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THE

AGORA ATHENIAN
RESULTS OF EXCAVATIONS CONDUCTED BY
STUDIES AT ATHENS

THE AMERICAN

SCHOOL

OF CLASSICAL

VOLUME XXI
GRAFFITI AND
BY MABEL LANG

DIPINTI

THE AMERICAN SCHOOL OF CLASSICAL STUDIES AT ATHENS PRINCETON, NEW JERSEY 1976

PUBLISHED

WITH THE AID OF A GRANT

FROM MR. JOHN D. ROCKEFELLER,

JR.

ALL RIGHTS

RESERVED

Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data Lang, Mabel L Graffiti and dipinti. 1917-

(The Athenian Agora; v. 21) Bibliography: p. 1. Athens. Agora. 2. Graffiti-Athens. 3. Inscriptions, Greek-Athens. I. Title. II. Series: American School of Classical Studies at Athens. The Athenian Agora; v. 21. 938'.5s [938'.5] 75-40229 DF287.A23A5 vol. 21 ISBN 0-87661-221-4

PRINTED

IN GERMANY

at J.J. AUGUSTIN,

GLtCKSTADT

PREFACE
herehas Agoraseriesthe material presented erhapsevenmorethanin othervolumesof theAthenian hadthebenefit muchtimeandthoughtovertheyearson thepartof a goodlynumberof excavators, of and visitorsin the Agora. Everyoneenjoysverbalpuzzlesthat challengeone's powersof cataloguers minds,andmanyhappynotionsaboutthesetextswereevolvedaroundthe tea tableso reading(ancient) that the 'onliebegetter'may have been lost in obscurity. effort,so that the presentauthoris indebtednot Dating of the materialhas also been a cooperative kinds of materialfor only to excavatorsbut also to the many scholarswhose study of particular has broughtorderout of complication confusion. and particular periods Basicto this workwasfirsta completelistingof all graffiti dipintifoundin the Agora,initiatedby and Talcottand effectedby Suzanne and a succession helpfulvolunteers. of Lucy Then,the foundaYoung A tions of this study'scategories throughG werelaid in a preliminary versionwrittenin the early1950's A. Stamiresand EugeneVanderpool. far more limitedin scope and numberof by George Although not but piecesstudiedthan this, that workhas on severaloccasionsprovided only the best reading also the rightphrasesin whichto presentthe material.In the yearsfollowing,the presentauthorwas fortunatein beingableto consultwithEugeneVanderpool benefitfromhis vastexperience all things and of Greekand graphic.His wisdomand tempered in consequence judgment pervadethe whole work; the infelicities whaterrorstheremay be of commisssion omissionare all my own. and or Illustrations the graffiti of havebeenlimitedto drawings. the case of dipintiphotographs In havebeen for becauseof the difficulties of forms preferred one category, presented a combination run-oncursive by and the fugitivemedium.The drawings were made by Hero Athanasiades Helene Besi who have and shownboth skill and firmness representing in whatwas actuallyvisibleratherthan being influenced by the 'wishfulseeing'of the author.
P

'It is easy to read if you know what it says.' 1974 NOVEMBER,

EUGENE VANDERPOOL
MABEL LANG

TABLE OF CONTENTS
PREFACE ........................................................................ LIST OF PLATES ............................................................ AND BIBLIOGRAPHY ...................................................... ABBREVIATIONS .... V viii ix

......... INTRODUCTION

................

..................................... . .................

A. ABECEDARIA ...........................
AND LISTS ...................................................... B. MESSAGES AND HATENAMES........... C. LOVENAMES

.....

6
8 11 16 21 23 30

................................ ........... ................... ...................

ON ................... D. NAMES SHERDS

NOTATIONS SHERDS .......................... ON E. NUMERICAL ............................ F. OWNERS' MARKS ....................... F. PRIVATE OWNERSHIP ......................................................

FA. PUBLIC OWNERSHIP: DELTA-EPSILON LIGATURES ....................................

51
......... ............ 52 52 55

FB. PUBLICOWNERSHIP: DELTA-ETA LIGATURES ........ INSCRIPTIONS .............................. G. DEDICATIONSAND CONVIVIAL NOTATIONS .......................................................... H. COMMERCIAL HA. CAPACITY ....................... ............... HB. TARE .6............................................................. HC. DATE ................................................................ HD. CONTENTS ....................................................... HE. COMBINATIONS ....................................................... I. TAX NOTATIONS ....... ......... ................................... J. CHRISTIAN INSCRIPTIONS ............................................ K. MISCELLANEOUS NOTATIONS ......... L. UNCLASSIFIEDNOTATIONS ................. M. PICTURES ............ ..... ..........................

........

.....................

55
64

69
72 75 82 87 88 90 94

................................... ............... ................... ..............

DEPOSITS ................................................9...................96
OF CONCORDANCE INVENTORYAND CATALOGUE NUMBERS ................................... 101

INDICES ............................................
INDEX NOMINUM...........

105 .. ............................. . ..... . .......105


110 115 116

INDEX VERBORUM ................................................................... INDEX NUMERORUM ................................................................. INDEX SIGILLORUM ..................................................................

LIST
PLATE

OF

PLATES

1 Abecedaria (A 1-11) 2-3 Lists and Messages (B 1-21) 4-6 Love Names and Hate Names (C 1-34) 7-9 Names on Sherds (D 1-44) 10 Numerical Notations on Sherds (E 1-16) 11-28 Owners' Marks (F 1-334) 29 Owners' Marks: De(mosion) Ligatures (Fa 1-26; Fb 1-3) 30-31 Dedications and Convivial Inscriptions (G 1-23) 32-36 Commercial Notations: Capacity (Ha 1-56) 37-38 CommercialNotations: Tare (Hb 1-31) 39-40 Commercial Notations: Date (Hc 1-26) 41-42 Commercial Notations: Contents (Hd 1-23) 42-47 CommercialNotations: Combinations (He 1-44) 48-53 Tax Notations (I 1-45) 53-54 Christian Inscriptions (J 1-12) 54-55 Miscellaneous (K 1-19) 56-59 Unclassified (L 1-56) 60-61 Pictures (M 1-23) 62 Actual State Plan of the Agora

ABBREVIATIONS AND BIBLIOGRAPHY


Agora

conducted the American TheAthenian School Agora,Resultsof Excavations by of ClassicalStudiesat Athens


III IV V R. E. Wycherley, Literary and Epigraphical Testimonia, Princeton, 1957

(see below,Wycherley)
R. H. Howland, GreekLamps and their Survivals,Princeton, 1958 (see

below, Howland)
H. S. Robinson, Pottery of the Roman Period: Chronology,Princeton,

1959(see below,Robinson,Chronology)
VI C. Grandjouan, Terracottasof the Roman Period, Princeton, 1961 VII J. Perlzweig, Lamps of the Roman Period, Princeton, 1961 VIII E. T. H. Brann, Late Geometric and Protoattic Pottery, Princeton, 1962

(see below, Brann)


X M. Lang and M. Crosby, Weights,Measures and Tokens, Princeton, 1964 XII B. A. Sparkes and L. Talcott, Black and Plain Pottery of the 6th, 5th and

4th Centuries C., Princeton,1970(see below, Sparkes-Talcott) B.


A. J.A1. rio Annual Beazley, A. B. V. Beazley, A. R. V. AmericanJournalof Archaeology Annuariodella (R.) Scuola archeologicadi Atene J. D. Beazley, Attic Black-Figure Vase-Painters,Oxford, 1956 J. D. Beazley, Attic Red-FigureVase-Painters,second edition, Oxford, 1963 des Fr. Bechtel, Die historischePersonennamen Griechischen, Halle, 1917 E. J. Bickerman, Chronologyof the Ancient World,London, 1968 Late Geometricand Protoattic Pottery. Agora, VIII Annualof the British School at Athens Bulletin de correspondance hellenique Latinarum,Paris, 1862-1963 CorpusInscriptionum Classical Review J. M. Edmonds, The Fragmentsof Attic Comedy,Leiden, 1959-61 Greek Lamps and their Survivals.Agora, IV InscriptionesGraecae,Editio minor, Berlin, 1924 third edition, H. Roehl, Imagines InscriptionumGraecarumAntiquissimarum,

Bechtel Bickerman Brann


B. S. A. B. C.H. C. I. L. C.R.

Edmonds Howland
I.G. I. G. A. LG. R.R.

Berlin,1907

InscriptionesGraecaead Res Romanas Pertinentes,Paris, 1906-2/

Immerwahr
Jeffery, L. S. A. G.

on H. R. Immerwahr, "Some Inscriptions Attic Pottery," The James Sprunt


Studies in History and Political Science, XLVI, 1964, pp. 16-27 Lillian H. Jeffery, The Local Scripts of Archaic Greece, Oxford, 1961 P. Kretschmer,Die griechischenVaseninschriften, Giitersloh, 1894 W. Kubitschek, GrundriJ3fi antiken Zeitrechnung,Munich, 1928 der

Kretschmer Kubitschek LSJ


Meisterhans2

H. G. Liddell,R. Scott, H. S. Jones,A Greek-English Lexicon,Oxford,192540


K. Meisterhans, Grammatikder attischen Inschriften, second edition, Berlin,

1888

x Metrolog. Script.
P. Oxy.

ABBREVIATIONS AND BIBLIOGRAPHY


MetrologicorumScriptorumReliquiae,Leipzig, 1864-1866

Oxyrhynchus Papyri,B. P. Grenfelland A. S. Hunt, ed., London, 1898J. E. Pape, Worterbuch griechischenEigennamen, der third edition (G. Benseler),

Pape

J. E. Kirchner, Prosopographia Attica, Berlin, 1901-03 Prosop. Att. Robinson, Chronology Pottery of the Roman Period: Chronology.Agora, V Robinsonand Fluck D. M. Robinson and E. J. Fluck, A Study of Greek Love-Names,Baltimore,

1884 Braunschweig,

1937

Roehl
S. E. G.

See I. G. A. above Graecum,Leyden, 1923 SupplementunEpigraphicum Black and Plain Pottery of the 6th, 5th and 4th CenturiesB.C. Agora, XII J. Tolstoy, Grecheskie Graffiti drevnikh gorodov Severnogo Prichernomoreia,

Sparkes-Talcott Tolstoy Wycherley

1953 Moskva-Leningrad,

Literary and EpigraphicalTestimonia.Agora, III

INTRODUCTION
incisedor painted,appearon over 3000 pieces (pottery,lamps,miscellaneous Informal inscriptions, in At clay) catalogued the Agora excavations. least one-thirdof these consist of one or two letters or incisedon the bottom of smallvessels,perhapsas marksof ownership, paintedon the necks only, as notation.Thebrevityof thesetextsallowsso of unglazed perhaps somekindof commercial amphoras, that wouldserveno usefulpurpose;it is sufficient note a varietyof interpretations publication to great of In abbreviations. additionto the completeinscriptions one or two the largenumber suchcurtailed of of onlya fewletterswhichadmitof so manypossible letterstherearemanybrokeninscriptions consisting that restorations nothingcertaincan be learnedfrom them.This publication therefore limitedto the is 859 graffiti dipintiwhichhave sufficient and contentto be meaningful, whether meaningis clearor the not. The selectedpiecesrangein timefromthe late 8th century B.C.,whenlettersfirstappearon pottery, of is to the 6th century our era. Sincethe varietyof the material so great,otherspecific criteria employed in the selectioncan best be listedin connection withthe variouscategories texts. of on Certaintypes of inscriptions potterydo not belongin this studyand will be more appropriately dealtwith elsewhere: 1) Ostraka; and 2) Artists' signatures,love names and other paintedinscriptionson black-figured red-figured pottery; paintedon Hellenistic 3) Convivialinscriptions potteryand Late Romanmotto mugs, and all other whichare part of the decoration the pot; of paintedinscriptions or moldedinscriptions suchas amphora Arretinestamps,etc. handles,lampsignatures, 4) Stamped
Classification

Variousas the selected material themajority itemsfallsreadily of into a comparatively smallnumber is, of categories: A. Abecedaria B. Messagesand Lists C. Love Namesand Hate Names D. Names on Sherds E. Numerical Notationson Sherds F. Owners'Marks F. PrivateOwnership Fa. Public Ownership, Delta-epsilon Ligatures Fb. Public Ownership, Delta-etaLigatures G. Dedicationsand ConvivialInscriptions H. Commercial Notations Ha. Capacity Hb. Tare Hc. Date

INTRODUCTION

Hd. Contents He. Combinations I. Tax Notations J. Christian Inscriptions K. Miscellaneous L. Unclassified M. Pictures An introduction eachcategory to definesthe type,indicates and specialcharacteristics suggests parallels, etc. purpose,
Dating and Provenience

Theremay be as manyas threekindsof evidencebearingon the date of any particular inscription: was 1) form of the letters;2) date of the object on which the inscription written;3) date of the deall however, posit in whichit was found. Sometimes threeof these lines may give a result;sometimes, or the thewriting may maybe characterless, pot fragment be featureless, the contextmaybe meaningless. it is the date of the inscription whatwe haveto determine, must most often be arrivedat by Although
means of one of the other dates, since the chronology of letter forms is not as yet an exact science. The context date will often be the most convenient. Where the date of the pot agrees closely with the context

to date,it seemsunnecessary give a datefor the pot as well. Dates for the pots are includedtherefore thanits context.For the most or wherethe contextis meaningless wherethe pot is obviouslyearlier only for as sherdinscribed part,threedateswillbe givenonlywhentheyaredifferent, for example a geometric in the 7th century B.C. and found in a 5th-centuryB.C. context. but in The arrangement inscriptions each categoryis chronological, since there is considerable of for variousitems,the orderin somecasesis purelyconvendifference the degreeof accuracy in possible tional.Thusthose pieceswhichcan not be datedmorecloselythan to a centuryfollow those that have eventhoughtheymayindeedbe earlier than or beenassigned a particular to quarter half of thatcentury the second-half fourth-quarter or pieces.Even more vague are dates like EarlyRoman (roughly1stwhichcoverstill longerperiods early3rd centuriesafterChrist)or LateRoman(late 3rd-6thcenturies) of time. on Whenthe sherdor pot comesfroma closeddeposit,the depositnumber the Agoragridis given.A fromeachwill be foundin the indexof Deposits.When list of the depositswithall piecesherepublished of a piece comes in a fill predominantly one period,thoughnot a closed deposit,the context date is withouta depositnumber.Whenan item was found in an area whichprovidedno information given its concerning date, no mentionis madeof provenience.
PublicationReferences

in Whena piece has alreadybeen eithernoted in a preliminary reportor moreformallypublished a reference the most recent) or (oftenonly specialstudyin Hesperia in an Agoravolume,the publication This reference of is includedin the first paragraph the cataloguedescription. may be in the form of hereassigned and number as volumeand pagenumbers expressed an equationbetweenthe catalogue or that givenin the otherpublication, jug, e.g., "Ha 26 (P 9902).Round-mouthed Robinson,Chronology, the no. M 169" or "F 177 (L 4212).Black-glazed lamp(= Howland, 267)." Frequently shapeand form or and to of a vesselis definedwith reference examples alreadypublished datedeitherin Hesperia one for shortformsof reference. of the Athenian Agoravolumes.See list of Abbreviations
Letter-shapesand Spelling

on The varietyof shapeswhicheachlettermay takeis dependent severalfactorsof whichchronology the the is only one; othersarethe natureof the writingsurface, natureof the writingimplement, writing

INTRODUCTION

skill of the inscriber,and the amount of care which he has taken. Thus anything but the most painstaking incision on (or through) good black glaze results in angular letters and straight lines where curves might be expected. A very fine metal point is easier to control but seems not to have been used so often as some blunter instrument.The older, softer fabrics lend themselvesmore to curved lines so that even the straight

of A whoknowshis letterswellproducesmorerecognizuprights alphaanddeltaareoftencurved. writer


able shapes than one who drawseach line without much feeling for the appearanceof the letter as a whole.

Becauseof thesefactorsit is not practicable see all differences letter-shapes relevant thedate to in as to
and development of the alphabet. For example, even though epsilons are known to develop from tailed to untailed, a good black-glazed sherd of the 5th century B.C. may show a long-tailed epsilon while those on a coarse pot of the 6th century B.C.are without a tail. One or more of a number of reasons may be

involved:the hardsurface blackglazerequires muchpressure complete of so that controloverthe length


of line may be lost; the 5th-centurywriter may be an old man using the letter-shapesof his early youth; the 6th-centurywriter may have been a careful person who had established a base line below which he

did not go, etc.


Spelling, and the use of Attic or Ionic alphabet, are also subjectto other influencesthan that of chronol-

the used until 403 B.C., ogy. Although in formalpublicinscriptions Ionic alphabetwas not ordinarily individuals Athenswere open to influences many sorts: citizensmay have been quickto pick up in of the morepreciseIonic vowelsfor greater clarity;meticsand slavesmay havebroughttheirown writing habitswith them. In a time beforedictionaries, therecan have been no standard spellingor even of of so that even with the best will in the worldspellingwill havebeenidiosyncratic. good A pronunciation,
example of the range and variety of both letter-shapesand spelling possible to individuals all writing at

the sametime may be the ostrakacast againstThemistokles the 480's: in or Theta-square or round;crossbarred dotted horizontalor slanted;omittedat least once Epsilon-bars Mu-last leg of equalor unequallength Iota-sometimes omitted
Sigma-most often three-barred,occasionallyfour or more; sometimesdoubled, or reversed,or omitted

Tau-most often writtentheta,occasionally tau Omicron-squareor round Kappa-no variety Lambda-alwaysAttic Epsilon-see above; eithersingleor doubled;omittedat least once Sigma-see above
The letters of Neokleous not already dealt with are only nu (last leg may be equal or unequal) and the diphthong (most often omicron, occasionally omega). In Phrearriosthe phi may be square or round, the

rho'smaybe tailedor not, and the rho in the middlemay be singleor double,both withand withouteta as the aspirate. A close studyof letter-shapes beenincludedin the introduction Owners'Marks(F), sincethis has to
category alone not only covers our whole time span from early 7th century B.C.to the 6th century of our era but also provides a sufficientnumber of similar texts for statistical purposes. The conclusions arrived at for that one group can here be tested on all categories; they appear generallyto hold true. "A more or less standard old Attic alphabet(A or ABAAEIIH?IKLNMNOPP$TVOX or +)lis used with only a few exceptions and variant forms through the second quarter of the 5th century B.C."(p.23 below). Obviously these standard shapes will often only be approximatedby writerswho may be unskilled or using intractable materials,but in addition there are real exceptions which may be tabulatedas follows:
Digamma is not used alphabeticallybut only numerically;koppa is used more exceptionallythan regularly;xi and psi are regularlyindicatedby the combinationof chi and phi, respectively,with sigma.

4
Norm Exceptions

INTRODUCTION

A
A

r (B5; C24; F48)


A (A3,A4) g (B1; F14) A (E8) D (F50)

H ?
K !. XI O P S

B (B1; C1,C8; D6; F53; L3) 0 (A3; C3,C17, C 21; F12,F13, F 26)
9 A 5 O q R

ffi (F31)

(D
X+

(D4,D5,D12,D18; K2,K3) (B2; C 7, C 13, C 15, C 20, C 24; D27, D 39; F56,F59, F 74) (D35,D39; F53) (B7; D35; F64; G4) D (B1, B4; D l; F20,F23,F24,F39,F41; (A2) Hal) D 25, D 37, D 39; E3; F43, F 61-63) (B7; D6, I (F2; K1) i (B1, B2, B4, B5; C15; D25-27; E3; F1, F16, F42, F44, F56, F75, F77; L3) Z (C2,C9,C 18; D1,D3,D7,D 10, D12, D14, D18, D23, D24; F6,F12, F13,F18, F23; K4) e (D15; F50) 0 (F43) lI (F66) Y (F25, F65)

Q (A3; C24; F56,F75, F78)

w (F72)

is most interesting the use of the two exceptional and sigmas(four-barred reversed Perhaps three-barred)
for special purposes like word-ends and to combine with chi for xi; see below in introduction to Names

in on Sherds (below,pp. 16-17). "Punctuation" this periodis limited:a line dividingthe end from (D) the beginningof a text writtenin a circle(C 16; seen somewhatlater in F 83, F 92); dot punctuation betweensome words(B 1, B 3; F 18, F 24; G 2); spacesbetweenwords(C 14). the "Withthemiddleof the [5th]century [B.C.] balanceshiftsso that theruleis a moreor less standard Ionicalphabet witha of number exceptions" diminishing (ABrAEIHOIKAMNsOPPTY(DXYQ)2gradually (p. 24 below).The exceptionsfor all categories may be seen in the followingchart,whichis primarily to show the transitionin the 5th and 4th centuries B.C.from Attic to Ionic forms;the later designed of changesand introduction cursiveformsare not for the most partindicated; only someof the earliest
examples of cursive letters are noted; it is understood that these became fairly general by the 1st century B.C.
Norm Exceptions

A (F94,F 169)

A (F 157, F 183)

A (G 16)

= +( (F85) I (Ha 17) i (K 13) P P (F81, F84, F105) C (F 165, F 182, F 196, F 202-204) , (F 84, F 118, F 119, F 125; Ha 8) C (Ha 17) c (F 151,F211) (D + (F 126, F 152) X + (F 85; Ha2, Ha10; K7) co (F 138, F 199, F 212; K 12) Q 0 (B9; D41; G7)
with or without the center uprightoccurs indifferently; tailed upsilon is not immediatelygeneraland can not always be the in certainlydistinguished carelesswriting.
2 Xi

E E (F 198,F 210; G 13) I Z (F178; G19)

INTRODUCTION

For the use of the long vowelsalso the middleof the 5th centuryB.C.is a time of transition.In the earlierperiodeta is used for the aspirate,and epsilonis used for both short and long vowel and for epsilon-iota,with the followingexceptions:epsilon-iotafor epsilon-iota(B 2, B 6; C 7, C 10, C 19; D 8, D 25, D 36; F 3, F 12, F 13; G 1, G 4); eta for the long vowel (B 7, B 8; C 18, C 23; D 35; F 15, or F 53); eta for the diphthong shortvowel (C 8; F 55); no aspirate(B 7, B 8; C 8; D 13, D 16; F 54). After the mid-5thcenturyB.C.thereis a change,and eta is used for the long vowel, exceptperhapsin F 84, F 116,F 123 and G 6. In the earlierperiodomicronis used for both shortand long vowel and for with only two exceptions:the diphthongis writtenout in F 23; omegais writtenin omicron-upsilon, F 56, F 72, F 75, F 78. After the mid-5thcenturyB.C. omegais used for the long vowel exceptin F 85, continuesin use for omicron-upsilon into the 4th centuryB.C. F 132,F 145, G 6 andG 7. Omicron well with only one exception(F 144); omicron-upsilon becomesgeneralin the late 4th centuryB.C. confusionabout vowelspersists:pEV&o Some other for live'o 2, C 14); iota for epsilon-iota(D 1, (C for D 25; G 8); eta for epsilon(B 14; D 35; F 127) or iota (D 42); epsilon-iota epsilon(C 33; F 65); in omegafor omicron(F 160). And frequent latertimesis epsilonfor alpha-iota(Ha 25, Ha 32; I 18).
Other spelling "errors" less easily categorized include: delta for zeta (B 13 -rriTpacrri.lia; 33 2amadlaI); C Hb interchange of aspirated and unaspirated consonants (D 16 'Iqo7Oye;F 11 .SaSi F 184 MTrSIKi; 22 K and others (D 34 AVVK[; 15 Trril;Ha 1 1*-erpio;Hd 1 oaXoS; G KOiTrov;119 Ovuicovos; 1 lrp&aTros); He 6 Atowo6iov; I 11 OiK[; 1 23 ME.9fvri). C vos; C 5 'OXU< TO6viKoS; 9 'Eyr<( p)>arcs; D 1 Single letters are omitted as follows: B 2 Ka<I> 1> D F 46 F 84 cl0<i(>3pES; Ha 15 ntlaa(<T> pca-os; D 10 nlpacxx<i>v6; 32 N?OK<A>ovsU; MeXa<(y>K6CIa; L The iota subscript is omitted in B 17, B 18 and G21, and a l> (ov); Ha 23 <a-r>TrIs; 8 rr<v>T6. Kv<

wholesyllablemayhave been omittedin B 6. The only casesin whichlettershavebeenaddedare where a sigmabeforea dentalhas been doubled (F 26, F 77; He 31) and in C 19 ('AXXKato). the most For part, however,double consonantsare writtenas singles:B 17; D 11, D 16, D 17, D 21, D 30, D 35; F3, F 58,F62,F103,F138,F 168; 120. The generalpracticefollowedin the directionof writingis also discussedin the introductionto Owners'Marks(below,p. 23). Retrograde writingand boustrophedon A, appearonly in categories D and F, and the boustrophedon D is most often a resultof followingthe edge of the sherd.As one in and are Markscategory. Abbreviations of are mightexpect,ligatures monograms limitedto the Owners' different sorts: the variouslyshortened forms of namesused to identifypropertyin particular circumstances(below,pp. 26-28); standardized formsof weights,measures, which appearin commercial etc. notations(below,pp. 56-57). seemseithernecessary desirable. is not even or It Nothing more in the way of generalintroduction and possibleto pointto any parallelworkthatincludesthe variety,number scopeof textsthat mightbe useful.One collection,that of J. Tolstoy, does cover much of the same groundas our earliermaterial can withthe particular (A-G), but in all casesspecific parallels be most effectively quotedin connection or items. categories CONVENTIONS All dates before Christare so indicated.Dates not thus markedbelong to our era. in as Inscriptions the Attic alphabetare transcribed they are written. For the sake of clarityor to indicateour interpretation, sometimesgive a paralleltext in the Ionic alphabet.Otherwise we a name or word will appearin Ionic letters only in the appropriate index. Exceptwhere otherwisenoted, all drawingsare actual size. Since in the interestsof accuracythe were made as faithfulrepresentations the inscriptions of ratherthan as illustrations the of drawings and readings given here, they often include marks and lines which have seemed to us irrelevant immaterial.

