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M ECN 4016 Aerodynamics
Assignment –
“M et hods of Det ermining t he Low Speed Dow nw a sh Angle on a n Aft Ta il”
Jameson Bent ley
Thando Tshabalala
06 June 2011
M ECN 4016 Uni ver si t y of t he Wi t w at er sr and
School of Aer onaut i cal Engi neer i ng
1
Abst r act
Var i ous met hods wer e appl i ed t o est i mat e t he downw ash angle of a w i ng at a ver y l ow M ach
number , and t he ef f ect t hi s w oul d have on t he ef f ect i ve angle of at t ack of a t ai l af t of t he w i ng. The
t heor y f or t he anal ysi s i s based ar ound Pr andt l ’ s Li f t i ng Li ne Theor y, w her e cal cul at i ons w er e
per f or med usi ng M i cr osof t Excel and M at l ab. The t heor y w as compar ed t o empi r i cal dat a obt ai ned
f r om per f or mi ng wi nd t unnel t est s of t he same dow nw ash scenar i o. Fur t her model s w er e
est abl i shed usi ng Vor t ex Panel M et hod Tor nado, r un i n M at l ab, as w el l as a DATCOM anal ysi s. Fr om
t he f our met hods of anal ysi s i t w as f ound t hat t he dow nw ash angl e pr oduced by a rect angul ar
NACA0015 (w i t h chor d 0.08m and span 0.48m at an ai r speed of 33.57m/ s) w as a f unct i on of angle
of at t ack. Thi s f unct i on w as r epr esent ed by a l i near r el at i onshi p as ant i ci pat ed f r om t he t heor y.
Fur t her mor e i t w as val i dat ed t hat t he i nf l uence coef f ici ent s w er e a f unct i on of w i ng geomet r y and
r emai ned const ant w i t h changi ng angl es of at t ack. Ther ef or e t he dow nw ash angl e var ied w i t h t he
val ue f or l i f t coef f i ci ent . It w as al so f ound t hat t he spanw i se l ocat i on at a const ant di st ance af t of t he
w i ng changed t he dow nw ash angl e because i t changed bot h t he l i f t coef f i ci ent and t he i nf l uence
coef f i ci ent s. Thi s r el at i onshi p w as r at her more compl ex and r equi r ed numeri cal i t er at i on and mat r i x
met hods t o sol ve. The DATCOM anal ysi s r eveal ed a per f ect l y l i near r el at i onshi p bet w een li f t
coef f i ci ent and dow nw ash angl e and a si mi l arl y li near r el at i onshi p bet w een dow nw ash and angl e of
at t ack.
M ECN 4016 Uni ver si t y of t he Wi t w at er sr and
School of Aer onaut i cal Engi neer i ng
2
Decl ar at i on
Group declarat ion w it h joint t ask submit t ed f or assessment
We, t he under si gned, ar e r egi st er ed f or M ECN 4016, Aerodynamics i n t he year 2011. We
her ew i t h submi t t he f ol l ow i ng t ask,
“M et hods of Det ermining t he Low Speed Dow nw a sh Angle on a n Aft Ta il”
i n par t i al f ul f il ment of t he r equi r ement s of t he above cour se.
We her eby decl ar e t he f ol l ow i ng:
We ar e aw ar e t hat pl agi ari sm (t he use of someone el se’ s w or k wi t hout t hei r per mi ssi on
and/ or w i t hout acknow l edgi ng t he or i gi nal sour ce) i s w r ong.
We conf i r m t hat t he w or k submi t t ed her ew i t h f or assessment i n t he above cour se i s our
ow n unai ded w or k except w her e w e have been expl i cit l y i ndi cat ed ot her w i se.
Thi s t ask has not been submi t t ed bef or e, ei t her indi vi duall y or j oi nt l y, f or any cour se
r equi r ement , exami nat i on or degr ee at t hi s or any ot her t er t i ar y educat i onal i nst i t ut i on.
We have f ol l ow ed t he r equi r ed convent i ons i n r ef er enci ng t he t hought s and i deas of ot her s.
We under st and t hat t he Uni ver si t y of t he Wi t w at er sr and may t ake disci pli nar y act i on agai nst
us i f i t can be show n t hat t hi s t ask i s not our ow n unai ded w or k or t hat w e have f ail ed t o
acknow l edge t he sour ces of t he i deas or w or ds i n our w r i t i ng i n t hi s t ask.
Si gned t hi s, t he ____________ day of ________________ i n t he year ___________.
St udent number St udent name Signat ure % cont ribut ion
324628 Thando Tshabal al a 50.0
0616194H Jameson Bent l ey 50.0
M ECN 4016 Uni ver si t y of t he Wi t w at er sr and
School of Aer onaut i cal Engi neer i ng
3
Cont ent s
Abst r act ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 1
Decl ar at i on ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 2
Li st of Fi gur es ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 5
Li st of Tabl es ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 6
1. Int r oduct i on ................................ ................................ ................................ .............................. 7
1.1. Backgr ound Inf or mat i on ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 7
1.2. Li t er at ur e ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................... 9
The Dow nw ash Af t of an Unsw ept Wi ng (3) ................................ ................................ ............... 9
2. Obj ect i ves ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ 17
3. Anal ysi s ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 18
3.1. Pr andt l ’ s Li f t i ng Li ne Theor y ................................ ................................ ............................. 18
3.2. DATCOM ................................ ................................ ................................ .......................... 20
4. Exper i ment at i on ................................ ................................ ................................ ...................... 21
4.1. CFD (Tor nado) ................................ ................................ ................................ .................. 21
4.2. Wi ndt unnel Test ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 22
4.2.1. Appar at us ................................ ................................ ................................ ................. 22
4.2.2. Pr ocedur e................................ ................................ ................................ ................. 25
4.2.3. Obser vat i ons ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 25
5. Resul t s ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 26
6. Di scussi on ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ 30
6.1. Thando Tshabal al a ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 30
6.2. Jameson Bent l ey ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 30
7. Concl usi ons and Recommendat i ons ................................ ................................ ......................... 34
7.1. Thando Tshabal al a ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 34
7.2. Jameson Bent l ey ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 34
8. Ref er ences ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................... 36
M ECN 4016 Uni ver si t y of t he Wi t w at er sr and
School of Aer onaut i cal Engi neer i ng
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9. Appendi x ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ . 37
M ECN 4016 Uni ver si t y of t he Wi t w at er sr and
School of Aer onaut i cal Engi neer i ng
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Li st of Fi gur es
Fi gur e 1: Var i at i on of Dow nw ash w i t h l i f t coef f i ci ent ................................ ................................ ......... 7
Fi gur e 2: Var i at i on of maximum dow nw ash angl e i n t he symmet r y plane w i t h Cl f or a Cl ar k Y aer of oi l
................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .......................... 8
Fi gur e 3: Compari son of cal cul at ed and exper iment al dow nw ash at t he t ai l of t he mi dwi ng
monopl ane model (Sil ver st ei n, S and Bul l i vant 1939) ................................ ................................ ......... 9
Fi gur e 4: Pr andt l ' s model f or t he bound vor t i ci t y and t he t r ai l i ng vor t ex sheet gener at ed by a f i ni t e
w i ng (Phi ll i ps, et al . 2002) ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 10
Fi gur e 5: Schemat i c of t he vor t i ci t y r oll up behi nd a f i ni t e wi ng wi t h ell i pt i cal pl anf or m shapeb
(Phi ll i ps, et al . 2002) ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................ 11
Fi gur e 6; t he vor t ex used f or est imat i ng t he dow nw ash a f ew chor d l engt hs or mor e af t of an
unsw ept w i ng (Phil li ps, et al . 2002)................................ ................................ ................................ .. 12
Fi gur e 7: The w i ng t i p vor t ex st r engt h f act or as pr edi ct ed f r om t he ser i es sol ut i on t o Pr andt l ’ s l i f t i ng
l i ne t heor y (Phil li ps, et al . 2002) ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 15
Fi gur e 8: The w i ngt i p vor t ex span f act or as pr edi ct ed f r om t he ser i es sol ut i on t o Pr andt l ' s l i f t i ng l i ne
t heor y (Phi l li ps, et al . 2002) ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 15
Fi gur e 9: The ef f ect of t ai l posi t i on on t he dow nw ash angl e i n t he pl ane of symmet r y af t of an
unsw ept w i ng (Phil li ps, et al . 2002)................................ ................................ ................................ .. 16
Fi gur e 10: Pl an vi ew of t he Cont i nuous Wi nd Tunnel used f or t he t est ................................ ............. 22
Fi gur e 11: The conf i gur at i on of t he w i ng and t ai l as set up i n t he cont i nuous w i nd t unnel ............... 23
Fi gur e 12: Bubbl e i ncl i nomet er ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 24
Fi gur e 13: Dow nw ash angl e ver sus semi spanw i se posit i on, usi ng Pr ant dl ’ s LLT .............................. 26
Fi gur e 14: Var i at i on i n dow nw ash angl e w i t h AoA f or bot h Pr ant dl ’ s LLT and t he w i ndt unnel t est ... 27
Fi gur e 15: Rel at i onshi p bet w een dow nw ash angl e and l i f t coef f i ci ent accor di ng t o Pr ant dl ’ s LLT, and
t he DATCOM anal ysi s ................................ ................................ ................................ ...................... 27
Fi gur e 16: Li f t coef f i ci ent ver sus AoA f or Pr ant dl ’ s LLT compar ed t o t he t heor et i cal val ue. .............. 28
Fi gur e 17: Li f t coef f i ci ent ver sus AoA f or t he w i nd t unnel exper iment compar ed t o t he t heor et i cal
val ue. ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 29
Fi gur e 18: Spanw i se var i at i on i n l if t coef f i ci ent pr oduced by Vor t ex Panel M et hod Tor nado. ........... 38
Fi gur e 19: Spanwi se var i at i on i n normali zed f or ce over t he sur f ace of t he w i ng, accor di ng t o panel
met hods r un i n Tor nado. ................................ ................................ ................................ ................. 39
M ECN 4016 Uni ver si t y of t he Wi t w at er sr and
School of Aer onaut i cal Engi neer i ng
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Li st of T abl es
Tabl e 1: Resul t s as publ i shed f r om DATCOM ................................ ................................ ................... 20
Tabl e 2: Geomet r i c char act er i st i cs of t he w i ng and t ai l sect i ons ................................ ...................... 23
Tabl e 3: Gr oup member r esponsi bi l i t y ................................ ................................ ............................. 37
M ECN 4016 Uni ver si t y of t he Wi t w at er sr and
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1 . I nt r oduct i on
1 .1 . Back gr ound I nfor mat i on
It has l ong been know n t hat t he angle of dow nw ash, as obser ved at a gi ven poi nt behi nd t he
aer of oi l , i s di r ect l y pr opor t i onal t o t he l i f t of t he aer of oi l (Br . A.C.A. R. & M . No.196) and i nver sel y
pr opor t i onal t o t he aspect r at i o (Lanchest er “ Aer i al Fl i ght ” Vol . 1, Chapt er 8, Br . A.C.A. R. & M .
No.191).
Thi s has been det ermi ned exper iment all y by Hunk and dat a f r om f i ve ser i es of dow nw ash
det er mi nat i ons have been pl ot t ed bel ow , w i t h angl e of dow nw ash as or di nat es and l i f t coef f i ci ent s
as absci ssa. It i s evi dent f r om i nspect i on of t he gr aph bel ow t hat t he dow nw ash angl e var i es di rect l y
w i t h l i f t coef f i ci ent . The val i di t y of t he r esul t s obt ai ned i s obvi ousl y conf i ned t o t hat r ange of angl e
of at t ack of l i f t coef f i cient i n w hi ch t he f l ow about t he aer of oil i n w hi ch t he f l ow i s not abnor mal ly
t ur bul ent . (Di ehl 1921)
Figure 1: Variat ion of Dow nw ash w it h lif t coeff icient
M ECN 4016 Uni ver si t y of t he Wi t w at er sr and
School of Aer onaut i cal Engi neer i ng
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Si mil ar r esul t w her e al so f ound by Si lver st ei n w her eby i f i t w as assumed t hat , f or a w i ng w i t hout
t w i st , t he span l oad di st r i but i ons ( or ci r cul at i on di st r i but i on) ar e si mi lar at al l angl es of at t ack, i t
f ol l ow s t hat dow nw ash shoul d be pr opor t i onal t o t he l i f t coef f i ci ent . Thi s i s pr opor t i onal i t y i s show n
i n (L and E 1999).
Si l verst ei n obt ai ned dow nw ash angl es exper iment all y by compar i ng t ai l of f pi t chi ng moment s w i t h
t ai l on pi t chi ng moment s obt ai ned at di f f er ent st abi l i zer set t i ngs. The st abil i zer set t i ngs
cor r espondi ng t o zer o l oad on t he t ai l w er e f ound by i nt er pol at i on or ext r apol at i on. Fr om t hese
val ues, t he cor r espondi ng angl es of at t ack of t he ai r pl ane, and t he j et boundar y cor r ect i ons, t he
dow nw ash angles ar e der i ved. The agr eement bet w een t heor y and experi ment i s show n i n (Diehl
1921) t o be sat i sf act or y except at higher angles of at t ack, w her e t he t i ps ar e st al led. This w as seen as
f avour abl e as f avour abl e as t he model used w as w ell st r eaml i ned and had a rel at ively smal l f usel age.
