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# Plasma Science & Technology, Vo1.8, No.

4, July 2006

**De’sign of a Rogowski Coil with a Magnetic Core Used for Measurements of Nanosecond Current Pulses *
**

ZHU Jundong TA0 Fengbo

(mjX,,@), YANG Liandian ($j$Sj@), Lanjun (&S@) YANG

(%@ @), ZHANG

Qiaogen (E S @ ) JIA Jiangbo ,

(W,z g),

State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049, China

Abstract A Rogowski coil is developed to detect the nanosecond pulse signals of the discharge current with a wide bandwidth of 800 kHz to 106 MHz and high sensitivity of 2.22V/A. Performance tests show that the Rogowski coil has both excellent dynamic and static characteristics. Calibrating results and the comparison between the standard current shunt and the developed Rogowski coil for the measurement of nanosecond discharge pulses demonstrate that the developed Rogowski coil can reproduce the actualwaveform of the discharge current accurately.

Keywords: Rogowski coil, magnetic core, measurement, nanosecond current pulses

PACS:

07.07.DC 07.55.-w, 84.37.+q

1

Introduction

Investigation of gas discharges atanatmospheric pressure dates back to 19th the century. Recently, it has also been motivated bysomeissues related to electrotechnology and materials processing [l]. Of gas discharges, the so-called dielectric barrier discharges (DBD), high power pulsed corona (HPPC) etc, can facilitate theestablishment of a cold and non-equilibrium plasma in gases at atmospheric pressure and arepromising types of high voltage discharges that can be well controlled and have many interesting applications [2]. Therefore, there have beennumerouspapers dealing withthestudy of barrier/corona discharge plasma physics and chemistry underpulse voltages [31, which require the diagnosis of discharge parameters such ascurrent pulses, etc. It has long been thought that DBD or HPPC occurs in a pulse mode, comprising many short predischarge pulses with a rise time less than 10ns. The detection of the predischarge pulses becomes the critical enabling technique for understanding the mechanism of nanosecond pulseddischarge, which requires higher sensitivity and wider bandwidth. The current shunt or the Rogowski coil can beused in the measurement of current pulses. For current shunt, there is a good response characteristics. But a protecting circuit is necessary to keep the measuring instrument from being damaged due to the transient overcurrent of a gap discharge. Moreover, the introduction of the protecting circuit will cause oscillating and distorting of the waveforms, especially for the measurement of the fast pulse current. The Rogowski coil, isolated from thedischarge circuit, is suitable for the measurement of discharge current. However, the lower sensitivity and narrower bandwidth limit its application in the detection of very fast predischarge pulses. In addi’

tion the Rogowski coil with a high sensitivity and wide bandwidth is also necessary in the detection of partial discharge occurring in high voltage electric equipment. These requirements call for the development of a new and better technology than that presently used in the Rogowski coil design, and thus require further study. In this paper, based on two models and considering the effect of the magnetic core, we try to develop a Rogowskicoil to measurenanosecond discharge current pulses with a small magnitude, whose rising edge is of a nanosecond level and trailing edge may be quite slow, thus, the coil should have both a wide bandwidth and good high frequency response.

2

Principle of the Rogowskicoil

The designedRogowskicoilworks on the principle of electromagnetic coupling. Up to nowtwodifferent models have been developed: the lumpedparameter model [*l which represents the basic theory in the design of the Rogowski coil and the distributed parameter model [71 which is specially used in the design of a Rogowski coil with a perfect high frequency response. In the former, Pellinen et a1 considered that if the time constant L,/R in the equivalent circuit is less than the pulse width of the primary current, the acts as a coil ‘differentiating coil’ with the disadvantage of frequency dependence; in thecontrast, it is a ‘self- integrating coil’ with the advantage of frequency independence [41. Furthermore, Oates et a1 [51 found the frequency range satisfying the self integrating condition by altering the value of R in the transfer function. Marta Argueso et a1 [6] put forward the R range, which is between the two poles of the transfer function and assures that the Rogowski coil acts as an integrator based on the lumped parameter model.

* supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 50477027)

but the sensitivity will become lower. 27r L. I is the average length of the magnetic path. No. A is the section area of the ring type rectangular magnetic core. which is related to the sensitivity of the coil: range by controlling R and L.8. (5). d2 and dl are the outer and inner diameter of the coil respectively. the lower limiting frequency can be achieved.d1)/2. the latter is used to select the magnetic core in the design of the coil and the parameters of the magnetic core are set to be p = 250. in the theoretical analysis. is the self-inductance of the coil. C. R and N are the main parameters which have a significant effect on BW. the frequency range and configuration parameters of the magnetic core actually play an important role in determining BW of the coil. Fig. July 2006 According to thelumped parameter model. With the increase of N and the decrease of R . the frequency range of the magnetic core should include the demanded frequency range. In Fig. it can be found that L. f h is the upper frequency limit.4. the sensitivity and the bandwidth of the Rogowskicoil are determined by R . From Fig. it can be seen that the sensitivity of the Rogowski coil also depends / on the parameters of R and N . All the data are measured with a 500 MHz digital storage oscilloscope of TDS 3052. R3 1 1 Fig. calibrating square wave and impulse wave from 10 Hz to 2. there are best values of R and N for the coil to have both a wide frequency band and a high sensitivity.dl 2h)2 ' + (6) In order to increase BW dz/dl should be set as large as. Accordingly. Between the toroidal coil and the electrostaticshield there is a distributed capacitance so that the coil acts as a high-impedance delay line (20) disturbances and initiated by the mutual inductance between the main current and the toroidal windings take a finite time to propagate to the ends of the coil. First. RR. BW will become larger. 3 3.C. but almost no change can be found on the upper limiting frequency. N and the magnetic core Selection of the magnetic core Although BW of the coil can be in the demanded After the magnetic core is determined. equations of the frequency bandwidth ( B W )are given as follows: f l = . Inorder to meet the requirements of measurement in nanosecondcurrent pulses. 458 . 2 shows that if R decreased and N is kept fixed.possible or h = (d2 .1 Selection of R. fh=G' 1 + L. 2. M-. Fig.' B M ' = f h .5 MHz with an amplitude of 0 t o 5 V. Both the lumped parameter model and the distributed parameter model have the same transfer function expressed by Eq. Thus a large BW can be achieved with a low value of R . the relative bandwidth of the ferrite is determined by its configuration parameters fmax f max OC 2p1hln2 x 10-9 (d2 . A ring-type rectangular ferriteof nickelzinc material with high resistivity p and low coercive force H.27r RC. the lower limiting frequency will decrease while the upper limiting frequency will increase. R is the integral resistance.Plasma Science & Technology. h is the height of the coil and N is the number of windings. the lower limiting frequency will increase.1 The measuringcircuit A p N 2 hIn-d2 = p N z . If R is kept fixed and N is decreased. = 2~ dl 1 where fi is the lower frequency limit. (3) and (4). 3. L. below the transit time. 2(b). The measuring circuit is shown in Fig. Second. The ratio R/Zo determines the high frequency performance and the distributedcapacitance of the coil becomes the overriding factor. N and the magnetic core. Considering the system as a distributed line the electrostatic shield can be treated as a reverse turn [71 and R can filter the signals in combinationwith L. fi should be as low as possible while fh should be as high as possible. 1. (5) In general. RLS. With increase of N . p and N should be large enough to increase L.= N M . .. is used to obtain the performance of broadband and low loss in this work. which can generatesine waves from 10 Hz to 125 MHz with an amplitude of 0 to 5 V. The instrument for experiments is an arbitrary waveform generator AWG2021.. should be as large as possible while R should be as small as possible.-1 R R). + RR.- 1 R+R.2 Selection of R and N H ( s )= R/N. vo1. dl = 18 mm and h = 8 mm. According to Eqs. but the sensitivity of the Rogowski will coil also decrease. dz = 34 mm. In order to increase the frequency band. L. 2(a) shows the amplitude-frequency response of the Rogowski coil by changing N while R is fixed.- R 27r L. an optimized design of R and N is necessary. L.C.f l = G ' ( 1 C . R is altered and N is fixed. is the stray capacitance.' 1 (1) (2) (3) (4) Arbitrary waveform generator 7 / 0 1 l l 1 1 M--. Therefore. p is the magnetic permittivity of the core.