A. ABECEDARIA

The Agora inventorynumberis given in parentheses after the presentcataloguenumber.A concordancein the order of the Agora numbersis given below. The dimensions vesselsare for the most partgivenonly in those categories of Tare,etc.) (Capacity, wherethe size of the pot is relevantto its inscription.
1. = liter, m. = meter, H. = height, D. = diameter, P. = preserved.

A. ABECEDARIA foundin the Agoraare all now incomplete; The elevenabecedaria only fivemay havebeen originally in A A 3 almost certainly; 1, A 4, A 5 probably),but all the rest were fragmentary incomplete(A 2, B.C. one: throughthe early5thcentury complete is tention.The difference clearlya chronological alphabets werewrittenout, perhapsas modelsin the spreadof literacy,perhapsfrom the sheerpleasureof a exercising new skill; from the 4th centuryB.C. on only the beginningof the alphabetwas written, as for magicalpurposes, perhaps a proof of literacyor as a countingdevice.The chronological perhaps B.C. in epigraphy the Agora,is wide,fromthe 8th century to the 4th range,as for all classesof informal B.C. in withmorethanhalfthe examples the 5thand4th centuries of century ourera, are Letter-shapes for the most part canonical.In the early examples(A 1-5) the forms of the old Attic alphabetare constantwith only slight variations:the rectangular digammaratherthan the Ffor in shapeappears A 2, A 3; deltawith a dot substituted its bottomstrokeis seenin A 3, A 4; the dotIn to suggestforeigninfluence. the laterexamples withits inclusionof omega ted thetaof A 3 combines (A 6-11) the only notablepointsare:an old Attic gammain A 6 whichis out of placein the 4th century a to alphain A 10 and a lunateepsilonand ZB.C.; more chronologically be expected, broken-barred is abecedaria howeververy shapedzeta in A 11. The numberof lettersincludedin these fragmentary of fromothercategories inscriptions. for limited,so thatwe mayexpectmuchmoreevidence letter-shapes for are of and The scantiness incompleteness the abecedaria most disappointing the studyof alphafor beticorder,sinceno othertextsprovideevidence this. Of the two pointswhichshouldbe noted,one that the sixthplacewouldbe takenby it and is familiar the otheris withoutparallel: was to be expected woulddisappear later,but the final digamma (A only in the earlyalphabets 1-3) and that the digamma of of letter-order A 3 (chi, phi, omega)must be eithera mistakeor a reflection the orderin whichthe environment. letterswereaddedin some omega-using non-Phoenician are in the directionof writingmost of the abecedaria seen to be typicalof theirtimes:A 1 as Again, in the earliestpiece is not only retrograde both lines with the two upsidedown to each otherbut also with one exceptionthe laterpiecesall read least two lettersreversed showsat (epsilonand digamma); of in from left to right(withonly one letterreversed A 2). The peculiarity A 5, whichreadsfirstfrom is more likelyto resultfrom lack of skill than to be an indicationof bottomto top and then reverses, date. nor numerous particularly are Theyincludeone knownAtticabecedaria neither significant. Previously in alphabet, 1867,p. 75 whichseemsto be a numerical archeol., piecepublished Bull.dell'Inst.di Corrisp. the Hymettossherds(C. W. includingdigamma,koppa and sampi,and at least two examplesamong Blegen,A.J.A., XXXVIII, 1934,pp. 10-28, no. 10: alpha, beta, gamma; R. S. Young, A.J.A., XLIV, L.S.A.G. is treatment thatin Jeffery, the dariafromthe restof Greeceareconcerned latestgeneral
1940, pp. 1-9, no. 9: alpha, beta, gamma, delta), which belong to the 7th century B.C.As far as abece-

A. ABECEDARIA
A 1 (MC 907). P1. 1. Pyramidal loomweight, much worn at the edges, inscribed with an late 8th-early 7th centuries B.C. (N 11:6).

A 4 (P 13282). P1. 1. Fragment from the wall of a small closed vase. Graffito scratched through black glaze on outside. Context: early 5th one of the broadfaces andwith on abecedarium

a horse and rideron thebottom(M 1). Context: XXX, 1961,p. 146, R 22, pl. 23. Hesperia,
VIII-VII cent. B.C. a py
?

century B.C. (H 12).

. . KX v.

Early V cent. B.c. a [ y [ The delta appears to have been dotted, as in A3.

(retrograde) A 5 (P2707). P1.1. Fragment of black-glazed All trace of theta, iota and the upperhalf of cup-kotyle of early 5th-century B.C. type, like kappaare lost as a resultof wear on the lower Hesperia, XV, 1946, p. 293, no. 78, pl. 45. some other edges. Surfacewear has obliterated Context:early5thcentury (G 6:3). Graffito B.C. strokes: the lower crossbars of epsilon, the on both upperand lowersurfaces. crossbars of zeta and the slanting stroke of lambda.The directionof writingis retrograde, Early V cent. B.C. (lower surface) K a [3y 5 The firstthreelettersof the alphabet,reading but some lettersface in the oppositedirection: fromthe bottomup, arequiteclear.Abovethem and digamma. Theta and iota must epsilon a delta and an epsilon (reversedorientation) have turnedthe corneron the now worn edge can be made out. Below the alpha is a large so that the secondline also readsfrom rightto left and is upside down to the first line. kappa. On the upper surface a few scratches may representan even less successfulattempt. A 2 (P 6074, P 3272). P1. 1. Two fragments from the shoulder of a large amphora of 6th-century A 6 (L 3773). PI. 1. A fragmentof the body of a B.C.type, like Hesperia, VII, 1938, p. 378, no. 9, black-glazed lamp of the 4th century B.C. (= Howland,no. 277, Type 25A). Graffitoon fig. 14. The smallerfragmentwas found in a B.C. layerof the 6thcentury insidethe Hellenistic the outer wall. Context: mid-4th centuryB.C. Metroon;the largerpiece was found besidethe (F 19:2). foundationsof the Metroonbut in association IV cent. B.C.(near the handle) q K 3 y P3a K with7th-to 6th-century pottery.Graffitoon B.C. a (<y>) inside.The two fragments not join but eviddo exercise. ently belong to the same alphabetical (at the nozzle) K[ VI cent. B.C. (a) a PyE This should probably be regarded as an a3py5E r .l exercise,perhapswith magicalsignialphabetic i KX[ (b) ] ficance,ratherthan as an abecedarium. someof preserving From its location on the sherd,the first line A 7 (P 1504).P1.1. A fragment the rim and body of a black-glazed of fish-plate of (a) seemsto be an incorrectimitationrather the 4th century B.C. Inscribed on the under than a false start.For the rectangular digamma, surface. see .G., I2, 760 and Tod, B.S.A., XLV, 1950, IV cent. B.C. a y p. 135; see also A3 below. Rho is the only letterwrittenin reverse. A 8 (P 22110).P1.1. A fragmentfrom the wall of bowl. Graffito outside,upside on 1. Fragmentof a black-glazed a black-glazed A 3 (P 7247). P1. down to the pot. Context: 4th century B.C. of early5th-century type, related B.C. kylixbase to Bloesch'sAcropolisgroup (H. Bloesch,Fora Py 6E [ IV cent. B.C.
men attischer Schalen, Bern, 1940, pl. 39, 1). po[

Graffitoon uppersurface.

Early V cent. B.C. ] .y6? E F ri[

] Xc

A 9 (L 4414). P1.1. Lampfragment Howland, (= no. 599, Type 46B). Graffitoon underside.
Mid-III cent. B.C. a P3 y

less Somewhat than half the foot is preserved, bowl of but it is clear from the arrangement the A 10 (P 2145). P1.1. Part of a black-glazed of 2nd-centuryB.C. fabric. Graffito on floor. wentall the way around lettersthat the alphabet so that its end overlapsits beginning.For the a y II cent. B.C.
dotted delta, which is also found on ostraka of the early 5th century B.C., see Kretschmer,p. 96 and Beazley, A.J.A., LII, 1948, p. 336. Theta is also dotted. The order of the non-Phoenician letters can not be paralleled. A 11 (P 18248). P1. 1. Flat-bottomed jug of early 4th-century type, like Robinson, Chronology, M 228. Graffito on shoulder. L a 3y 8 E Early IV cent.

B. MESSAGES AND LISTS B. MESSAGES AND LISTS

Messagesand lists were for the most part writtenon potsherds,which were used as we use scrap writtenon the completevessel, paperfor casualnotes and notations.OnlyB 17 and B 18 werecertainly whichwas, in thesecases,the subjector objectof the message. whichrangein datefrommid-6thcentury (B 1) to the 2nd-3rdcenturies our era Themessages, B.C. of includeboth notes urgingsome action (B 1, B 2, B 7) and whatmay best be thoughtof as tags (B 18), and variousthingsdelivered 6, B 9, B 17, B 18). The lists, rangingin date accompanying explaining (B B.C. fromthe 4th-3rdcenturies to the 5th centuryof our era, aremostlykitcheninventories shopping or itemsandanother(B 21) to amounts lists (B 12-16,B 20) withone (B 19)morelimitedto pharmaceutical sincetheyaretoo fragmentary providecontinuous to of wine.Otheritemsare moreuncertain texts:B 5 B B be a list of men in variousrelationships; 8 and B 11 mightbe literaryquotations; 10 couldbe may uncertain. an informal copy of a contractor treaty;B 3 and B 4 are completely The lettersand dialectof B 1 are certainlyMegarian and so may best be compared with texts from Megara(see, for example,Jeffery,L.S.A.G.,pp. 132ff.).The Attic texts earlierthan 403 B.C.(B 2-9) use show an irregular of late, unusualand Ionic formsand shapes:four-barred sigmain B 2, B 4, B 5 to and B 9 compared the three-barred sigmaof B 7; Ionic lambdaand/orgammain B 2, B 5 and B 9 Attic formsin B 4, B 6 and B 7; tailedrho in B 7; epsilonfor eta exceptin B 7 and B 8; omias against cron for all o-soundsin all texts. The latertexts use the Ionic alphabetconsistently; stemmedupsilons forms in B 12; and dotted theta are also regular.One lunate sigma appearswith other four-barred lunate epsilon first appearsmuch later in B 17. As far as more specifically odditiesare orthographic we see the substitution deltafor zeta in B 13, a singlefor the moreproperly of doubledpi of concerned, dativesingular in B 17 anda second-declension withoutthe iota subscript both B 17 andB 18. for Parallels textsof this sortmaybe notedin Tolstoy,Jeffery Immerwahr. and B 1 (P 17824). P1.2. Base of a skyphos of CoF 13). The word ouB6s, whichis from the same root as 660s, still retainsits roughbreathing in rinthianshape, with rays above the foot, of a whichmay be datedto the firsthalf of the this earlyinscription. type 6th century B.C. Graffito on the underside, B 2 (P 1265).PI.2. Fragmentfrom the rim of a obviously written on the sherd; the base has B.C. type. kylix of late 6th-century red-figured but beenmendedfromfourfragments, partof it Graffito on inside, obviously written on the is missing. Context: 6th centuryB.C. (J 18:4). sherd. Context:beginningof 5th centuryB.C. See Hesperia, XVII, 1948,p. 160, pl. 41, 2 for a XV, 1946,p. 279, no. 32. (G 6:3). Hesperia, of brief account of the circumstances finding -rTl Ca. 500 B.C. TrCa-, (aAa[vSoi] and of some of the objectsfound in the same &AosKa<C>v65 YA[tvTp] deposit. as 96pEt TO hvnor hoBo Mid-VIcent.B.C. [Oa;ve]ui:KxSE'S: "Boy,bringothernewcouchesfor Phalanthos." Tas $ipaS TOKTro : Trpfov(a) The namePhalanthos the wordfor couches and "Thamneus, the saw underthe threshold are restored put gratia.The use of the Ionic exempli is of the gardengate." A fragment missingfrom lambdaand four-barred sigmaat this earlydate the beginning of the inscription;we restore is exceptional;the omega is not used. For the here the name Thamneus(of which a possible omittediota see Meisterhans2, 24-25. pp. because trace of the final upsilonis preserved) from the wall of a two vases belongingto Thamneus 12, F 13) B 3 (P 12225).P1.2. Fragment (F on krater.Graffito outside,written black-glazed were found in the same pit. The letter forms verticallyto the pot; obviouslywrittenon the correspondwith those used in Megarain the sherd, which was subsequently broken all Archaic period: b-shaped epsilon, closed eta around.Context:early 5th centuryB.C. as aspirate, triangularrho, and four-barred L.S.A.G.,pp. 132-138).ProbEarly V cent. B.C. ]E . [ sigma(cf. Jeffery, the writer was a Megarian. ]!PE:A[ ably, therefore, himselfwritesin Attic letters(F 12, Thamneus ].OM[

B. MESSAGES AND LISTS The punctuation suggestsa fairlyextensivetext like a messageor list. fromwall of lekane B 4 (P 14131).PI. 2. Fragment of early 5th centuryB. c. Graffitoon outside, obviously written on the sherd, which was brokenall around. subsequently
Early V cent. B.C. ]N N ![ 5th century B.C. (C 19:5). Second quarter V cent. B.C. oT-l TTa-rC aEK[

then broken at one side. Context:second half

A long verticalstroke seems to separatethe beginningof the text from the end. The text does not seem to have been long enough to allow for a reading which requiresan alterL. native, i.e., Ort

] I E[
]EPn[

B9 (P 2022). P1.2. Handle and immediately adjacentpart of rim and wall of black-glazed ]onoOA[ skyphos. Graffitoon inside, obviouslywritten on the sherd. Context: fourth quarter 5th B 5 (P 10511).P1.2. Fragment fromwall of lekane century B.C. (J 13-14:1). of early 5th century B.C. Graffito on inside, obviously written on the sherd, which was Fourth quarterV cent. B.C. Zoo(veo(S) brokenall around. subsequently w?wa?EXE ]AMME[
Early V cent. B.C. ]EPFN[ ]ANT IB[ ]OONA[ ]ANAOK[ ]E! [
rfAaVKOI ?s &Oarv Ev8E?g9t(v)

A possiblerestoration mightbe: 6 8ETva] 'AvrTi3[(o


]oS 'Ova[cro
6 8eTva]'AvSoKfr6O
iTr]Ep rv[&9covos

"Sosineos senta bundleto Glaukosin town." Tag or message? B 10 (P 16391).P1.2. Two non-joining fragments from the wall of a largeunglazedpot. Graffito on outside,obviouslywrittenon the sherd.Of the originalsherd,which appearsto have been fairly large, two fragmentsare preserved;the relationbetweenthe two is not evident. Context: mid-4th century B.C. (F 19:2).

]El

B 6 (P 27850).P1.2. Fragment from rim of blackGraffito on inside, probably glazed kylix. writtenon the sherd.Context:early5th century
(H 13:5). Early V cent. B.C. KA(i<Tro)> O 18

Mid-IVcent. B.C. (a) ]vSov rQ9vreos Ka[


] rTaUT.v XacraTo [
]tl&rcov'V E&v rrl[

The omission of a syllable may have been or accidental it may be a form of abbreviation; cf. Kleimenes and Kleitomenes. The dative case suggeststhat the sherdwas used as a tag. B 7 (P 15208).P1.2. Fragmentfrom wall of unglazedamphora.Graffitoon outside,obviously
written on the sherd. Context: ca. 490-450 B.C. (F 19:4). Second quarterV cent. B.C. EOEh,Xls | 6s iK[e] T'r6XoS 'ApKaipos I

] Kopiv.S.. ovyy?[ ]v-ra 5'syEvrilS va[


]aPEv9S . OXUKEV[

]9OZO..... SO..[ ] olKos 6vapia oarr[ ]Xtpas vivvgpl[

]Y2QT....[ ]2...A[ (b) ]s:E[ (only tracesof other letters) The readingis neithercertainnor complete enough to make a restoredtext possible, but we may perhapsassumefrom the mention of

"Eumelis, come as quickly as you can. Arkesimos." The cos -raxos was crowded in later as an afterthought. Above the text is an Corinth and such words as Xtou-ro that we isolated gamma; below, an isolated epsilon. have a rough copy of some contractor treaty. Note the use of eta as aspiratedlong vowel. This feminineform of a commonname is not of Arkesimos knownin Eretria is attested; (Bechtel). B 11 (P 23690).P1.2. Wallfragment a Corcyrean amphoraof the 4th century B.C. Graffitoon B 8 (P 18325).P1.2. Base of lekythos of second outside, obviouslywrittenon the sherd,which B.C. on was subsequently chippedon the upper right. quarter 5th-century type. Graffito underContext: 4th century B.C. side, possibly writtenon the sherd, which was

10
IV cent. B.C. ort 'Acias

B. MESSAGES AND LISTS


XEyo[

Late IV-early III cent. B.C.

TAZATTETEMAI
OTI

{TA}

{AMAX}

XowTra8r

i.e., dish half-size2 long loaves2


papyrus roll?
large 1

'Aaias

The use of

OTt

Line 3: cf. Aesch., fr. 91 for /l[iorros: of AoTrraS. The next three items (B 12-14) are lists of vases something small; Galen 13, 558 fio0Trov=fiotCu. Line4: cf. B 12, line 2. and culinary equipmentand may be thought of as rough kitchen inventories or shopping lists. B 15 (P 23309).P1.3. Fragmentof small shallow All come from the immediate vicinity of the saucer with dull red glaze. Graffitoon floor. Tholos and are undoubtedlylists of the kitchen Context: 4th century B.C. equipmentused in that building. They are menIV cent. B.C. El.[ tioned in Hesperia, SupplementIV, p. 135. For a ,uiXa i.e., half-choes more formal inventory of Tholos equipmentsee ]i8ES the inscription publishedibid., pp. 144-147. B 15, Line 2: the shortform of filwXoa found in is a similar list, is not from the perhaps part of XI 2, 199 B 80. Tholos area butfrom South Stoa I. LG.,

literarytexts, but both sense and syntax are obscure.

is like that in excerpts from

ffioTr(a) II 6]p3rcai : 11
X]ICpTrr[s

IEydArl I

Line 1: presumablyan alternateform for

of B 12 (P 10810).PI.2. Fragment a smallshallow B 16 (P 3289). P1.3. Fragmentof roof tile with dull blackglaze on one side. Graffitoon glazed saucer with dull red glaze. Graffitoon floor. B.C. side, obviouslywrittenon the sherd. Context: Context:late4th-early3rdcenturies (H 12). Hellenistic. Late IV-early III cent. B.C.
Kap6]oTros 6]3peiai AA[

AoTraw&a
TTivaKEs pcaot i III 3aTravi(a) : [

dishes

i.e., kneading-trough long loaves 20+

III-II cent. B.C

6oXiXouv vlKat

xio<u>

platters middle-sized 4 little dishes 5+

I1[ 7roptcxpa AXiKuvos


fl,Jixouv 10 TpvJpXtov poqpEaA[ ]A1[

cups 2+ oil-flask
half-chous bowl ? 10+

Ancient World, Oxford, 1930, pp. 54, 60, 154. Line2: cf. 6opesiain I.G., II2, 1631, 409; 1672, XXIV, 1955, pp. 80-81. Line 3: B 17 310; Hesperia, (P 9922). P1.3. Wheel-ridged amphora(= cf. Allen, Classical Studies presented to Edward Robinson, Chronology,M 104). Dipinto in Capps, Princeton, 1936, pp. 1-2. Line 6: cf. black on body. Context:second half 2nd cens.v. Hesychios, Line 11: new word. tury(M 17:1). B 13 (P 3784). P1.3. Fragmentof small shallow Secondhalf II cent. crT[&]vov &rro6os unglazed saucer. Graffito on floor. Context: lhiTrrcAo c)tl{nr1 second half of 4th century B.C.(F 12:3). Second half IV cent. B.C. i.e., pots XVTpas

Apparentlythe heading of an informallist of victoriesin two events(the long raceand the stone). It is also possiblethat the word in the secondline is a verbratherthan a noun. In the first line the last letter of the first word was originallya sigma, which was correctedto an upsilon. There was no room for a similar correction the end of ?dSos. the contests at For a stone (weight-liftingand putting involving the shot) see E. N. Gardiner,Athleticsin the

zeta in a 4th-centuryB.C.graffito see C 33.

"Returnthe stamnos to Philippa'sbrother Philip." For the absenceof the iota subscripts Pill lids 9 in the dativescompareMeisterhans2, 52-53. rTnSri,Ta(Ta) pp. (traces) B 18 (P 8341). P1.3. Shoulderfragmentof amtableware TrriTpaTrrT6[a phora (= Robinson, Chronology,J 52). Dipinto of Line 4: for a similarsubstitution delta for to in black.Context:mid-2nd early3rdcenturies
(C 12:1).
Mid-II-early III cent. ['I]EpoV[L]i.co [Xp]norT as6ex9[~c]

B 14 (P 4899). PI.3. Fragmentof small shallow saucerwith dull red glaze, similarto B 12 but with grooved rim. Graffitoon floor. Context:
F 12.

[ira]pa [&]8Ap[q5v]
[Orr]y.vos

C. LOVE NAMES AND HATE NAMES


"A stamnosfor our good brotherHieronymos from his brothers." See B 17 for the in omissionof the iota subscript the dativecase. from side of bowl. B 19 (P 8046).P1.3. Fragment Graffiti inside(a) and out (b), obviouslywritten on the sherd.Context:late Roman. Late Roman (a) vrrepa
(b)
9oIvou

11
i.e., of pine-cones of buns

Late Roman
KcbvCc[V

ywpcoic[v

6cap?i(ou) 6o(pca.a) rrEpcarf vauOou

juice of the red poppy; 7 ounces of acorn (OKuAoS)

pp. 38-39. B 21 (P 2004). P1.3. Wall fragmentof micaceous v]opJ.r [ water jar. Graffito on outside. Context: 5th The "pestles"of (a) may have been required century(Q 13:3). to preparethe drugs of (b): 47 ounces of the V cent. ]cQiP K(ontXat) iy'
CKU( ) o(O)y(Klai) U'

O6Trovo(U)y(Kiat) L['

Line 7: is for Els, see Meisterhans2, 71TpoCKa.

of fish or relish peaches? of freightcharges? of fish or relish 6Oap?i(ou) for wine is olvov [ Line 1: cf. Ath., II, 57b. Line4: cf. 6ouoAacx

or of a seed which,mixedwith whitewine, was bites(&cKvuXcbvlov, Dioscorides, goodfor scorpion III, 100); some quantityof strychnine (vopurl).

B20 (P 11763). P1.3. Fragment from wall of unglazedclosed pot. Graffitoon outside, obviously written on the sherd. Context: mixed to Late Roman.

in Smallpoints(for omicrons) the upperpart of the kappas combine with the numbers like that following to suggestan abbreviation which is restored.The item in the second line has been tentatively restoredas a kind of wine; perhaps the inscriptionrecordedthe mixture withinthe jar.

E' K(OTrCAal) PEv]a&ppi(ov) K(o-nXai) 5' ]A

C. LOVE NAMES AND HATE NAMES


of sexual This categoryis rathera mixedbag. Besidesa few love namesand vilifications a standard of type we have includedseveralotherpieceswith inscriptions a highlypersonalor emotionalnature. vasesare not includedheresincethey are moreproperly studiedin conLove namespaintedon figured nectionwith the vases on whichthey appear. belowlrangein time from the mid-6thcenturyto the end The 14 kalos-name inscriptions catalogued o6 B.C. of the 5th century and in contentfromthe simpleand anonymous rrcas Kcaos (C 4) to the full and o Kia6oSOKEI The admirersare not namedin ten cases (seven mas'Iav.98[ (C 10). explicitAUKo6IaXO
culine objects, two feminine, one both), but it is apparently not possible to assume that the writer (or (to admirer) was always masculine, since the dative MECAiT whom Alkaios seems beautiful) in C 19 is

most probably feminine. Of the named admirers (C 3, C 7, C 10, C 19) two lack endings and so might

it be of conceivably eithergender,although is likelythat the admirer Antheme(C 3) is Aischinesor Aischeas2and that Lykomachos'admirer(C 10) is lanthis ratherthan Ianthides.These probableheteroone sexualpairsarematchedby a clearlyhomosexual in C 7, whereMenekrates beautiful dearto is and Lysikles. Parallelsfor these kalos-namesare most convenientlygatheredtogetherin Robinson and Fluck,
Greek Love Names, and in Beazley, A.R. V. and A.B. V.

The Sexualinsultplaysa partin 15 of the textsbelow.3 most commonterm(eighttimes)is KalTctruycov with masculinenames but occurringonce in abbreviated formordinarilyappearing (or Truyacos),
KaTaTruy(aiva)-witha feminine name (C 27). Certainlycomparableare the epithetsXaKKo6TpcoKToS (C 23)
1 C 3, C 4, C 7, C 1O, C 11, C 13, C 1S-17, C 19, C 21, C 28, C 29, C 31. 2 Feminine names with these initial letters are very rare.