It i s l i kel y t hat , si mil ar t o t hi s exampl e, i nt er f er ence w i ll be small i n moder n car ef ul ly st r eaml i ned
ai r pl anes.
The t heor et i cal comput at i ons w her e done by means of t he Bi ot Savar t equat i on, t he t heor et i cal
span l oad di st r i but i on, and t he l i f t i ng l i ne concept . (Si lver st ei n, S and Bul l i vant 1939)
Figure 2: Variat ion of maximum dow nw ash angle in t he symmet ry plane w it h Cl f or
a Clark Y aerof oil
M ECN 4016 Uni ver si t y of t he Wi t w at er sr and
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Figure 3: Comparison of calculat ed and experiment al downw ash at t he t ail of t he midw ing
monoplane model (Silverst ein, S and Bullivant 1939)
1 .2 . Li t er at ur e
T he Dow nw ash Aft of an Unsw ept Wi ng ( Phi l l i ps, et al . 2 0 0 2 )
The w el l know n i nf i ni t e ser i es sol ut i on t o Pr andt l ’ s cl assi cal l i ne equat i on appl ies t o a si ngl e f i ni t e
w i ng wi t h no sw eep or di hedr al , havi ng an ar bi t r ar y spanw i se vari at i on i n chor d l engt h. Thi s sol ut i on
i s based on t he change of var i abl es
Equat ion 1
The var i at i on i n sect i on ci r cul at i on al ong t he span of t he w i ng, as pr edi ct ed by t hi s sol ut i on, i s
Equat ion 2
M ECN 4016 Uni ver si t y of t he Wi t w at er sr and
School of Aer onaut i cal Engi neer i ng
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Hi st or i call y, t he coef f i ci ent s i n t hi s i nf i ni t e ser i es solut i on may have been usual l y eval uat ed f r om
col l ocat i on met hods. Typi cal l y t he ser i es i s t r uncat ed t o a f i ni t e number of t er ms and t he coef f i ci ent s
i n t he f i ni t e seri es ar e eval uat ed by r equi ri ng t he li f t i ngl i ne equat i on t o be sat i sf ied at a number of
spanw i se l ocat i ons equal t o t he number of t er ms i n t he ser i es. A very st r aight f or w ar d met hod w as
f i r st pr esent ed by Gl auer t (Gl auer t 1959). M ost r ecent l y, Rasmussen and Smi t h (L and E 1999) have
pr esent ed a mor e r i gor ous and r api dl y conver gi ng met hod, based on a Four i er ser i es expansi on
si mil ar t o t hat f i r st used by Lot s and Kar amchet i (Kar amchet i 1966).
Usi ng Equat i on 1 and Equat i on 2and t he f ol l ow i ng equat i on f or bound vor t i ci t y
The spanw i se var i at i on of shed vor t i ci t y i s
Equat ion 3
The dow nw ash t hat i s pr edi ct ed di r ect l y f r om Equat i on 3 i s not accur at e i n t he r egi on behi nd t he
w i ng. Thi s i s because t he devel opment of Equat i on 3 i s based on t he assumpt i on t hat t he vor t ex
f i l ament s t r ai l i ng dow nst r eam f r om t he w i ng ar e all st r ai ght and par al l el t o t he f r eest r eam f l ow , i s
show n i n Fi gure 4. In r eali t y, t he vor t i ci t y t r ai li ng f r om each si de of t he wi ng wi ll r oll up ar ound an
axi s t r ai li ng sl ight l y i nboar d f r om t he w i ngt i p, as i s show n schemat i cal l y f or an el li pt i c w i ng i n Fi gur e
5.
Figure 4: Prandt l' s model f or t he bound vort icit y and t he t railing vort ex sheet generat ed by a f init e
w ing (Phillips, et al. 2002)
M ECN 4016 Uni ver si t y of t he Wi t w at er sr and
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Figure 5: Schemat ic of t he vort icit y rollup behind a f init e w ing w it h ellipt ical planf orm shapeb
(Phillips, et al. 2002)
The r ol l up of t he vor t ex sheet t r ai l i ng behi nd each semi span of t he w i ng can be vi ew ed as a r esul t of
t he vor t ex l i f t i ng l aw (see Saf f man (Saf f man 1992)). Thi s vor t ex l i f t i ng l aw r equi res t hat , i n any
pot ent i al f l ow cont ai ni ng vor t ex f i l ament s, a f or ce i s exer t ed on t he sur r oundi ngs t hat i s
pr opor t i onal t o t he cr oss pr oduct of t he l ocal f l ui d vel oci t y w i t h t he l ocal f i l ament vor t i ci t y. Si nce a
f r ee vor t ex f il ament cannot suppor t a f or ce, t he cr oss pr oduct of t he l ocal f l ui d vor t i ci t y w i t h t he
l ocal f i l ament vor t i ci t y must al w ays be zer o at ever y poi nt al ong a f r ee vor t ex f i l ament . Thi s means
t hat al l f r ee vor t ex f il ament s must f oll ow t he st r eaml i nes of t he f l ow ever yw her e. Thus, t he f r ee
vor t ex f i l ament s t r ai li ng behi nd each semi span of t he w i ng w il l f ol l ow t he st r eamli nes and r ol l up
about t he cent r e of vor t i ci t y shed f r om t hat semi span. Wi t hi n a f ew chor d l engt hs behi nd t he w i ng,
t he vor t ex sheet becomes compl et el y r oll edup t o f orm w i ngt i p vor t i ces. Thi s r ol l up has a si gni f i cant
ef f ect on t he dow nw ash.
Each w i ngt i p vor t ex i s gener at ed f r om t he t r ai l i ng vor t ex sheet pr oduced by onehal f of t he w i ng.
Ther ef or e, a w i ngt i p vor t ex, a f ew chor d l engt hs or mor e behi nd t he w i ng, can be appr oxi mat ed by a
si ngle vor t ex of st r engt h,
w t
, w hi ch i s gi ven by
Equat ion 4
Subst i t ut i ng equat i ons Equat i on 1 and Equat i on 3 i n Equat i on 4 gi ves
Equat ion 5
M ECN 4016 Uni ver si t y of t he Wi t w at er sr and
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Per f or mi ng t he i ndi cat ed i nt egr at i on, w e have
Equat ion 6
Figure 6; t he vort ex used f or est imat ing t he dow nw ash a f ew chord lengt hs or more af t of an
unsw ept w ing (Phillips, et al. 2002)
When compar i ng t he dow nw ash a f ew chor d l engt hs or mor e dow nst r eam f r om a f i ni t e w i ng, w e
can appr oxi mat e t he r ol l edup vor t ex sheet as a si ngl e hor seshoe shaped vor t ex f i l ament of st r engt h
w t
, as show n i n Fi gure 6. The dist ance bet w een t he t r ai l i ng vor t i ces, b’ , i s l ess t han t he w i ngspan
because t he vor t ex sheet f r om each si de of t he w i ng rol l s up ar ound t he cent r e of vor t i ci t y, w hi ch i s
somew hat i nboar d f r om t he w i ngt i p. The hor seshoe f i l ament st ar t s at an i nf i ni t e di st ance
dow nst r eam f r om a poi nt sl i ght ly i nboar d of t he l ef t wi ngt i p, (∞,0,b’/2) and runs upstream along the
l ef t w i ngt i p vor t ex t o t he lef t w i ng, (0,0,b’ / 2). Fr om her e i t r uns acr oss t he quar t er chor d t o a poi nt
sl i ght l y i nboar d of t he r ight w i ngt i p vor t ex t o i nf i ni t y, (∞,0, b’ / 2). Fr om t he Bi ot Savar t l aw , t he y
vel oci t y component i nduced at any poi nt (x, y, z) by t hi s ent i r e hor seshoe vor t ex i s
Equat ion 7
M ECN 4016 Uni ver si t y of t he Wi t w at er sr and
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Si nce t he vor t ex sheet shed f r om each semi span of t he w i ng r ol l s up about t he cent r e of vor t i ci t y,
w e have
Equat ion 8
Usi ng Equat i on 4 i n Equat i on 8 gi ves
Equat ion 9
Now , appl yi ng Eqs. 5, 7, and 10, t hi s can be r ew r i t t en as
Equat ion 10
The i nt egr at i on w i t h r espect t o i n Eq. 14 i s r eadi l y car r i ed out t o gi ve
Equat ion 11
Usi ng Eq. 15 i n Eq. 14 r esul t s i n
Equat ion 12
Because t he dow nw ash is smal l compar ed t o t he f r eest r eam vel oci t y, t he dow nw ash angl e,
d
, can
be appr oxi mat ed as t he dow nw ash vel oci t y di vi ded by t he f r eest r eam vel oci t y. Thus, appl yi ng Eq. 10
M ECN 4016 Uni ver si t y of t he Wi t w at er sr and
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and Eq. 16 t o Eq. 11 t he dow nw ash angl e a f ew chor d l engt hs or mor e dow nst r eam f r om an i nsw ept
w i ng i s appr oximat ed as
Equat ion 13
Wher e
Equat ion 14
Equat ion 15
Equat ion 16
Equat ion 17
Equat ion 18
M ECN 4016 Uni ver si t y of t he Wi t w at er sr and
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The di mensi onl ess paramet er s K
v
and K
b
depend on t he pl anf or m shape of t he wi ng. For an ell i pt i cal
w i ng, al l t he coef f i ci ent s, B
n
, i n t he i nf i ni t e ser i es sol ut i on, except f or t he f i r st ar e zer o. Usi ng t hi s f act
w i t h Equat i on 14, w e f i nd t hat K
v
i s 1.0 f or an ell i pt i c w i ng. Thus, f r om Equat i on 6 and Equat i on 14,
w e see t hat t he vor t ex st r engt h f act or , K
v
, i s t he r at i o of t he wi ngt i p vor t ex st r engt h t o t hat
gener at ed by an ell i pt i c w i ng havi ng t he same l i f t coef f i ci ent and aspect r at i o. The vor t ex span
f act or , K
b
, i s def i ned as t he spaci ng bet w een t he w i ngt i p vor t i ces di vi ded by t he w i ngspan. Bot h K
v
and K
b
w er e det er mi ned anal yt i call y f r om t he ser i es sol ut i on t o Pr andt l ’ s l i f t i ngl i ne equat i on. For an
el li pt i c w i ng w i t h no sw eep, di hedr al , or t w i st K
v
i s 1.0 and K
b
i s π/4. For an unswept wing with no
di hedr al or t w i st , K
v
and K
b
ar e r el at ed t o t he aspect r at i o and t aper r at i o as i s show n i n Fi gur e 7 and
Fi gur e 8.
Figure 7: The w ing t ip vort ex st rengt h f act or as predict ed f rom t he series solut ion t o Prandt l’s
lif t ingline t heory (Phillips, et al. 2002)
Figure 8: The w ingt ip vort ex span f act or as predict ed f rom t he series solut ion t o Prandt l' s lif t ing
line t heory (Phillips, et al. 2002)
The di mensi onless par amet er , K
p
, i s a posi t i on f act or t hat account f or speci al var i at i ons i n
dow nw ash. As a f i r st appr oximat i on, t he var i at i on i n dow nw ash al ong t he span of t he hor i zont al t ai l
i s usuall y negl ect ed. The dow nw ash f or t he ent i r e t ail i s t ypi call y t aken t o be t hat eval uat ed at t he
M ECN 4016 Uni ver si t y of t he Wi t w at er sr and
School of Aer onaut i cal Engi neer i ng
16
aer odynami c cent r e. For asymmet r i c ai r pl ane, t he aer odynami c cent r e of t he t ai l i s i n t he pl ane of
symmet r y. The change i n t he dow nw ash w i t h r espect t o t he spanw i se coor di nat e i s zer o at t he
ai r cr af t pl ane of symmet r y. Fur t her mor e, t he span of t he hor i zont al t ail i s usual ly small compar ed t o
t hat of t he w i ng. Thus, t he dow nw ash i s of t en f ai r l y uni f or m over t hi s span, and a r easonabl e f i r st
appr oxi mat i on f or t he dow nw ash on an af t t ai l i s f ound by set t i ng t he di mensi onl ess spanw i se
coor di nat e, z, equal t o zer o i n Equat i on 16. Thi s gi ves t he r el at i vel y si mpl e r el at i on
Equat ion 19
The t ai l posi t i on f act or , K
p
, depends on t he pl anf or m shape of t he wi ng and t he posi t i on of t he t ai l
r el at i ve t o t he wi ng. The var i at i on of K
p
w i t h t ai l posi t ion i n t he pl ane of symmet r y i s show n i n f ig. 6.
The pl anf or m shape of t he w i ng af f ect s t he val ue of K
p
onl y t hr ough i t s ef f ect on K
b
. Thus, f or a mai n
w i ng wi t h no sw eep or di hedr al , t he val ue of K
p
i n t he pl ane of symmet r y i s a uni que f unct i on of x/ K
b
and y/ K
b
, as i s show n i n Fi gur e 9.
Figure 9: The ef f ect of t ail posit ion on t he dow nwash angle in t he plane of symmet ry af t of an
unsw ept w ing (Phillips, et al. 2002)
Not i ce f r om Fi gur e 7 and Fi gur e 8 t hat t he pl anf or m shape of t he mai n w i ng has a ver y si gni f i cant
ef f ect on t he dow nw ash i nduced on an af t t ail . Si mi lar r esul t s w ere obser ved empi r i call y by Hoak,
but ar e not account ed f or i n t he model pr oposed by M cCor mi ck.
