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Organizational Behavior (OB) is the study and application of knowledge about how people, individuals, and groups act in organizations. It does this by taking a system approach. That is, it interprets people-organization relationships in terms of the whole person, whole group, whole organization, and whole social system. Its purpose is to build better relationships by achieving human objectives, organizational objectives, and social objectives
Autocratic The basis of this model is power with a managerial orientation of authority. The employees in turn are oriented towards obedience and dependence on the boss. The employee need that is met is subsistence. The performance result is minimal. Custodial The basis of this model is economic resources with a managerial orientation of money. The employees in turn are oriented towards security and benefits and dependence on the organization. The employee need that is met is security. The performance result is passive cooperation. Supportive The basis of this model is leadership with a managerial orientation of support. The employees in turn are oriented towards job performance and participation. The employee need that is met is status and recognition. The performance result is awakened drives. Collegial The basis of this model is partnership with a managerial orientation of teamwork. The employees in turn are oriented towards responsible behavior and self-discipline. The employee need that is met is self-actualization. The performance result is moderate enthusiasm.

Organization Development
Organization Development (OD) is the systematic application of behavioral science knowledge at various levels, such as group, inter-group, organization, etc., to bring about planned change (Newstrom, Davis, 1993). Its objectives is a higher quality of work-life, productivity, adaptability, and effectiveness. It accomplishes this by changing attitudes, behaviors, values, strategies, procedures, and structures so that the organization can adapt to competitive actions, technological advances, and the fast pace of change within the environment. There are seven characteristics of OD (Newstrom, Davis, 1993):
1. Humanistic Values: Positive beliefs about the potential of employees (McGregor's Theory Y). 2. Systems Orientation: All parts of the organization, to include structure, technology, and people, must work together. 3. Experiential Learning: The learners' experiences in the training environment should be the kind of human problems they encounter at work. The training should NOT be all theory and lecture. 4. Problem Solving: Problems are identified, data is gathered, corrective action is taken, progress is assessed, and adjustments in the problem solving process are made as needed. This process is known as Action Research. 5. Contingency Orientation: Actions are selected and adapted to fit the need. 6. Change Agent: Stimulate, facilitate, and coordinate change. 7. Levels of Interventions: Problems can occur at one or more level in the organization so the strategy will require one or more interventions.

Quality of Work Life

Quality of Work Life (QWL) is the favorableness or unfavorableness of the job environment (Newstrom, Davis, 1993). Its purpose is to develop jobs and working conditions that are excellent for both the employees and the organization. One of the ways of accomplishing QWL is through job design. Some of the options available for improving job design are: o o o o
Leave the job as is but employ only people who like the rigid environment or routine work. Some people do enjoy the security and task support of these kinds of jobs. Leave the job as is, but pay the employees more. Mechanize and automate the routine jobs. And the area that OD lovesredesign the job.

When redesigning jobs there are two spectrums to followjob enlargement and job enrichment. Job enlargement adds a more variety of tasks and duties to the job so that it is not as monotonous. This takes

in the breadth of the job. That is, the number of different tasks that an employee performs. This can also be accomplished by job rotation. Job enrichment, on the other hand, adds additional motivators. It adds depth to the jobmore control, responsibility, and discretion to how the job is performed. This gives higher order needs to the employee, as opposed to job enlargement which simply gives more variety. The chart below illustrates the differences (Cunningham & Eberle, 1990): The benefits of enriching jobs include: o o o o o o o o
Growth of the individual Individuals have better job satisfaction Self-actualization of the individual Better employee performance for the organization Organization gets intrinsically motivated employees Less absenteeism, turnover, and grievances for the organization Full use of human resources for society Society gains more effective organizations

There are a variety of methods for improving job enrichment (Hackman and Oldham, 1975): o
Skill Variety: Perform different tasks that require different skill. This differs from job enlargement which might require the employee to perform more tasks, but require the same set of skills.

o o o o

Task Identity: Create or perform a complete piece of work. This gives a sense of completion and responsibility for the product. Task Significant: This is the amount of impact that the work has on other people as the employee perceives. Autonomy: This gives employees discretion and control over job related decisions. Feedback: Information that tells workers how well they are performing. It can come directly from the job (task feedback) or verbally form someone else.

For a survey activity, see Hackman & Oldham's Five Dimensions of Motivating Potential.

Action Learning
An unheralded British academic was invited to try out his theories in Belgiumit led to an upturn in the Belgian economy. Unless your ideas are ridiculed by experts they are worth nothing, says the British academic Reg Revans, creator of action learning. Action Learning can be viewed as a formula: [L = P + Q]:

o o o

Learning (L) occurs through a combination of programmed knowledge (P) and the ability to ask insightful questions (Q).

Organizational Behavior Internal & Externals Factors Impact Free Essay, Term Paper and Book Report
The workforce today consists of individuals from all different walks of life, which can present a challenge for all leaders and employees as it, relates to Organizational Behavior (OB). Organizational Behavior is important to the performance and effectiveness within most organizations today. Organization consists of individuals known as the melting pot and Leaders must be aware of the different factors that have an impact on the day-to-day operation. The body of knowledge is known as Organizational Behavior (OB). Leaders must understand where their organization is in todays different environments and come up with an effective plan that will assist them in maintaining professional, qualified, motivated, and dedicated employees that enhance their operational effectiveness. Managers must understand the various factors that can affect the organization performance levels, employee group behaviors and the core process involving organizational behavior. Some elements of the core process are: leadership, power and politics, information and communication, decision-making, ......