8 C 1, C 2, C 5, C 8, C 12, C 14, C 18, C 22-27, C 33, C 34.

12

C. LOVE NAMES AND HATE NAMES

and AacKaorpia 34) and perhaps also the JliIOT-rTO 1. Fourtexts (C 2, C 8, C 14, C 33) use various of C (C verbsto describesexualproficiency relationships. and for Parallels hate namesof this generalsort may be foundin Hesperia, XXII, 1953,pp. 215-224. The five remaining texts are miscellaneous: love-pledge 6), namesof men admired insultedin a or (C othertexts (C 9, C 20), pictureandpet nameof the maleorgan(C 30), and nameswrittenbackwards for somepresumably purpose(C 32). fell Sincemost of thesefrankexpressions admiration distastedate from beforethe end of the 5th of and B.C.,the forms of writingand spellingare for the most part old Attic. That is, for the pieces century
through C 29, it will be easiest to state a general practice and then to note exceptions: general are Attic

lambdaandgamma,three-barred for theta,chi-sigma xi, eta openandusedonlyfor sigmas,crossbarred the aspirate;exceptionalare Ionic lambda and/or gammain C 7 (part),C 13, C 15, C 24, C 27-29, four-barred sigmain C 26-28, dottedthetain C 3, C 17, C 21, omegain C 24, closedeta in C 1 and C 8, eta for both aspirateand long vowel in C 18 and C 23, eta for the long vowel in C 29 and for epsiloniota in C 8. Other spelling odditiesinclude: 'OAu<H (C 19). >Tri6VIKOS pEVECo(C 2, C 14); 'AAAKcxlTo (C 5); Afterthe end of the 5th century the general is Ioniclettersincluding and omegafor the long B.C. rule eta a continuesto be writtenomicron.SpellingodditiesincludeOeilooo1 vowels,but still omicron-upsilon
and XataLK5Ei 33). As far as "punctuation" is concerned, only two pieces provide evidence: C 14 (C

leavesspacesbetween of text. words;C 16 showsa strokebetweenend andbeginning a circular C 1 (P 26452). P1.4. Fragmentfrom rim of cup similar to Hesperia, Suppl.II, p. 157, C 55. Graffitoon outsidebelow flaringrim. Context:
Late VI cent. B.C.
T{rTa 'OXAv<>)7r6vv[i]K.os KcrraTjyov

"Titasthe Olympicvictor is a lewd fellow." second quarter 7th century B.C. (R 17:5). The name is not otherwiseattested, and the XXX, 1961,p. 377, S 18. Hesperia, victory is presumablyfigurative, to suggest ho Titas'championship status. Second quarter VII cent. B.C. ICETro5 Tra[s "Theboy is lewd." C 6 (P 7690). P1.4. Fragmentfrom floor of redfigured kylix with courting scene inside and C 2 (P 13322).P1.4. Wall fragmentfrom closed palaestraoutside,dated by Beazleyto 500 B.C. vase. Graffitoon outside. Context: early 6th or a little earlier. Graffito on inside beside B.C. century figures.B.S.A., XLVI, 1951,pl. 16, c.
Early VI cent. B.C. ]oS pEV[ET

Fortheuseof thewordcf. Aristoph., Lys.,203. The endinghere suggestseithera neutervessel or one understood a masculine in the accusative B.C. type. Graffito on outside. case (as the objectof an understood verb). Mid-VI cent. B.C. 'AvS3xE KcaX[8O]KE1 AaIX[ C 7 (P 20787). P1.4. Fragmentaryblack-glazed "Antheme appears beautiful to Aisch ...." kylix of whichmost of lowerpartof cup is preCf. C 10. The femininename is known from served. Graffito around lower outside wall, Eretria(Bechtel). upside down to pot. Context: late 6th-early 5th century B.C.(R 12:1). C 4 (P 17827). P1.4. Rim and wall fragmentof on Graffito outside,upside Late VI-early V cent. B.C. skyphos. black-glazed down to pot. Context: mid-6th century B.C. [K]aXos piAos M[eVE]KparEs KO'i AviiuAEI (J 18:4). "Menekrates beautiful dearto Lysikles." is and Mid-VI cent. B.C. ho Tra[cs KaX6s The Ionic lambdasin the last two wordscombine with smaller letters to suggest that the An upsilon at lower left may be the end of last threewordswere addedby a secondhand. this inscription.
C 5 (P 24910). P1.4. Plain hydria. Graffito around top of rim. Context: ca. 520-480 B.C. (R 12:4). Hesperia, XXV, 1956, p. 63, pl. 22, c, f. Cf. (In the drawing the piece with -Kprr5s is slightly

For the verbsee C 14. fromthe bottomof C 3 (P 23693).P1.4. Fragment a black-glazedalabastronof mid-6th century

Ca. 500 B.C.

(qn?]oTrilov

i.e., loving-cup

no. Sparkes-Talcott, 1594.

misplaced.) C 8 (P 15555).PI.4. Rim fragmentof unglazed bowl. Graffitoon inside, obviouslywrittenon

C. LOVE NAMES AND HATE NAMES the sherd.Hesperia,Suppl.VIII, p. 399, pl. 58, Cf. 10, a (withdifferent interpretation). SparkesTalcott,no. 1892. ,oi ioynrI lies "Hegestratos with me." Eta is not used for the aspiratebut as the epsilon-iotaof the thirdsingularverb.Whetherthe activevoice of this verb can be used with a suppressed object to convey the meaning usually expressedby the middleor passiveseems uncertain.
Early V cent. B.C. 'Eyoprpacros

13

450 B.C. with much earlier material (C9:6).

Hesperia, Suppl.V, p. 143,fig. 71, 35.

Second quarter V cent. B.C. ]oS Kaci h[ ]oaaKai X[ ]fov ep3s[vvTro

Nachtrage") takes as equivalent to pivErat. Cf. also Hillervon Gaertringen, von Inschriften no. 317. Priene,Berlin,1906, C 9 (P 15379).P1.4. Wall fragmentof large pot C 15 (P 27698). P1.4. Half of hemispherical of non-Atticfabric. Graffitoon outside. Constand. Incised before glazing and black-glazed text: pottery rangingfrom Geometricto early firing.Cf. Sparkes-Talcott, 180, note 2. p. For the pictureon this piece see M 9. This piece is included here because it was C16 (P5128). P1.4. Black-glazedkylix base. found about 15 metersfrom C 8 and may be a Graffitoon underside. Context:secondquarter similarreference the sameman. to 5th century B.C. (H6:5). Hesperia, V, 1936, no. p. 347. Cf. Sparkes-Talcott, 436. C 10 (P 14710). P1.4. Base fragment of small Koi6S black-glazedkylix. Graffito on upper surface. Second quarterV cent. B.C. Tui6XCEvos Context:late 6th-early5th centuries B.C. A long line separates end of the writing the fromthe beginning. Early V cent. B.C. AuxK6Ia)C[oS KC1a6s] From this same well (H 6:5) came the next six 'cavSf8[ [8]oKeT The spacingis just about rightfor the lengthof the supplement. is Lykomachos not knownbut appears to be an acceptablecompound.The name Ianthe (not Ianthis which might be the C 17 (P 5144).P1.5. Fragmentary of skyphos base feminine patronymic from the following) is of Corinthian type. Graffitoon underside.Cf. known in Athens (I.G., II2, 3799) and Ianthos no. Sparkes-Talcott, 314. elsewhere (Pape). Second quarter V cent. B.C. o-rTTIEUS Ka[A6S C 11 (P 14943). P1.4. Fragmentof black-glazed C 18 (P 5157). P1.5. Small lekane (= SparkesB.c. kylixfoot of early5th-century type. Graffito Talcott, no. 1794).Graffitoon underside. Heson underside. Potter and peria, XXII, 1953, p. 218; Beazley, instancesof the love nameAphrodisia.
Early V cent. B.C. 'Aypo]SiroaKca[] Cf. Beazley, A.R.V., p. 944 for two other Painter in Ancient Athens, London, 1946, p. 20; Richter, Attic Red Figure Vases, New "Lykomachosappearsbeautiful to Ianthi..." pieces (C 17-22). All share the second quarter 5th-century B.C. context and all were first published in Hesperia, V, 1936, pp. 347ff. See also Robinsonand Fluck. 5th century B.C. Hesperia, Suppl. VIII, p. 399, fig. 4. Early V cent. B.C. 'EyEo(T<p>aTos
Second quarter V cent. B.C. ]os NIK[ KcOA6[s

der Akropolis, II, Berlin, 1925-33, no. 256): which Peek (ibid., p. 131, "Epigraphische PEvETat,

Cf. Acropolisgraffito(Graef-Langlotz, Vasen

]PE6VT[o

Haven, 1958,p. 57.

C 12 (P 410). P1.4. Wall fragment of blackglazedcup. Graffitoon outside.


Early V cent. B.C. ]EsTuy[aIoS

Second quarterV cent. B.C.

C 13 (P 27848). P1.4. Rim fragmentfrom blackglazed mug. Graffito on outside below lip.
Context: early 5th century B.C.(H 13:5). Early V cent. B.C. K]aX6S [

h6os prlcvho ypacpras Althoughit has been suggestedthat a name was obliterated before rcnoiv, seemsunlikely, it since both paint and surface are preserved. Note open eta for both long voweland aspirate. C 19 (P 5160). P1.5. Lekane(= Sparkes-Talcott, no. 1792).Graffito inside,upsidedownto pot (a), on the underside and outside,upsidedown (b),
to pot (c). "Thus says the writer" (cs 91rnav) seems right.

locriaS KcrraTryov

C 14 (P9482). PI. 5. Wall fragment of lekane with dull red glaze inside. Graffitoon outside, verticalto pot. Context: pottery down to ca.

14

C. LOVE NAMES AND HATE NAMES KaX6[s (a) TTuS68opos


KaCOS (b) 'AX<X>Ka1os
TO SOK1E MAr1T

Second quarterV cent. B.C.

Second quarterV cent. B.C.

EAi[qi]
S KTaTro "ycpv

Note the Ionic letters.

phi's: D 15, F43. For the name Melis, cf.


S.E.G., XXII, 237.

(c) PhOpE C 25 (P 10779). P1.6. Base fragmentof lekane. for Graffitoon underside. (b) 2: T6 seems to be TcO; the form see Context:secondquarter LSJ, s.v. -rT. (c): the third letter was originally 5th century B.C. read as theta, but compare other theta-like Second quarter V cent. B.C.

Mv[

KaTa]TrOyo[v]

C 20 (P 5167). P1.5. Base of lekane (= Sparkeson Talcott,no. 1795).Graffito underside.


Second quarter V cent. B.C.
'AXKai(ov)

C26 (P 5449). P1.6. Base fragment of blackon Context: glazedskyphos.Graffito underside. p. 220, no. 6, fig. 2, left.
ca. 470-425 B.C.(E 13:1). Hesperia, XXII, 1953,

Third quarterV cent. B.C. Ka]TaTr.y[cov This may well be an owner's name but is includedhere as being undoubtedlythe same 'ApIlaolp[vES as is praisedin C 19 and C 22. person C 27 (P 17123).P1.6. Baseand lowerpartof body of black-glazed skyphoswith rays above foot. C 21 (P 5164). P1.5. Large lekane. Graffito on Graffitoon underside.Context: third quarter underside,which was marked off in squares. 5th century B.C. Hesperia, XXII, 1953, p. 220, Cf. Sparkes-Talcott, 1797. no. no. 7, fig. 2, right,pl. 66, b. Second quarter V cent. B.C. $Eoi GEpltKE Third quarterV cent. B.C.
iKuAa KacaTnuy(alva)
Ssoi QEoT lViroXovos 1n6).XCTOVOS ao0vos TV'. KaXos

to KacTaTry(

The writerfirstwroteKarrv,then corrected it

) but finally left the word un-

XappliSES KcO6Ao

The name in line 3, whichshouldperhapsbe read as np(<a)cov,is most probably genitive and gives the paternity,whether physical or C 28 (P 19403).P1.6. Fragmentof roof tile with of figurative, Therikles. dullredto blackglazeon concaveuppersurface. Graffitoon glazed side, writtenafter tile had C22 (P 5169). P1.5. Fragment of lekane base beenbroken.Context:late 5th century B.C. (= Sparkes-Talcott,no. 1796). Graffito on Late V cent. B.C. [ ]rrpa-ro underside.
Second quarter V cent. B.C.
'AX]Koaos KaTcrcaT[yov
[Ka]A6s

finished,perhapsfrom lack of space, perhaps in doubtas to the feminine form(see the discussion thereofin Hesperia,XXII, 1953, pp. 216217).

For the restorednamesee C 19, C 20. from lekane. C 23 (P 18499).P1.5. Rim fragment Graffito on inside. Context: second quarter
5th century B.C.(C 18:7). Second quarter V cent. B.C.
ETArXl AawKKO6p[o]cros

of Considerations spacesuggesta shortname suchas Sostratos. C 29 (P 10618).P1.6. Fragmentof convex cover tile with flakybrownglaze on outside.Graffito on glazed side. Context:potteryrangingfrom late 5th centuryto 3rdcenturyB.C.
Late V cent. B.C. ]Xhr Kahi1

C 30 (L 2450). P1.6. Nozzles and parts of rim of black-glazed lamp (= Howland,no. 176, Type First line mostly erased.Whetherthe verb is Graffito on top of nozzle. Context: 21C). The activeor passivein senseis uncertain. name potteryto near end of 4th centuryB.C.(E 6:3). is unknown. Late V-early IV cent. B.C. KOK KiA(oi) of C 24 (P 15225).P1.5. Fragments roof tile with of phallus)(See M 13) (drawing black glaze on top surface.Graffitoon glazed
ho Eubp6oiaXos

peria,XXII, 1953,pp. 219-220.

side. Context: ca. 490-450 B.C. (F 19:4). Hes-

like could be Presumably KOKKC6Ao, K6mOKo,

used for testicles, but it is also possible that

C. LOVE NAMES AND HATE NAMES of this is an abbreviation the name Kokkaline (Demosth.,LIX, 35, 120, 124). C 31 (P 23837). P1.6. Rim fragmentof unglazed lid. Graffitoon either side, obviously written on the sherd.Context:ca. 420-390B.C.(Q 15:2).
Ca. 400-390 B.c. KoAXin (inside) TTpoorooca rTavrTaAcov K lJaA6 KaXo TTav-rTcacov | (outside) Tnpo ocriaKac[if lro

15

presumably on at the samefestival:Eubouput


los' Prosousia and Theopompos' Pantaleon. If

it did (andthe possibilityseemsno moreremote than the unprecedented pairing of male and female names with Kcxs6and Ka?i), it would provide a definitecross referencebetweentwo comic poets and a far closerabsolutedate than the scantyfragments the playsallow. of

C 32 (L 5298).PI. 6. Black-glazed lamp, similarto no. 267, Type 25A. Graffitoon top Howland, Note the way in whichthe two omittedletters in the lastlinewereaddedbelow.BothPantaleon of nozzle and rim. Context: 4th centuryB.C. XXVII, 1958,p. 159,pl. 46. Hesperia, and Prosousiaare known as personalnames, Mid-IV cent. B.C. 'AVTriKAEISr but the peculiarincidenceof Prosousiashould -patias be consideredin combinationwith the fact 'ApKEaicaS that both namesare also titles of comediesand 'AAKfcas that the well in which this sherd was found 'Av-rTIPnrSl also produced several coarse pitchers with (iA65rl6lpos comicscenes(Hesperia, XXIV, 1955,pp. 76-84). That is, Prosousiaseems to be limitedto midThe names are written backwards, not 4th-century B.C. tombstones (.G., II2, 8769, retrograde.Since some magic seems to be 12533-5), suggesting that something at the involved, the piece is included here under "hate names." Of the six names all but one beginningof the centurygave rise to this rash of an otherwiseunattestedname. Could Euwere borne by two or more 4th(Antimedes) boulos' play Prosousia (or The Swan), which of centuryB.C. Athenians,so that identification took its first name from a "Pres- this particular presumably group is unlikely.The fact that or ence" (whether femalecharacter abstraction), three mid-4th-century B.C. men bearingthree been responsible? The play is tentatively of these names (Antikleides,Arkesilas,Philohave dated by Edmonds (The Fragments of Attic demos) have naval connectionsand belong to the Erechtheidphyle is more likely to be a Comedy, II, p. 641) to 385-380 B.C., but a case function of the nature of our sources than a might well be made for a date closer to the context date of this sherd: Edmondsassumed clue to the identityof this group. that the two titles may refer to Diogenes Laertius'story (3,5) that Socrates,after dream- C33 (P6153). P1.6. Fragmentaryblack-glazed skyphos. Graffito on outside, just below lip, ing of a cygnet in his lap which later flew startingnear one handle and runningaround the awaywitha pleasantcry,identified birdwith under the other (a), and on opposite side (b). as Plato, who came to him (prosousia) a pupil Context: mid-4th century B.C. (D 15:3). Hesthe next day; Edmondsfurtherassumedthat peria,XXII, 1953,p. 221, note 5a. the play wouldnot have been relevanttill Plato Mid-IV cent. B.C. (a) OEIoSocrlaCatiKa'E[] 6Ei beganteachingin the Academyin 386 B.C., but it is hardto imaginethat this was the firsttime (b) A(aiKaorrpra) his voice had been heard. The last letters of the verb, and hence its Theopompos' play Pantaleon presumably exact form, are doubtful, but the root and had as its chief characterthe pranksterof the thereforethe meaningare certain.For another same name (Athen.,XIV, 616a).4If this Pantainstanceof delta used insteadof zeta in a 4thleon is the older brother of the speaker of century B.C. graffito see B 13. Theodosia's TTav- namehas been crossedout. For the supplement Lysias X and the defendant in Lysias KcrTa rcaXsovToS in (b), cf. C 34. (frags. 210, 211; Prosop. Att., no. he could have been about 27 years old 11599), spindlewhorl in 400 B.C.and full of the kind of deviousness C 34 (MC483). P1.6. Black-glazed of a type found in 5th-4th centuriesB.C.,like that might lend itself to comic treatment. Even if that identification uncertain, is Theopompos' Hesperia, Suppl. VII, pp. 94-96, no. 9. The graffitoruns all the way around the whorl at productivelife (415-362 B.C.)allows the possithe lowerpart of the side. bility that our sherd representsapplause or favorable critical judgment of two plays, IV cent. B.C. KoaiXatKc-rptia
4 See Edmonds' note (op. cit., I, p. 864,d): "It is thought possible that this man, by giving his name to his profession,originated the stock characterof mediaevalItalian comedyfrom whose dresscomes our word pantaloon,now in its shortenedform 'pants'... "

16

D. NAMES ON SHERDS D. NAMES ON SHERDS

for The criterion admission this categoryis that the nameor namesshallhave been writtenon the to not on the complete vase.Althoughobviouslyit is not alwayspossibleto be absolutely certainon sherd, this point,it maybe saidthatthe writing definitely was done on the sherdwhenit eitherturnsto follow
the edge of the sherd or continues in the next line on reaching the edge, or when it was done on the

froma closedpot. It maybe saidprobably not certainly havebeendoneon the insideof a fragment if to sherdwhenit is alignedwith one edge of the sherdor neatlycentered it. on Sherdswith a nameincisedon themhavebeenfoundin considerable numbers the Agoraand elseat wherein Athens.The greatmajorityof them can be datedin the 5th centuryB.C., and the namesthey bear are frequently those of personswell known in Athenianhistory.These sherdsare ostraka,the ballots used by the Athenians votingat an ostrakophoria. law on ostracism in The may well havebeen datesfromthe last decadeof the 6th century although constitution probably and B.C. partof Kleisthenes' for it was not applieduntil488/7B.c.1 It was invokedat intervals the next seventyyearsuntil418/7B.C. whenHyperbolos ostracized was circumstances the institutionwas thrown that undersuch scandalous the Atheniansneveragainhad recourseto it. Therefore, sherdwith an incised into disrepute, and any an There namethat can be datedin the 5th century has an a prioriclaimto be considered ostrakon. B.C. be conidentified ostraka,2 the identification as and are now about 6500 sherdswhichhave been may sideredcertainin all but a veryfew cases. But how shallwe interpret sherdwith a nameon it whichmustbe datedeitherearlieror laterthan a Thereis quitea groupof them,mostlyof the 6th century was the periodwhenostracism practiced? B.C., B.C. witha few as earlyas the 7th or late 8th centuries In Hesperia, Suppl.VIII,pp. 405-408a sherdwith B.C. the name Peisistratos 1 below) was publishedand along with it four sherdsfrom 6th-century (D sherdand contexts(D 6, D 8, D 14, D 22), eachwith a nameincisedon it. In the case of the Peisistratos
one of the othermes which bears the name Aristion the suggestion was tentatively put forward that they may have been used by the Council of the Areopagos as ballots on the occasion of Peisistratos'first exile.

was For the otherpiecesno definiteinterpretation offeredother than the generalsuggestionthat they may have been the work of school childrenor of idlerswritingtheir own namesor the name of some
friend, acquaintanceor lover. It is also possible that the sherds may have served in some way as tags to

belongings.It is likely that no single interpreaccompany goods or parcels,or to identifyindividual


tation will suit all these early sherds, especially as some of them have women's names, others have two

names.Theywere withdifferent on and namestogether, still otherswereinscribed both sides,sometimes on variousoccasionsand for variousreasons. no doubtwritten
Parallels may be quoted from elsewhere in Greece: Amyklai, Lakonia (A.J.A., LXI, 1957, p. 168); Phaistos, Crete (Annuario,XIV-XVI, 1952-1954, pp. 167-173); see also Jeffery,L.S.A.G., p. 314.

of the in B.C.), we see pretty Generally D 1-39 (late8th century through secondquarter the 5th century KL-MNOPP$TV0+ The exceptions or X). consistentuse of a standardold Attic alphabet(ABAAEIH I are:Ioniclambdain D 27, D 39; closedeta in D 6; tailedrho in D 6, D 25, D 37, D 39; xi in D 35, D 39; three-barred in crossbar D 15; four-barred sigmain sigmain D 25-27 and reversed phi with horizontal D 1, D 3, D 7, D 10, D 12, D 14, D 18, D 23, D 24. Theuse of thesetwo aberrant sigmasis suchthatthey fromregularsigmathe sigmathat comesat wordalmostcertainly two represent effortsto differentiate of withchi to makexi. Thatis, all threeuses of four-barred endsor combines sigmacomeat word-ends; or with chi; only one of the the nineoccurrences the reversed of sigmasevencome eitherat word-ends
the arguments concerning dateof the origin of ostracismsee K.J. Dover, Cl.Rev.,XIII, 1963,pp. 256-257withbibliography and J. T. Keaney, Historia, XIX, 1970, pp. 1-11. For a general account see E. Vanderpool, "Ostracismat Athens," Lecturesin Memoryof Louise Taft Semple,second series, no. 4, Cincinnati,1970. 2 The previouscount of ca. 1500 (see Hesperia,Suppl. VIII, pp. 408-411) has recentlybeen greatly augmentedby an estimated 4000 found in the Kerameikos(cf. B.C.H., XCII, 1968, pp. 732-733;AE-r., XXIII, 1968,XpovIKa, 24-32; S.E.G., XXIV, 1969, pp. no. 74, pp. 29f.). 1 For the

D. NAMES ON SHERDS

17

two reversed sigmasin D 1 and that in D 23 are not in thesespecialpositions.This samepatternmay be seenin the use of four-barred reversed of and Marks.Butwhether sigmasin the earlyexamples Owners' the effortto differentiate motivatedby a "heard"difference by a desirefor visualaid is unclear, or was as is the reasonwhy the effortwas so comparatively short-lived.3 in thesesameitems(D 1-39) is as follows:epsilonfor eta exceptin D 35 (andin D 36 Spelling practice whereepsilon-iotaseemsto substitute eta); epsilon-iotaspelledout exceptfor D 1 (only iota), D 9 for andD 25 (only iota in two cases,but the diphthongonce); eta for the aspirateexceptin (only epsilon) D 13 (but this name is attested elsewherewithout the aspirate),and perhapsD 16; omicronfor all doubledconsonantsare regularly o-sounds;koppainsteadof kappabeforeo- and u-sounds;properly As are singleexceptin D 37; thenasalsoundin D 34 is represented nu-kappa. faras mistakes concerned by all that can be detectedin the fragmentary stateand natureof the material threeomissionsof single are letters(D 1, D 10, D 32). Sevenof the namesare writtenretrograde 1, D 6, D 13, D 15, D 23, D 31, D 36); five are in some (D formof boustrophedon 11, D 14, D 16, D 24, D 32). Thereis no indication punctuation. of (D In the five pieces which date from after the middleof the 5th centuryB.C. the generalrule is Ionic substitutes for iota. eta letters,four-barred sigmas,eta andomegaas long vowels;D 42 exceptionally Identification the personbearinga particular of namecan be attempted only rarely.Nameswhichare attestedelsewhere Atheniansourcesare in the majorityand are not so noted. Whena nameis not in knownin Attica, note is made. D 1 (P 3629). P1.7. Fragmentfrom foot of large glaze outside. Graffito on outside, probably late Geometric vase, decorated outside with writtenon the sherd.Context:7th centuryB.C. tooth pattern.Graffitoon inside, upside down (F-G 12:1). Hesperia,Suppl.II, pp. 126, 226; to pot; certainlywritten on the sherd. For a B 56. full discussion of this graffito, see Hesperia, Second half VII cent. B.C. TprrriS See Suppl.VIII, pp. 405-408 (Vanderpool). also 9iJo[s Jeffery,L.S.A.G.,p. 70, pl. 2, no. 9e. The convivial sense of the inscriptionsugLate VIII-early VII cent. B.C. Tnla<<Tr>paTos gested in the originalpublicationseems to us (dateof vesselonly) (retrograde) unlikely.We suggestinstead two names, both D 2 (P 6578). PI.7. Fragmentfrom wall of very attestedelsewhere,the first in the nominative, with a row vase, decorated largelate Geometric the second probably in the nominative but of hatchedtrianglesbetweenbands.Graffitoon possiblyin the genitive. outside, obviously written on the sherd. Context: well of early 6th centuryB.C. with much D 5 (P 3534). P1.7. Fragmentfrom wall of large potteryof the 7th centuryB.C. (F 12:5). plain amphora.Graffitoon outside, diagonal with respect to the pot; probably but not Late VIII-earlyVII cent. B.C. ME]vEsSoi certainlywritten on the sherd. Context: late Perhaps a tag accompanyinga parcel ad6th centuries B.C. dressedto a woman named MevsoScb (assumed 7th-early feminineform of Menestheus). Late VII-early VI cent. B.C. ]e8tS9o D 3 (P 13655).P1.7. Fragment We may restoresome name such as Archefromwall of coarse dikos. pot, preservingthe stub of a handle on the outside.Graffitoon inside,verticalwith respect to the pot; obviously written on the sherd. D 6 (P 2030). P1.7. Fragmentof light roof tile with dull reddishglaze on concave side. GrafContext:firsthalf 7th century (T 19:3). B.C. fito on the glazedside, obviouslywrittenon the First half VII cent. B.C. 'AvEprros sherd.Context:early6th centuryB.C.Hesperia, On the rarenameAneritossee Bechtel,p. 195. Suppl.VIII, p. 407, pl. 60, d. D 4 (P 4664). P1.7. Fragmentfrom wall of large Early VI cent. B.C. 7th-centuryB.C. amphora, with streaky red ropyiasho .ucpelos (retrograde)
3 It is unlikely that this differentiation in any way related to the later is developmentof two sigmas, one initial or medial and the other final; that is almost certainlya result of cursivewriting.Comparableusage in the early period may be seen on the Dipylon Jug and in the Nikandrainscription(cf. Jeffery,L.S.A.G., pp. 68, 291).