M ECN 4016 Uni ver si t y of t he Wi t w at er sr and
School of Aer onaut i cal Engi neer i ng
17
2 . Obj ect i ves
I. Exper i ment all y est i mat e t he l ow speed dow nw ash angl e on an af t t ai l .
II. Compar e t he resul t s obt ai ned exper iment all y wi t h t heor et i cal comput at i ons f ound by t he
f ol l ow i ng met hods:
a) The modi f i ed analyt i cal t echni que f ounded on Pr andt l ’ s cl assi cal l if t i ng li ne t heor y,
devel oped by W. F. Phil li ps, E.A. Ander son, J.C. Jenki ns, and S. Sunouchi .
b) An empi ri cal met hod.
c) Pr edi ct i ons f ound by Comput at i onal Vor t ex Panel M et hods usi ng M at l abbased code
Tor nado.
M ECN 4016 Uni ver si t y of t he Wi t w at er sr and
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18
3 . Anal ysi s
3 .1 . Pr andt l ’s Li ft i ng Li ne T heor y ( Nei sw ander 2 0 0 8 )
For t he case of an unsw ept w i ng t he spanw i se posi t i on i s gi ven by t he t r ansf or mat i on:
z = −
b
2
cos 0
Wher e z i s t he spanw i se coor di nat e and θ is the angle between the quarterchor d l i ne of t he w i ng
and t he l i ne connect i ng t he w i ngt i p t o t he r oot of t he t ai l quar t er chor d. It i s al so given t hat t he
dow nw ash vel oci t y i s r epr esent ed by t he f undament al equat i on:
w( z
0
) = −
1
4n
J
JΓ
Jz
( z
0
−z)
b
2

b
2
Jz
Conver t i ng t o pol ar coor di nat es usi ng t he t r ansf or mat i on equat i on and appl yi ng t he def i ni t i on of
ci rculation as a function of θ:
Γ( 0) =
2bI
«
C
L
nAR
`
B
n
B
1
si n n0
«
n=1
It can be deduced af t er subst i t ut i on t hat t he dow nw ash angl e i s given by t he equat i on:
s( x, y, z) =
x
u
x
p
C
L
x
h
AR
Wher e t he coef f i ci ent s ar e def i ned as:
«
¡
= 1 + `
B
n
B
1
si n(
nn
2
]
)
«
n=2
«
b
=
n
4
+ ∑
nB
n
( n
2
−1) B
n
cos
nn
2
]
N
n=2
1 + ∑
B
n
B
1
si n(
nn
2
]
)
N
n=2
M ECN 4016 Uni ver si t y of t he Wi t w at er sr and
School of Aer onaut i cal Engi neer i ng
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«
p
=
1
n
2
¦
«
b
( «
b
−z̅)
y
2
+ ( «
b
− z̅)
2
1 +
x̅
.x̅
2
+ y
2
+ ( «
b
− z̅)
2

+
«
b
x̅
x̅
2
+ y
2

«
b
−z̅
.x̅
2
+ y
2
+ ( «
b
− z̅)
2
+
«
b
+ z̅
.x̅
2
+ y
2
+ ( «
b
+ z̅)
2

+
«
b
( «
b
+ z̅)
y
2
+ ( «
b
+ z̅)
2
1 +
x̅
.x̅
2
+ y
2
+ ( «
b
+ z̅)
2

¦
Wher e
x̅ =
x
b
2
]
y =
y
b
2
]
z̅ =
z
b
2
]
ar e t he nondi mensi onal i zed r ef erence posi t i on coor di nat es f or measur i ng t he dow nw ash.
The val ue f or aspect r at i o, AR can be f ound usi ng:
AR =
b
2
S
wìng
And t he l i f t coef f i ci ent can be f ound usi ng t he r el at i onshi p bet w een i t sel f and angl e of at t ack,
C
L
=
JC
L
Jo
. o
Wher e t he angl e of at t ack i s t he geomet r i c angl e of at t ack.
It i s al so w or t h not i ng t hat t he kappacoef f i ci ent s ar e pur el y f unct i ons of t he w i ng geomet r y, not of
t he f l ow f i el d condi t i ons. The r esul t of t hi s i s t hat t he dow nw ash angl e var i es as a li near f unct i on of
al pha (t he angl e of at t ack). The coef f i ci ent s i n t he summat i on (t he Bn’ s) ar e r equi r ed i n or der t o
per f or m t he cal cul at i on f or t he kappacoef f i ci ent s. Thi s w as not an easy t ask. The f oll ow i ng
r el at i onshi p w as gi ven f or t he cal cul at i on of t he coef f i ci ent s f r om t he l ocal geomet r i c angl e of at t ack:

o( 0
1
)
o( 0
2
)
⋮
o( 0
N
)
 =
⎣
⎢
⎢
⎡
g
1,1
g
1,2
⋯ g
1,N
g
2,1
⋱ g
2,N
⋮ ⋱ ⋮
g
N,1
g
N,2
⋯ g
N,N
⎦
⎥
⎥
⎤
. 
B
1
B
2
⋮
B
N

M ECN 4016 Uni ver si t y of t he Wi t w at er sr and
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The cent r al gmat r i x w as det er mi ned and expanded in M i cr osof t Excel . How ever f or t he cal cul at i on
of t he Bn’ s t hat r equi r es t he i nver se of mat r i x g mul t i pli ed by t he angl es of at t ack, i .e.
[ B] = [ g]
1
. [ o( 0) ]
Thi s oper at i on w as i nput i nt o M at l ab f r om Excel and t hen pl ot t ed back i nt o Excel t o sol ve f or t he
kappacoef f i ci ent s. The r esul t s of t hi s can be f ound i n t he sect i ons t hat f ol l ow .
3 .2 . DAT COM
DATCOM i s an empi r i cal met hod t hat has t he f undament al pur pose i s t o est imat e aer odynami c
st abi l i t y and cont r ol char act er i st i cs i n pr el i mi nary design appl i cat i ons.
Thi s comput at i onal met hod w as use by f i r st def i ni ng f l i ght condi t i on( M ach number , Al t i t ude, and
angl e of at t acks t o be anal yzed), f ol l ow ed by synt hesis w hi ch set s up t he CG l ocat i on as w el l as t he
posi t i on of t he wi ng and t ail sur f aces, al so t he w i ng planf or m i s def i ned by usi ng vari abl es r el at ed t o
w i ng t ype, span, chor d, sw eep and et c., and si mi l ar l y t he hor i zont al t ai l w as al so def i ned.
Thi s dat a w as t he used t o f i nd t he t ai l and w i ng l i f t coef f i ci ent s as w el l as t he l i f t cur ve sl ope. The
val ues f ound w er e t hen used t o cal cul at e t he dow nw ash angl e.
Table 1: Result s as published f rom DATCOM
Cl Cl W ing Cl Tail alpha w ing alpha t ail ε deg
0.298 0.211 0.087 0.04014231 0.016552 0.023591 1.35165
0.45 0.329 0.121 0.06259156 0.02302 0.039572 2.267283
0.694 0.521 0.173 0.09911915 0.032913 0.066206 3.79334
0.865 0.656 0.209 0.12480262 0.039762 0.085041 4.872479
0.953 0.726 0.227 0.13811997 0.043186 0.094934 5.4393
M ECN 4016 Uni ver si t y of t he Wi t w at er sr and
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4 . Exper i ment at i on
4 .1 . CFD ( T or nado)
Tor nado i s a Vor t ex Panel M et hod t hat w as r un i n M at l ab i n or der t o t heor et i cal l y cal cul at e t he
ef f ect s of t he angl e of at t ack on dow nw ash. Fi r st t he par amet er s f or anal ysi s had t o be i nput i nt o t he
pr ogr am. Thi s began by def i ni ng t he panel s over t he sur f ace of t he ai r f oi l t hat w oul d be t he basi s f or
cal cul at i on. The w i ng w as anal ysed as a combi nat i on of 20 i dent i cal par t i t i ons f r om t i p t o t i p. These
par t i t i ons w er e each onet w ent i et h of t he span i n wi dt h and had 10 i dent i cal panel s segment i ng t he
upper sur f ace and 10 i dent i cal panel s segment i ng t he l ow er sur f ace. The r ul eof t humb w i t h panel
met hods i s t he mor e panel s t hat ar e used; t he mor e t he met hod r epl i cat es t he act ual sur f ace. Thi s
how ever comes at comput at i onal cost i n t he f orm of t i meexpendi t ur e. It w as def i ned al so t hat t he
par t i t i ons w oul d each have zer o di hedr al , zer o t w i st , zer o f l ap def l ect i on and zer o change i n ai r f oil
pr of i l e acr oss t he span. Thi s w as i n accor dance w i t h t he exper i ment al t est pi ece used i n t he w i nd
t unnel t est . The span, chor d l engt h and pr of i l e w er e def i ned as t hose used i n t he w i nd t unnel and
t he det ai l s can be f ound i n t abl e 2 i n t he f ol l ow i ng sect i on. The or i gi n w as def i ned as t he l eadi ng
edge at t he w i ng r oot .
In addi t i on t o t he geomet r y bei ng def i ned, t he f l ow condi t i ons al so had t o be i nput . Thi s w as mai nl y
t o def i ne t he speed of t he ai r st r eam and w hat angl e of at t ack t he w i ng w as at . Due t o t he amount of
t i me t aken t o per f or m a si ngl e simul at i on, t he angle of at t ack w as f i xed at a r easonabl e 4°. Thi s w as
a f ai r l y good poi nt t o choose t o compar e t o t he ot her met hods because i t i s i n a r ange w her e t he l i f t
cur ve sl ope of t he w i ng i s r oughl y l i near.
Af t er t he geomet r y and f l ow f i el d condi t i ons w er e i nput , t he panel l at t i ce w as gener at ed. Thi s w as
w hen t he sur f aces of t he w i ng w ere di scr et i zed i nt o t he var i ous panels t hat w oul d be used f or t he
anal ysi s. Fol l owi ng t he l at t i ce gener at i on, t he var i ous si mul at i ons w er e per f or med. The f l i ght
condi t i on w as cl assi f i ed as a st eady, l evel f l i ght pat h and as such no val ues w er e i nput f or si desli p
angl e, pi t ch angl e or any of t he angul ar r at es. For t hi s r eason onl y t he al pha sheet , f or ce, l i f t and
coef f i ci ent di st r i but i on w er e si mulat ed acr oss t he span. The r esul t s w er e obt ai ned i n t he f or m of
gr aphs an t abl es as out put by t he Tor nado code and can be f ound i n t he r esul t s sect i on t hat f ol l ow s.
M ECN 4016 Uni ver si t y of t he Wi t w at er sr and
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4 .2 . W i ndt unnel T est
4 .2 .1 . Appar at us
Cl osedci r cui t W i nd T unnel
The w i nd t unnel used f or t est i ng w as a cl osed ci r cui t , l ow speed t unnel dr i ven by a si ngle f an. The
t est sect i on w as el l i pt i cal , f ed by a nozzl e and vacat ed t hr ough a di f f user as show n i n t he f igur e
bel ow . The cr oss sect i on of t he t est chamber w as a 916 x 616 mm el li pse, w i t h a cl ear Per spex
r emovabl e obser vat i on cover. Test hol es wer e dri ll ed t hr ough t he si des of t he wi nd t unnel f or e and
af t t he t est pi ece f or measur i ng pr essur es usi ng a Pi t ot t ube. The dr i ve mot or w as an Engl i sh El ect r i c
DC mot or w i t h a r at ed maxi mum of 50 hp.
Figure 10: Plan view of t he Cont inuous W ind Tunnel used f or t he t est
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23
W i ng a nd T a i l Confi gur at i on
Table 2: Geomet ric charact erist ics of t he w ing and t ail sect ions
W ing Tail
Prof ile NACA0015 NACA0018
Planf orm shape Rect angul ar Rect angul ar
Ref erence area [ m
2
] 0.0384 0.0093
Span [ m] 0.48 0.2
Chord Lengt h [ m] 0.08 0.0465
Figure 11: The conf igurat ion of t he w ing and t ail as set up in t he cont inuous w ind t unnel
M ECN 4016 Uni ver si t y of t he Wi t w at er sr and
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24
Bubbl e I ncl i nomet er a nd el ect r i c t r i m cal i br a t or
The angl e of at t ack of t he t est pi ece w as cal i br at ed using a devi ce t hat el ect r i call y adj ust s t he t r i m of
t he w i ng pr of il e f r om a di gi t al scal e bet w een 50 and 1500. At r egul ar r ecor ded i nt er val s t his number
w as r ef er enced agai nst t he act ual measur ed angl e of at t ack usi ng t he bubbl e i ncl i nomet er , and t he
scal e number coul d be cal cul at ed t o gi ve t he est i mat ed angl e of at t ack. Fr om t hi s r el at i onshi p i t w as
possi bl e t o obser ve t he angl e of at t ack at w hi ch t he w i ng pr of i le st ar t ed t o pr oduce posi t i ve l i f t ,
maxi mum l i f t and w her e t he w i ng st al led.