Technology can be used to explain organizational behaviour. Technology can also be used to explain the nature of jobs, work groupings, hierarchy, skills, values and attitudes in organizations. The organizations of work around a given technology can be used to control labour costs, to control decision making, to control the relative status of different groups in an organization and to control promotion and career prospects. Managers may be able to manipulate employees in these ways by appealing to the technological determinist argument: We have to do this because the technology demands it. The term organization covers a multitude of industrial, commercial, service industry and public service activities An organization exists where two or more people agree to get together and co-ordinate their Physical and mental activities to achieve common goals. This same logic applies in any kind of work setting. In all cases, the aim is to utilise everyones talents to the fullest and to achieve outcomes that could not be achieved by the efforts of individuals on their own WHY ORGANIZATIONS ARE NEEDED?

Organizations serve society

Organizations accomplish objectives: Organizations preserve knowledge: Organizations provide careers: CONCLUSION

The management of an organization must be aware of all these factors and the interactions between them and deal with them before or concurrently they create a problem. In fact, the main of a manager is to use these technological adaptations as an opportunity to rearrange the positions, procedures, relationships and tasks in the organization for better performance results. There is no perfect strategy which suits to any organization for every situation. That is why the managers of an organization has to search for their best solution for both their organization and employees in accordance with the circumstances their organization in
Course Goal Emphasis is on integrating theory and concepts from the behavioral and social sciences as a basis for understanding human behavior within organizations. Factors which influence the structure, design, operation, and performance of individuals in complex organizations will be explored. Students will demonstrate an understanding of basic organizational behavior and theory.

Course Objectives
- To gain an appreciation of individual, group, and organizational behavior within complex organizations. - To gain insight into individual strengths and interpersonal dynamics. - To become familiar with major theoretical and research traditions associated with organizational behavior and organizational theory. - To become familiar with theoretical concepts related to motivating personnel and effective leadership as a basis for developing a philosophy of management and leadership. - To become familiar with skills needed to work as a health care executive.

Organizational Structure Types and Design Strategy Welcome to Starting a new organization can be a hard task, no matter how big or small it may be. Whether you are starting a new company, business, or you're a school board member, your organization needs a good structure to keep it going. On our site, you can find information on strategies, designs, and the implementation of

different types of organizational structure. We can offer examples for businesses, companies, corporations, schools, restaurants, and more.
The main purpose of the study was to examine role clarity as a moderator of the role efficacy-role performance relationship. A secondary issue was to investigate the influence of role clarity on role efficacy and role performance. On the basis of Bandura's theorizing, it was hypothesized that role efficacy should be a good predictor of role performance effectiveness only under conditions of high role clarity. Individuals reporting higher role clarity were expected to be more efficacious and perform better than those with lower role clarity. Consistent with hypotheses, role clarity moderated the prospective relationship between role efficacy and role performance effectiveness in the predicted direction for offensive role functions. Individuals who reported higher role clarity also reported higher role efficacy and performed better than those with lower role clarity. Results are discussed in the context of self-efficacy theory. Further prospective examinations, as well as experimental designs, are recommended. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved) (from the journal abstract)

Abstract Defining organizational behavior has a number of meanings that each one of us has to interpret and use. This paper will define what organizational behavior means to me. Also, why it is important to managers in today's organizations. This paper will also look at some skills that are important and needed by managers to tackle today's changing environment. Operating Definition of Organizational Behavior In order to understand Organizational Behavior, one must provide a definition of the subject. The text defines organizational behavior as the field of study that investigates the impact individuals, groups, and structure have on behavior within organizations for the purpose of a ... ... want you to sell or give standard

"cookie-cutter" service. Our customers that we provide services to are much more sophisticated than in previous years. Customers are knowledgeable enough to compare and benchmark to ensure the best value and service for their money. One might ask, why should managers care? Well, in today's changing environment managers need to communicate with employees more and enlist the suggestions of the team to ensure the companies success. One of the best statements I have read in this class is the following journal excerpt. "...Managers should strive to be open to and enthusiastic about employee suggestions, to roll up their sleeves and pitch in, and to take the time to be

1. Productivity
Effective managerial communication can lead to higher levels of productivity in a labor force. Effective communication will clearly outline expectations for workers, which allows for greater comprehension of directives, requirements and goals. In turn, employees are better able to deliver on these needs. Moreover, if workers can communicate with management, they are more likely to be able to gain clarification on points of potential confusion, further amplifying these results.

Employee Relationships
Managers who practice effective communication understand the importance of transparency in communication with employees. Straight forward communication and disclosure with employees does a couple of things. First, it allows employees to have a full view of the situation when addressing a problem or potential conflict, resulting in more comprehensive and creative solutions. Second, it inspires trust and loyalty in the labor force. Loyalty often translates into higher retention rates and productivity, saving a company thousands of dollars.