18

D. NAMES ON SHERDS The interpretationis uncertain. Read as a a single word, it would be nTvpoSovptiSris, name otherwiseunattested.Sir John Beazley i.e., Oovupia&qs, patronymic suggested rTOppou and name. Anotherpossibilitymightbe Huppcb i.e., OoupiaBrlS, two names, a woman's and a is man's.Thouriades not attested,but Thourios is knownoutsideof Attica. D 12 (P 14693). P1.7. Fragment from wall of large unglazedpot. Graffitiinside and outside, obviouslywrittenon the sherd. Context: first
quarter 6th century B.C.(S 21:2).

This reading of the mother's name seems to given preferable the reading flp3aKio in the originalpublication. D7 (P 27741). P1.7. Base fragmentfrom large of B.C. amphora early6th-century type. Graffito on inside of base ring, upside down. Context:
first half 6th century B.C. (I 10:1). Early VI cent. B.C. ETrrpaXais

D 8 (P 4794). P1.7. Fragmentfrom wall of large coarse pithos. Graffito on outside, obviously writtenon the sherd.Context:early6th century
B.C.

(F 12:5). Hesperia, Suppl. VIII, p. 406. Early VI cent. B.C. AEtvLceia would be the Attic feminine form of ATlileveia 53,5).

VI Firstquarter cent. B.C. (outside).E.vSuivss


(inside) 9uv68paX[os

of Aai'invrls, uncertain provenience (Diod., XIV,

D9 (P 13333). P1.7. Fragment from neck of coarse unglazedwaterjar. Graffitoon outside, with respectto the pot; certainly vertical written on the sherd. Context: early 6th centuryB.C.
Early VI cent. B.C. TTEpalab[

On the outside severalheavy strokesin the upper left corner have partiallyobscuredthe first two letters, but the reading seems fairly sure. On the inside much of the surfacebelow the namehas flakedaway,and the endingof the name is not preserved.It might equally well or have been genitive,as a patronymic, dative, as an addressee.

This sherdmay have been a tag accompany- D 13 (P 18271).P1.7. Part of flat handleof large lines downthe outer Protoatticpot, with ing a parcelbeing sent to Peiraieus: TTFipaiaBE.face. Incisedon the wavy inner face, verticallywith It is also possible that the name T1EipaiaSrln respectto the handle,and almost certainlyon was (unattested) written. the sherd.Context:secondquarter6th century D 10 (P 18342). P1.7. Fragment from wall of B.C.(A 17:1). Cf. Hesperia, XXX, 1961, p. 323, F2. large amphorawith streakyglaze on outside, of 7th- to 6th-centuryB.C. type. Graffito on First half VI cent. B.C. 'E6opT[1o (retrograde) outside,verticalwith respectto the pot, almost Note the absenceof the aspirate,as in the certainlywritten on the sherd. Context: first same name in .G., I2, 579. The surfaceafter quarter 6th century B.C.(B 18:10). the tau is almostcompletely destroyed. First quarter VI cent. B.C. (a) Eu.pUTr from wall of large (b) TTpaXcr<i>v D 14 (P 6067).P1.7. Fragment pot with dull brown glaze outside. Graffitoon The first graffito,which was writtenalong one inside,obviouslywrittenon the sherd.Context: edge of the sherd, seems to have been delibmid-6th century B.C. (19:1). Hesperia, Suppl. erately trimmed off, so that only the lower VIII, p. 406. parts of the lettersremain.The sherdwas then turned around, and the second graffito was First half VI cent. B.C.AEPt6pi?XOS (boustrophedon) written.Euryteis a mythological name;Praxine D 15 (P 12212). P1.7. Fragment from wall of would be the Attic feminineform of Prexinos, large amphora,with dull streakyglaze outside, knownoutsideAttica. B.C. of 7th-or early 6th-century fabric.Graffito D 11 (P 14687).P1.7. Fragmentfrom wall of a on inside, written vertically to the pot and Protogeometricpot. Graffito on inside, obskipping over a wheelmade groove. Context: written on the sherd. Context: first down to mid-6th century B.C. viously
quarter 6th century B.C. (S 21:2). FirstquarterVI cent. B.C. First half VI cent. B.C. E(<9>po[ (retrograde)

THYPOGOPIAAEE(boustrophedon) Since the potteryfrom this well is consistently early 6th centuryB.C. in date, we assumethat the writingon the sherd dates from the same with period,and is not contemporary the sherd.

is perfectly clearly preserved, consists of an

The originalsherdis brokenat the left and chippedat upperright. The third letter, which oval with a horizontalline across it. This is theta, whichwould give perhapsan incomplete Sinceboth a namelike Euthronor Euthronios.

D. NAMES ON SHERDS

19

of these are rare (for the latter cf. F 43), it D 20 (P 24745).PI. 8. Fragment verylargevase of with thin black glaze on outside, of 7th- or seems preferable read the third letter as phi to B.C. on and restore some more common name like early6th-century fabric.Graffito outside, Phi's of this form are or Euphronios. certainlywritten on the sherd. Context: third Euphron to be found on certain early 5th-century B.C. quarter 6th century B.C.(with D 21). ostraka, e.g., one of ThemistoklesPhrearrios Mid-VI cent. B.C. Aucias I Mup-r6 see (Agora inv. no. P 17682 - unpublished); Thefinalsigmaof Lysiaswassqueezed around even on also below,F 50. It occursoccasionally the corneronto the secondline. stone, e.g., the Kallimachosepigram(I.G., I2, D21 (P 24746). P1.8. Fragment from wall of 609); see also I.G., I2, 487. unglazed pot. Graffito on outside, probably D 16 (P 13). P1.7. Fragmentfrom wall of large writtenon the sherd,of which the upperright closed pot with thin streakyglaze outside, of cornerhas been broken.Context:thirdquarter 7th- and early 6th-century fabric.Graffito 6th century B.C.(with D 20). B.C. on the outside,obviouslywrittenon the sherd, Mid-VI cent. B.C. riupoS which has been broken on the left. Context: mid-6th century B.C. D22 (P 10159). P1.8. Fragment from wall of large amphorawith streakyglaze on outside, First half VI cent. B.C. ]papErT of 7th-to B.C. on type.Graffito 'I9poTjyE (boustrophedon) outside, early6th-century the certainlywritten on sherd, which two to Probably women'snames.Thefirstmaybe appearsto have been trimmed a moreor less circularshape.Context: 7th-6th centuriesB.C. Timarete,Demareteor the like. In the second line the letters, which are perfectlyclear, read Hesperia, Suppl.VIII, p. 406. Ipholuge. This strange name is not attested. Mid-VI cent. B.C. not attested,but less strange), writingphi for pi D 23 (P 26539). P1.8. Wall fragmentfrom large closed pot, with thin, flaky, rather metallic as was done in the name hlpoXp&Tos an on ostrakon (Hesperia,Suppl. VIII, p. 403), and glaze on the outside, perhaps Geometric. Graffito on inside, obviously written on the the rough breathing(or inadvertently omitting sherd, which is chippedbelow. Context:midit with the aspirated exchanging pi). The inscription was left unfinished. The fillingin whichthis sherdwas foundis too early for it to be considered ostrakon Aristeides. an of first half 6th century B.C. D Firsthalf VI cent. B.C. Ka&ovi i.e., K&.XcovL 24 (P2041). P1.8. Fragment from neck of unglazed water jar. Graffiti inside and out, Perhaps a tag accompanyinga parcel to obviouslywrittenon the sherd,whichwas then Kallon. brokenat one end.Context: mid-6th B.C. century Mid-VI cent. B.C. D 18 (P 13360).PI. 8. Fragmentfrom wall of an (outside) ]EISES waterjar. Graffitoon outside, (boustrophedon) unglazedporous (inside) ]Ev almost certainlywrittenon the sherd.Context: mid-6th century B.C. (H 10:2). Like D 23 this may have readAristeides. The circumstances finding, however, make the of Mid-VI cent. B.C. interpretationof this sherd as an ostrakon K]?Xris i.e., iKAjfls A6Kpou A69po impossible. Perhapsan invitationor summonsof a man D 25 (P 15664). P1.8. Fragment from wall of namedLokros. largeopenbowlwithbandof dullredglazeboth D 19 (P 1993).PI. 8. Fragment frombase of blackinside and out. Graffition both sides, certainly writtenon the sherd,of whicha pieceis missing glazedskyphos,of a type commonin the second 6th century B.C. Graffito on floor on one side. quarter inside, almost certainly written on the sherd VI cent. B.C. (outside) 'ApyEi[8es becausethe cup was small and deep. Context: 'Ap]yi(8<?(s) Q 13:2.
Mid-VI cent. B.C. (inside) 'ApyiSEs 'O]v.Eoip[os
]. oCTOV

Perhaps the writer intended 'ITrTroAuyr(also

'AplICTrov

D 17 (P 26618). P1.8. Fragment from wall of coarse unglazed pot. Graffito on outside, obviously written on the sherd, which has a small fragmentmissing at the right. Context:

6th century B.C.(T 18:3).

Mid-VI cent. B.C.

'Apti7Ts-r(ES)

(retrograde)

20

D. NAMES ON SHERDS

Each name is writtenalong one edge of the D 32 (P 4627). P1.9. Fragment pan tile, glazed of also various scratchings. Three are on uppersurface.Graffito the undersurface, on sherd; repetitionsof the same name, Argeides,which obviouslywrittenon the sherd.Context: 6thseems not to have been reportedhithertobut early 5th centuries B.C. Hesperia, Suppl. II, derive from Argeios, which is known in may pp. 121-122,226, no. B 47; Suppl.VIII, p. 400, Attica.Thefourthnamewill havebeenMneson, note 20. Tlesonor the like. Late VI-early V cent. B.C. D 26 (P 13248). P1.8. Fragment from wall of NEoK<A>Eo(S) (boustrophedon) MEAaviSs largepot with tracesof dull black glaze on the outside, probablyGeometric.Graffition both Althoughit is possible that the sherd is an sides, obviouslywrittenon the sherd.Context: abortiveostrakon,as suggestedin Supplement second half 6th century B.C. to VIII,it seemspreferable readtwo names,one of a man in the genitiveand one of a womanin VI cent. B.C. (inside) TJauvias the nominative. The man's name (probably (outside) TIPAI the Neokles)wasleft incomplete; woman'sname Note the two formsof the lettersigmain the is not attested. name Pausias. An incompletename or word appearson the outside. D 33 (P 14130). P1.9. Fragmentfrom base of lekane,preserving part of foot and lower wall, D 27 (P 13251). P1.8. Fragment from wall of of late 6th-to early5th-century on with two bandsof dull glaze outside, type. Graffito largepot, wall outsideand upsidedown to pot, probably Geometric. Graffito on the inside, probably writtenon the sherd. obviously written on the sherd. Context: late The reasonfor the accusative case is obscure. The nameis not known. D 34 (P 10717). P1.9. Fragment from rim of from wall of very D 28 (P 16812).P1.8. Fragment B.C. lekane, of late 6th- to early 5th-century a pithos. Graffito type. Graffitoon outside, probablywrittenon large unglazedpot, probably on inside,obviouslywrittenon the sherd.Conthe sherd, which seems to be broken at the text: end of 6th centuryB.C.(G 15:1). lowerright. VI cent. B.C. Late VI-early V cent. B.C. OpOvov Avv[ fromwall of large P1.8. Fragment D 29 (P 15693). from Cf. A[O]vKos Larisa(LG.,IX2,568,18). heavy pot or pithos, probably prehistoric, D 35 from wall of large (P 4696).P1.9. Fragment roughlycut into a rounddisc. Graffitoon outclosed pot, glazed on outside. Graffitoon inon side, centered disc. side, obviouslywrittenon the sherd,whichhas BA6avU VI cent. B.C. been brokenat left. Context:early 5th century The only evidencefor the date is the archaic B.C. letterforms.The nameis not known. ]E NO[ Early V cent. B.C. D 30 (P 15694). P1.8. Fragment from wall of ]AKInO[ large closed pot. Graffitoon inside, obviously Ionic letters. No likely names suggestthemwrittenon the sherd, which is broken on the selves unlesserrorsare assumed,e.g., -Evocov, right.Context:6th centuryB.C. "AXKiTrrroS. VI cent. B.C. i.e., Kiaclos D 36 Kiaco[s (P 19287). P1.9. Fragment from rim of The nameis knownonly as an ethnic. B.C. lekaneof late 6th-to early5th-century type. Graffitoon inside,upsidedown and then vertifrom light roofing D 31 (A 2498).P1.8. Fragment cally to the pot, obviouslywrittenon the sherd. tile of Laconiantype. Inscribedthroughglaze Context: 5th century B.C. written the sherd, on on uppersurface; probably which was later chippedon the left. Context: Early V cent. B.C. 4th thirdquarter centuryB.C. ]K6io5[ (drawingupsidedown) VI cent. B.C. Aaleja[s (retrograde) D37 (P 10809). P1.9. Fragment from rim of of Becauseof the direction writingwe assume black-glazedkylix of early 5th-centuryB.C. that the sherd is considerablyolder than the type. Graffitioutsideand in, obviouslywritten on the sherd,whichhas beenbrokenat one end. in whichit was found. deposit
6th century B.C. VI cent. B.C. Late VI-early V cent. B.C.
Alia-rEhE

A]iocx(av

E. NUMERICALNOTATIONSON SHERDS
Early V cent. B.C. (outside) MeAa[

21

nupp[ (inside) ]6Es Assumingthat the same pair of names was writtenboth insideand out, we may restore,for and neither example,Melanippides Pyrronides; of these has been reported from Attica.

date.Graffito inside,upsidedownto the pot; on obviously written on the sherd, of which the upperrightcorer has brokenoff. LateV cent. B.C. Ki],iov
O]caTIs

D38 (P 27844). P1.9. Wall fragment of large unglazedvessel. Graffitoon outside, certainly D 42 (P 16865). P1.9. Fragment from base of bowl of late 5th-century type. B.C. black-glazed writtenafterthe sherdwasmuchworn.Context: Graffitoon inside, almost certainlywrittenon early 5th century B.C.(H 13:5). the sherd, which is broken above and at the Early V cent. B.C. 'ETrTmyVES right. D 39 (P 15209). P1.9. Fragment from wall of Late V cent. B.C. ]..X unglazed amphora. Graffito on outside, ob'AprloroT[AXrs viously written on the sherd. Context: ca. 490For possibleconfusionbetweeneta and iota, 450 B.C. (F 19:4). compare the inscriptions found in Plato's Second quarter V cent. B.C. MEVESEo5S Academy (Epyov, 1958,pp. 12ff.;A.J.A.,LXIII, cxapfat Xapias 1959,p. 279).
-avSeS

have restored exempli gratia.

a Presumably list of three names which we

D 43 (P 6799). P1.9. Fragmentof cover tile with dull red glaze on the convex surface.Graffito on the glazed side, obviously written on the sherd. Context: second half 4th century B.C. KcAio-TpaT' (D-E 8-9:1). Note the mixture of Attic and Ionic letter forms. Xanthes and Amphibouloshave not Second half IV cent. B.C. rTp&'rcov been reportedfrom Attica; for Pentaristesee D44 (P 10775). P1.9. Fragment from wall of A.J.A., LI, 1947,p. 368. unglazed amphora. Graffito on outside, obD40 (P 21583). P1.9. Fragment from wall of viously writtenon the sherd. Context:Roman large unglazedpot. Graffitoon outside, prob(G 11:2 dump). ably written on the sherd, which is certainly II cent. Ilh7tXiovos KuSoaSTvaiEvs5 'Evriyovos broken at the left. Context: second half 5th Two persons of this name are recorded, century B.C. a and apparently grandfather a grandson.The Late V cent. B.C. ]. lAIA formerappearsas an ephebe in the year A.D. ]AIEE 118/9(I.G.,II2, 2030,10),the latteras an ephebe D 41 (P 4791). P1.9. Fragment from wall of large in about A.D. 180 (I.G., II2, 2107, 10). Whichof B.C. these two is named on our sherdis uncertain. open red-figured of early 5th-century pot
'AIpgipoXos
TTpoTapXos VTEVTapio'TE

E. NUMERICAL NOTATIONS ON SHERDS The criterion admission this categoryis that the notationshallhave beenwrittenon the sherd, for to whichcould have borneno relation(of price,capacityor weight)to the point, in the case of numbers pot of which the sherdwas originallya part, it may be said probablyif not certainlythat they were writtenon the sherd. cal Notations on GreekVases," Hesperia,XXV, 1956,pp. 19-24. For other examplessee that publication.
The sherds here presented are only representativepieces, several of which were published in "Numerinot on the complete vase. Although obviously it is not always possible to be absolutely certain on this

22

E. NUMERICAL NOTATIONS ON SHERDS

The numbersused on these sherds,which except for one later and uncertainexample(E 16) date from the 5th and 4th centuries with one exception(mu as the numberof weight B.C., are acrophonic drachmas E 15).Theyincludemu for myriad, on pi-chifor 5000,chi for 1000,pi-etafor 500,eta for 100, for 50, deltafor 10, pi for 5 (alsopi-sigma 5 staters), eitherthe drachma or a simple for and pi-delta sign a uprightstrokefor the unit. For fractionsof the drachma simplestrokeservesfor the obol (ordinarily horizontalon E 4), a C-formfor the half-oboland a tau for the quarteruprightbut once apparently obol. The only oddityin letter-shapes the dotteddeltaof E 8. is The namesor words,mostlyabbreviated, the whichon some sherdsaccompany numbers, presentno or unusualfeaturesin letter-shapes spelling.Sincetheir significance interpretation so various, and are can best be treatedindividually the cataloguedescriptions. in they E 1 (P 12214). P1.10. Fragment fron wall of 1 Probably a tag indicating the number of inside. Graffitoon inside, pots or tiles ratherthan the price; the handle large krater,glazed convenient attach. to makesit particularly writtenon the sherd. Con [text:6thobviously no. 86.
KA 5th centuries B.C. Hesperia, XXV, 1' JVu, p. ')
'V,

E 6 (P 12317). P1. 10. Fragment of roofing tile

Early V cent. B.C.

!PXXXX

i.e., 9975

PHHHH

r^AAP zed E 2 (P 5133). P1.10. Foot of black-gla kylix. Graffitoon underside, ten probablywritt on the sherd.Context:secondquarter5th centuryB.C. (H 6:5). Cf. Sparkes-Talcott, 88, noite2. p.

with glaze on concave surface. Graffito, on glazed surface,probablywrittenon the sherd, which was brokenat the left. Context:fourth
quarter 5th century B.C. (O 19:4). Hesperia, P FIC T

XXV, 1956,p. 19, no. 79.


Late V cent. B.C.

Partof an informalabacus,with the symbols for of as serving headings theplacement pebbles: 1 5 (drachmas), (drachma), (obol), ? (obol), 1 Second quarter V cent. B.C. MXH (retrograde) 4 (obol). I.e., (uiplioi)X(ito1) h(EKacTrv) E 7 (P 4909). P1.10. Fragment from foot of bowl of late 5th-century type. B.C. E 3 (P 226). PI. 10. Foot of a Corin thian-type black-glazed Graffito on underside,inside foot, probably skyphosof the secondquarter5th centuryB.C. writtenon the sherd. Graffitoon bottom,probablywrittenon sherd. ~p ~ Perhaps a price tag, since the units are drachmas. a nsignment Perhapsa tag accompanying col (weighingfive staters), belonging to Aischeas E 8 (P 9177). P1.10. Fragmentfrom lower part and perhaps certifiedby Nikanor. It is also of black-glazedskyphos of Attic type of late 5th centuryB.C. Graffitoon underside,within possible that only one person is involved, the foot. Hesperia,XXV, 1956, p. 16, no. 69. namelyNikanor,son of Aischeas. Late V cent. B.C. fro E 4 (P 27694).P1.10. Wall fragment im lekane. AA111[ n Graffito on inside, obviously writte on the Since the units are simple strokes, the resherd,whichwas later brokenat the left. Con- ferenceis to something otherthandrachmas. text: second quarter 5th century B.C. (P 14:3). E 9 (P 25886). PI. 10. Fragment from wall of Second quarter V cent. B.C. plain storage Graffitoon outside,obviously jar. i.e., 4 dr., 1 3/4 ob. <T> ]a FFF-IC writtenon the sherd.Context:5th centuryB.C. ~(?) 1 dr., 3 ob. F i.e., ] 18:). (Mll The writing of obol strokes hcrizonta V cent. B.C. ]io0v ---FFFF is insteadof vertically not usual. ] P-H fromrimof blackE 5 (P 16981).P1.10. Fragment ]AAAPF I one glazedskyphos,preserving handle Graffito the Perhapsthe sherd represents tallying of on inside,obviouslywrittenon the sherd. Confrom different sources. drachmas (6paXi&ov) text: late 5th century B.C. (A-B 21-22:1). of The fact that the six drachmas the first line Hesperia,XXV, 1956,p. 19, no. 82. have not been resolvedinto PF suggestssome kind of tallying. Late V cent. B.C. f[ AAAAIn KEpa&pOS
NiKavof

Second quarter V cent. B.C.

AiaXea

mr

Late V cent. B.C.

AAHtF[

F. OWNERS' MARKS

23

Thejug seemsto havebeen usedas a tag on a E 10 (P 23873).PI. 10. Baseof lekane(= Sparkesof seems Talcott,no. 1810).Graffitoin centeron undershipment 60 pieces;the singledrachma to be price, whetherof the whole shipmentor side, probablywritten on the sherd. Context: some part. Perhapsthe shipmentwas pots of ca. 420-390B.C. (Q 15:2). whichthe tag was the visiblesample. .P EarlyIV cent. B.C. in format one E 14 (P 6876). PI. 10. Fragmentfrom floor of is The graffito repeated smaller black-glazed bowl or plate, with stamped edge. palmetteson the floor, of the 4th centuryB.C. from lower part E 11 (P 14622).PI. 10. Fragment Graffitoon floor, almost certainlywritten on of black-glazedskyphos of early 4th-century the sherd. XXV, 1956,p. 19, no. 81. Hesperia, B.C. type. Graffito on underside,within ring IV cent. B.C. APFFF foot; probablywrittenon the sherd. Niy( ) HHA[ E15 (P25983). P1.10. Lower part of blackEarlyIV cent. B.C. B.C. type. glazed kantharosof late 4th-century Perhapsa tag?or an I O U? Graffito on underside,within foot, probably from lower part E 12 (P 18610).P1.10. Fragment writtenon the sherd.Context:3rd centuryB.C. of small black-glazed olpe. Graffitoon under(Q 19:2). side, probablywritten on the sherd. Context:
first half 4th century B.C. (C 19:5). Mi ( ) AA Firsthalf IV cent. B.C.

E 13 (P 3512). P1.10. Small black-glazedringhandledjug. Graffito on underside.Context: secondhalf 4th centuryB.C.(F 11:2). Hesperia, E 16 (P 6349). P1.10. Lower part of Pergamene XXV, 1956, p. 16, no. 68, pl. 3. Cf. Sparkes- bowl of the late 1st centuryB.C. Graffitoon underside, perhapswrittenon the sherd. ConTalcott,no. 1192. text: 1st century B.C. (E 14:1). FPA Third quarter IV cent. B.C. k Late I cent. B.C. 6p (aXlpat) AAAAA

i.e., 40 dr. (weight) It is likely that the first three letters are an abbreviated name ratherthan a commodity.

Late IV cent. B.C. Aio ( ) 6xK(at) i'

F. OWNERS' MARKS inscribedon complete The large numberof what seem almost certainlyto be marksof ownership of and spelling vessels makes possible some useful statistics1 various sorts: changesin letter-shapes the rangefromearly7th centuryB.C. to the 6th centuryof our era; natureof identification, throughout ownership (withconsideration rangingfrom simpleinitialof the nameto a completesentenceasserting locationof the markson varioustypes of vessels;andthe of abbreviations); of the numberand kinds or natureof the writing,whethergraffito dipinto. old or A more or less standard Attic alphabet2 or ABAASlIH?IK.MNOPPJTVO+ X) is used with (A of the B.C.: Ioniclambda formsthrough secondquarter the 5thcentury and a few exceptions variant only or gammaappearsonly in F 56, F 59 andF 74; variantsfor thetaincludethreedotted(F 12, F 13, F 26) for stemless(F 20, F 23, F 24, F 39, F 41) and and one square(F 31); variants rho includefive apparently writerswere probably responsiblefor the one four with tails (F43, F 61-63). "Foreign-educated" chi the two examplesof psi-shaped (F 25, F 65), one combination of a B-shaped epsilon(F 14), example of closed eta as a vowel with Ionic xi (F 53), and four cases (F 56, F 72 cursive,F 75, F 78) in which of omegais used. Othervariantsare most likelyto be due to the difficulty incisingand lack of skill of
the writer: misformed phi's (F 43, F 50 with almost horizontal crossbar,F 66 square), square omicron
1 Although the numbermay be sufficientfor statistical purposes, it is still true that the extremebrevity of the texts and relative rarity of some letters and forms decreasedthe value of the results. 2 Digamma is not used alphabeticallybut only numerically;no opportunityfor psi arisesin these texts; xi is indicatedby a combination of chi and sigma.