Figure 12: Bubble inclinomet er
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4 .2 .2 . Pr ocedur e
Pr eca ut i ons befor e t est i ng
1. Ensur e t her e ar e not obst acl es w i t hi n t he w i nd t unnel .
2. Ensur e t hat al l par t s of t he w i nd t unnel ar e secur e.
3. Ensur e t hat t he t est sect i on door i s pr oper l y cl osed bef or e t aki ng aer odynami c
measur ement s.
4. When var yi ng t he angle of at t ack, onl y move i n one di r ect i on (do not i ncr ease t hen decr ease
t he angl e of at t ack bef or e t he end of t he t est r un).
5. Al l ow t he ai r f l ow t o set t l e bef or e t aki ng measur ement s.
T est i ng pr ocedur e
In or der t o det er mi ne t he val ue of t he dow nw ash angl e, t hat i s, t he di f f er ence bet w een t he
aer odynami c, or ef f ect i ve angl e of at t ack, and t he geomet r i cal , act ual angl e bet w een t he t ai l cent r e
l i ne and t he di r ect i on of f l i ght t he f ol l ow i ng pr ocedur e w as used:
1. The angl e of at t ack w as measur ed on t he bubbl e i ncl i nomet er and t he ar m w as set t o t hi s
val ue.
2. The door t o t he t unnel w as t hen cl osed and bol t ed.
3. The t unnel w as t hen st ar t ed and t he ai r speed f or t he oncomi ng ai r f l ow w as set .
4. Tai l and w i ng li f t w as t hen measur ed separ at el y by means of a st r ai n gauges i n t er ms of
st r ai n.
5. Thi s pr ocedur e w as r epeat ed f or var i ous angl es of at t ack.
4 .2 .3 . Obser vat i ons
For l ow angl es of at t ack t her e w as excessive vibr at i on of t he ai r f oil s, causi ng vast
f l uct uat i ons i n t he st r ai n r eadi ngs.
Past a cer t ai n angl e of at t ack t he w i ng became f ul l y ef f ect i ve and t he vi br at i on sl ow ed dow n
and t aki ng r eadi ngs w as much easi er.
The appar at us f ai r i ng coul d have pl ayed a r ol e i n af f ect i ng t he ai r f l ow t ow ar ds t he t ai l , or
ot her w i se changi ng t he pr essur e var i at i on bel ow t he w i ng.
M ECN 4016 Uni ver si t y of t he Wi t w at er sr and
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5 . Resul t s
Fi gur e 13 bel ow show s t he vari at i on of dow nw ash angl e ver sus semi spanw ise posi t i on accor di ng t o
Pr ant dl ’ s l i f t i ng l i ne t heor y. In t hi s f igur e t he dow nwash angle i s show n as posi t i ve dow nw ash and
t her ef or e any upw ash i s i ndi cat ed as negat i ve. For bot h angl es of at t ack t he zer o up/ dow n w ash
l ocat i ons ar e sl i ght ly i nboar d of t he w i ngt i p (wi ngt i p @ 0.24m). Thi s i ndi cat es t he posi t i on w her e
ai r f l ow t r yi ng t o move t o t he upper sur f ace due t o di f f er ent i al pr essur es cancel s out t he ef f ect of t he
ai r bei ng f or ced t o angl e dow nw ar ds due t o t he angl e of at t ack. Thi s poi nt sl i ght l y i nboar d of t he
w i ngt i ps i ndi cat es t he cent r el i ne of t he t r ai l i ng vor t ex w her e zer o w ash condi t i ons ar e expect ed.
Impor t ant l y t he af t posi t i on of t hi s up/ dow n w ash behavi our w as i nput as t he quar t er chor d posi t i on
of t he t ai l . It i s cl ear t hat w i t h a t ai l semi span of 0.1m t hat t he t r ai l i ng vor t ex w as never t r ail i ng over
t he t ai l and t her ef or e t he t ai l w as exper i enci ng t he dow nw ash of t he w i ng.
Figure 13: Dow nw ash angle versus semispanw ise posit ion, using Prant dl’s LLT
Fi gur e 14 show s t he var i at i on i n dow nw ash angl e f or changi ng angl es of at t ack. Accor di ng t o t he
t heor y t he change i n angl e of at t ack shoul d cause a li near r esponse i n dow nw ash. Thi s how ever w as
assumi ng t hat t he change i n l i f t coef f i ci ent w i t h changi ng angl e of at t ack w as l i near , w hi ch i t w as
not . The dow nw ash angl e how ever di d show a l i near cor r el at i on t o t he l i f t coef f i ci ent as ant i ci pat ed.
Thi s can be seen i n f i gur e 15.
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3
D
o
w
n
w
a
s
h
[
d
e
g
]
Semispan [ m]
AoA=4
AoA=8
M ECN 4016 Uni ver si t y of t he Wi t w at er sr and
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27
Figure 14: Variat ion in dow nw ash angle w it h AoA f or bot h Prant dl’s LLT and t he w indt unnel t est
Fi gur e 15 bel ow show s t he cor r el at i on bet w een t he dow nw ash angl e and l i f t coef f i ci ent . As
ant i ci pat ed by t he t heor y t he r el at i onshi p i s per f ect l y l i near f or bot h t he li f t i ng l i ne t heor y and t he
DATCOM anal ysi s. The di f f er ence i n gr adi ent i s of concer n, how ever t he di f f er ences bet w een t he
exper i ment at i on and t he t heor et i cal anal ysi s have show n t o have di scr epanci es t hr oughout . The
concl usi on can onl y be dr aw n t hat t he er r or bet w een r esul t s i s caused by a f undament al i ssue
r el at i ng t o exper i ment al er r or or i naccur at e anal ysi s.
Figure 15: Relat ionship bet w een downw ash angle and lif t coeff icient according t o Prant dl’s LLT,
and t he DATCOM analysis
0
0.02
0.04
0.06
0.08
0.1
0.12
0.14
0.16
0.18
0.2
0 5 10 15
D
o
w
n
w
a
s
h
[
d
e
g
]
AoA [ deg]
LLT Dow nw ash
EXP Dow nw ash
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
0 1 2 3
D
o
w
n
w
a
s
h
a
n
g
l
e
[
d
e
g
]
CL
Dow nw ash vs CL
DATCOM
M ECN 4016 Uni ver si t y of t he Wi t w at er sr and
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Fi gur e 16 show s t he var i at i on i n li f t coef f i ci ent w i t h angl e of at t ack f or Pr ant dl ’ s LLT compar ed t o t he
t heor et i cal angl e of at t ack. As is cl ear t he LLT f ol l ow s t he t heor y unt i l about 6.5 degr ees af t er w hi ch
i t devi at es dr ast i cal l y. The r easons behi nd t hi s coul d have st emmed f r om er r or s i n t he cal cul at i on of
t he f i r st ser i es coef f i ci ent f or var yi ng angl es of at t ack. Thi s er r or coul d have come f r om t he pr ocess
of per f or mi ng t he mat r i x i nver si on, w her e small er r or s become ampl i f i ed. Al so aspect s of t he t heor y
may have unknow i ngly i ncor por at ed smal l angl e approxi mat i ons t hat w ent unnot i ced dur i ng l engt hy
cal cul at i on. Thi s may expl ai n t he cohesi on f or smal l er angl es of at t ack and devi at i on t her eaf t er .
Figure 16: Lif t coef f icient versus AoA f or Prant dl’s LLT compared t o t he t heoret ical value.
The exper iment al l i f t coef f i cient ver sus angle of at t ack i s show n i n f i gure 17 bel ow . Unli ke t he LLT
t he shape of t he gr aph appr oxi mat es t he t heor et i cal l i ne f ar bet t er despi t e havi ng some l ocal
r andom dat a poi nt s. These di scr epanci es can be put dow n t o sl i ght l y i naccur at e measur ement of t he
appar at us dur i ng t he exper iment and el ast i c movement of t he r i g dur i ng oper at i on. Al so t he
cal i br at i on of t he st r ai n gauges w as quest i onabl e, al l of w hi ch coul d have l ed t o t he i naccur at e
r el at i onshi p ar r ived at i n f i gur e 17.
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
0 5 10 15
C
L
AoA [ deg]
CL vs al pha LLT
Theor y
M ECN 4016 Uni ver si t y of t he Wi t w at er sr and
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Figure 17: Lif t coef f icient versus AoA f or t he w ind t unnel experiment compared t o t he t heoret ical
value.
Fi gur e 18 and f igur e 19 show t he spanwi se l i f t di st r i but i on on t he w i ng as simul at ed i n Tor nado. The
shape of t he dist r i but i on cor r el at es t o t hat expect ed by t heor y of l i f t coef f i ci ent . The i r r egul ar shape
of t he di st r i but i on i s due t o t he f act t hat t he pr ogr am uses panel met hods i n or der t o i t er at e a
sol ut i on. How ever no r esul t s w ere r el eased f or m Tornado r egar di ng dow nw ash due a def ect wi t h
t he pr ogr am. Al so t he val ue f or ai r densi t y coul d not be changed so i t w as r un as st andar d ai r densi t y
of 1.225 i nst ead of t he act ual t est condi t i on of 1.02. These di scr epanci es and i nadequaci es w i t h t he
pr ogr am r ul e t he resul t s obt ai ned as i naccur at e and unr el i abl e, and as a r esul t t hey have been
moved t o t he appendi x.
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
1.4
0 5 10 15
C
L
AoA [ deg]
CL vs al pha EXP
Theor y
M ECN 4016 Uni ver si t y of t he Wi t w at er sr and
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6 . Di scussi on
6 .1 . T hando T shabal al a
The dow nw ash w as t heor et i cal l y expect ed t o be di rect l y pr opor t i onal t o t he l i f t of t he ai r f oil , by
r ef er r i ng t o f igur e 15 one can see t hat t hi s has been conf i r med by t heor et i cal comput at i onal
met hods used i n DATCOM as w el l as Pr andt l ’ s Li f t i ng l i ne t heor y as bot h gr aphs il l ust r at e li near
behavi our bet w een t he dow nw ash and l i f t coef f i ci ent .
The r el at i on bet w een dow nw ash and angl e of at t ack w as al so pr oposed t o be l i near bot h
exper i ment al l y and t heor et i cal l y by means of f i gur e 3. If one compar e t hi s t o f i gur e 14 one not es
t hat t hi s i s not w hat w as f ound by t he model used and t he r esul t s obt ai ned exper i ment al ly.
The var i at i on i n l i f t coef f i ci ent wi t h angle of at t ack f or Pr ant dl ’ s LLT compar ed t o t he t heor et i cal
angl e of at t ack may be vi ewed i n Fi gur e 16 .Pr andt l ’ s model f oll ow s t he t heor y unt i l about 6.5
degr ees af t er w hi ch t he val ues f or Pr andt l become consi der abl y hi gher . The r easons behi nd t hi s
coul d have st emmed f r om er r or s i n t he cal cul at i on of t he f i r st seri es coef f i ci ent f or var yi ng angl es of
at t ack i n addi t i on t o t he pr ocess of per f or mi ng t he mat r i x i nver si on, i n w hi ch smal l er r or s become
ampl i f i ed and r oundi ng of f er r or s al so become mor e pr omi nent . Al so aspect s of t he t heor y may have
unknow i ngly i ncor por at ed smal l angle appr oxi mat i ons t hat w ent unnot i ced dur i ng l engt hy
cal cul at i on. Thi s may expl ai n t he cohesi on f or smal l er angl es of at t ack and devi at i on t her eaf t er . It
al so shoul d be not ed t hat st al l i s not t aken i nt o account at hi gher angl es of at t ack (t hi s occur s due t o
separ at i on) w hi ch i s w hat w oul d happen i n r eal i t y.
The exper iment al l i f t coef f i cient ver sus angle of at t ack i s show n i n f i gure 17 bel ow . Unli ke t he LLT
t he shape of t he gr aph appr oxi mat es t he t heor et i cal l i ne f ar bet t er despi t e havi ng some l ocal
r andom dat a poi nt s. These i naccur aci es can be at t r i but ed t o sl i ght l y i naccur at e measur ement of t he
appar at us dur i ng t he exper i ment and el ast i c movement of t he r i g dur i ng oper at i on. Thi s al so coul d
be due t o t he f act t hat not al l t unnel i nt er f er ence ef f ect s coul d be el i mi nat ed as no cor r ect i on w as
i nt r oduced f or t he model bei ng i n a cl osed wi nd t unnel w hi ch r esul t s i n t he r educt i on of t he w ake
behi nd t he model . Thi s w as not t aken i nt o account dur i ng t heor et i cal anal ysi s.
The cal i br at i on of t he st r ai n gauges w as quest i onabl e, w hi ch coul d have l ed t o t he i naccur at e
r el at i onshi p ar ri ved at i n f i gur e 17. Thi s coul d al so be due t o t he f act t hat t he exper i ment w as
per f or med a hi gher angl es of at t ack i n t he r egi on w her e aer odynami c t heor y may br eak dow n due t o
separ at i on. Anot her r eason f or t hese di scr epanci es may be due t o t he f act t hat ef f ect s of t ur bul ence
M ECN 4016 Uni ver si t y of t he Wi t w at er sr and
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w er e al so not t aken i nt o account (t her e i s al w ays sound l evel of t ur bul ence i n r eal f l ow s) w hi ch
causes mor e r andom behavi our i n ai r f l ow s. The appr oxi mat e manner i n w hi ch t he l i f t i ng –l i ne
t heor y deal s w i t h bound vor aci t y may al so causes dat a var i at i ons.