95% of the designed coil obtained by the least squares technique and Fig.. The best parameters are: R = 50Cl. 4 4.4 The linearity of the designed Rogowski coil 1 : 1 3 1 .-5 g v W . . -251 0. so that the oscillation will not occur in the system. The falling time and pulse width of the calibrating nanosecond-pulse are 2...3 The square wave response of the designed Rogowski coil and the current shunt: Chl... : Design of a Rogowski Coil with a Magnetic Core Used for Measurements I.01 c 0. . The rising time and falling time of the calibrating square wave are 2. (7) correct.. . ..108 ns. important parameters to judge the static characteristics of the Rogowski coil.. I . The response time of the Rogowskicoilis faster than that of the current shunt. The upper frequency calculated by Eq... The accuracy of the phase angle of the designed coil is 0. Waveforms of Chl and Ch2 are of the response measuredby the standardcurrent shunt 459 .563 ns respectively. . The square wave response of the designed Rogowski coil 1 . The square wave response of the current shunt. Fig.). A : R = 250R... 5 shows the phase shift in the range of f0. which is also the range of R N can be set experimentally after the determinng the range of R. ...(b)R=50O. . . Fig.499 ns respectively.742 ns.ZHU Jundong et al. .( ~ 0. In addition the Rogowski coil likes an integrator between the poles.1 ..5O which are suitable for fast-pulse signal measurement. When setting the range of R. I P S . I . .082 ns and 2. .827 ns correspundingly and that of the Rogowskicoil (Ch2) are 2.01 1"6 . . (a) N = 25. C:N=25 2 . Within the bandwidth of the Rogowski coil.2 The amplitude-frequency response characteristics of the Rogowski coil..I * 10 1 L I^\ ' a ' A dl I :. . 4 shows a linearity of 0._ 1 10 - 5 3 -- 10 Frequency(MHz) 100 5- Fig. 1 . . N = 10 for the wide bandwidth of 800 kHz to 106 MHz and high sensitivity of 2... (15) of the coilis about 127. 2. B : R = 100R... .5 Phase shift of the Rogowski coil 3.. which matches well the amplitudefrequency response. which indicates that the response time of the coil is faster than that of the current shunt. . linearity and phase shift are three The elaborated Rogowski coil with the terminating impedance of 5 0 0 is used to measure the calibrating pulse shown in Fig..419 ns.1 1 Frequency(MHz) 10 100 0 . Fig..B:N=5. . .5 -10 -15 l -20 Fig. That is because R and N have a range to satisfy the self-integrating condition and keep the Eq. fh = 350/t..1 1 Frequency(MHz) 10 100 Furthermore. Ch2.:l -25 0. respectively. . . .22 VIA with a termination resistance of 50 Cl. the poles of the transfer function relating Ui(t) to Uo(t) move along the real axis as long as the terminating impedance is low enough.C:R=50R. the sensitivity of N = 5 and N = 10 is invariant from Fig. The response time of the current shunt (Chl) is3.64 MHz. ..1 Measurement of ns current pulses Calibrating wit h nanosecondpulse signal (7) The sensitivity. 2.716 ns and 4.....3 Tests of the designed Rogowski coil The amplitude-frequency response and the step wave response are two important items of the dynamic characteristics.. 6. . 3 shows the square wave response of the designed Rogowskicoil and the standard current shunt made by non-inductive resistors.A:N=10.. . -5 -10 - 0- 1 ----Optimal curve fitting -Amplitude-frequency response -15 0.5. l f E O I -l 10 f (MHz) 100 Fig.. 1 and Fig. 2.