24

F. OWNERS' MARKS

is (F 64), and curveddelta (F 50). Most interesting the variationin sigmas;althoughthe four-barred form is mostly the resultof sporadicforeigninfluence(F 16, F 44 with stemmedupsilon,F 56 with omega and Ionic lambda,F 75 with omega,F 77 in a Cretanname),the role of the earliestexample (F 1) is perhapsbest explainedas an alternateto the reversedsigmawhich seemsmost often to have to been used as a specialform markingthe end of the word (see above in introduction Names on Sherds, 16-17).So herethe four-barred sigmaat theends of F 1 and thefive-barred pp. sigmaat the end F 12, F 13,F 18 andF 23 to suggest three-barred of F 2 combine with the reversed a sigmasat the endsof variantfor this specialpurpose;the only otherreversed for a significant does occurin sigma groping or the middle of a name (F 6) and may indicateeitherindividualidiosyncracy the still fluid state of experimentation. With the middleof the centurythe balanceshifts so that the rule is a more or less standard Ionic with a graduallydiminishingnumber of exceptions. alphabet(ABFAEIHOIKAMNEOnlP(TY(DXYQ)3 Attic lambdaor gammaoccursin no singleexample;thereare threetailedrho's (F 81, F 84, F 105)and one that is more likely influenced the Latin form (F 219). The most persistentof the older letterby sigma(F 84, F 118, F 119, F 125) whichoccurseven with omegaand eta as shapesis the three-barred and long vowels.Exceptfor triangular otherodd phi's (F 126,F 151,F 152,F 161,F 211) and a unique B.C. broken-barred infiltration alphain F 157,thereis littlechangeafterthe 5th century untilthe gradual in B.C.:cursivezeta in F 178; lunatesigmain of cursiveformsbeginning the late 4th-early3rdcenturies
F 182 and F 209; lunate epsilon in F 210; cursive omega in F 212, F 213.4From the end of the 3rd century

forms(at least of certainletters) exceptional: are the non-cursive alphacontinuesuncial,showinga brokenbar or otherodditiesin F 254, F 271,F 280,F 299, F 302, and is cursiveonly in F 292, F 295 and
B.C.

mostly thereafter,particularlyin dipinti; square epsilon occurs only in F 220, F 221, F 228, F 231, F 247,

F 249,F 277, F 333,F 334; pi continuesto be uncialfor the most part,with the developed cursiveform occursonly in F 222 andF 225, but thereis an angular in F 318; the four-barred lunateform sigma only
in F 301 and a rectangularform in F 319; omega is uncial only in F 220 and F 231. Cursiveligatures also

in in beginto occur:epsilon-iota F 276, omicron-upsilon F 330. The Latinletters,whichoccuron F 228, F 251,F 277,F 283,F 288,F 298,F 313 andF 328, aretoo few to showanynotabledevelopment. for As mightbe expected,if we makeallowance the informality thesenotationsand the largeand of of to and variednumber theirwriters compared the formalstoneinscriptions theirfew inscribers (selected for theirskill),the changeanddevelopment letter-shapes the earlyperiodis remarkably of in presumably
similar. For the later period such a comparison is not possible since stone-cuttingis much less conducive to cursive forms even than scratchingin fired clay and a completely differentworld from that of dipinti. Here a comparison may be made with texts written in ink on papyri; and again there is a remarkable similarityin letter-shapesbetween pots and paper, without so great a differencebetween our casual owner-

of the as scribes thewriters casuallettersandaccounts between formerandprofessional and stone-cutters.


As far as spelling is concerned, the first point to be considered, because of its close association with letter-shapesand the Ionic alphabet, is the use of eta as "h" and of both eta and omega as long vowels. of No eta appearsas "h" afterthe secondquarter the 5th centuryB.C., and even beforethat time it is

use omittedonce(F 54).Theearliest of eta as a vowelis late 6th century (F 15);in the firsthalf of the B.C.
5th centuryB.C. it appears sporadicallyand in texts which show other foreign influences(F 53, where it is combined with an Ionic xi, F 55, where it is misused for epsilon or the diphthong). After the middle of the in (F centuryepsilonas eta is the exception 84, wherethe likelygenitivesingular -es shouldnot be the

is Attic form after a rho, F 116, wherethe initial vowel of Hegesander writtenas eta but the second F is vowelis written The epsilon,andpossibly 123wherethe interpretation not certain). oppositemistake, eta for epsilon,whichmay reflecta confusedand over-zealous effortto use the "new" vowel, writing
8 Xi with or without the centeruprightoccurs indifferently;the tailed upsilon is not immediatelygeneraland can not always be certainlydistinguishedin carelesswriting; 4 The hourglasssigma, if such it is, of F 183 must be foreign or idiosyncratic?

F. OWNERS' MARKS

25

confusionbetweenthe o-soundsis seenin F 160 wherean omegais used occursin F 127. A comparable in for an omicron.Generally, the earlierperiodomegaappearsfor the long vowel only in F 56, F 72, F 78 and for eithershortor long in F 75. Afterthe middleof the 5th centuryB.C. the long vowelis conF writtenas omegaexceptin F 85, F 132,F 145 andpossibly 123.Lessconsistency apparent is in sistently is the treatmentof the diphthongsepsilon-iotaand omicron-upsilon. Einmi writtenwith epsilon-iota twice (F 63, F 65); in the latter case the confusionis confoundedby the writingof Aischeas' except but epsilonas a diphthong, this is probablya Boiotian hand. The use of simpleomicronfor omicronin the masculine continuesfrom earliesttimes(F 3, F 5, F 9, F 58, genitivesingular) upsilon(ordinarily F 63-65, F 77, F 92, F 94, F 104, F 107, F 115, F 125, F 127, F 131, F 132, F 136, F 143, F 146) to well (F beyondthe 5th centuryB.C. with only two exceptions 23, F 144); only from the late 4th centuryB.C. come to be generallywritten(F 177, F 180, F 198, F 201, F 203, does the diphthongomicron-upsilon
F 209, F 212, etc.). Single letters standing for doubled consonants are standardin the early period (F 3, F 58, F 62, F 103) and even occur sporadicallyin the 4th century B.C.(F 138, F 168) when the usual practice is to write both consonants (F 124, F 131, F 146, F 198, F 201, F 205, F 214, F 217, etc.). The reverse situation, where a single letter is doubled, occurs only in the case of sigma precedinga dental (F 26, F 77) and so may reflect a felt differenceof pronunciationmore than uncertaintyor confusion. Another reflectionof pronunciation and may be seen in the cases where letters are omitted: F 46 (MeAa<y>K6Oa) F 84 (itoCu< > ppEs).One

to insertionof an originallyomittedletter also exists:Gogias corrected Gorgias(F 64). Metathesisof for almostcertainlyoccursonce (F 184 Mr1.9fKn MrXTIXTI), of perhapsas a reflection pronunaspiration of is and only if we may assumethe substitution theta for tau in F 11 (SaSi for TraTi) an interciation, pretationof that owner'smarkpossible. we With regardto the way in whichthe lettersof the namesare arranged shouldnote both how the is and direction writing relatedto the chronology howandwhenlettersarejoinedtogetherin ligatures of The or monograms. retrograde (F inscriptions 1, F 4, F 5, F 18, F 35) continueinto the early5th century B.C. and the only later example (second quarterof the 5thcentury B.C.)is also unique in every other way, being writtenin the Cypriotesyllabary 67). No true boustrophedon (F arrangement appears,but the conditionsof a small circularbase sometimesproducea kind of false boustrophedon, in as cramped a morefrequent fromthe normallinearwriting F 76, F 91. Ligatures monograms and departure represent fromthe 6th century to the 6th century our fromleft to right;moreover, B.C. of theypersistsporadically A ligature,for our presentpurposes,may be definedas the joining(often by a commonstrokeor era. of side strokes) two or moreletters,whether by sideor aboveandbelow,thusleavingthe termmonogram or for those cases in whichall the lettersof a name(abbreviated in full) are interlaced combined. and The earliestcases are mostlymonograms three-letter of abbreviations 14,F 15, F 19, F 27, F 45, F 48, (F F 52, F 69)or of two letters 73, F 89). Onlyone case survives fromthis periodof a two-letter (F ligature as part of a whole name (F 46). Later examplesare more various:a probablyfour-letter monogram
(F 129); four cases of two joined letters in a longer text (F 162, F 193, F 224, F 314) ;5 two monograms of three-letterabbreviations(F 190, F 221); one monogram of a five-letter abbreviation (F 241) and one of a complete name of seven letters (F 214). Punctuation is rare in these short texts: two or three dots vertically arrangedoccur between words on two early pieces (F 18, F 24); a long line marking off the end from the beginning of inscriptions that circle around on themselves appears on two later examples (F 83, F 92). Mention has already been made in passing of the non-Greek scripts which are included in this collection: one Greek name written in the Cypriote syllabary(F 67); and several Latin names written in Latin letters (F 228, F 251, F 283, F 288, F 298, F 313, F 328) as well as one which is apparently given in both Latin and Greek letters. Two other pieces seem to be non-Greek (F 99, F 100).
6 Not includedhere are the cursivejoints, as for example betweenthe letters of the diphthongsepsilon-iota(F 276) and omicronupsilon (F 330).

26

F. OWNERS' MARKS

The variouswaysin whichownersexpresstheirclaimmay be categorized follows,starting as withthe shortestand simplestand workingup to the most elaborate: Name abbreviated from 1 to 8 letters) 148 (ranging Name in nominative case 51 72 Name in genitivecase 4 Name in dativecase 21 of Moreelaborate statement ownership 46 or Incomplete obscure
3426

are to The abbreviations especially be noted sincewe have from no othersourcesuch abundant eviin dencefor abbreviations the earlyperiod.Of the 152 abbreviations on occurring 148 pots (fourhave the morethanone abbreviation) lengthsandchronological areas follows: ranges
Numberof letters Number7 Dates

8
6

1
4

Late4th-early3rdcenturies B.C.
From mid-5th into 4th century B.C.

5
4

13
47

From secondquarter centuryB.C.into Late Romanperiod 5th


From 6th century B.C. into Late Roman period

3 2
1

70 13
4

Fromfourthquarter centuryB.C. to 5th-6thcenturies 6th Fromfourthquarter centuryB.C. to mid-3rd 6th century


From early 5th century B.C.to 1st century B.C.

152
The comparative scarcity of one and-two-letter abbreviations results from our criteria of selection (see Introduction, p. 1) and is not at all a reflection of the actual state of affairs.There are vast numbers of

is with only one or two letters,but becausethe scopefor interpretation so wide they pots or fragments Of whichare includedthreehave abbreviations can give us little or no information. the four one-letter it not only the initialbut also the full name(F 163,F 185,F 245) and the other(F 40), although has only markedby the sameownerin variousways. Of the the initial,is one of a groupof pots all apparently one (F 39) belongsto this samegroup,another 213) was also foundin the 13two-letter (F abbreviations, samecontextwith a completename,six occurtogetherin pairson threepots (F 89, F 112,F 228), one one five (F 28) represents different all markedin the sameway, one (F 73) is a uniquemonogram, jars and the last two (F 242,F 296) seemedsuf(F 127) shows the full name as well as the abbreviation, of the periodto be interesting.8 unlikeany otherinscribed pots ficiently
6 This total exceeds the number of catalogueditems by eight because so many both have abbreviationsand belong to another category:F 91, F 127, F 152, F 163, F 180, F 185, F 245, F 323. 7 Eight letters: F 181 Six letters:F 80, F 145, F 167, F 308 Five letters:F 59, F 79, F 97, F 108, F 119, F 147, F 153, F 193, F 237, F 241, F 320, F 326, F 331 Four letters: F 20, F 49, F 51, F 54, F 66, F 68, F 71, F 81, F 88, F 90, F 91, F 95, F98, F 110, F 114, F 121, F 129, F 137, F 148, F 151, F 152, F 162, F 163, F 166,F 180, F 186,F 189, 195, F 200, F 206, F 211, F 217, F 222, F 227, F 229, F 236, F 240, F 244, F 254, F F 255, F 261, F 271, F 278, F 299, F 317, F 327, F 334 Three letters: F 14, F 15, F 17, F 19, F 21, F 22, F 25, F 27, F 2931, F 33-37, F 41, F 42, F 45, F 47, F 48, F , F 53, F 57, F 60, F 133, F 155, 156, F 159, F 173-175, F 178, F 190, F 61, F 69, F 70, F 74, F 87, F 102, F 105, F 106, F 109, F 111, F 120, F
F 194, F 196, F 197, F 207, F 208, F 210, F 219, F 221, F 235, F 239, F 247, F 248, F 260 F 265, F 2 , F277,F F 281, F 283,

F 293, F 294, F 303, F 314, F 323 Two letters:F 28, F 39, F 73, F 89 (2), F 112 (2), F 127, F 213, F 228 (2), F 242, F 296 One letter: F 40, F 163, F 185, F 245. these abbreviations'elusiveness.

8 Actually this two-letter abbreviation could as well refer to contents or give a date or other number and so serves as an example of

F. OWNERS' MARKS

27

With the 71 three-letter abbreviations are on somewhat we firmerground,sincethe majority them of


could not be numbers and all can be more easily interpretedas names than as common nouns. This is

withone particular not to saythatmostof themcanbe identified name,sinceit is obviousfromthemakelike of personalGreeknamesthat initialcombinations Eur-,Kri-,Men-,Nik-, and Phil- may easily up so standfor a greatvarietyof names.How abbreviations potentially servedany purposeat ambiguous all is obviouslythe next question.The most likely answeris one whichsuggeststhat this collectionof and owners'marksmay have sociologicalas well as epigraphic alphabetic the implications: groupsin of whichabbreviations one, two, three,four and evenfive lettersmightbe usefulmustnecessarily have for namesto be usedrepeatedly beensmall,andwiththe tendency the sameor similar withina particular it is unlikelythat the groupsin questionwerefamilies.Clubssuggestthemselves a possibility, as family, with the members or markingtheirown vessels,whetherfor drinking pouring;anotherpossibilityis a of customers one smallshop who left vesselsto be filled.Perhapsothersuchgroupsmightbe of group on Thatthe make-up the groupsometimes of thoughtof, depending the kindof vesselsmarked. required or longerabbreviations obviousfromthe varietyof lengthswhichwe actuallyfind,e.g., is moreexplicit
Ar (F 112), A (F 21, (( Aris 81), Arist (F 153), risti (F 80). These pieces did not, obviously, belong to F

one group,but the varietysuggests that therewas a tendency cut one's nameto fit the circumstances. to
If, for instance, Aristogeiton was the founder of his club he might well have marked his drinkingcup Ar, while subsequent joiners named Aristotle, Aristeides, Ariston and Aristippos would have arrogated to themselves respectivelythe abbreviations Ari, Aris, Arist and Aristi.

The four-letter abbreviations not for the most part much more particularizing are than those with but the majorityof those madeup of five or morelettersgive almostcertainidentification a with three, name. particular As wasnotedabove,six of the abbreviated namesareaccompanied whatmustbe the samenamesin by
full: Dexio and De (F 127); Diphilou and Diphi (F 152); Menonos, Meno and M (F 163); Theon and Th (F 185); Nikolaou and N (F 245); Eukarpos and Euk (F 323). This range of one, two, three and fourletter abbreviations alongside full names confirms us in our interpretation of the abbreviations as

owners'namesbut still leavesus puzzledas to why these six ownerssaw fit to identifytheirproperty
by both forms. Whatever may be imagined as the intended grammaticalcase of the abbreviations,the variety among the names that are complete allows considerable choice: nominative 40%; genitive 57 %; dative 3 %.9 Since the nominative may always be considered as the subject of an understood verb of owning with the object inscribed as the understood object, and since both genitive and dative can express possession, the usage may depend on individual preference. The choice of case seems not to have been dictated by

that nominative genitive,at any rate, wereboth used pretty and changingfashion,sinceit is apparent from the beginning the end of our period. to consistently A few of the owners'namesin the nominativeand genitiveare accompanied additionalidentiby fication:the father'sname appearscertainin F 231, F 304 (also grandfather), 316, and possiblyin F F 117 and F 118; tradename, title or epithet appearsin F 262, F 304 and F 316. Whethertwo names in or variesaccording apparently the samecasesuggest joint ownership somekindof relationship perhaps to the situation(F 150, F 165, F 180, F 332). More uncertain incomplete the additionsin F 103, or are F 183,F 284,285.Most frequent the presence one or two (or three)lettersapparently is of usedas numer9 Nominative:F 1, F 6-8, F 11, F 16, F 24, F 44, F 46, F 62, F 72, F 76, F 78, F 83, F 85, F 93, F 117,F 135,F 138,F 150, F 164,F 168, F 170, F 176, F 183-185, F 187, F 188, F 204, F 214, F 224, F 225, F 231, F 238, F 250, F 252, F 257, F 274, F 282, F 285, F 287, F 290, F 291, F 309-311, F 316, F 318, F 322, F 323, F 329. Genitive: F 2, F 4, F 9, F 23, F 64, F 67, F 77, F 84, F 86, F 92, F 104, F 113, F 118, F 125, F 127, F 136, F 140-143, F 146, F 152, F 157, F 158, F 163, F 165, F 179, F 180, F 182, F 198, F 201-203, F 212, F 216, F 223, F 230, F 233, F 234, F 243, F 245, F 246, F 251, F 256, F 258, F 259, F 262-264, F 267-270, F 273, F 275, F 276, F 279, F 286, F 292, F 295, F 297, F 301, F 304, F 306-308, F 312, F 321, F 325, F 330, F 332. Dative: F 50, F 284, F 288, F 298.

28

F. OWNERS' MARKS

als: alpha(1) in F 87, F 170; gamma(3) in F 317; delta (4) in F 162,F 282; epsilon(5) in F 98; stigmazeta (6-7) i 04; kappa(2 in F 73; kappa-alpha in F 297; nu (50) or pi-delta(50) or both in (21) F 130,F 206,F 252; andepsilon-iota-rho (115)in F 315 andkappa-theta-tau in F 250. The numbers (329) and need not all be used similarly could not be expectedto be so over so greata lapse of time and on such different types of vessels.It is possiblethat the smallernumbers might referto qualityor age of that any of the numbers indicatethe particular vessel'splacein a series,or giveeithera contents, might date or taahe capacityon he basis of some era or unit taken for granted.Finally,one vessel(F 198) on whichthe capacityis spelledout is cataloguedhere ratherthan underHa (Capacity) becausethe first is item in the inscription the owner'sname. few unexplained In additionto a lettersor numbers several on marksthat are not evencertainly pots, the chi-rhosymbolor the that is, namesaccompanied either, thereis one smallclassof someinterest, by cross:F 322, F 323 (on whichthe additional mightbe eithera numberor the abbreviation iota-epsilon F for "priest"or "sacred"), 324. The most frequentformulaamong the more elaboratestatementsof ownershipmakes the vessel of ." This simpleform occurs 13 times (althoughsome assert,"I am (the property)
texts are incomplete and so may have included more): F 5, F 12, F 13, F 18, F 32, F 56, F58, F 63, F 65, F 107, F 115, F 144, F 177. One variant adds a predicate (F 3); another uses the adverb dikaios (F 94, F 131, F 132, F 139, F 154). F 103 may name itself as the property of Philippe; F 199 appears to record a

conversation: "(Thisis the property)of Agathonthe thief." "Cheapat a chalkous!"Two of these information: 65 maygivethe owner'sethnic;F 131 may add a prohiF also inscriptions haveadditional bition to the assertionof ownership "I am really(the property) Andriskos;[let not] anyoneelse of [touch]."F 63 may indicate joint ownership. be The 46 incompleteor obscuretexts can not profitably treatedas a group,since the uncertainties involvedare so various.Most are nameslackingcase-endings more);10 thereare a few wherethe (or
names themselves are uncertain, if indeed they are names;u and two texts are literally illegible because

letters(F 99, F 100). they employnon-Greek Sincethe kind of vesselsand the locationof the inscriptions thereonaremost often related,it will be
convenient to consider these two matters together. For our purposes the vessels do not need to (and often can not because of theirfragmentarystate) be separatedinto many individual categories of shape. It is sufficient (and often only possible) to distinguish open vessels (like cups, bowls, basins, plates) from closed (like amphoras, pitchers,jugs). In addition there are lamps and lids and one disc-stand, as well as three unexplained objects of clay. The vast majority (73 %) of open vessels12 inscribed underneath,on the base; on 19% the inscripare tion appears on the side wall; the locations of the other 8% are various, with only a few examples of each: inside (often on floor), top of rim (of basins), top of foot or stem (kylix), handle. Two of the sidewall inscriptions are upside down to the vessel (F 6, F 25), and one runs vertically (F 203). For the great number of inscriptions underneaththe orientation is obviously a matter of indifference.
F F 134, F 149,F 160, F 161,F 169,F 172, F 205, F 215, F 218, F 1230, 128, F 220, F 226, F 232, F249, F253, F266 F 289, F 300, F 302, F 305,F 315, F 319, F 324, F 328, F 333.
12 Thereare 183 are examples,of which threeare inscribedin two places,so the percentages basedon 186inscriptions.Underbase: F 8, F50, F 51, F 53, F 54, 10O, F 11, F14,F15,F17,F18,F21-23,F26,F27,F30,F31,F33,F34,F36,F37,F39,F41,F43,, F 56, F 59, F 62-64, F 66, F 67, F 69, F 74-77, F 79, F 80, F 82-86 (also foot-top of F 86), F 87, F 89, F 90, F 91 (also inside), F 92, 107, F F 94-96, F 98, F 104, F 105, F 108, F 110, F 112, F 117, F 119, F 120, F 122, F 123, F 125, F 126, F 128, F 133-135, F 137, 179 F F 173 F 174 F 176, F F 139, F 40, F 143-14716 149-151, F 15170, 159162 F 164 F 167, F 168, F F 180, F 182, F 184, F 186-195, F 200, F 206 (also outside wall), F 208, F 210, F 213, F 215, F 221, F 222, F 226, F 227, F 229, F 230 (also inside), F 234245 (also inside), F 246-249, F 254-256, F 264, F 265, F 301, F 302, F 334. Outside wall: F 1-6, F 25, F 32, F 236, F 237, F 24, FF 326 F F 45, F 46, F 57 F 68, F 78, F 99-101, F 109, F 115, F 118, F 124 F 154, 169, F 172 F 181, F 201,2F (F206 also underneath),F 207, F 209, F 223, F 225, F 231 (also inside), F 232, F 330. Inside:F 70, F 91 (also underneath),F 116, F 138,F 1, F 156, F 220, F 230 (also underneath),F 231 (also outside), F 245 (also underneath).Stem or top of foot: F 24, F86 (also underneath), F 158. Tip of rim: F 88, F 106, F 132. Handle: F 219.

10F 10, F 26, F F, 38, F 43, F 55, F 75, F 10, F 116 F 1

" F 82, F 91, F 96, F 122, F 123, F 171, F 191, F 192, F 209.