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6 .2 . Jameson Bent l ey
The r esul t s obt ai ned f r om t he exper i ment at i on nei t her compl et el y val i dat ed or compl et el y
i nvali dat ed t he r esul t s obt ai ned f r om Pr ant dl ’ s Li f t i ng Li ne Theor y. How ever based upon t he
r esear ch conduct ed and t he gener al l y under st ood t heor y, t he l i f t i ng l i ne met hod seemed t o show
st r ong cor r el at i on t o r eal w or l d pr act i cal exampl es r egar di ng t he ai r f l ow over ai r f oil s. Thi s
par t i cul ar l y t r ue w hen obser vi ng f i gur e 15, t he r el at i onshi p bet w een dow nw ash and l i f t coef f i ci ent .
Pr edi ct abl y t he gr aph i s a st r ai ght l i ne, i n accor dance w i t h t he t heor et i cal r el at i onshi p, and despi t e a
cont r ast i ng sl ope t o t hat of t he DATCOM anal ysi s, t hi s st i l l l ends cr edi bi li t y and conf i dence t o t he
dat a sur r oundi ng t he li f t i ng l i ne cal cul at i ons (because bot h ar e per f ect l y l i near ). In f igur e 13 t he
spanw i se dow nw ash i s pl ot t ed, w her e i t i s obser ved t hat t he dow nw ash i ncr eases f or i ncr easi ng
angl es of at t ack. Thi s makes l ogi cal sense because l i f t i ncr eases wi t h i ncr easi ng angl es of at t ack and
t he dow nw ash i s a f unct i on of t he l i f t at any par t i cul ar spanw i se st at i on. Thi s l ends i t sel f t o anot her
w el l know n r el at i onshi p r egar di ng li f t , i n t hat i t i s commonl y under st ood t hat l i f t cannot be
pr oduced w i t hout t he pr esence of ci r cul at i on (t he Kut t aJoukow sky t heor em). Consi deri ng t hat t he
dow nw ash angl es ar e cal cul at ed based on t he gener at i on of ci r cul at i on, t hi s al l cor r el at es
appr opr i at el y. The mat t er of ci r cul at i on how ever i s not conf i ned t o a mer e mat hemat i cal f or mal i t y;
i t i s evi dent on f igur e 13. Near t he w i ng t i p t her e i s a pr esence of negat i ve dow nw ash, or upw ash.
Pr act i cal l y t hi s r epresent s t he t endency of t he hi gh pr essur e ai r on t he l ow er sur f ace t o move
t ow ar ds t he l ow er pr essur e air on t he upper sur f ace. Thi s pot ent i al and r esul t i ng separ at i on of f t he
t r ai l i ng edge mani f est s i t sel f as upw ash at t he t i p. A conundr um now exi st s f or t he span i nbet w een
t he upw ash at t he t i p and t he dow nw ash f r om appr oxi mat ely mi dspan. The r esul t i s f or t he f l ow t o
separ at e of f t he t r ai l i ng edge a small spanw i se di st ance i nboar d of t he w i ngt i p w i t h a hi ghenergy
r ot at i onal f l ow due t o t he di f f er ence i n upw ash and dow nw ash meet i ng at a poi nt . Thi s f or ms t he
t r ai l i ng vor t ex. Impor t ant l y t he t heor y suggest s t hat i f t he w i ng had i nf i ni t e aspect r at i o and
t her ef or e i nf i ni t e span, t her e w oul d never exi st t he poi nt w her e t he ai r w oul d t r y t o move f r om t he
hi gh pr essur e of t he l ow er sur f ace t o t he l ow pr essur e of t he upper sur f ace and t her ef or e t he t r ai l i ng
vor t ex w oul d never f or m. Pr act i cal ly how ever , w e know t hi s never t o be t he case.
Fi gur e 14 show s t he var i at i on i n dow nw ash angl e w i t h i ncr easi ng angles of at t ack f or bot h t he l i f t i ng
l i ne t heor y and t he exper iment al w i nd t unnel t est . The r esul t of t hi s show s a cl ose cor r el at i on
bet w een t he cur ve shape of each appr oach, onl y w i t h a sli ght of f set i n t he xaxi s, meani ng t hat i n
t he r eal case a higher angl e of at t ack i s requi r ed t o i nduce t he same dow nw ash angl e. Thi s
di scr epancy coul d be put dow n t o a mi st ake r egar di ng t he cal cul at ed ai r densi t y, a di f f er ence i n t he
i deal and act ual ai r f oi l sur f ace r oughness, or gener al exper i ment al er r or.
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The var i at i on of l i f t coef f i ci ent w i t h angl e of at t ack i s show n by f i gur es 16 and 17, f or t he l i f t i ng li ne
t heor y and t he exper iment al dat a respect i vel y. The gener al t r end i s f ol l owed f or small angl es of
at t ack f or t he l i f t i ng l i ne case; how ever t he gr aph begins t o devi at e above appr oxi mat el y 6 degr ees.
Thi s coul d have been caused by ampl i f i ed er r or s i n t he mat r i x i nver si on f or cal cul at i ng t he seri es of
l i f t i ng l i ne coef f i ci ent s or j ust due t o some mat hemat i cal i nconsi st ency. For f i gur e 17 t he li f t
coef f i ci ent ver sus angl e of at t ack show ed l i t t l e cor r el at i on t o t he exact sl ope out l i ned by t he t heor y.
Unf or t unat el y very f ew dat a poi nt s wer e t aken and t hi s af f ect ed t he r esol ut i on of t he r esul t s. The
r ough shape of t he l i near r el at i onshi p i s appr oxi mat ely f ol l ow ed. Thi s di scr epancy can be put dow n
t o i naccur at e exper i ment at i on t echni ques and quest i onabl e cal i br at i on dat a.
M ECN 4016 Uni ver si t y of t he Wi t w at er sr and
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7 . Concl usi ons and Recommendat i ons
7 .1 . T hando T shabal al a
Concl usi ons
The l i f t i ng l i ne t heor y pr ovi des a suf f i ci ent basi s f or comput at i on on t he dow nw ash angl e behi nd
aer of oi l w i t hout f l aps on an af t t ai l but t hi s concept br eaks dow n at hi gh angl es of at t ack w her e
separ at i on occur s.
The empi r i cal model (DATCOM ) appr oximat el y agr ees w i t h t heor et i cal expect at i ons but not
necessar i l y exper iment al due t o appr oxi mat i ons, inaccur aci es and r andom behavi our due t o
separ at i on f ol l ow ed by t ur bul ence ment i oned above.
Abbot w as al so f ound t o be t heor et i cal l y ver y accur at e f or si mul at i on.
Recommendat i ons
It w oul d be mor e i deal i f t he exper iment w as per f or med at l ow er angl es of at t ack f or bet t er
cor r el at i on w i t h t heor et i cal dat a. And i f i t w er e possi bl e t o have per f or med t he exper iment at l ower
speeds t o model mor e l ami nar f l ow.
In addi t i on t o t hi s a cor r ect i on f act or coul d have been i nt r oduced t o t ake i nt o af f ect w ake ef f ect s i n
t he t unnel as w el l as changes i n densi t y bei ng account ed f or .
7 .2 . Jameson Bent l ey
Concl usi ons
Dow nw ash angl e vari es l i nearl y w i t h coef f i ci ent of l if t and spanw i se l ocat i on. It w as al so
f ound t hat t he dow nw ash at t he poi nt of t r ai l i ng vor t ex f or mat i on w as zer o. Thi s poi nt w as
sl i ght l y i nboar d of t he w i ngt i p.
Exper i ment al w i nd t unnel t est i ng can vali dat e t he t heor et i cal dat a pr ovi di ng t hat met hods of
exper i ment at i on ar e accur at e.
The dow nw ash pr oduced by a w i ng makes a si gni f i cant di f f er ence t o t he li f t pr oduced by a
t ai l af t of t he mai n w i ng.
M ECN 4016 Uni ver si t y of t he Wi t w at er sr and
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Pr ant dl ’ s Li f t i ng Li ne Theor y i s an accur at e and accept abl e met hod f or eval uat i ng t he
dow nw ash pr oduced by a w i ng, w her e t he ef f ect of t he dow nw ash can be f ound at var yi ng
l ocat i ons af t of t he w i ng.
Recommendat i ons
Per f or m t he exper i ment know i ng t he geomet r y and pr of i l e i nf or mat i on i n gr eat er det ai l .
Take f ar mor e dat a poi nt s f or t he exper i ment al dat a.
Use a mor e sophi st i cat ed CFD pr ogr am compar ed t o Tor nado i n or der t o val i dat e/ i nvali dat e
t he r esul t s.
Use a gener i c pr ogr am based on Pr ant dl ’ s Li f t i ng Li ne Theor y i n or der t o val i dat e/ i nvali dat e
t he dat a obt ai ned.
Per f or m t he exper i ment usi ng a camber ed ai r f oi l as wel l.
M ECN 4016 Uni ver si t y of t he Wi t w at er sr and
School of Aer onaut i cal Engi neer i ng
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8 . Refer ences
Bar l ow , J. B., W. H. Rae, and A Pope. Low speed wi nd t unnel t est i ng. Wil ey, 1999.
Di ehl , Wal t er S. “ The Det er mi nat i on of Dow nw ash.” Nat ional Advi sor y Comi t t ee f or Aer onaut i cs,
1921.
Gl auer t , H. The El ement s of Aer f oil an Air scr ew Theor y. Cambri dge: Cambr i dge Uni ver si t y Pr ess,
1959.
Kar amchet i , K. Ideal Fl ui d Dynami cs. New Yor k: Wi l ey, 1966.
L, Rasmussen M , and Smi t h D E. “ Li f t i ndLi ne Theor y f or Ar bi t r ar y Shaped Wi ngs.” Jour nal of Ai r cr af t ,
1999.
Nei sw ander , Br i an. Pr ant dl ' s Li f t ing Line Theory and Fini t e Wi ngs. Uni ver si t y of Not r e Dame, 2008.
Phi ll i ps, W. F, Ander son E.A, J. C. j enki ns, and S Sunouchi . “ Est i mat i ong t he LowSpeed Dow nw ash
Angle on an Af t Tai l .” 40t h Aer ospace Sci ences M eet ing & Exhi bi t , 2002.
Saf f man, P. G. Vor t ex Dynami ns. Cambr i dge: Cambr i dge Uni ver si t y Pr ess, 1992.
Si l verst ei n, Abe, Kat zof f S, and Kennet h W Bull i vant . “ Dow nw ah and Wake Behi nd Pl ai n and Fl apped
Ai r f oil s.” Nat i onal Advi sory Commi t t ee f or Aeronaut i cs, 1939.
M ECN 4016 Uni ver si t y of t he Wi t w at er sr and
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9 . Appendi x
Table 3: Group member responsibilit y
Sect ion Person responsible
Backgr ound Thando Tshabal al a
Li t er at ur e sur vey: Resear ch and w r i t e up Thando Tshabal al a
Obj ect i ves Thando Tshabal al a
Appar at us: Wr i t e up and di agr ams Thando Tshabal al a
Pr ocedur e f or w i ndt unnel Thando Tshabal al a
Anal ysi s: Pr ant dl Li f t i ng Li ne t heor y Jameson Bent l ey
Anal ysi s: Dat com Thando Tshabal al a
Exper i ment at i on: Wi ndt unnel dat a pr ocessi ng Jameson Bent l ey
Exper i ment at i on: Tor nado Jameson Bent l ey
Resul t s: Pr ocessi ng and i nt er pr et at i on Jameson Bent l ey
Di scussi on Indi vi dual
Concl usi ons and Recommendat i ons Indi vi dual
For mat t i ng, f i nal w r i t e up, abst r act Jameson Bent l ey
Compil at i on Jameson Bent l ey
EQUATI ONS TO DESCRIBE THE PROPERTI ES OF AIR
Ai r densi t y as a f unct i on of Temp and Rel at i ve Humi di t y
µ
u
= 
0.0034847
I
1 ( P − 0.003796R
h
c
s
) kg/ m
3
c
s
= ( 1.7526 × 10
11
) c
( 5315.56/ 1)
Wher e:
µ
u
− Ðcnsity
kg
m
3
]
c
s
− Soturotion Iopour Prcssurc
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P – Ai r pressur e i n Pa
R
h
= Rcloti:c EumiJity [ os o %; ic i¡ 40% tℎcn sub 40 ]
T – Temper at ur e i n K
Vi scosi t y of ai r at a gi ven t emp
Used t o cal cul at e Reynol ds number
µ
µ
0
= 
I
R
I
0
1
3
2
]
I
0
+ 198.6
I
R
+ 198 .6
Wher e: I
R
= Icmpcroturc in °R
I
0
= 518.6°R
µ
0
= 3.74 × 10
7
lb − s/ ¡t
2
(Bar l ow , Rae and Pope 1999)
Figure 18: Spanw ise variat ion in lif t coef f icient produced by Vort ex Panel M et hod Tornado.
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Figure 19: Spanw ise variat ion in normalized f orce over t he surf ace of t he w ing, according t o panel
met hods run in Tornado.
