleration. the ends of which approximate straight lines.8 lb.26 ft.4 200 + 32.8 300 + 39.ft.2.ft. T7 = 32. T8 = 29. Each strip corresponds to a speed increment which takes place within a definite time interval.26 = 18.lb.75 sec. 46 150 + 48 150 + 47 300 + 43.8 200 + 36. In order to find the total time required to accelerate the motor and blower. T2 = 48 lb. Figure A Curves used to determine time required to accelerate induction motor and blower Accelerating Torques T1 = 46 lb. If the WR2 of the motor whose speed-torque curve is given in Figure A is 3.26 t= 308 t = 2.6 lb. the area between the motor speed-torque curve and the blower speed-torque curve is divided into strips.6 100 + 11 40 rpm1 + T1 T2 rpm2 + T3 rpm3 +---------+ T9 rpm9 .ft.lb.ft. The motor then drives the blower at constant speed and just delivers the torque required by the load.8 300 + 29. the total WR2 is: 15 + 3. T5 = 39.

b. When the motor is multi-speed. stops or reversals. d. . For example. None of the above notes contain enough information to make the necessary duty cycle calculation. to determine if the type of design required falls within our present product line. In order for a duty cycle to be checked out. the cycle for each speed must be 2. or the motor may be stopped by some means then re-started in the opposite direction. DC dynamic braking or plugging.Duty Cycles Sales Orders are often entered with a note under special features such as: "Suitable for 10 starts per hour" Or "Suitable for 3 reverses per minute" Or "Motor to be capable of accelerating 350 lb. c. A reversal can be accomplished by plugging. The appropriate product group must first be consulted to see if a design is available that will perform the required duty cycle and. e. Accurate timing of each portion of the cycle. Inertia reflected to the motor shaft. Torque load on the motor during all portions of the duty cycle including starts. running time. the duty cycle information must include the following: a.2" Or "Suitable for 5 starts and stops per hour" Orders with notes such as these can not be processed for two reasons. mechanical braking. Information on how each step of the cycle is accomplished. a stop can be by coasting. if not.ft. 1.

indexers. shakers (foundry or car). car-pulling. press-type extractors. Obtaining this information and checking with the product group before the order is entered can save much time. and certain freight and passenger vehicles. It is the product of the slip speed and the torque absorbed by the load per unit of time which generates heat in these drive components. swaging and washing machines.cinder block machines. Duty cycle refers to the detailed description of a work cycle that repeats in a specific time period. kneading. gate. All Rights Reserved. drawbridges. boring machines. Adequate thermal capacity would be required in slip couplings. plugging stops. freight and personnel elevators. clutches or motors to accelerate or plug-stop these drives or to withstand stalls. some feeders. certain cranes.presses of certain types. 1998 Copyright ©2007.or plowpositioning drives. expense and correspondence. including the method of changing from one speed to another. The drives for these loads must be capable of absorbing the heat generated during the duty cycles. dampers. . keyseating.f. Any special mechanical problems. The list is not allinclusive. All the events which occur during the duty cycle generate heat which the drive components must dissipate. it is necessary for the sales engineer to refer to the Product Department for motor sizing with a duty cycle application. features or limitations. Last Updated September 1. These characteristics are usually involved in batch-type processes and may include tumbling barrels. Because of the complexity of the Duty Cycle Calculations and the extensive engineering data per specific motor design and rating required for the calculations. completely defined. reversals or stalls. shovels and draglines. Baldor Electric Company. This cycle may include frequent starts. hoists.

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