F. OWNERS' MARKS

29

on occur most often on the shoulderor side (67%) or neck to mouth Inscriptions closed vessels13 less often underneath, the base (9+ %), and on the handle (6+ %). Only one inscription on (17%), Handleinscriptions seem (F 97) is upsidedown to the vessel,but three(F 9, F 65, F 298) run vertically. to readindifferently or down. up If thereis anychronological to fromthesefigures, is onlythe sameone thatmay conclusion be drawn it be derivedfrom a generalsurveyof the potteryof the Agora: that there are more examplesof open shapesin the Greekperiodthan in the Romanperiod. The inscribed lamps number15; four are inscribedon the nozzle (F 113, F 152, F 178, F 185); four on underneath, the base(F 42, F 93, F 197,F 214);threeon top or aroundthe rim(F 103,F 183,F 212); threeon the side-wall 129,F 177,F 211); oneis inscribed top, on the nozzleandon one side(F 163). on (F All lids (F 49, F 58, F 121,F 157,F 216) and one disc-stand 8) are inscribed the top surface.The on (F miscellaneous objects(F 165,F 166,F 240) are inscribed any convenient on surface. clay Becausethere are more fine waresinscribedin the Greekperiodand more coarse ones in Roman beforeChristand are not even quitematchedin fretimes,graffiti preponderate greatlyin the centuries quencyby dipintiin our era. Thatis, glazedwarecan be most visiblymarkedby scratching throughthe warenot only lendsitselfmoreto paintbut makespaintmorevisible.Theseproportions glaze;unglazed is methodof marking applyonly to this category,sinceit is obviousthatthe graffito a morehome-made and that variouscommercial notationswill have been made14 laboriously less and moreprofessionally with a brush.Of our 334 owners'marks289 (86%) are graffitiand only 45 (14%) are dipinti.l5Six of the graffitiwere incisedin the clay while it was still soft (F 216, F 259, F 261,F 288,F 306,F 318). One dipintoowner'smark(F 252) was supplemented a graffito with number. We come finallyto the namesthemselves a consideration the prosopographical and of value,if any, of these inscriptions. Actual identification individualownerswith knownpersonsis not, exceptin of very specialcircumstances, possible;nor would it be usefulto know, for example,that a man whose his only "claimto fame" was servicein the Boule in a particular year had scratched name on a pot. wherethereis moreinformation thanthe name,or wherethe nameis veryrareindeedmay identiOnly ficationbe possible.For the restourchiefconcern be the namerather will thanthe person,thatis, whether it is known(1) fromAthens,or (2) elsewhere, either(3) roughlycontemporaneously its appearwith ance on the pot, or (4) some othertime. Sincemost of the completenamesbelongto the firstcategory it (known at Athens) and also to the third (roughlycontemporary) will save space in the catalogue if this is assumed be the case unlessthe contrary noted.Thatis, a nameis noticedonly to is descriptions if a roughlycontemporary Athenianis not knownfromProsop.Att., I. G., or S. E. G. For the abbreviated names,it will be most often sufficient indicateexamplesof possibleAtheniannamesin the few to caseswherethesearenot obvious;onlywherenonesuchexistwillfurther discussion required. be Of the completeGreeknames(and the sufficiently completeabbreviations) only 19 are not attested anywhereat all as names:two of these (F 150, F 325) are known in somewhatdifferent forms; eight (F 11, F 84, F 93, F 104, F 169, F 230, F 301, F 330) are knownas commonnouns and seem hereto be usedas nicknames titles;only nine(F 1, F 4, F 76, F 155,F 171,F 178,F 271,F 273,F 276)arewithout or A fairnumber namesareattestednot for Athensbut elsewhere;16few areattestedat Athens of parallel. a
18 There are 127 examples.Shoulderor side: F 7, F 9, F 12, F 13, F 16, F 19, F 29, F 52, F 55, F 60, F 61, F 65, F 97, F 127, F 130, F 131 (also handle), F 171, F 196, F 198, F 217, F 224, F 233, F 235, F 241, F 243, F 244, F 251-253, F 257, F 258, F 260-262, F 266279, F 282-285, F 287-289, F 291-296, F 298-300, F 303-309, F 311-313, F 315-319, F 321-323, F 325-327, F 331. Neck to mouth: F 28, F , F 38, F 142, F 218, F 228, F 239, F 250, F 263, F 280, F 281, F 286, F 290, F 297, F 310, F 314, F 320, F 324, F 328, F 329, F F 332, F 333. Under base: F 40, F 44, F 47, F 71-73, F 81, F 136,F 155, F 175, F 202, F 259. Handle:F 20, F 102, F 111, F 114,F 131 (also side), F 148, F 199, F 238. 14 Just as the somewhatdifferent commercialnotations of the Greekperiod were made by stampsimpressedin the soft clay, as on amphorahandles. 15 For brevity'ssake only the dipinti numbersare herelisted: F 198, F 211, F 217, F 218, F 228, F 233, F 235, F 241, F 250, F 252, F 257, F 258, F 263, F 266, F 267, F 276, F 277, F 280-282, F 284-287, F 290, F 292-298, F 304, F 305, F 308, F 310-312, F 316, F 317, F 322, F 324, F 328, F 331, F 332. 16F 12, F 13, F 24, F 43, F 46, F 67, F 88, F 108, F 117, F 118, F 123, F 166, F 176, F 184, F 206, F 224, F 239, F 240, F 284, 285, F 297, F 306, F 310, F 326.

30

F. OWNERS' MARKS

for a different (F periodfromthe one hererepresented 10,F 49, F 87,F 235,F 262).Therearealso several ethnics 44,F 62,F 63,F 77,F 170,F 203,F 257),someof whichhavenot previously in appeared Attica; (F some of thesemay be slavenames.17 the As far as sex is concerned, predominance the male, whetherin termsof possessionor in the of is thereof(literacy), clear:127namesareprettyclearlymasculine; only 19 arefairlycertainly expression mostabbreviations obviously withan additional thatcouldbe eithersex;18 six are uncertain. feminine, PRIVATEOWNERSHIP (F) one-handled F 1 (P 10151). Pl. 11. Fragmentary withplainrim,concavesidesandflatbottom cup (= Brann, no. 194). Dull streakyblack glaze inside and out; bottom reserved.Graffitoon the side. Context: first half 7th century B.C. (T 19:3).
First quarter VII cent. B.C. ]X. &nXOS

F6 (P 17380). P1.11. Skyphos with offset lip, reserved handlezone and small spreading foot. Graffitoon lowerpart of body, upsidedown to pot. Context: second half 7th century B.C. (M 11:3). Hesperia,XXX, 1961, p. 366, H25, pls. 78, 89.
Second half VII cent. B.C. O6oov

F 7 (P 14691).PI. 11. Upper part of amphoraof (retrograde) 7th-centuryB.C. type. Graffito on shoulder. Context:firstquarter6th centuryB.C.(S 21:2). PerhapsElatichos(not known),but possibly Cf. Brann,p. 33. third declension genitive rather than second Late VII cent. B.C. declensionnominative.If the chi is writtenfor ATrp]616Tr[o] becomemorenumerous. 8 the possibilities kappa, F (P989). PI. 11. Black-glazed disc stand. Graffitoon upper surface. Context: first half F2 (P26420). PI. 11. One-handled cup with 6th centuryB.C. (116:4). Cf. Sparkes-Talcott, and flat bottom. Graffitoon upper flaringlip wall. Context:second quarter7th centuryB.C. no. 1323. (R 17:5). Hesperia,XXX, 1961, p. 377, S 17, (Oav*Ae Firsthalf VI cent. B.C. pl. 87. from upperbody of F 9 (P 195).P1.11. Fragment Second quarter VII cent. B.C. Ot(Iovos or small amphora, of the black-figured olpe first half 6th century B.C. On reservedpanel F 3 (P 4663). P1.11. Skyphoswith offset lip and outlinedby a single glazed line, the tail of an low ring foot. Graffitoon the side, just below level of handle. Context: 7th-6th centuries animal. Graffito beside panel vertical with B.C.(F-G 12:1). Hesperia,Suppl. II, pp. 124respectto the pot. 125,figs. 89, 90. Cf. Sparkes-Talcott, 7. p. First half VI cent. B.C. Av]cainlo is The restoration one of severalpossibilities, B.C. probablythe most likely for 6th-century F 4 (P 22709).P1.11. One-handled with offset cup Athens. lip (= Brann,no. 184).Graffitoon upperwall. B.C. 7th Context:thirdquarter century (0 12:1). F 10 (P 2029). P1.11. Fragmentfrom base of Third quarter VII cent. B.C. open bowl, glazedinsideand out, exceptunder foot. Graffitoon bottom. Context:6th century 'ATxoraTas (retrograde) B.C. The name is not known;compareTataieon First half VI cent. B.C. a lekythosfrom Cumaein the BritishMuseum EOTr[ no. 3, pl. 47). L.S.A.G.,p. 240, (Jeffery, No such name is attested till the Roman period. fromwall of cup. F 5 (P 23452).Pl. 11. Fragment Graffito on outside. Context: third quarter F 11 (P 24727). P1.11. Fragmentfrom base of 7th centuryB.C. (R 8:2). Hesperia, XXX, 1961, skyphos,of a type commonin second quarter p. 353, G 33, pls. 81, 89. 6th century B.C., with red band above foot. Graffito on bottom. Context: fourth quarter Third quarter VII cent. B.C. (retrograde) 6th century B.C.(R 12:3). ]MAoE[IPt
&Aov TOS-r otK'ra, cs AvS6v Katl2Opov, q TOTS v y&p Ko4?iLro, tl 'oTs BVEatv KEivois6pOvitovs ous bmrroA&Louvav 6v61saoi rpocry6pvov, &S M6vnv A^ Ti6av T6v Oprya, Tiplov 8 Trv naorXay6va. thi Crtainy fem ne: F 4, F 8, F 11, F 24, F 79, F 84, F 103, F 117, F 158, F 165, F 176, F 184, 230, F 257, F 255, F 306, F 311, F 322, F329. Eithersex: F46, F 113, F 182, F 183, F 188, F224. 17Strabo VII, 304 I tj

Mid-VII cent. B.C.

Eapio sljil -roTfplov

F. OWNERS' MARKS Perhapsthe "mistress'cup", inscribedby a servant of the house. An abbreviation less is since names beginningthus are much likely, later.

31

Second quarter VI cent. B.C. Oa0{ i.e. TaTf? F 19 (P 24882). P1.11. Glaze-bandedamphora

of 6th-century B.C. type. Graffitoon shoulder.


Context: ca. 520-490 B.C. (Q 12:3). Cf. Sparkes-

F 12 (P 17825). P1.11. Small black-glazedolpe with high-swunghandle and large spreading F20 (P 25922). P1.11. Handle from unglazed foot (=Sparkes-Talcott,no. 251). Graffitoon on amphora.Graffito outsideof handle,written side. Context: mid-6th century B.C. (J 18:4). from bottom up. Context:6th centuryB.C. Mid-VI cent. B.C. Oaluv?o5 ?ei.i VI cent. B.C. ( 'Aypu ) Name attested for Carian from Ialysos A demotic('AypvXAss) a name(unattested) or (Ath., VI, 262). derivedfrom &ypuTrv4co? F 13 (P 17826). P1.11. Unglazed oinochoe with trefoil mouth. Graffito on side. Context: F 21 (P 16585). P. 11. Black-glazedkylix base. mid-6th century B.C. (J 18:4). Cf. Sparkes- Graffito on underside.Context: 6th-5th centuries B.C. Talcott,no. 1637. Early V cent. B.C. 'Aya( ) Mid-VIcent. B.C. eOavEos Eil.i F 14 (P 8813). P1.12. Black-glazed stemmeddish F22 (P 16869). PI. 11. Black-glazedkylix foot. Graffito on underside.Context: 6th-5th cenno. on (= Sparkes-Talcott, 966).Graffito underturiesB.C. side. Context: ca. 520-490 B.C.(E (b) N (fragmentary letter) F23 (P2610). P1.11. Base of small skyphos. Since At3( ) gives no reasonable Greek Graffitoon underside.Context:early 5th cenname, we assume the alphabetto be a nontury B.C. (G 6:3). Hesperia, XV, 1946, p. 277, Attic one in which t equals E or H, such as no. 19. or Megarian Corinthian. EarlyV cent. B.C. 21iKpivov F 15 (P 8826). P1.12. Black-glazed kylix. Graffito Too earlyfor Sophocles'contemporary (Ath., on underside of foot. Context: ca. 520-490 B.C. XIII, 592b)? (E 14:5). F24 (P2759). P1.11. Black-glazedkylix stem, Late VI cent. B.C. Kpr( ) (monogram) with slightlyraisedring at lower end, marked F 16 (P 1206).PI. 11.Shoulder fromlarge off above and belowby an incisedline. Graffito fragment non-Atticamphora.Light buff clay, micaceous carefully spaced around stem on this band, and hardbaked,with red bandat base of neck, with punctuation betweenlast and first letters. turningdownwardat its right end. Graffitoon Context: early 5th century B.C. (G 6:3). Hesshoulder. Context: late 6th centuryB.C.(G 15: 1). peria,XV, 1946,p. 277, no. 18. Late VI cent. B.C. 'Apaiorov Early V cent. B.C. i
Xapia[v]0e 14:5). Ca. 525 B.C. (a) At ( ) (monogram) Early V cent. B.C. 'Eop( )

Talcott,no. 1502. VI cent. B.C. ZUI ( ) (monogram) ThemostlikelyAthenian nameis Symmachos.

F 17 (P 5206). P1.11. Base of kylix with short The nearest attested name is from Thasos: thick stem; raised ring with added red; of Xa]piav0EOrs XII, 8, 285, 6). (.G. late 6th-centuryB.C. type. Graffito on inner F 25 (P 4232). P1.12. Lower body of skyphos. face of foot. Graffitooutside,upsidedown to pot. Context: Late VI cent. B.C. BM( ) late 6th to early5th centuries B.C. F 18 (P 9055). P1.11. Base fragment of blackEarly V cent. B.C. Xoi( ) e.g., Xot(pf?ou) glazed bowl with torus ring foot. Graffitoon Note the use of the non-Atticchi. underside. F 26 (P 4666). P1.12. Fragmentfrom bottom of Late VI cent. B.C. ]oros: E[I1t (retrograde) black-glazed cup kotyle of late 6th- to early Thereare not many nameswith genitivesin B.C. on 5th-century type. Graffito underside. -coroS; an amongthem are TTrlaSpcos,Athenian Early V cent. B.C. 'A]lKi(c<a>)[voS vase-painter of mid-6th century B.C. (Hesperia, IX, 1940, pp. 225-226), and 'Apapcbs(Prosop. F 27 (P 6173).P1.12. beneath. Kylixfoot, reserved Att., no. 1575). Graffito on underside. Context: early 5th

32

F. OWNERS' MARKS

century B.C. (E 15:6). Cf. Sparkes-Talcott, F 34 (P 20788).Foot of black-glazed kylix.Graffito no. 439. on underside. lau( ) rTa ( ) (two monograms) F 35 (P 20790). Fragmentfrom mouth of pelike. On another base (Agora inv. no. P6633) Graffito outside. on from the same well is a fragmentary graffito Early V cent. B.C. (retrograde) Opa( ) whichmay be read lI] ( ). au stemmeddish F 28 (P 24668,P 24911,P 24912,P 24922,P 24923). F 36 (P 20761). Small black-glazed no. on (= Sparkes-Talcott, 986).Graffito underP1.11. Five unglazedkadoi; P 24668=Sparkesside of foot. of Talcott,no. 1601.On neck of each, a graffito two letters,presumably abbreviation the Early V cent. B.C. epa( ) the of owner's name. Context: ca. 520-480 B.C. 12:4). (R F 37 (P 20768).Black-glazed saltcellar. on Graffito V cent. B.C. Early Au( ) underside. Opa( ) F29 (P 24917). P1.11. Fragmentaryunglazed Early V cent. B.C. amphora. Graffito on shoulder. Context: ca. F 38 (P 20785). Black-glazed pelike. Graffitoon 520-480 B.C. (R 12:4). neck,brokenat right.
Early V cent. B.C.
KAE ) (

Early V cent. B.C.

Early V cent. B.C.

Opa(

Early V cent. B.C.

[pa (

F 30 (P 13462). P1.12. Black-glazedsaltcellar. F39 (P 20789). Foot of black-glazed kylix. Graffitoon underside.Context:early 5th cenGraffito underside. on F 40 (P 20791). Fragmentfrom foot of blackglazedpelike.Graffitoon underside. F 31 (P 14950). P1.12. Black-glazedkylix foot. 0 ( ) Graffito on underside. Context: early 5th Early V cent. B.C. B.C. (F 19: 5). century F 41 (P 20792).PI. 12. Foot of black-glazed kylix. Tie( ) Early V cent. B.C. Graffito on underside. Context: early 5th
century (R 12:1). F 32-40. P1.12. In a well of the late 6th-early Early V cent. B.C. Aep( ) 5th centuryB.C. (R 12:1) were found no fewer vases and fragments(F 33-40) inthan eight The rho, though misshapen,resemblessome thetascribedwith the letters theta-rho-alpha, of the rho's on the "Thra"vases which come from the samewell. rho, or theta. In a dumpedfilling of the same period a short distanceto the south (Q 13:2) F 42 (L 1096). PI. 12. Lamp (= Howland, p. 33, was found the neck of a vase (F32) which no. 103). Graffitoon underside.Context:early appearsto have been inscribedwith the same name written out in full, but unfortunately 5th century B.C.(H 5-6:1). now incomplete.The owner of the house or Xaa( ) Early V cent. B.C. was evidentlygiven to markinghis propshop F 43 (P8). P1.12. Fragment of black-glazed erty. of saltcellar early5th-century type. Graffito B.c. on underside. F 32 (P 11392).Fragmentfrom wall of deep cup with reservedband on the outside.Graffitoon Early V cent. B.c. E]OepovUI[o outside. The name Euthronis known from the Dalmatiancoast (Pape,s.v.), but perhapshere too Opa[ Early V cent. B.C. the theta standsfor phi; cf. D 15. ?t]mt Since the second line appearsto read etli, F 44 (P 137). P1.12. Base of lekythos of early we assumethat the name is writtenout in full 5th-centuryB.C. type. Graffito on underside. genitiveformin the firstline. Early V cent. B.C. Tupcrav6o F 33 (P 20757). Black-glazed kylix (= SparkesB.C. tury B.C.(N-P 20:1). Early V cent. B.C. Early V cent. B.C. Tnau( )

ep( )

of Talcott,no. 404). Graffitoon underside foot.


Early V cent. B.C. Opa ( )

The name, attestedonly as an ethnic adjective, as wellas the non-Atticletterforms(alpha, sigma, upsilon),seems to indicatea foreigner.

F. OWNERS' MARKS F 45 (P 5012). PI. 12. Wall fragmentfrom blackglazed cup. Graffito on outside. Context:
Early V cent. B.C.

33

'EQ1 ) ( of Note combination Ionic xi and closed eta early 5th century B.C. used as a vowel. Presumablythe writer was not an Athenian. KeS( ) V cent. B.C. (monogram) Early names beginning AEK- F 54 (P 24274). PI. 12. Black-glazedkylix base. Perhaps KArl(covos); do not seemto be so early. Graffitoon underside. F 46 (P 5009). PI. 12. Fragmentfrom lower part Early V cent. B.C. 'Epa ( ) and bottomof red-figured All names derived from Hephaistos have mug. Graffitoon the side, partly on the glaze, partly on the figured rough breathing;no other names begin thus. scene. Context: early 5th centuryB.C.Beazley, Thewriter therefore was psilotic,but not Ionian. A.R.V.,p. 152. F 55 (P 24735).P1.12. Shoulderfragmentof redEarly V cent. B.C. MXa<y>K6Cia figured oinochoe. Graffito on outside below of mu and epsilon at beginning. bandof leaf pattern. Ligature Probablythe genitive of the masculinename, Early V cent. B.C. OrIoyi[Tovos]or Orloi[Trou] which has been reported outside of Attica theta with Note combinationof crossbarred (Pape,s.v.; Bechtel,p. 303). eta for eitherepsilon-iota epsilonalone. or F 47 (P 26180). P1.12. Part of spreadingfoot of F56 (P 17677). P1.13. Fragmentary skyphos black-glazedoinochoe. Graffitoon inner face no. (= Sparkes-Talcott, 339). Graffitoon botof foot. Context:early 5th centuryB.C. tom. Context: first and second quarters 5th AEV ) ( Early V cent. B.C. century B.C.(A 18-19:1). F 48 (P 26179). P1.12. Fragmentof black-glazed Early V cent. B.C. Eiit MiAcovos foot. Graffito on underside. Context: kylix Since only one Milon is known in Athens early 5th century B.C. beforethe 4th centuryB.C., this ownermay well be the grown-upversionof that darlingwhose Early V cent. B.C. 'Aya ( ) (monogram) beautywas noted on a late cup of Oltosa geneF 49 (P 26192). P1.12. Lid of small black-glazed rationearlier (Naples,no. 2617). pyxis. Graffitoon top. Context: late 6th-early F 57 (P 15224). P1.13. Black-glazedone-handler B.C. 5th centuries no. (= Sparkes-Talcott, 745). Graffito on lip V cent. B.C. ( Early 'Op-rv ) of betweenattachments handle. Context:490Ortygion is attested in Eretria in the late 450 B.c. SeeF 68. F 50 (P 20089). P1.12. Black-glazed base, probpyxis lid with ably from column krater. Graffito on inner F 58 (P 5453). P1.14. Black-glazed face of foot. Context:early5th centuryB.C.Cf. reserved, pierced knob (= Sparkes-Talcott, no. 44). Graffitoaround outer edge of top. no. Sparkes-Talcott, 54.
Early V cent. B.C.
$tDioSplOt

in the Late Romanperiod(I.G.,III, 1163).

4th century B.C.; Ortyx is known from Athens

(F 19:4). V cent. B.C. Early

hecr( )

a Presumably dativeof possession. stemlesskylix. F 51 (P 20422). P1.12. Black-glazedkylix foot. F 59 (P 5137).PI.13. Black-glazed Graffitoon underside base. Context:second of Graffito on underside. Context: early 5th quarter 5th century B.C. (H 6:5). Hesperia, V, century B.C.(C 18:11). no. 1936,pp. 339, 352. Cf. Sparkes-Talcott, 456.
Early V cent. B.C.
iXo ( )

Context: 470-425 B.C. (E 13:1). E1ti 'ATroXoSopo Early V cent. B.C.

Second quarter V cent. B.C.

'OqAp (

F 52 (P 24126). PI. 12. Large unglazedamphora, F 60 (P 5174).PI. 13. Unglazedamphora.Graffito of apparently non-Attic clay. Graffito on on shoulder. Context: second quarter 5th shoulder. Context: ca. 520-490 B.C. (Q 12:3). century B.C. (H 6:5). Hesperia,V, 1936, pp. 345, V cent. B.C. 352. Early 'A-w( ) or ArT( ) (monogram) Second quarter V cent. B.C. 'Aua ( ) F 53 (P 7058). P1.12. Half of black-glazed Names beginningwith these letters seem to kylix foot of type commonin early 5th centuryB.C. be either heroic or later than the 5th century Graffito underside. on B.C., e.g., Amadokos, Amarantos.

34

F. OWNERS' MARKS

F 61 (P 5175).P1.13. Unglazedamphora.Graffito F 67 (P 17463).P1.13. Fragmentof black-glazed on shoulder. Context: second quarter 5th B.C. kylix foot of second quarter 5th-century on century B.C.(H 6:5). Hesperia,V, 1936, pp. 345, type. Graffito underside. 352. Second quarterV cent. B.C. Second quarter V cent. B.c. Xap( ) i.e., ku-po-ro-ta-mo, Kurrpobgaio (signsof Cypriote syllabary, retrograde) F 62 (P 5168).P1.13. Fragmentary of lekane. base Graffitoon underside. Context:second quarter F 68 (P 15990).P1.13. Black-glazed skyphoswith 5th century B.C. (H 6:5). one vertical and one horizontal handle (= no. on Second quarterV cent. B.C. Sparkes-Talcott, 361).Graffiti lip between Tpip3.aos attachments of horizontal handle (a) and A Thracianslave's name?It appearslater in between attachmentsof vertical handle (b). inscriptions (I.G., II2, 4199, 959c). A long stroke Context: ca. 490-450 B.C. (F 19:4). (betweentau and rho on one side and between omicron and sigma on the other) divides the Second quarter V cent. B.C. (a) HE base in half. (b) ZT The two graffitiare apparently be taken to F 63 (P 7140). P1.13. Fragmentof skyphosfoot of secondquarter B.C. type,approxtogetherand read as h-cr( ). Cf. F 57 from 5th-century imately like Agora inv. no. P 5145 (Hesperia, the same well. The man's name will have been on V, 1936,pp. 340f., fig.8). Graffito underside. Hestiaiosor the like. V Secondquarter cent. B.C. ix[i{] F 69 (P 16024). P1.13. Small black-glazed [A]rrmpo bowl. ]Ias E[pt] Graffito on underside.Context: ca. 490-450 B.C. (F 19:4). Cf. Sparkes-Talcott, 855. no. Onlyone Athenianso namedis knownto us: the fatherof a man who died beforethe middle Second quarter V cent B.C. of the 4th century B.C. (I.G., IP, 12136/7). Do Inap( ) (monogram) the two names(?)indicate joint ownership? F 70 (P 27690). 13.Miniature P1. one-handled bowl. F64 (P 10805). P1.13. Kylix foot of second Graffito on inside. Context: second quarter quarter 5th-centuryB.C. type, approximately 5th century B.C. (P 14:3). like Agora inv. no. P 5116 (Hesperia,V, 1936, Second quarter V cent. B.C. ZKI( ) pp. 336f., fig. 4). Graffitoon underside.Context: late 6th-early5th centuryB.C. Names beginningwith these three lettersare rare enough for us to imaginethat this might Second quarterV cent. B.C. Fopyio have been a childhoodpossessionof Skironides, The rho was apparently omitted at first the general of 412 B.C. writingand insertedafterwards. F 65 (P 15347, P 15348). P1.13. Unglazed am- F 71 (P 27692). P1.13. Base fragmentof banded oinochoe. Graffito on underside. Context: phoraof non-Atticfabric.Graffition body: (a) secondquarter5th centuryB.C.(P 14:3). underone handle,vertically with respectto the Second quarterV cent. B.C. Tllo ( ) pot; (b) and (c) on shoulder. Context: ca. 490-450 B.C. (F 19:4). F72 (P 15867). P1.13. Lekythos base in two
Second quarter V cent. B.C.

to the vessel or its contents and take HEas a number indicating capacity, e.g., Tr(vTrE)E(taiO). F 66 (P 15218).P1.13. Kylix foot similarto F 64. Graffito on underside.Context: ca. 490-450

should perhaps read Boi (cbTov) as a reference

(b) BOI nE (c) B Note the non-Atticchi; if it is Boiotian, we

(a) Aitosio Eii

degrees, as in Haspels, Athenian Black-Figured

Lekythoi,Paris, 1936, p. 48, 3-5. Graffitoon underside. Context: B.C. mid-5th century (C 9:6). Hesperia, Suppl.V, p. 142, fig.70, a; 71, 38.
Second quarterV cent. B.C.
MiKIov

Note the use of omega, which makes it temptingto suppose that the writer was the Mikion who was praisedby Lysitheos(I.G., I2, 924) and that he learnedhis letters from his B.C. (F 19:4). Thatis, Lysitheos admirer. spellswithan omega but retainsepsilonfor long e. Second quarter V cent. B.C. ( KEqt ) Presumably Kriclnos (e.g., Prosop. Att., F 73 (P 15868).P1.13. Bottom of small olpe with no. 8286)or some one of the severalcompound disc foot of second quarter 5th-centuryB.C. namesbeginning type. Graffitoon underside.Context:mid-5th Kephiso-.

F. OWNERS'MARKS
century B.C.(C 9:6). Hesperia, Suppl. V, p. 143,

35

fig. 71, 37.