MECN 4016
University of the Witwatersrand School of Aeronautical Engineering
Abstract
Various methods were applied to estimate the downwash angle of a wing at a very low Mach number, and the effect this would have on the effective angle of attack of a tail aft of the wing. The theory for the analysis is based around Prandtl’s Lifting Line Theory, where calculations were performed using Microsoft Excel and Matlab. The theory was compared to empirical data obtained from performing wind tunnel tests of the same downwash scenario. Further models were established using Vortex Panel Method Tornado, run in Matlab, as well as a DATCOM analysis. From the four methods of analysis it was found that the downwash angle produced by a rectangular NACA0015 (with chord 0.08m and span 0.48m at an airspeed of 33.57m/s) was a function of angle of attack. This function was represented by a linear relationship as anticipated from the theory. Furthermore it was validated that the influence coefficients were a function of wing geometry and remained constant with changing angles of attack. Therefore the downwash angle varied with the value for lift coefficient. It was also found that the spanwise location at a constant distance aft of the wing changed the downwash angle because it changed both the lift coefficient and the influence coefficients. This relationship was rather more complex and required numerical iteration and matrix methods to solve. The DATCOM analysis revealed a perfectly linear relationship between lift coefficient and downwash angle and a similarly linear relationship between downwash and angle of attack.
1
MECN 4016
University of the Witwatersrand School of Aeronautical Engineering
Declaration
Group declaration with joint task submitted for assessment We, the undersigned, are registered for MECN 4016, Aerodynamics in the year 2011. We herewith submit the following task,
“Methods of Determining the Low Speed Downwash Angle on an Aft Tail”
in partial fulfilment of the requirements of the above course. We hereby declare the following: We are aware that plagiarism (the use of someone else’s work without their permission and/or without acknowledging the original source) is wrong. We confirm that the work submitted herewith for assessment in the above course is our own unaided work except where we have been explicitly indicated otherwise. This task has not been submitted before, either individually or jointly, for any course requirement, examination or degree at this or any other tertiary educational institution. We have followed the required conventions in referencing the thoughts and ideas of others. We understand that the University of the Witwatersrand may take disciplinary action against us if it can be shown that this task is not our own unaided work or that we have failed to acknowledge the sources of the ideas or words in our writing in this task.
Signed this, the ____________ day of ________________ in the year___________.
Student number 324628 0616194H
Student name Thando Tshabalala Jameson Bentley
Signature
% contribution 50.0 50.0
2
MECN 4016
University of the Witwatersrand School of Aeronautical Engineering
Contents
Abstract ............................................................................................................................................ 1 Declaration........................................................................................................................................ 2 List of Figures .................................................................................................................................... 5 List of Tables ..................................................................................................................................... 6 1. Introduction .............................................................................................................................. 7 1.1. 1.2. Background Information .................................................................................................... 7 Literature ........................................................................................................................... 9
The Downwash Aft of an Unswept Wing (3) ............................................................................... 9 2. 3. Objectives................................................................................................................................ 17 Analysis ................................................................................................................................... 18 3.1. 3.2. 4. Prandtl’s Lifting Line Theory ............................................................................................. 18 DATCOM .......................................................................................................................... 20
Experimentation ...................................................................................................................... 21 4.1. 4.2. CFD (Tornado) .................................................................................................................. 21 Windtunnel Test ............................................................................................................. 22 Apparatus................................................................................................................. 22 Procedure................................................................................................................. 25 Observations ............................................................................................................ 25
4.2.1. 4.2.2. 4.2.3. 5. 6.
Results ..................................................................................................................................... 26 Discussion................................................................................................................................ 30 6.1. 6.2. Thando Tshabalala ........................................................................................................... 30 Jameson Bentley .............................................................................................................. 30
7.
Conclusions and Recommendations ......................................................................................... 34 7.1. 7.2. Thando Tshabalala ........................................................................................................... 34 Jameson Bentley .............................................................................................................. 34
8.
References............................................................................................................................... 36 3
........ 37 4 ........................................MECN 4016 University of the Witwatersrand School of Aeronautical Engineering 9.................................... Appendix ...............................................
................................................................ et al............ ......................... 15 Figure 8: The wingtip vortex span factor as predicted from the series solution to Prandtl's lifting line theory (Phillips................ using Prantdl’s LLT ............................................. .................................................................... 2002).............. et al............ 2002) .......................................................................... 29 Figure 18: Spanwise variation in lift coefficient produced by Vortex Panel Method Tornado.............................................................................................. S and Bullivant 1939) ...................................... 16 Figure 10: Plan view of the Continuous Wind Tunnel used for the test....................................................................... 28 Figure 17: Lift coefficient versus AoA for the wind tunnel experiment compared to the theoretical value......................................................... . 8 Figure 3: Comparison of calculated and experimental downwash at the tail of the midwingmonoplane model (Silverstein............................................. et al.................. 12 Figure 7: The wing tip vortex strength factor as predicted from the series solution to Prandtl’s liftingline theory (Phillips................... 23 Figure 12: Bubble inclinometer ......................... 11 Figure 6............. et al................ according to panel methods run in Tornado............... 2002) ............................ 2002) ........................................................................... 15 Figure 9: The effect of tail position on the downwash angle in the plane of symmetry aft of an unswept wing (Phillips...............................MECN 4016 University of the Witwatersrand School of Aeronautical Engineering List of Figures Figure 1: Variation of Downwash with lift coefficient .. 22 Figure 11: The configuration of the wing and tail as set up in the continuous wind tunnel .................................................................................................................................................. 38 Figure 19: Spanwise variation in normalized force over the surface of the wing............................................ 2002) ....... et al......................... 9 Figure 4: Prandtl's model for the bound vorticity and the trailing vortex sheet generated by a finite wing (Phillips. 10 Figure 5: Schematic of the vorticity rollup behind a finite wing with elliptical planform shapeb (Phillips............................... 26 Figure 14: Variation in downwash angle with AoA for both Prantdl’s LLT and the windtunnel test .... 27 Figure 16: Lift coefficient versus AoA for Prantdl’s LLT compared to the theoretical value.............. 2002)............................................................................................... 27 Figure 15: Relationship between downwash angle and lift coefficient according to Prantdl’s LLT....................................................................................................................................................... et al. 7 Figure 2: Variation of maximum downwash angle in the symmetry plane with Cl for a Clark Y aerofoil ....................................................... and the DATCOM analysis ... 24 Figure 13: Downwash angle versus semispanwise position........................................ the vortex used for estimating the downwash a few chord lengths or more aft of an unswept wing (Phillips..................... .................................. 39 5 ......
............................. 23 Table 3: Group member responsibility .................... 20 Table 2: Geometric characteristics of the wing and tail sections ....................................................MECN 4016 University of the Witwatersrand School of Aeronautical Engineering List of Tables Table 1: Results as published from DATCOM ................................................. 37 6 .................................................................................
MECN 4016 University of the Witwatersrand School of Aeronautical Engineering 1. It is evident from inspection of the graph below that the downwash angle varies directly with lift coefficient.C. (Diehl 1921) Figure 1: Variation of Downwash with lift coefficient 7 . Introduction 1. R. with angle of downwash as ordinates and lift coefficients as abscissa. Chapter 8. A.C.1.196) and inversely proportional to the aspect ratio (Lanchester “Aerial Flight” Vol. Background Information It has long been known that the angle of downwash.A. No. & M. is directly proportional to the lift of the aerofoil (Br. as observed at a given point behind the aerofoil.A. No. Br. R. The validity of the results obtained is obviously confined to that range of angle of attack of lift coefficient in which the flow about the aerofoil in which the flow is not abnormally turbulent. A. 1.191). & M. This has been determined experimentally by Hunk and data from five series of downwash determinations have been plotted below.
the corresponding angles of attack of the airplane. This is proportionality is shown in (L and E 1999). interference will be small in modern carefully streamlined airplanes. The agreement between theory and experiment is shown in (Diehl 1921) to be satisfactory except at higher angles of attack. the span load distributions ( or circulation distribution) are similar at all angles of attack. and the lifting line concept. This was seen as favourable as favourable as the model used was well streamlined and had a relatively small fuselage. similar to this example. Figure 2: Variation of maximum downwash angle in the symmetry plane with Cl for a Clark Y aerofoil Silverstein obtained downwash angles experimentally by comparing tailoff pitching moments with tailon pitching moments obtained at different stabilizer settings. From these values. S and Bullivant 1939) 8 . it follows that downwash should be proportional to the lift coefficient. the theoretical span load distribution. It is likely that. where the tips are stalled. (Silverstein.MECN 4016 University of the Witwatersrand School of Aeronautical Engineering Similar result where also found by Silverstein whereby if it was assumed that. and the jetboundary corrections. The stabilizer settings corresponding to zero load on the tail were found by interpolation or extrapolation. the downwash angles are derived. The theoretical computations where done by means of the BiotSavart equation. for a wing without twist.
et al. 2002) The wellknown infinite series solution to Prandtl’s classical line equation applies to a single finite wing with no sweep or dihedral. having an arbitrary spanwise variation in chord length. as predicted by this solution. is Equation 2 9 . S and Bullivant 1939) 1.2. Literature The Downwash Aft of an Unswept Wing (Phillips. This solution is based on the change of variables Equation 1 The variation in section circulation along the span of the wing.MECN 4016 University of the Witwatersrand School of Aeronautical Engineering Figure 3: Comparison of calculated and experimental downwash at the tail of the midwingmonoplane model (Silverstein.
is shown in Figure 4. the coefficients in this infinite series solution may have been usually evaluated from collocation methods. as is shown schematically for an elliptic wing in Figure 5. the vorticity trailing from each side of the wing will roll up around an axis trailing slightly inboard from the wingtip. Figure 4: Prandtl's model for the bound vorticity and the trailing vortex sheet generated by a finite wing (Phillips. This is because the development of Equation 3 is based on the assumption that the vortex filaments trailing downstream from the wing are all straight and parallel to the freestream flow. In reality. based on a Fourier series expansion similar to that first used by Lots and Karamcheti (Karamcheti 1966). Using Equation 1 and Equation 2and the following equation for bound vorticity The spanwise variation of shed vorticity is Equation 3 The downwash that is predicted directly from Equation 3 is not accurate in the region behind the wing. A very straightforward method was first presented by Glauert (Glauert 1959). et al. Most recently. Rasmussen and Smith (L and E 1999) have presented a more rigorous and rapidly converging method. Typically the series is truncated to a finite number of terms and the coefficients in the finite series are evaluated by requiring the liftingline equation to be satisfied at a number of spanwise locations equal to the number of terms in the series. 2002) 10 .MECN 4016 University of the Witwatersrand School of Aeronautical Engineering Historically.
This means that all free vortex filaments must follow the streamlines of the flow everywhere.MECN 4016 University of the Witwatersrand School of Aeronautical Engineering Figure 5: Schematic of the vorticity rollup behind a finite wing with elliptical planform shapeb (Phillips. This vortex lifting law requires that. the vortex sheet becomes completely rolledup to form wingtip vortices. the cross product of the local fluid vorticity with the local filament vorticity must always be zero at every point along a free vortex filament. Thus. a few chord lengths or more behind the wing. a wingtip vortex. can be approximated by a single vortex of strength. the free vortex filaments trailing behind each semispan of the wing will follow the streamlines and rollup about the centre of vorticity shed from that semispan. et al. a force is exerted on the surroundings that is proportional to the cross product of the local fluid velocity with the local filament vorticity. This rollup has a significant effect on the downwash. Therefore. wt. Within a few chord lengths behind the wing. 2002) The rollup of the vortex sheet trailing behind each semispan of the wing can be viewed as a result of the vortex lifting law (see Saffman (Saffman 1992)). which is given by Equation 4 Substituting equations Equation 1 and Equation 3 in Equation 4 gives Equation 5 11 . in any potential flow containing vortex filaments. Since a free vortex filament cannot support a force. Each wingtip vortex is generated from the trailing vortex sheet produced by onehalf of the wing.
z) by this entire horseshoe vortex is Equation 7 12 . 2002) When comparing the downwash a few chord lengths or more downstream from a finite wing. we can approximate the rolledup vortex sheet as a single horseshoe shaped vortex filament of strength wt. From here it runs across the quarterchord to a point slightly inboard of the right wingtip vortex to infinity.0.b’/2). (∞.0.0. The distance between the trailing vortices. (∞. The horseshoe filament starts at an infinite distance downstream from a point slightly inboard of the left wingtip. b’. is less than the wingspan because the vortex sheet from each side of the wing rolls up around the centre of vorticity.MECN 4016 University of the Witwatersrand School of Aeronautical Engineering Performing the indicated integration. the yvelocity component induced at any point (x.b’/2) and runs upstream along the left wingtip vortex to the left wing. y. et al. we have Equation 6 Figure 6. (0. From the BiotSavart law. which is somewhat inboard from the wingtip. the vortex used for estimating the downwash a few chord lengths or more aft of an unswept wing (Phillips. b’/2). as shown in Figure 6.
we have Equation 8 Using Equation 4 in Equation 8 gives Equation 9 Now. d. Thus.MECN 4016 University of the Witwatersrand School of Aeronautical Engineering Since the vortex sheet shed from each semispan of the wing rolls up about the centre of vorticity. 10 13 . 15 in Eq. the downwash angle. applying Eqs. this can be rewritten as Equation 10 The integration with respect to in Eq. 14 is readily carried out to give Equation 11 Using Eq. can be approximated as the downwash velocity divided by the freestream velocity. 14 results in Equation 12 Because the downwash is small compared to the freestream velocity. applying Eq. and 10. 5. 7.