Sanz Javier. J. References 1 Fig.. 8 under the pulse peak-to-peak amplitude of 5. The experimental results reveal that by using the designed Rogowski coil an accurate waveform of the discharge current can be obtained. 2005. No. PartC. 2000. Instrum.. The signals are measured by the Rogowski coil as well as the standard current shunt.. D: Appl. the response waveform of the Rogowski coil Protective Yellow brass electmde Oscilloscope resistance 5 l I Fig. Sci. Rogowski electrodes with a diameterof 60 mm made of two brass (Manuscript received 11 July 2005) E-mail address of ZHU Jundong: zhujundongl980@stu. the response waveform of the current shunt. 6. vo1. Appl.Rev. Rev.. Phys. measured by the Rogowski coil Chl.8.Energy. 1963. Bath. .1 mm. (IEC. 2004. the fast-pulse signals with a small amplitude can be measured by the Rogowski coil without an amplifier.8 Nanosecond current pulses measurements: waveform measured by the current shunt. Phys. : . Ch2. M1o. 1981) Partial Discharges Measurements 5 4. 5: 285 IEC 270-1981. 51: 1535 Oates C D M.. UK. Ch2. J. Waveforms of Chl and Ch2 are obtainedby the standard current shunt and the Rogowskicoil. A DBD waveform is shown in Fig. et al. 2002 Argueso Marta. 7 based on the standard IEC 270-1981 ['l. 1980. The protective resistance is 500 kR.Plasma Science & Technology.I.2 kV with a frequency of 6. Furthermore.!mi+ .. 96(5): 3028 Pellinen Donald G. IEEE Trans on Plasma Science.OOV ' %-- ...6 Measurements of thecalibrating fast-pulsesignal: Chl.edu. Between these two platesthere is a PTFE thin film of 0. respectively. Kim H T.. Amirov R H. U A 3360% . Di. From Fig. 1998. July 2006 platesare used. J.cn 460 . fall time and the pulse width. which indicates that the designed coil can be used to measure the fast-pulse signals correctly. Heesch Bert E J M van. 33:1716 LaroussiM. Test results and nanosecond current pulse measurements demonstrate that the Rogowskicoil can accuratelyreproduce the waveforms of discharge current pulses withananosecond rising time and lower amplitude.qm . Machines and Drives. so thatit is in the bandwidth of the Rogowski coil. IEEInternational Conference on Power Electronics. design of high performance Rogowski coils.2 Measurement of nanosecond current pulses 6 7 8 The designed Rogowski coil is usedto measure a fastpulse signal in the laboratory. which can also avoid noise invasion. 26(5): 1476 Filimonova E A. Nucl. . FFT (Fast Fourier Transform) shows that the frequencies of the fast-pulse signals are mostly below 100 MHz. Paasen Sander S V B van. J.7 Experimentalsetup for measurement of nanosecond l Conclusions + current pulsest Based on the analysis of the magnetic core effect on the bandwidth of the Rogowski coil as well as the effect of R and N . The experimental setup diagram is shown in Fig. Capua Marco S.xjtu.6kHz and 50% duty ratio. CM . Sampayan Stephen E. . %. James The C. it can be seen that the waveforms are almost the same in their rising time. et al. Robles Guillermo. CM . Fig. Phys. respectively. a Rogowskicoil currenttransducer beenhas designed to have both wide bandwidth a and a high sensitivity by setting three main parameters. Burnett A J.. 76: 065107 Cooper J. This circuit is used to investigate the DBD. compared with that of the standard current shunt.4. Lu X. Instrum. waveform 2 3 4 and the Rogowski coil. Sci.ti12 v . Smulders Erwin H W M.