B.C. (N 7:3). Hesperia, XXII, 1953, pl. 38, no.

iKuva ) ( Ke( ) (monogram) an ethnic known from Probably imKca(tva), exists in 5thelsewhere (Pape, s.v.); mOerhs Sincethe namemaybe eitherKe ) or Kl ( ), ( B.C.Athens. the possibilitiesare too numerousto be usecentury fully suggested. F 80 (P 21374).P1.13. Base of black-glazed bowl. Graffito underside. on Context:ca. 460-440B.C. F 74 (P 15707). P1.13. Black-glazed skyphos. Graffitounder foot. Context: 5th centuryB.C. (N 7:3). Hesperia,XXII, 1953, pl. 38, no. 132. no. Mid-Vcent. B.C. (G 18:1). Cf. Sparkes-Talcott, 359. 'Apori( ) Second quarter V cent. B.C. KAe( ) After the iota a sort of dot has been incised, perhapsthe startof the next letter. F 75 (P 10466). P1.13. Base fragmentof blackoinoglazed kylix of type common in the second F 81 (P 21400). P1.13. Base of semi-glazed 5th centuryB.C. Graffitoon underside. choe. Graffito on underside. Context: ca. quarter 460-440 B.C. (N 7:3). Hesperia, XXII, 1953, Second quarter V cent. B.C. NIKCCa[ no. pl. 38, no. 133. Cf. Sparkes-Talcott, 152. The name might be a feminineNK<'caa with Mid-V cent. B.C. 'Aplti(T ) omega used correctly, but some masculine Note combinationof tailed rho and fourname with omicron (e.g., Nikosthenes,Nikobarred sigma. Presumablythe same name as stratos)is perhapsmorelikely. F 80, fromthe samewell. F 76 (P 18337). P1.13. Base of a one-handler. Graffitoon underside.Context: first half 5th F 82 (P 21373). P1.13. Fragment of base of lekane. Graffito on underside. Context: ca. century B.C. (C 18:4).
Second quarter V cent. B.C. Second quarter V cent. B.C. Kspiov 460-440 B.C. (N7:3).

135. Mid-Vcent. B.C.

Note changein direction writing. of Namenot IN Mid-V cent. B.C. ]ovroS known. Although the sherd might have been convenientas a kleros (lot), the diminutiveis F83 (P 21404). P1. 13. Base and lowerwall of not attestedin this sense. black-glazedskyphos. Graffito on underside. F 77 (P 21290). P1.14. Black-glazedskyphos of Attic type. Graffito on underside. Context: no. pl. 38, no. 134. Cf. Sparkes-Talcott, 342. V Secondquarter cent. B.C. O(Dacc<'>Tio Note doubled sigma (four-barred) early and form of alpha. This name in the form of an ethnicadjective not previously has been reported from Attica.
460-440 B.C. (N 7:3). Hesperia, XXII, 1953,

pl. 38, no. 136.

Hesperia, XXII, 1953,

XXII, 1953, pl. 38, no. 137. Cf. SparkesTalcott,no. 343.


Mid-V cent. B.C.
Kotvai

Context: ca. 460-440 B.C. (N7:3).

Hesperia,

If the word is complete, it must be nominativefeminine to pluraland referperhaps a set of cups which were common property.A long line separatesthe end of the word from the
beginning.

F 84 (P 5109).P1.14. Fragmentof base of blackF 78 (P 17898,P 17971).P1.14. Red-figured glazed bowl. Graffito on underside.Context: mug second half 5th century B.C. with running Hermes, in the vicinity of the Alkimachos painter. Graffito on upper wall Mid-V cent. B.C. 2]tOv<(>ppES no. opposite figure. Cf. Sparkes-Talcott, 195. The eta (written as epsilon) following rho MiScov Second quarter V cent. B.C. suggests a foreigner.The nearest parallel for this name is liacu4pptov, (nick)name for an Perhaps this is the father (or teacher) of hetaira in Theophilos' Flute-lover(Edmonds, in mentioned Schol.Ar., Nub.,968, Lamprokles after whom Alexis' Midon (Ath., XI, 491c) II, p. 575, fr. 11). may have been named? The four vertical F 85 (P772). P1.14. Skyphos foot of mid-5th strokesbeneaththe nameare unexplained. B.C. type. Graffitoon underside. Concentury text: third quarter 5th century B.C. (117:1). F 79 (P 21399). P1.13. Base of semi-glazed bowl. Graffito on underside.Context: ca. 460-440 Mid-V cent. B.C. 'EXaOcKO

36

F. OWNERS' MARKS XVIII, 1949, p. 330, fig. 6, pl. 93. Cf. SparkesTalcott,no. 935.
Fourth quarter V cent. B.C.
(a) Ztuv ( )

F 86 (P 22998). P1.14. Foot of black-glazed B.C.type. kylix of second quarter5th-century Graffition top and bottom. Context: 5th-4th
centuries B.C. Hesperia, XXIII, 1954, p. 54.

Cf. Sparkes-Talcott, 438. no.


(top)

Mid-V cent. B.C.

ipcovos

(b) nAPAMYNQTO0 F of Compare 180 for directions writing.

(bottom) MQNO F 92 (P 10803).PI. 14. Small black-glazed bowl. Graffitoon underside.Context:fourth quarter A quantity of hobnails found in the same 5th century B.C.(H 12:6). area with this sherd suggeststhat this Simon may be the cobblerwho was friendto Perikles Fourthquarter cent. B.C. V MvrlalCoiXo and Sokrates(Diog. Laert.,II, 122).The letters The writingexactlyfills the circleof the base, on the undersideare almost certainlyanother and an incised line separatesthe end of the versionof the name whichappearson the top. name from the beginning. least two men of At Why the first two letterswere omittedis puzzthis name lived in Athens at this time (Prosop. ling. Perhapsthe writerstartedby using paint, then thought it might rub off and continued Att., nos. 10333-4). with a sharpinstrument, forgettingto go over F 93 (L 3088).P1.14. Black-glazed lamp(= Howthe first two letters. Perhapsthe letters now no. 175, Type 21C). Graffitoon underland, visible were all that were ever written and side. Context:fourth quarter5th centuryB.C. the represent last part of the name used as a (H 12:6). nickname.
quarter F 87 (P24698). P1.14. Base of black-glazed The name of a slave (?), perhapsone who Context: stemlessbowl. Graffitoon underside. or cameto Athensas a deserter refugee? 5th thirdquarter centuryB.C. V Thirdquarter cent. B.C. A Map( ) F 94 (P 12030). PI. 14. Fragmentfrom base of black-glazed stemless cup. Graffito on inner The first alpha may or may not belong to face of foot. Context:fourth quarter5th centhe name. Athenian names beginning Marand later (e.g., Marsyas, tury B.C.(N-P 20:1). seem to be Hellenistic Eli Fourth quarterV cent. B.C. ]aro SIK[aicos Maron,Markos). F 88 (P 21694).P1.14. Largeunglazedbasin with F 95 bowl. (P 13099).P1.14. Base of black-glazed rim, steep sides and ring flat-topped projecting Graffitoon underside.Context:fourth quarter no. foot (= Sparkes-Talcott, 1840).Graffitoon 5th century B.C.(O 19:4). of rim. Context:third quarter5th century top Fourth V cent. B.C. Apa-CTrrI

F 96 (P 15217).P1.14. Black-glazed one-handler. Graffitounderfoot. Context: 5th centuryB.C. No other restoration suggestsitself. A Klia(G 18:1). retos is known from Orchomenos (Pape, s.v.). . .PKE Fourth quarterV cent. B.C. F 89 (P 23283). P1.14. Fragmentary black-glazed skyphos. Graffition underside.Context:third F 97 (P 18620). P1.15. Part of shoulder of unquarter 5th century B.C.(O 16:1-2). glazed amphora.Graffitoon top of shoulder, V Thirdquarter cent.B.C. E0( ) (monogram) upside down to pot. Context: fourth quarter Au( ) (monogram) 5th century B.C.(C 19:9). Fourth quarterV cent. B.C. Both monogramsare partially erased with (rKou) 'AvSpi thin fine scratches. F 98 (P 12510).P1.15. Fragment from bottom of F 90 (P 17961). P1.14. Black-glazedbolsal (= black-glazedone-handlerof late 5th-century no. Sparkes-Talcott, 540). Graffito on under- B.C. type. Graffito on underside. Context:
side. Context: 430-410 B.C. (B 19:7). thXo ) Fourth quarterV cent. B.C. ( late 5th-4th centuries B.C. E Late V cent. B.C. MEI( )

B.C.(07:10). Third quarterV cent. B.C.

Fourth quarterV cent. B.C.

Aiin (

KXta (pTros)

F91 (P 10537). P1.14. Black-glazedsaltcellar. Graffition inside (a) and outside(b). Context:
fourth quarter5th centuryB.C.(B 15:1). Hesperia,

or PerhapsMeli(io), Meia(ia8o) the like. Various such names are known in Athens from
early in the 4th century B.C.

F. OWNERS' MARKS F 99 (P 16903).P1.15. Fragmentary black-glazed no. one-handler Sparkes-Talcott, 754). Graf(= fito on outside lower wall. Context: late 5th
century B.C. (A-B 21-22:1). (see drawing) Late V cent. B.C.

37

Late V cent. B.C. ( KEp ) The odd spacing results from the writer's avoidanceof the black-glaze and circle in dot the center. Another scratchto the right does not seemto be a letter.

non-Greek? Perhaps F 106 (P 24774). P1.15. Rim fragmentof lekane. Graffito on top of rim. Context: latest 5th F 100 (P 16904). P1.15. Wall fragment from Graffito on outside. century B.C. black-glazed skyphos. Context:late 5th centuryB.C. (A-B 21-22:1). _av ( ) Latest V cent. B.C. Late V cent. B.C. (see drawing) F 107 (P 103). P1.15. Fragmentof straight-sided Second and third letters appearto be nonsaltcellarof a type found chiefly black-glazed F Greek?Compare 99. in second half 5th centuryB.C.; compare,for F 101 (P 16905).PI. 15. Rim fragmentof blackexample, Hesperia, IV, 1935, p. 508, no. 48. on Graffito underside. Graffitoon outside. Context: glazed skyphos.
late 5th century B.C. (A-B 21-22:1). Late V cent. B.C. KEKpo[ tury B.C. (Prosop. Att., no. 8264). Second half V cent. B.C. S(ho Eiii

Compare Kekropidon of the mid-4th cen- F 108 (P 1870). P1.15. Black-glazed saltcellar with flat bottom and slightlyincurving walls of a type common in later 5th century B.C.; F 102 (P 26424). PI. 15. Lower part of amphora handle with thumbprintimpression. Graffito compareHesperia,XVIII, 1949,p. 330, no. 69. Graffitoon underside. on outside, running vertically from bottom. Context:late 5th centuryB.C. Secondhalf V cent. B.C. 'E].rrS( ) Fva( ) Names beginningthus seem generallyvery Late V cent. B.C. late (Romanperiod)or non-Athenian. F 103 (L 2653). PI. 15. Fragmentary black-glazed lamp(= Howland,no. 215, Type23A). Graffiti F 109 (P3736). P1.15. Rim fragmentof blackon rim (a) and nozzle(b). on glazedbowl. Graffito outside. Late V cent. B.C. (a) Ka[uovrilp] lti{rrnls 5av ( ) Second half V cent. B.C. (b) AN Note combination of Ionic xi with slantOne expects kappa-alphato begin a word barredalpha. for lamp, but kandelion too late. The word is restored above is one possibility; another is F 110 (P 19555).PI. 15. Fragmentary black-glazed one-handler.Graffito on underside.Context: that kappa-alphabegins the name of a child second half 5th century B.C. (C 19:5). of Philippein the nominativecase servingas subjectof &v(erlK?). Second half V cent. B.C. 'Etry ( ) of F 104 (P 27314).P1.15. Black-glazed saltcellar handlefrom B.C.type. Graffitoon under- F 111 (P 24265).P1.15. Black-glazed late 5th-century in small oinochoe, triangular section. Graffito side, within ring foot. Context: last quarter on outside, runningdown vertically.Context: 5th century B.C. (S 16:1). Cf. Sparkes-Talcott, secondhalf 5th centuryB.C.(Q 8:1). p. 135, note 5. Hesperia,XXXV, 1966, p. 83. This nicknamemay derivefrom the bird or from the comedy of Heniochos of the same
B.C. Athenian We know several 5th-century names beginningwith these letters, e.g., LeuCf. kades,Leukaios,Leukippos. also F 47. name, dated by Edmonds to ca. 411 B.C. (Edmonds, I, p. 915, fr. 4; p. 997). More lightly F 112 (P 24691).P1.15. Base of semi-glazed onescratchedin center of foot two numeralsmay on handler.Graffito underside. Context:second be distinguished: , i.e., 6 and 7. shalf 5th century B.C.

Late V cent. B.C.

TpoXiXo

Second half V cent. B.C.

AEv( )

F 105 (P 27353).P1.15. Fragmentary black-glazed bowl of late 5th-century type. Graffitoon B.C. underside, within ring foot. Context: last
quarter 5th century B.C.(S 16:1).

Secondhalf V cent. B.C.

'Ap( Mo( Mo( Mo(

) ) ) )

(ligature)

38

F. OWNERS' MARKS

Two crossing lines divide the circle inside F 122 (P 20019). P1.16. Base fragmentof blackfoot into four sections;the ligature glazedskyphos.Graffitoon underside. occupiesone of these, and two of the thrice repeated two V cent. B.C. ) ]ayu( lettersoccupytwo others. F113 (L 3269). P1.15. Nozzle of black-glazed F 123 (P 21220).PI. 16. Base and part of wall of small stemless black-glazedcup. Graffito on lamp(= Howland,no. 220, Type23A). Graffito underside. Context: late 5th century B.C. on top of nozzle. (Q 10:4). 2aT |I Second half V cent. B.C. pas KOE V cent. B.C. femininegenitive.The Satyrawho Probably See drawing. PerhapsKcbq ? (s) was hetaira to Themistokles (Ath., XIII, was probablyno longer alive, but the 576c) F124 (P 25822). P1.16. Black-glazedrim fragone namewas an appropriate for the trade. of ment,probably mug. Graffitooutside. F 114 (P 26866). P1.15. Upper part of handle of V cent. B.C. ]aXtIa[ oinochoe (= Sparkes-Talcott, no. black-glazed or PerhapsK]cAXk K]aZXia[Sou. 116). Graffitoat mouth attachment. F 125 (P 25892).PI. 16. Fragment black-glazed of base. Graffitoon underside. kylix F 115 (P 5203). P1.15. Lower wall fragmentof V cent. B.C. Graffitooutside. black-glazed :evio[ cup. V cent. B.C. ]E{iS Eii[i F 126 (P 83). P1.16. Base fragment of blackon glazedbowl (?). Graffito underside. F 116 (P 7254). PI. 15. Fragment from bottom of semi-glazed one-handler (?). Graffito inside, V cent. B.C. OIt ( ) almostcertainly writtenon the wholepot. F 127 (P2841). P1.16. Black-glazed oinochoe V cent. B.C. 'Hyearcv[5pou with ring foot and trefoil mouth. Graffition F 117 (P 8120). P1.16. Part of bottom of redshoulder. Context: ca. 410-390 B.C. (H 12:11). figured skyphos with ring foot. Graffito on Ca. 410-390 B.C. An ( ) Ant{o underside. F Compare 136.
V cent. B.C. ]arrairl
]S

Late V cent. B.C.

rXav ) (

F 128 (P 18952).P1.16. Partof bottomof bowl or cup with ringfoot, glazedblackto red. Graffito (not Perhaps 'EKaTralcr known in Athens); on underside. Context:late 5th-early4th cennon-Atticbecauseof eta followingiota? F 118 (P 10512).P1.16. Fragmentary black-glazed saltcellarwith concave sides and flat bottom. Graffito outsidewall. on V cent. B.C. Tloi]*iKTropos
]Cro

turies B.C. (C 19:9). Late V-early IV cent. B.C.

AEco[

The suggested name is heroic and nonF 129 (L 4134). P1.16. Fragmentary Athenian. black-glazed lamp(= Howland,no. 258,Type24C). Graffito F 119 (P 14938).PI. 16. Base fragmentof blackon side. on glazedkylix. Graffito underside. Late V-early IV cent. B.C. V cent. B.C. AicX ( ) MEIK ) or Mei ( )? (monogram) ( F 120 (P 17139). P1.16. Base of black-glazed Perhaps for a name like Meixiades, etc., B.C.type. Graffito beforethe letterxi was obligatory. stemlesscup of 5th-century on underside. F 130 (P 17059).P1.16. Fragmentfrom shoulder V cent. B.C. Ep ( ) of unglazed amphora. Graffito on outside. Context:5th-4thcenturies Hesperia, F 121 (P 19958).P1.16. Black-glazed B.C. lid of XXV, pyxis no. 103. B.C. type. Graffito on top. Cf. 1956,p. 23, 5th-century no. Sparkes-Talcott, 1307. V-IV cent. B.C. AIoxr[
V cent. B.C. NIKr r( )

Beautifullettersworthyof major epigraphy. Many names beginningin this way are known in 5th-century Athens:Leobotes,Leogoras, B.C. Leon, etc. Leodamas,

F. OWNERS' MARKS

39

F 131 (P 23821).P1.16. Fragmentary black-glazed F 139 (P 24024). P1.17. Base fragmentof blackoinochoe with ring foot and trefoil mouth. type. Graffitoon glazedskyphosof Corinthian underside.Context: first quarter 4th century on Graffiti handle(a) and on wall (b). Context:
SvEav?dit 5i]KalcoS TOU (b) ]?os For the assertion of ownership compare F 140 (P 3721).P1.17. Fragmentary of plastic base Graffito vase with traces of figureattachment. Hesperia, Suppl.VII, p. 31 and also F 132 below. Another black-glazed fragment (Agora on underside. Context: second quarter 4th inv. no. P 26389) from this deposit has part of VI, centuryB.C.(H 7:3). Hesperia, 1937,p. 89, what is probablythe same name: ]ioxo[. fig. 46, f.

ca. 400-390 B.C. (Q 15:2). Ca. 400-390 B.C. (a) 'AvSpaoxodll 8iiKawco

B.C.(G 13:5). First quarterIV cent. B.C.

on rim. flat-topped Graffito top of rim. Context: F 141 (P 12396). P1.17. Small roughly made 400-390 B.C. (Q 15:2). ca. saucerwith thin glaze. Graffitoon floor. ConCa. 400-390 B.C. 4th i]Kla(io'A[vS]pfioo [ei[] text: secondquarter centuryB.C. (G 12:23). Note use of omicronin the adverb,as comEv6opa Second quarterIV cent. B.C. vTOS paredwith omegain F 131. (Partof the lekane were couldnot be foundwhenthe finaldrawings F 142 (P 14636).P1.17. Fragmentary black-glazed to made,so that it was necessary copy the -Katos oinochoe. Graffito on neck. Context: second from the drawingon the cataloguecard; the quarter4th century B.C.(E 2:3). letterswhichwere neverfound are dottedin to Second quarter IV cent. B.C. show the spacingand hence presumedorder.) Fripvos bowl of a F 133 (P 23872).PI. 16. Fragmentary bolsal, glaze F 143 (P 14644). P1.17. One-handled fired red all over. Graffitoon underside.Contype commonin the first half 4th centuryB.C.; cf. D. M. Robinson, Olynthus,V, Mosaics, text: ca. 400-390 B.C.(Q 15:2). Vases and Lamps, Baltimore, 1933, pl. 180, TlT ( ) Ca. 400-390 B.C. Context:second no. 923. Graffitoon underside. of F 134 (P 23874).P1.16. Basefragment unglazed quarter4th century B.C.(E 2:3). pot with ring foot. Graffito on underside. Second quarterIV cent. B.C. XCOTrpaTO Context:ca. 400-390 B.C.(Q 15:2). F 144 (P 14658).P1.17. Base fragmentof blackCa. 400-390 B.C. 2cool[ glazedskyphosof Attictype. Graffitoon underF 135 (P 7977). P1.16. Part of base of blackside. Context:second quarter4th centuryB.C. B.C.type. glazed skyphos of early 4th-century (E 2:3). Graffito on underside. Context: 4th century Second ]6aiou il[pi quarter IV cent. B.C. F 145 (P 11798).PI. 17. Fragmentary black-glazed no. one-handler Sparkes-Talcott, 759). Graf(= F 136 (P 8621). P1.16. Part of base of oinochoe Context:firsthalf4th century fito on underside. like F 127. Graffito on underside. Context: B.C. (BB 17:1).
AEiviaS

F 132 (P 23835). P1. 17. Fragmentary lekane with

Second quarter IV cent. B.C.

]filovoS

B.C.(E 6:3). Early IV cent. B.C.

4th century B.C.(E 6:3). AEsio[ Early IV cent. B.C.

First half IV cent. B.C.

-EvoTO(vTos)

F Compare 127. F 137 (P 23272).P1.16. Part of bottom of blackglazed one-handler(?). Graffitoon underside. B.C. Context:latest5th to 4th centuries
Early IV cent. B.C. Aaca ( )

F 146 (P 18003). P1.17. Base of black-glazed skyphos of a type common in first half 4th V, centuryB.C.;cf. D. M. Robinson,Olynthus, pl. 85. Graffito on underside. Context: first
half 4th century B.C.(C 19:5). 'AXKih First half IV cent. B.C.
rTO

bowl F 147 F 138 (P 27566).P1.16. Base of black-glazed (P 1444). P1.17. Base of black-glazed B.C.type. Graffitoon inof early 4th-century kantharos with rouletting on floor; mid-4th side. Context:late 5th-early4th centuriesB.C. century B.C. type, approximately like Hesperia, (I 16:7). on VI, 1937,pp. 88-89, fig. 46,c. Graffito underside, insidefoot. rlupcov Early IV cent. B.C.
Note angular form of omega. Mid-IV cent. B.C. Tfav6l( )

40

F. OWNERS' MARKS

F 148 (P 1458). P1.17. Handle of black-glazed F 156 (P 20987).P1.18. Small black-glazed bowl. Graffitoinside on floor. Context:thirdquarter oinochoe, triangularin section. Graffitonear 4th century B.C. top, runningdown from above. Context:mid4th century B.C. (H 17:5). Mid-IV cent. B.C. ( 'ApTn ) Third quarter IV cent. B.C. Noy ( )

F149 (P 7502). PI. 17. Base fragmentof blackglazed bowl. Graffito on underside, within
foot. Context: mid-4th century B.C. (C 12:2). Mid-IV cent. B.C. 'Apia-u[

F157 (P 22218). P1.18. Black-glazedpyxis lid with groove around outer part of top and outeredge(= Sparkes-Talcott, 1317). around no. Graffito on top. Context: third quarter 4th
century B.C. Third quarter IV cent. B.C.
'EXwepariSa

F 150 (P 14705).PI. 17. Baseof black-glazed bowl, with stampedpalmetteson floor, of mid-4th centuryB.C. type. Graffitoon underside.Context: 4th century B.C.(F 20:1). Mid-IV cent. B.C. Alovi0aio wcoqpovas

for Note broken(Seedrawing othersymbols.) barred alpha; cf. so-called Darius vase, A. Furtwangler and K. Reichhold, Gr. Vasenmalerei, Miinchen,1909,p. 146. II, F 158 (P 22116). P1.18. Black-glazedstem of aroundstem.Context: multiplekernos.Graffito
to third quarter 4th century B.C. (J 11:1). Cf.

Do the two names perhaps representjoint owners?The first is not attested either as a or masculinenominative femininegenitive.

no. Sparkes-Talcott, 1364.

AvauiTp[6]Ths F 151 (P 19956). P1.17. Foot of black-glazed Third quarter IV cent. B.C. of kantharos mid-4thcenturyB.C. type. Graffito F159 (P 26945). P1.18. Ring foot of blackwithinfoot. on underside, glazed bowl of Hellenistictype. Graffito on underside.Context: third quarter4th century Mid-IV cent. B.C. 'ATpo ) ( B.C. (I15:2). It seemsmore likely that the secondletteris Third quarterIV cent. B.C. 'Apr ( ) an incomplete triangular than eithertau or phi chi. The third letter is smallerand more bluntly incised; perhapsit is an addition by another F 152 (L 535). P1.17. Black-glazedlamp (= hand. Howland,no. 283, Type 25A). Graffition left side of nozzle, unfinishedbecause of lack of F 160 (P 266). PI. 18. Base fragment of blackglazed plate with roulettingand stampedpalspace (a), and on right side, upside down to mettes. Graffito on underside, within foot. Context: mid-4th B.C. 14:2). century (G lamp(b). fourthquarter century (H 6:9). 4th Context: B.C. Mid-IV cent. B.C.

(a) Aipit(Aou)

Note use of omega. F 153 (P22914). P1.17. Black-glazedsaltcellar with incurving rim and small ring foot (= F 161 (P 6889). P1.18. Base fragmentof blackno. glazed plate with roulettingon floor, of late Sparkes-Talcott, 947). Graffito on underB.C. fabric. Graffitoon underside. side. 4th-century Late IV cent. B.C. Mid-IV cent. B.C. KEpa[ 'Apo-r ( ) PI. smallstamped of F 162 (P 15446). 18.Black-glazed F 154 (P 18619).P1.17. Walland basefragment B.C. plate of late 4th-century type. Graffitoon smallblack-glazed pyxis with moldedringfoot. outsideon wall. Context:thirdquarter underside. Graffito A Late IV cent. B.C. Kapa( ) 4th century B.C. (B 18:7). Third quarter IV cent. B.C. Readingvery uncertain;first alpha and rho 8aev EIltU1 i]Kaico[s] in ligature.The two attestedAtheniannames [TroU (Karaichosand Karaios) belong to the 2nd F 155 (P 20283). P1.17. Base fragmentof blackcenturyB.C. More temptingis the 4th-century glazed closed pot. Graffito on underside. B.C. orator Kallimedonwhose nicknamewas Context:third quarter4th centuryB.C. Karabos(Plut.,Dem.,27). 'Ecov ) Third quarter IV cent. B.C. ( F 163 (L 3042).PI. 18. Red-glazed lamp (= Howno. 372, Type 26B). Graffition right side thus is attested. No name beginning land,

(b) AiplXou

Fourth quarterIV cent. B.C.