16 to Eq. 11 the downwash angle a few chord lengths or more downstream from an inswept wing is approximated as Equation 13 Where Equation 14 Equation 15 Equation 16 Equation 17 Equation 18 14 .MECN 4016 University of the Witwatersrand School of Aeronautical Engineering and Eq.
is a position factor that account for special variations in downwash. is the ratio of the wingtip vortex strength to that generated by an elliptic wing having the same lift coefficient and aspect ratio. from Equation 6 and Equation 14. dihedral. 2002) Figure 8: The wingtip vortex span factor as predicted from the series solution to Prandtl's lifting line theory (Phillips. Bn.0 for an elliptic wing. is defined as the spacing between the wingtip vortices divided by the wingspan. The downwash for the entire tail is typically taken to be that evaluated at the 15 . Figure 7: The wing tip vortex strength factor as predicted from the series solution to Prandtl’s liftingline theory (Phillips. For an unswept wing with no dihedral or twist. For an elliptic wing with no sweep. et al. Using this fact with Equation 14. As a first approximation. all the coefficients. Kv and Kb are related to the aspect ratio and taper ratio as is shown in Figure 7 and Figure 8. 2002) The dimensionless parameter.0 and Kb is π/4. in the infinite series solution. or twist Kv is 1. Kv. Thus. except for the first are zero.MECN 4016 University of the Witwatersrand School of Aeronautical Engineering The dimensionless parameters Kv and Kb depend on the planform shape of the wing. et al. we see that the vortex strength factor. Kb. For an elliptical wing. The vortex span factor. we find that Kv is 1. Kp. Both Kv and Kb were determined analytically from the series solution to Prandtl’s liftingline equation. the variation in downwash along the span of the horizontal tail is usually neglected.
2002) Notice from Figure 7 and Figure 8 that the planform shape of the main wing has a very significant effect on the downwash induced on an aft tail. Similar results were observed empirically by Hoak. depends on the planform shape of the wing and the position of the tail relative to the wing. the span of the horizontal tail is usually small compared to that of the wing. the aerodynamic centre of the tail is in the plane of symmetry. 16 . for a main wing with no sweep or dihedral.MECN 4016 University of the Witwatersrand School of Aeronautical Engineering aerodynamic centre. et al. Furthermore. The change in the downwash with respect to the spanwise coordinate is zero at the aircraft plane of symmetry. The variation of Kp with tail position in the plane of symmetry is shown in fig. Figure 9: The effect of tail position on the downwash angle in the plane of symmetry aft of an unswept wing (Phillips. Thus. Thus. This gives the relatively simple relation Equation 19 The tail position factor. The planform shape of the wing affects the value of Kp only through its effect on Kb. For asymmetric airplane. as is shown in Figure 9. 6. Kp. the downwash is often fairly uniform over this span. equal to zero in Equation 16. and a reasonable first approximation for the downwash on an aft tail is found by setting the dimensionless spanwise coordinate. but are not accounted for in the model proposed by McCormick. the value of Kp in the plane of symmetry is a unique function of x/Kb and y/Kb. z.
17 . developed by W. Anderson. Objectives I.A. E. b) An empirical method. J. Phillips. II. Experimentally estimate the lowspeed downwash angle on an aft tail. c) Predictions found by Computational Vortex Panel Methods using Matlabbased code Tornado. Jenkins. F. Sunouchi. Compare the results obtained experimentally with theoretical computations found by the following methods: a) The modified analytical technique founded on Prandtl’s classical lifting line theory. and S.C.MECN 4016 University of the Witwatersrand School of Aeronautical Engineering 2.
MECN 4016 University of the Witwatersrand School of Aeronautical Engineering 3. Prandtl’s Lifting Line Theory (Neiswander 2008) For the case of an unswept wing the spanwise position is given by the transformation: = − cos 2 Where z is the spanwise coordinate and θ is the angle between the quarterchord line of the wing and the line connecting the wingtip to the root of the tail quarterchord. Analysis 3. . It is also given that the downwash velocity is represented by the fundamental equation: Γ ( − ) 1 ( )=− 4 Converting to polar coordinates using the transformation equation and applying the definition of circulation as a function of θ: 2 Γ( ) = sin It can be deduced after substitution that the downwash angle is given by the equation: ( . )= Where the coefficients are defined as: =1+ sin 2 = 4 + ∑ 1+∑ ( − 1) sin cos 2 2 18 .1.
The value for aspect ratio. ( ) ⎡ ( ) . not of the flow field conditions. . . ⎤ ⎥. Where the angle of attack is the geometric angle of attack. The following relationship was given for the calculation of the coefficients from the local geometric angle of attack: . ⎦ . ⋮ ⎥ . ⋮ 19 . AR can be found using: = And the lift coefficient can be found using the relationship between itself and angle of attack.MECN 4016 University of the Witwatersrand School of Aeronautical Engineering 1 ( − ̅) 1+ + ( − ̅) + + ̅ ̅ + ̅ + ( + ̅) + ( + ̅) ̅ ̅ + +( − ̅ +( 1+ − ̅) ̅ + − ̅) + ̅ +( + ̅) + ̅ ̅ + +( + ̅) = Where ̅= 2 = 2 ̅= 2 are the nondimensionalized reference position coordinates for measuring the downwash. =⎢ ⋮ ⎢ ⋮ ( ) ⎣ . This was not an easy task. It is also worth noting that the kappacoefficients are purely functions of the wing geometry. The coefficients in the summation (the Bn’s) are required in order to perform the calculation for the kappacoefficients. The result of this is that the downwash angle varies as a linear function of alpha (the angle of attack). = . ⋯ ⋱ ⋯ ⋱ .
i.023591 0.039762 0. sweep and etc.e.043186 ε 0.211 0. chord.35165 2.094934 deg 1.039572 0.521 0. Table 1: Results as published from DATCOM Cl 0. also the wing planform is defined by using variables related to wing type.953 Cl Wing 0.2.45 0.329 0.298 0.79334 4.865 0.04014231 0. [ ] = [ ] .02302 0. Altitude.032913 0.872479 5. DATCOM DATCOM is an empirical method that has the fundamental purpose is to estimate aerodynamic stability and control characteristics in preliminary design applications. This data was the used to find the tail and wing lift coefficients as well as the lift curve slope.13811997 alpha tail 0.12480262 0. The values found were then used to calculate the downwash angle.227 alpha wing 0. and angle of attacks to be analyzed).267283 3.726 Cl Tail 0.085041 0.09911915 0.016552 0. The results of this can be found in the sections that follow. This computational method was use by first defining flight condition( Mach number.066206 0.173 0. and similarly the horizontal tail was also defined.087 0. However for the calculation of the Bn’s that requires the inverse of matrix g multiplied by the angles of attack..MECN 4016 University of the Witwatersrand School of Aeronautical Engineering The central gmatrix was determined and expanded in Microsoft Excel.209 0. [ ( )] This operation was input into Matlab from Excel and then plotted back into Excel to solve for the kappacoefficients.121 0.06259156 0. followed by synthesis which sets up the CG location as well as the position of the wing and tail surfaces.4393 20 .694 0. 3.656 0. span.
This was in accordance with the experimental test piece used in the wind tunnel test. lift and coefficient distribution were simulated across the span. the more the method replicates the actual surface. force. It was defined also that the partitions would each have zero dihedral. This however comes at computational cost in the form of timeexpenditure. These partitions were each onetwentieth of the span in width and had 10 identical panels segmenting the upper surface and 10 identical panels segmenting the lower surface. After the geometry and flow field conditions were input. 21 . This was mainly to define the speed of the airstream and what angle of attack the wing was at. The span. The origin was defined as the leading edge at the wing root. This was a fairly good point to choose to compare to the other methods because it is in a range where the lift curve slope of the wing is roughly linear. the angle of attack was fixed at a reasonable 4°. The ruleofthumb with panel methods is the more panels that are used. level flight path and as such no values were input for sideslip angle. Following the lattice generation. For this reason only the alpha sheet. This was when the surfaces of the wing were discretized into the various panels that would be used for the analysis. This began by defining the panels over the surface of the airfoil that would be the basis for calculation. Experimentation 4. zero flap deflection and zero change in airfoil profile across the span. The wing was analysed as a combination of 20 identical partitions from tip to tip. the various simulations were performed. pitch angle or any of the angular rates. In addition to the geometry being defined. chord length and profile were defined as those used in the wind tunnel and the details can be found in table 2 in the following section. CFD (Tornado) Tornado is a Vortex Panel Method that was run in Matlab in order to theoretically calculate the effects of the angle of attack on downwash. the panel lattice was generated. zero twist. The flight condition was classified as a steady.1. Due to the amount of time taken to perform a single simulation. First the parameters for analysis had to be input into the program.MECN 4016 University of the Witwatersrand School of Aeronautical Engineering 4. The results were obtained in the form of graphs an tables as output by the Tornado code and can be found in the results section that follows. the flow conditions also had to be input.
Figure 10: Plan view of the Continuous Wind Tunnel used for the test 22 .1. low speed tunnel driven by a single fan. The cross section of the test chamber was a 916 x 616 mm ellipse. Windtunnel Test 4. Apparatus Closedcircuit Wind Tunnel The wind tunnel used for testing was a closed circuit. The test section was elliptical. fed by a nozzle and vacated through a diffuser as shown in the figure below.MECN 4016 University of the Witwatersrand School of Aeronautical Engineering 4. The drive motor was an English Electric DC motor with a rated maximum of 50 hp. with a clear Perspex removable observation cover.2.2. Test holes were drilled through the sides of the wind tunnel fore and aft the test piece for measuring pressures using a Pitot tube.
48 0.2 0.0465 Profile Planform shape Reference area [m2] Span [m] Chord Length [m] 23 .0093 0.0384 0.08 Tail NACA0018 Rectangular 0.MECN 4016 University of the Witwatersrand School of Aeronautical Engineering Wing and Tail Configuration Figure 11: The configuration of the wing and tail as set up in the continuous wind tunnel Table 2: Geometric characteristics of the wing and tail sections Wing NACA0015 Rectangular 0.
At regular recorded intervals this number was referenced against the actual measured angle of attack using the bubble inclinometer.MECN 4016 University of the Witwatersrand School of Aeronautical Engineering Bubble Inclinometer and electric trim calibrator Figure 12: Bubble inclinometer The angle of attack of the test piece was calibrated using a device that electrically adjusts the trim of the wing profile from a digital scale between 50 and 1500. 24 . From this relationship it was possible to observe the angle of attack at which the wing profile started to produce positive lift. and the scale number could be calculated to give the estimated angle of attack. maximum lift and where the wing stalled.
Tail and wing lift was then measured separately by means of a strain gauges in terms of strain. the difference between the aerodynamic. The door to the tunnel was then closed and bolted.MECN 4016 University of the Witwatersrand School of Aeronautical Engineering 4. 4. Testing procedure In order to determine the value of the downwash angle. causing vast fluctuations in the strain readings. 25 . 4. 2. 2. 3. only move in one direction (do not increase then decrease the angle of attack before the end of the test run). The apparatus fairing could have played a role in affecting the airflow towards the tail.2. The angle of attack was measured on the bubble inclinometer and the arm was set to this value. or otherwise changing the pressure variation below the wing. 3. actual angle between the tail centre line and the direction of flight the following procedure was used: 1. 5. 4. When varying the angle of attack. Ensure that all parts of the wind tunnel are secure.2. Past a certain angle of attack the wing became fully effective and the vibration slowed down and taking readings was much easier. Observations For low angles of attack there was excessive vibration of the airfoils. or effective angle of attack. that is.2. Procedure Precautions before testing 1. Ensure that the test section door is properly closed before taking aerodynamic measurements.3. The tunnel was then started and the airspeed for the oncoming air flow was set. and the geometrical. 5. Allow the air flow to settle before taking measurements. This procedure was repeated for various angles of attack. Ensure there are not obstacles within the wind tunnel.
4 Downwash [deg] 0.4 0. The downwash angle however did show a linear correlation to the lift coefficient as anticipated.25 0.1 0 0.2 0.1 0 0.5 0. This however was assuming that the change in lift coefficient with changing angle of attack was linear. 0.3 0.MECN 4016 University of the Witwatersrand School of Aeronautical Engineering 5.3 AoA=4 AoA=8 Figure 13: Downwash angle versus semispanwise position. This point slightly inboard of the wingtips indicates the centreline of the trailing vortex where zero wash conditions are expected. In this figure the downwash angle is shown as positive downwash and therefore any upwash is indicated as negative. According to the theory the change in angle of attack should cause a linear response in downwash.24m). 26 . This can be seen in figure 15. Results Figure 13 below shows the variation of downwash angle versus semispanwise position according to Prantdl’s lifting line theory. Importantly the aft position of this up/down wash behaviour was input as the quarter chord position of the tail.3 0.5 Semispan [m] 0.6 0.2 0. using Prantdl’s LLT Figure 14 shows the variation in downwash angle for changing angles of attack. It is clear that with a tail semi span of 0. For both angles of attack the zero up/down wash locations are slightly inboard of the wingtip (wingtip @ 0. This indicates the position where airflow trying to move to the upper surface due to differential pressures cancels out the effect of the air being forced to angle downwards due to the angle of attack.15 0. which it was not.1 0.05 0.1m that the trailing vortex was never trailing over the tail and therefore the tail was experiencing the downwash of the wing.2 0.
