What’s Wrong With This Picture?

Co-creating real urbanisms for the next three billion

Jeb Brugmann The World Bank Urban Week March 9, 2009

photo from Karen Seto

Nicaragua

Ahmedabad

Western Cape

Abu Dhabi Kuala Lumpur

.Q: What’s Wrong? A: The lack of an elaborated discipline of “urban strategy” to put best practice into scaled practice.

The Practice of  Urbanism The planning processes.  technical solutions. and local culture to establish A New Urbanism. . and used to  achieve the strategic objective. economic and  social interests that  share a common  strategic purpose. and business  models that together  shape the way the city is  built.  responsive to the Alliance. Strategic Institutions A dedicated apparatus. regional markets. for  developing. serviced. testing and  diffusing new practices of  urbanism. highly  committed group of  political. These three faculties form a stable ‘regime’ that transforms urban form.  designs.The essential faculties of the Strategic City The Strategic  Alliance A stable.

Barcelona Chicago .

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Spectrum of city-building approaches Planned Master Planned Ad hoc Community‐based (institutional) Planned Industrial Commodification (formal/informal) Urbanism Urbanism City Mass production of the City Formal Best practice range Informal Accessibility/affordability Productivity Social cohesion/governability Resource efficiency Resilience .

Spectrum of city-building approaches Custom Planned Planned Master Ad hoc Community‐based (institutional) Planned Industrial Commodification (formal/informal) Urbanism Urbanism City Mass production of the City Informal Formal .

Community-based urbanism Informal Formal .

Spectrum of city-building approaches Custom Planned Planned Master Ad hoc Community‐based (institutional) Planned Industrial Commodification (formal/informal) Urbanism Urbanism City Mass production of the City Informal Formal .

Planned (institutional) urbanism Formal Informal .

  builds. . and co‐locates activities to support  specialized forms of production and living that give  them shared advantage in the world.What is an “urbanism?” Urbanism (ər‐bə‐ni‐zəm). noun 1. governs. The way of life of people who live in a city  (Websters).  The way that a city‐building community designs. 2.

The bazaar district (Middle East/West Asia) .

 Toronto .Leslieville.

The central business district and university district .

Spectrum of city-building approaches Custom Planned Planned Master Ad hoc Community‐based (institutional) Planned Industrial Commodification (formal/informal) Urbanism Urbanism City Mass production of the City Informal Formal .

Transforming the Silicon Valley Workplace .

Industrial batch production Post‐Informal Formal .

Different approaches create different “economic compacts” Developer Derivatives (CDO) Trader Subprime Lender P&L (and Balance Sheet) Owner P&L (and Balance Sheet) A standardized unit of fungible. basic urban utility Municipal P&L (and Balance Sheet) Asset  stripper (Slumlord) Consumer P&L (and Balance Sheet) Industrial Batch Production of City .

Spectrum of city-building approaches Formal Ad hoc Custom Planned Planned Master Community‐based (institutional) Planned Industrial Commodification Urbanism Urbanism City Mass production of the City Informal .

 more energy intensive. water & sewerage capacity Larger per capita automobile fleet Higher energy/fuel costs Higher mobility costs Higher infrastructure costs More dispersed and flexible labor markets More frequent change of employment Higher housing turnover/neighborhood churn REVENUE EQUATION Less government capital investment Less government O&M subsidy Reduced employment benefits Declining real incomes NET never calculated! . more facilities Greater distances More road.“The centre does not hold:” subprime lending was part of the iceberg COST EQUATION Larger homes.

Different approaches create different “economic compacts” A Pursues urban utility & economic advantage B Pursues urban utility & economic advantage A co‐created system  tailored to provide  multiple forms of  specialized utility with a shared P&L  and Balance Sheet B Pursues urban utility & economic advantage D Pursues urban utility & economic advantage An Urbanism .

America) .The industrial city neighborhood (N.

Strategy = Scaling Quality Planned Urbanism Quality of Total City Custom Master Planned Community Urbanism Accessibility/affordability Productivity Social cohesion/governability Resource efficiency Resilience Ad hoc Past Planned Industrial Commodification Today .

Quantity of total city (formal) Quantity &  speed solutions Planned Industrial Quantity of Total City Quality & resilience solutions Ad hoc Planned Urbanism Community Urbanism Commodification Past Today .

Can there be an industrial approach to urbanism? Industrial‐scale Urbanism? Quality of Total City Quality of Total City .

Reverse engineering the process of urbanism Planned Urbanism Quality of Total City Community Urbanism Reverse engineering The process of analyzing  the construction and  operation of a product in  order to manufacture a  similar one Planned Industrial Ad hoc Past Today .

“Co-creation” and “user-centered design”: the cutting-edge of corporate product strategy .

The missing link: organized user communities are required .

Solution: “new urbanism incubators” in every city • study and document existing local urbanisms • bring user communities together. and the industry . designers. or respond to their existing demand • manage the innovation process between users.

A new industrial urbanism?: Kronsberg (Hannover) Germany .

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Business process innovation and project cycle reform are key Product innovation • pre‐design new urbanism solutions through reverse engineering • project‐specific co‐creation Development control process reform • manage risks associated with process change • manage risks associated with product innovation Business model innovation • share risks associated with process and product innovation .

Spectrum of city-building approaches Custom Planned Planned Master Ad hoc Community‐based (institutional) Planned Industrial Commodification (formal/informal) Urbanism Urbanism City Mass production of the City Informal Formal .

Ad Hoc City Building (planned and unplanned) Informal Formal .

Spectrum of city-building approaches Custom Planned Planned Master Ad hoc Community‐based (institutional) Planned Industrial Commodification (formal/informal) Urbanism Urbanism City Mass production of the City Informal Formal .

Custom master planned city .

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