18 Downwash [deg] 0. 12 Downwash angle [deg] 10 8 6 Downwash vs CL 4 2 0 0 1 CL 2 3 DATCOM Figure 15: Relationship between downwash angle and lift coefficient according to Prantdl’s LLT.08 0.02 0 0 5 AoA [deg] 10 15 LLT Downwash EXP Downwash Figure 14: Variation in downwash angle with AoA for both Prantdl’s LLT and the windtunnel test Figure 15 below shows the correlation between the downwash angle and lift coefficient.14 0. and the DATCOM analysis 27 . however the differences between the experimentation and the theoretical analysis have shown to have discrepancies throughout.MECN 4016 University of the Witwatersrand School of Aeronautical Engineering 0.1 0.04 0.2 0. The conclusion can only be drawn that the error between results is caused by a fundamental issue relating to experimental error or inaccurate analysis.16 0.06 0. The difference in gradient is of concern.12 0. As anticipated by the theory the relationship is perfectly linear for both the lifting line theory and the DATCOM analysis.
These discrepancies can be put down to slightly inaccurate measurement of the apparatus during the experiment and elastic movement of the rig during operation. Also the calibration of the strain gauges was questionable. Also aspects of the theory may have unknowingly incorporated small angle approximations that went unnoticed during lengthy calculation. where small errors become amplified. This error could have come from the process of performing the matrix inversion. This may explain the cohesion for smaller angles of attack and deviation thereafter.5 degrees after which it deviates drastically. all of which could have led to the inaccurate relationship arrived at in figure 17. As is clear the LLT follows the theory until about 6.MECN 4016 University of the Witwatersrand School of Aeronautical Engineering Figure 16 shows the variation in lift coefficient with angle of attack for Prantdl’s LLT compared to the theoretical angle of attack. The reasons behind this could have stemmed from errors in the calculation of the first series coefficient for varying angles of attack.5 2 CL 1. The experimental lift coefficient versus angle of attack is shown in figure 17 below. Unlike the LLT the shape of the graph approximates the theoretical line far better despite having some local random data points.5 CL vs alpha LLT 1 0.5 0 0 5 AoA [deg] 10 15 Theory Figure 16: Lift coefficient versus AoA for Prantdl’s LLT compared to the theoretical value. 3 2. 28 .
29 .02.6 0. These discrepancies and inadequacies with the program rule the results obtained as inaccurate and unreliable. Also the value for air density could not be changed so it was run as standard air density of 1. However no results were released form Tornado regarding downwash due a defect with the program.MECN 4016 University of the Witwatersrand School of Aeronautical Engineering 1.8 CL 0. The irregular shape of the distribution is due to the fact that the program uses panel methods in order to iterate a solution. The shape of the distribution correlates to that expected by theory of lift coefficient. and as a result they have been moved to the appendix.225 instead of the actual test condition of 1. Figure 18 and figure 19 show the spanwise lift distribution on the wing as simulated in Tornado.4 1.4 0.2 1 0.2 0 0 5 AoA [deg] 10 15 CL vs alpha EXP Theory Figure 17: Lift coefficient versus AoA for the wind tunnel experiment compared to the theoretical value.
which could have led to the inaccurate relationship arrived at in figure 17. The reasons behind this could have stemmed from errors in the calculation of the first series coefficient for varying angles of attack in addition to the process of performing the matrix inversion. The calibration of the strain gauges was questionable. This was not taken into account during theoretical analysis. by referring to figure 15 one can see that this has been confirmed by theoretical computational methods used in DATCOM as well as Prandtl’s Lifting line theory as both graphs illustrate linear behaviour between the downwash and lift coefficient. in which small errors become amplified and rounding off errors also become more prominent. The experimental lift coefficient versus angle of attack is shown in figure 17 below. It also should be noted that stall is not taken into account at higher angles of attack (this occurs due to separation) which is what would happen in reality. Another reason for these discrepancies may be due to the fact that effects of turbulence 30 .MECN 4016 University of the Witwatersrand School of Aeronautical Engineering 6. The variation in lift coefficient with angle of attack for Prantdl’s LLT compared to the theoretical angle of attack may be viewed in Figure 16 . This also could be due to the fact that not all tunnel interference effects could be eliminated as no correction was introduced for the model being in a closed wind tunnel which results in the reduction of the wake behind the model. The relation between downwash and angle of attack was also proposed to be linear both experimentally and theoretically by means of figure 3.5 degrees after which the values for Prandtl become considerably higher . Unlike the LLT the shape of the graph approximates the theoretical line far better despite having some local random data points. This could also be due to the fact that the experiment was performed a higher angles of attack in the region where aerodynamic theory may break down due to separation. Discussion 6. If one compare this to figure 14 one notes that this is not what was found by the model used and the results obtained experimentally. Also aspects of the theory may have unknowingly incorporated small angle approximations that went unnoticed during lengthy calculation. This may explain the cohesion for smaller angles of attack and deviation thereafter.Prandtl’s model follows the theory until about 6.1. Thando Tshabalala The downwash was theoretically expected to be directly proportional to the lift of the airfoil. These inaccuracies can be attributed to slightly inaccurate measurement of the apparatus during the experiment and elastic movement of the rig during operation.
31 . The approximate manner in which the lifting –line theory deals with bound voracity may also causes data variations.MECN 4016 University of the Witwatersrand School of Aeronautical Engineering were also not taken into account (there is always sound level of turbulence in real flows) which causes more random behaviour in air flows.
Importantly the theory suggests that if the wing had infinite aspect ratio and therefore infinite span. in that it is commonly understood that lift cannot be produced without the presence of circulation (the KuttaJoukowsky theorem). The matter of circulation however is not confined to a mere mathematical formality. meaning that in the real case a higher angle of attack is required to induce the same downwash angle. the relationship between downwash and lift coefficient. Considering that the downwash angles are calculated based on the generation of circulation. 32 . we know this never to be the case. This makes logical sense because lift increases with increasing angles of attack and the downwash is a function of the lift at any particular spanwise station. Practically however. However based upon the research conducted and the generally understood theory.2. A conundrum now exists for the span inbetween the upwash at the tip and the downwash from approximately midspan. this still lends credibility and confidence to the data surrounding the lifting line calculations (because both are perfectly linear). Near the wing tip there is a presence of negative downwash.MECN 4016 University of the Witwatersrand School of Aeronautical Engineering 6. it is evident on figure 13. a difference in the ideal and actual airfoil surface roughness. Jameson Bentley The results obtained from the experimentation neither completely validated or completely invalidated the results obtained from Prantdl’s Lifting Line Theory. where it is observed that the downwash increases for increasing angles of attack. In figure 13 the spanwise downwash is plotted. Predictably the graph is a straight line. This potential and resulting separation off the trailing edge manifests itself as upwash at the tip. only with a slight offset in the xaxis. The result of this shows a close correlation between the curve shape of each approach. This particularly true when observing figure 15. and despite a contrasting slope to that of the DATCOM analysis. This discrepancy could be put down to a mistake regarding the calculated air density. Figure 14 shows the variation in downwash angle with increasing angles of attack for both the lifting line theory and the experimental wind tunnel test. in accordance with the theoretical relationship. Practically this represents the tendency of the high pressure air on the lower surface to move towards the lower pressure air on the upper surface. this all correlates appropriately. This forms the trailing vortex. This lends itself to another well known relationship regarding lift. there would never exist the point where the air would try to move from the high pressure of the lower surface to the low pressure of the upper surface and therefore the trailing vortex would never form. or general experimental error. or upwash. The result is for the flow to separate off the trailing edge a small spanwise distance inboard of the wingtip with a highenergy rotational flow due to the difference in upwash and downwash meeting at a point. the lifting line method seemed to show strong correlation to realworld practical examples regarding the airflow over airfoils.
for the lifting line theory and the experimental data respectively. Unfortunately very few data points were taken and this affected the resolution of the results. however the graph begins to deviate above approximately 6 degrees. The general trend is followed for small angles of attack for the lifting line case. This discrepancy can be put down to inaccurate experimentation techniques and questionable calibration data. For figure 17 the lift coefficient versus angle of attack showed little correlation to the exact slope outlined by the theory. 33 .MECN 4016 University of the Witwatersrand School of Aeronautical Engineering The variation of lift coefficient with angle of attack is shown by figures 16 and 17. The rough shape of the linear relationship is approximately followed. This could have been caused by amplified errors in the matrix inversion for calculating the series of lifting line coefficients or just due to some mathematical inconsistency.
The empirical model (DATCOM) approximately agrees with theoretical expectations but not necessarily experimental due to approximations. Experimental wind tunnel testing can validate the theoretical data providing that methods of experimentation are accurate. This point was slightly inboard of the wingtip. Abbot was also found to be theoretically very accurate for simulation.1.MECN 4016 University of the Witwatersrand School of Aeronautical Engineering 7. And if it were possible to have performed the experiment at lower speeds to model more laminar flow. It was also found that the downwash at the point of trailing vortex formation was zero. The downwash produced by a wing makes a significant difference to the lift produced by a tail aft of the main wing. Conclusions The lifting line theory provides a sufficient basis for computation on the downwash angle behind aerofoil without flaps on an aft tail but this concept breaks down at high angles of attack where separation occurs. Conclusions and Recommendations 7. 34 . Recommendations It would be more ideal if the experiment was performed at lower angles of attack for better correlation with theoretical data. In addition to this a correction factor could have been introduced to take into affect wake effects in the tunnel as well as changes in density being accounted for. inaccuracies and random behaviour due to separation followed by turbulence mentioned above.2. Conclusions Jameson Bentley Downwash angle varies linearly with coefficient of lift and spanwise location. Thando Tshabalala 7.
Take far more data points for the experimental data. Use a more sophisticated CFD program compared to Tornado in order to validate/invalidate the results. 35 . where the effect of the downwash can be found at varying locations aft of the wing. Use a generic program based on Prantdl’s Lifting Line Theory in order to validate/invalidate the data obtained.MECN 4016 University of the Witwatersrand School of Aeronautical Engineering Prantdl’s Lifting Line Theory is an accurate and acceptable method for evaluating the downwash produced by a wing. Perform the experiment using a cambered airfoil as well. Recommendations Perform the experiment knowing the geometry and profile information in greater detail.
Silverstein. B. 1999. Diehl. Brian. and Kenneth W Bullivant. C. J. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Vortex Dynamins. 1999. Anderson E. W. L. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. New York: Wiley. Karamcheti. 1992. 1966. and A Pope. 2008. 1939.” National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. jenkins. G. Walter S. Saffman. K. J. Katzoff S. 1959. The Elements of Aerfoil an Airscrew Theory. and S Sunouchi.” Journal of Aircraft. “Estimationg the LowSpeed Downwash Angle on an Aft Tail.. Lowspeed wind tunnel testing. Wiley. Prantdl's Lifting Line Theory and Finite Wings. “The Determination of Downwash. University of Notre Dame. “Downwah and Wake Behind Plain and Flapped Airfoils. H. 36 .” National Advisory Comittee for Aeronautics. References Barlow. Rae. 2002. W.” 40th Aerospace Sciences Meeting & Exhibit. P. F. Rasmussen M. 1921.MECN 4016 University of the Witwatersrand School of Aeronautical Engineering 8. H. Glauert. Phillips. “LiftindLine Theory for Arbitrary Shaped Wings. Neiswander. Abe. and Smith D E. Ideal Fluid Dynamics.A.
Appendix Table 3: Group member responsibility Section Background Literature survey: Research and write up Objectives Apparatus: Write up and diagrams Procedure for windtunnel Analysis: Prantdl Lifting Line theory Analysis: Datcom Experimentation: Windtunnel data processing Experimentation: Tornado Results: Processing and interpretation Discussion Conclusions and Recommendations Formatting. / ) ) / = (1.7526 × 10 ) Where: − − 37 . final write up. abstract Compilation Person responsible Thando Tshabalala Thando Tshabalala Thando Tshabalala Thando Tshabalala Thando Tshabalala Jameson Bentley Thando Tshabalala Jameson Bentley Jameson Bentley Jameson Bentley Individual Individual Jameson Bentley Jameson Bentley EQUATIONS TO DESCRIBE THE PROPERTIES OF AIR Air density as a function of Temp and Relative Humidity = 0.MECN 4016 University of the Witwatersrand School of Aeronautical Engineering 9.0034847 ( − 0.003796 ( .
6 + 198.74 × 10 − / (Barlow.6 = ° = Where: = 518. 38 .6° = 3. 40% ℎ 40 ] Viscosity of air at a given temp Used to calculate Reynolds number + 198.MECN 4016 University of the Witwatersrand School of Aeronautical Engineering P – Air pressure in Pa = T – Temperature in K [ %. Rae and Pope 1999) Figure 18: Spanwise variation in lift coefficient produced by Vortex Panel Method Tornado.
according to panel methods run in Tornado. 39 .MECN 4016 University of the Witwatersrand School of Aeronautical Engineering Figure 19: Spanwise variation in normalized force over the surface of the wing.
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