T]iicoiv[ou

F. OWNERS' MARKS
Context: late 4th centuryB.C.(B 13:8). Hesperia, XXXVIIIT19609n. 390 A LL * *^ T JU-*A A % / ? f Y' Late IV cent. B.C.

41

of body (a), on top of nozzle(b), and on rim(c). (a) Mivcovos

No such nameis known.Perhapsa label for something"rotten"?

F 170 (P7670). P1.18. Bottom of black-glazed skyphos of same type as F 168. Graffito on (b) Mvco(vos) underside. Context:2nd-4thcenturies 13:2). (C (c) M(ivcovos) A IV cent. B.C. 7i:pos kanthaF 164 (P 897).PI. 18. Baseof black-glazed a Probably slave'sname?or a metic's? insidefoot. Context: ros. Graffitoon underside, secondhalf 4th centuryB.C. (F 16:1). F 171 (P9645). P1.18. Shoulderfragmentfrom coarse amphora. Graffito outside. Context: Mkvcov Second half IV cent. B.C. 4th century B.C.and late Roman. Mentioned in Hesperia, III, 1934, p. 317 ]. O H T .[ whichmay be abbreviations IV cent. B.C. whereothergraffiti referto the same ]M of the samenameand perhaps riTTtyE personare cited. Comparealso F 163, whichis is not known, but there seems to Metigenes and contemporary was foundnot far away. be no reasonagainstsuch a compound. F 165 (MC 216). P1. 18. Black-glazedterracotta F 172 (P 17794). P1.18. Rim fragment from and verticallypierced, black-glazedlidded bowl of 4th-centuryB.C. object, beehive-shaped with neck on top and flat bottom. Graffiti fabric.Graffitooutsidejust below flange. aroundbody (a) and on underside Context: (b). NlKta[ IV cent. B.C. 4th to early 3rd centuries B.C. (D-E 8-9:1). F 173 (P 17902).P1.18. Base fragmentof blackSecond half IV cent. B.C. (a) Arlqrlrpias B.C. glazedbowl of 4th-century fabric.Graffito (b) Eurruv[as on underside. morelikelyas a wordthanas a (b) is perhaps K IV cent. B.C. name. TXa( ) F166 (MC224). P1.18. Red-glazed terracotta F 174 (P 20846). P1.19. Base fragmentof blackglazed plate with roulettingon floor, of 4thobject with rounded bottom, concave top, on centralcollar aroundverticalhole. Graffitoon centuryB.C.fabric.Graffito underside. top. Context: 4th to early 3rd centuriesB.C. IV cent. B.C. Xat( ) (D-E 8-9:1). F175 (P 22104). P1.19. Base of black-glazed Second half IV cent. B.C. Kapm( ) B.C. on olpe of 4th-century type. Graffito underNames beginningthus are both late and too side. are: Kamireus foreignto be likely. Possibilities IV cent. B.C. M.( ) But (kilnmaster). (man of Kamiros);kamineus perhapstwo lambdashave run togetherand it F 176 (P 24859). P1.19. Base of black-glazed shouldbe read KaAli(as). bowl. Graffito on underside.Context: 5th4th centuries B.C. F 167 (P 133). P1.18. Base fragment of blackB.C. IV cent. B.C. KaXOKr glazedplate with rouletting,of 4th-century type. Graffitoon underside,within ring foot. The name is borne by various mythical IV cent. B.C. TT]oXu6u(KTou) persons (Pape, s.v.) including the heroine of Stesichoros'poem of that name (from which F 168 (P 199).P1.18. Baseof black-glazed skyphos was derivedthe name of a song, Aristox., Fr. of 4th-century type, as in D. M. Robinson, B.C. Hist., 72); also a memberof Lysistrata'sconOlynthus,V, p. 185. Graffito on underside. in play (Lys., 322). spiracy Aristophanes' lamp(= HowScratcheson the rim suggest an attemptat F 177(L 4212).P1.19.Black-glazed no. 267, Type 25A). Graffition side (a), land, a final sigma. on otherside, upsidedown to lamp (b), and on F 169 (P 6903). P1.18. Rim fragment of semitop of nozzle(c). saucer with plain rim. Graffitooutside glazed (a) AItoKAouV IV-early III cent. B.C. just below rim. Context:5th-4th centuriesB.C. (b) Eili IV cent. B.C. (c) EM Ecarrpa[
IV cent. B.C.
'Hyfictr(oS)

42

F. OWNERS' MARKS
B.C.(Ath., XIII, 567d).

The drawingof a boukranionon this same piece is catalogued below as M 14. On the bottomis an unidentified mark. F 178(L 3653).P1.19.Black-glazed lamp(= Howland, no. 276, Type 25A). Graffition top (a) and on eitherside of nozzle(b,c). (a) Eac( ) IV-earlyIII cent. B.C. (b) Eax( )
(c) CEa( )

of Euboulosin the first half of the 4th century

F 185 (L2019). P1.19. Nozzle of black-glazed lamp(= Howland,no. 315, Type25B). Graffiti on side (a) and top (b). Context:3rd-2ndcenturiesB.C. (D 10:2).
Late IV-early III cent. B.C.

A foreign name? None such is attested, to our knowledge. F 179 (P 580). P1.19. Base of black-glazed bowl with moldedfoot. Graffitoon underside, within foot. Context: late 4th to early 3rd centuries
B.C.

Late IV-early III cent. B.C. Eipi(ou) pp. 330ff.). LateIV-earlyIII cent. B.C. bowl 'Aya0oKvA9[u]s F 187 (P 15397).P1.19. Base of black-glazed of late 4th- or 3rd-century fabric. Graffito B.C. F 180 (P 633). PI. 19. Base of black-glazed bowl with molded foot. Graffito on underside, on underside. Late IV-III cent. B.C. An9lqtXnos within foot. Context: late 4th-early 3rd centuries B.C. (H 16:3, Group B, Hesperia, III, The lettersare crowdedtogethertowardsthe 1934,pp. 330ff.). end, with the sigma writtenover the omicron. aTru ) Late IV-early III cent. B.C. ( F 188 (P 18625).P1.19. Floor fragmentof blackMi6ou glazed plate with stampedpalmettesand rouon Two names, of successiveor joint owners? letting.Graffito underside. of For arrangement letters compareF 91 and IV-III cent. B.C. NIKCO L 12.

(H 16:3, Group B, Hesperia, III, 1934,

(a) O&ov (andligature) (b) 0 See drawingfor ligature.Theta used as an initial on top makes the personalname Theon morelikelythan 6oov. F 186 (P 14960).PI. 19. Base fragmentof blackon Context: glazedbowl (?). Graffito underside. late 4th to 3rdcenturies B.C.

F 181 (P 1493, P 1538). P1.19. Rim fragmentof


hlrk. l.r1a7r
kIntharnc

Or it could be an abbreviation a longer of name.

F 189 (P 136). PI. 19. Base of small glazed bowl of -v__, on type. Graffito upperwall ou.'C"tside *tside. B.C. early 3rd-century type. Graffitoon underLate IV-early III cent. B.C. D]Et8oo-Tp(aTro)side, withinfoot. F 182 (P 7740).P1.19. Base of bl ack-glazedbowl. Early III cent. B.C. Ait6(ou) Context late 4th-early Graffitoon underside. The two ligaturesof delta with a stroke at 3rd centuries B.C.(E 3:1). the side (see drawing) may give a namesuch as Late IV-early III cent. B.C. the above. It is also possiblethat the first two ActlfaS X lettersof a namewerewrittentwice (cf. F 112). (= F 183 (L 2229). P1.19. Unglazedlamplap How(= H land, no. 296, Type 25A'). ( jraffito on top. F 190 (P 119). P1.19. Base of open bowl with B.C. uries (E3:1). Context:late4th-early3rdcenti brownishblack glaze and ring foot, similarto

nf

earlv

ellen1nticr.

Context:to mid-2ndcenturyB.C.(H 6:9). EarlyIII cent. B.C. Mev ) ( (monogram) is an abbreviation the god. for Athenian names beginningthus in the third d F 184 (P 18009).P1.19. Disc base o b of blac B.C. to century rangefrom Menaichmos Menon. 3 underside. bowl or stemless cup. Graffit<on lnackrgazed Context: late 4th-early 3rd centuries B.C. F 191 (P 416). P1.19. Molded ring base from black-glazed cup of early 3rd-centuryB.C. (A 18:6). type. Graffito on underside, within foot. Late IV-early III cent. B.C. I MVTeiK1i HQ E with ift PerhapsMqrTiX)l, a shi of aspirates? EarlyIII cent. B.C. F 192, same type of base, same The only Meticheknownto us is the courtesan Compare foundabout40 metersaway. who gavehernickname (Klepsy< to a comedy dra) inscription,

Late IV-early III cent. B.C.

tmae'Hqa ) C It hardlyseemspossiblethat the second word

F 189. Graffito on underside, within ring foot.

F. OWNERS' MARKS

43

F 192 (P 19170). P1.19. Molded ring base from F 199 (P 5820, P 5925). P1.20. Flat handle from B.C. black-glazed of early 3rd-century type. cup large unglazed amphora or pitcher. Graffito Graffito underside, on on outside,runningfrom bottom up. Context: withinfoot. 3rd century B.C.(E 14:1). HQ E Early III cent. B.C. III cent. B.C. 'Ayt6covosKiMTrr[ov] F 193 (P 7607). P1.19. Base of black-glazed bowl CbvfXCAKC with moldedring foot of early 3rd-century B.C. That is, "(the property)of Agathon,a thief; type. Graffitoon underside.Context: Hellena bargainfor a penny."The writingmay be in istic (C 14:1). two different hands,as if afterAgathonlabeled Early III cent. B.C. nlapE ( ) the jar he himselfwas labeleda thief and reThe firsttwo lettersform a ligature. spondedwith an assertionof the pot's worthlessness. F 194 (P 20216).P1.19. Fragmentary black-glazed plate with linked palmettesand roulettingon F 200 (P 5838). P1.20. Fragmentary black-glazed B.C. floor, of early 3rd-century shape. Graffito fish-plate. Graffito on underside. Context: on underside. 3rd century B.C. (E 14:1). III cent. B.C. 'Apo( ) Early NIKI ) (retrograde) III cent. B.C. (

]. N

F 195 (P 20848).P1.19. Base of black-glazed bowl with stampedlinked palmettesand rouletting on floor. Graffitoon underside. Context:early
3rd century B.C.(D 17:3).

MIKa ) ( EarlyIII cent. B.C. F 202 (P 8037). PI.20. Fragmentof base of unAn abbreviation some namelike Mikalion of glazed pot. Graffito on underside. Context: or Mikalos has been assumed, but the four 3rd century B.C. (B 13:1). lettersmay be the completenominativeof the III cent. B.C. r-roS MevJ femininename Mika; six women of this name wereburiedin Athensbetweenthe late 5th and F 203 (P 11202).P1.20. Fragmentary West Slope kantharosof 3rd-century type. Graffitoon B.C. early 3rd centuries B.C. (I.G., IF2,12126-12131). lower body, runningdownward.Context: 3rd F 196 (P 16295).P1.19. Shoulderfragmentfrom century B.C. (B 13:1). unglazedpitcher.Graffitoon outside. Context: III cent. B.C. XOpou 3rd century B.C. (N 21:4). The name appearsin Athenianrecords(e.g., Secondquarter cent. B.C. III Nrc ( ) I.G., II, Add. 834b, c; 959c 16; II, Suppl. The abbreviated name is framed by a car4114b) but may well be a slave's name. Comtouche; see drawing.Nesiotes or Nesokles are pareF 170. possiblenames;no exampleof eitheris known to us from this generaltime, with the possible F 204 (P 20191). P1.20. Rim fragment from Megarianbowl. Graffitoon outside,just under exception of a restored Nesiotes in S.E.G., B.C. lip. Context:late 4th-3rdcenturies XXI, 330.5 (307/6 B.C.). III cent. B.C. Mus F 197 (L 3293). P1.19. Black-glazedlamp base The name may be complete, or it may be (= Howland,no. 553, Type 43C). Graffitoon underside. Context: second half 3rd century abbreviatedfrom Mustion, Mustichides,etc. B.C. (N 20:7). F 205 (P 20329). P1.20. Rim and wall fragment Late III cent. B.C. of black-glazed Kpi( ) bowl. Graffitoon outsidejust abovebase. Context:3rdcenturyB.C. F 198 (P 24935).P1.20. Unglazedtall-necked jug. III cent. B.C. Dipinto in black on shoulder.Context:second 'A]pXiTrrTo[u half 3rd century B.C. (O 16:3). F 206 (P 25998). P1.20. Black-glazed bowl with Second half III cent. B.C. stamped palmettes and rouletting on floor. ia' 'Epil'Irou X(6S) j3'K(o6'rXat) Graffiti underside and on outsidewall(b). on (a) Context: 3rd century B.C. (F 17:3). The capacityis 10.200liters to the lip. Two choes and elevenkotyles(35 kotyles),basedon III cent. B.C. (a) Amyv ) ( a kotyleof 0.273 1., wouldbe 9.555 1. (b) N

F 201 (P 5918). PI.20. Rim fragmentof a West Slope kantharoswith offset lip; 3rd-century B.C.fabric.Graffitoon outsideof lip. Context: Hellenistic. III cent. B.C. Xpyvr[[]Tnrov

44

F. OWNERS' MARKS

If this is a name, Dimnos is a possibility F 215 (P 1881). P1.20. Fragmentfrom base of not knownin Athens,but a friendof Alexander deep black-glazed bowl of 3rd-to 2nd-centuries the Great(Diod. Sic., XVII, 79). B.C. fabric. Graffito on underside. Context: Hellenistic filling of the MiddleStoa, so probF 207 (P 26004). P1.20. West Slope kantharos. ablynot laterthanmid-2nd B.C. century Graffito outside on wall below lip. Context: III-II cent. B.C. 'Ovrloi[[ou
3rd century B.C. (F 17:3). III cent. B.C. Aac ( )

podias (5th century B.C., Prosop. Att., nos.

PossibleAtheniannames include Laios (4th century B.C., Prosop. Att., no. 8961) and Lais8962,8963).

F 216 (P 3163).PI.20. Fragment coarsepot lid. of Lettersincisedin soft clay. Context:Hellenistic.


III-II cent. B.C.
]ioTri6ou

F 208 (P 26262).P1.20. Fragmentary black-glazed fish-plate.Graffitoon underside.Context: ca.


200 B.C.(M 18:10). 'AoK( ) Ca. 200 B.C.

F 217 (P 3285). P1.20. Shoulder fragment of large coarse amphora.Dipinto in black. Context: Hellenistic.
III-II cent. B.C.
'lTrra ( )

F 209 (P 6128). P1.20. Fragment from rim of handle Megarianbowl of 3rd-to early 2nd-centuries F 219 (P 3788). P1.20. Small black-glazed from cup. Graffitoon outside, runningdown B.C. type. Graffito outside.Context:Hellenistic. fromabove. Context:Hellenistic.
III-early II cent. B.C. ]s Alowviou .[ III-II cent. B.C. 'Apt( )

F 218 (P 3446). P1.20. Neck fragmentof coarse amphora.Dipinto in red. Context:Hellenistic. III-II cent. B.C. 'IpoK[

Not certainly an owner's name. Perhaps F 220 (P 12200). P1.20. Base fragmentof small genitiveis father'sname. fabric.Graffito floor. on bowl of Hellenistic F 210 (P 10729).P1.20. Fragmentary black-glazed III-II cent. B.C. OeoyeT-co[v bowl. Graffitoon underside.Context:3rd-2nd F 221 (P 14566). P1.20. Base fragmentof large centuries B.C. (F 5:1). fabric.Graffito plate of Hellenistic black-glazed Late III-early II cent. B.C. rEv( ) on underside. F 211 (L 2122). P1.20. Unglazedlamp (= HowIII-II cent. B.C. ipe ( ) (monogram) land, no. 464, Type 34 Var.). Dipinto in black F 222 (P 17425).P1.20. Base of largeblack-glazed on side. bowl or plate of Hellenistic fabric.Graffitoon Late III-early II cent. B.C. O?ix ( ) underside.
III-II cent. B.C. Trpa( ) F 212 (L 4194).P1.20. Black-glazed lamp(= Howland, no. 430, Type 32). Graffito on rim. F 223 (P 18264).PI.20. Rim fragmentof bowl of Context: late 3rd-early 2nd centuries B.C. 3rd-to 2nd-century type, with West Slope B.C. (M21:1). decorationinside; for the shape, cf. Hesperia, III, 1934, pp. 348ff., C7, D 14, D 15, D28. Late III-early II cent. B.C. Kcblov outsidejust belowlip. Graffito F Compare 213 from samecistern. III-II cent. B.C.

F 213 (P 18756). P1.20. Base of black-glazed F 224 (P 22836). PI.20. Shoulderfragmentfrom mug or bowl of Hellenisticfabric.Graffitoon underside. Context:late 3rd-early2nd centuries coarse amphora.Graffitoon outside. Context: Hellenistic. B.C. The next to last lettermay be eithera ligature of iota-omicronor eta. If this is a name it is not attested,but Planetiades existsas an epithet F 214 (L 3077).P1.20. Black-glazed lamp(= Howon no. 445, Type34A). Graffito underside. of the CynicDidymos(Plut.,def. or., 7). land, F 225 (P 23523). PI.20. Wall fragmentof West Late III-II cent. B.C. on Slopeware.Graffito outside. See drawingfor monogram,probablyto be SeeF 212 for the restored name.
resolved thus: Kafcasr III-II cent. B.C.
OXtinrroSH[

'ETrmyvous

(M 21:l). Late III-early II cent. B.C.

Kcb(uou)

III-II cent. B.C.

]v rlhav'r!Tio

F. OWNERS' MARKS

45

on shoulder. Context: late 2nd to early 1st F 226 (P 5828). P1.20. Base fragmentof blackcenturies B.C.(B 11:1). on underside. glazedplateor bowl. Graffito Late II-earlyI cent. B.C. Alovuriov B Hellenistic 'Epupo[ about preserving of F 227 (P 17043).P1.20. Basefragment lekaneof F 234 (P 6864).P1.21. Fragment a quarter of a very large gray-wareplate. Hellenisticfabric. Graffitoon underside.ConContext:mixedHellenisGraffitoon underside. text: first half of 2nd century B.C. (B20:2). tic to earlyRoman(D 12:2). First half II cent B.C.
II-early of This may be not an abbreviation a longer namebut a completefemininename: F 235 (P 6717). P1.21. Neck and shoulderfragmasculine ment of unglazed amphora. Dipinto in red. 'Appcb. Context:Hellenistic. F 228 (P 6867). P1.21. Neck fragment of large similar Robinson,Chronol- II-I cent. B.C. Niy ( ) to Romanamphora, All names beginningwith these letters seem M 14. Dipinto in red. Context:late 2nd ogy, to be Latinin originand belongto the Roman B.C. (C 9:7). century periodin Athens. CO ( ) Late II cent. B.C. SE( ) F 236 (P 23163). P1.21. Base fragmentof blackand palmettes rouletSincethis abbreviation standfor co(hors) glazedbowl with stamped may B.C. of 2nd- to lst-centuries type. Graffito ting, we se(cundus), may wonder if this is a Latin on underside. owner's mark. Eiurlp(pov) F 229 (P 526). P1.21. Base of black-glazed plate F 237 (23227). P1.21. Base fragment of blackwith stampedpalmettesand rouletting. Graffito on underside, withinfoot. Context:4th to 2nd glazed bowl with roulettingon floor; 2nd- to on B.C. Ist-centuries type. Graffito underside. century B.C. (G 14:2). II cent. B.C. Euvo( ) II-I cent. B.C. 'AvSpi( ) II-I cent. B.C. 'Appco( ) Late I cent. B.C. ]1iv&8o

F 238 (P 6873).P1.21. Handleof coarseamphora. ProbablyEunomos. Graffitoon outside,runningdown from above. F 230 (P 5738). P1.21. Base of large black-glazed Late Hellenistic 'Apicrrcov plate of 2nd-centuryB.C. fabric. Graffiti on underside(a) and on floor (b). Context: 2nd- F239 (P 20361). P1.21. Neck fragment from early 1st centuries B.C. (E 15:3). coarseamphora.Graffitoon outside,in shieldshapedframe. II cent. B.C. (a) FaXfis X Late Hellenistic Fov( ) (b) The name Goneus is reportedfrom Samos Gales is not knownas a name. Couldit be a nickname-"female skunk"-in the genitive in the 3rd century B.C.(Bechtel). case? F240 (P 25816). P1.21. Small terracotta base. Graffito on side opposite notch for support F 231 (P 6034). P1.21. Fragmentof small blackB.C. bowl of 2nd-century fabric.Graffiti tenon. glazed outside(a) and inside(b). Late Hellenistic Xail ( ) II cent. B.C. (a) Opaoivcov The second and fourth letters are uncertain OEoEvov(s) In and might be lambda and nu respectively. (b) eoo<E)> any case no Atheniannameis known. writtenon the sherd;if so, a tag. For F 241 Perhaps (P 13386).P1.21. Shoulderfragmentfrom the name Thrasunon see S.E.G., XII, 123, 47 amphora. Dipinto in black. Context: second
(2nd century B.C.).

F 232 (P 23045). PI. 21. Rim fragmentof blackglazed plate of Hellenistic type. Graffito on F 242 (P 12100).P1.21. Base of red-glazedplate outside. withflaring, on moldedfoot. Graffito underside. II cent. B.C. AioyE[ Context:secondquarter1st centuryB.C.(N 20: F 233 (P 7082). P1.21. Part of neck and shoulder 4). of large unglazedamphora.Dipinto in black Second quarterI cent. B.C. Ku( )

quarter 1st century B.C.(T 27:1). EarlyI cent. B.C. W"Apaa(Tro) (monogram)

46

F. OWNERS' MARKS

F 243 (P 5726). PI.21. Small, partly glazed jug F 252 (P 20719). P1.22. Upper part of amphora. with angular shoulder. Graffito on top of Dipinto in black on shoulder and graffito shoulder. Context: B.C. above. Context:early 1st century(R 10:1). mid-istcentury (E 14:3). Mid-I cent. B.C. EarlyI cent. (dipinto) NEiKCov Xprlovo (graffito) Fr N F244 (P4723). P1.21. One-handled similar jar The spellingof this very commonnamewith to Robinson, Chronology, 65. Graffito on F the diphthong insteadof simpleiota is frequent shoulder belowhandle. from the 1st centuryB.C. on. Since both signs in the graffitostand for 50, this seemsto be a I cent. B.C. Xprlcr ) ( "bilingual",but it is uncertainwhether the F 245 (P 4915). P1.21. Base of small Pergamene number refers to price, capacity, or the fact bowl. Graffiti underside and on floor (b). on that the jar is fiftiethin some series. (a) I cent. B.C. NKoXaouv (a) F 253 (P 21777).PI.22. Ovoid amphorawith tall (b) N neck, offset shoulderand pointed toe. Graffito on shoulder. Context: At least two men of this name are known early1stcentury 10:1). (R from Athensin this century(Prosop.Att., nos. I cent. Early 'Epp[ 10925,10927). F254 (P 7957). P1.22. Shallow bowl with wide F 246 (P 10634).P1.21. Base fragmentof glazed ring foot. Graffito on underside. Context: on plate, of Hellenistic type. Graffito underside. firsthalf 1st century(R 13:1). 'AKv( ) Firsthalf I cent. I cent. B.C. OtIi9u F Compare 320. Akindunosoccursin Roman F 247 (P 13307).P1.21. Fragmentary black-glazed Athens. plate. Graffito on underside. Context: 1st century B.C. Hesperia,Suppl. IV, p. 121, fig. F 255 (P 11249). P1.22. Small Samian A bowl with illegible stamp. Graffito on underside. 90, a. Context:secondhalf 1st century(B 14:3). I cent. B.C. 'Epco ) ( Secondhalf I cent. ( TTpoo ) F 248 (P 16594).P1.21. Base fragmentof black- F 256 of P1. (P 11256). 22. Fragment shallowbowl. glazed plate. Graffitoon underside.Context: Graffito on underside.Context: second half late Hellenistic. 1st century(B 14:3). I cent. B.C. ( Tpco ) Secondhalf I cent. FpaqmKoi F 249 (P 2272).P1.21. Fragment smallArretine F 257 (P 18435).PI.22. Upper part of amphora of bowl with stamp on floor (L. Titius). Graffito with tall neck, sloping shoulder and vertical on underside. Context: handles.Dipintoin blackon shoulder. secondhalf 1st century(C 18:2). I cent. B.C. 'ETrrtTE Secondhalf I cent. "EqEa F 250 (P 18284).P1.21. Fragmentfrom neck of Masculine Ephesiosexistsin RomanAthens. amphora.Dipinto in red. Context: 1st century B.C. to 1st century (B 19:9). F 258 (P 10712). P1.22. Amphora with body to tapering flatbase.Dipintoin redon shoulder. KOT I cent. B.C.-I cent. Context:late 1st century(E 14:2). A]Ir'Orros The numbermight be a date on the Seleucid LateI cent. Mrapia era (from 312/1 B.C.): 329 Secleucid = A.D. 17. Comparethe Christianuse of this name in F 322. F 251 (P 3143). PI.21. Shoulder fragment of amphora. Graffito on outside. Context: 1st F 259 (P 7994). P1.22. Flat base of coarse pot. Incised on undersidein soft clay. Context: century B.C.-lst century (E 15:1). 1stcentury(E 11:2). Marini I cent. B.C.-I cent. I cent. OEtoScop86ou In the same channelwas the upperpart of a with the sameinscription (Agora F 260 (P9878). P1.22. Narrow-mouthedhighlargeamphora on inv. no. P 3144).The name appearsas Mapelvos necked withovoidbody.Graffito shouldr. jug Context:1st century(K 18:1). in Greek.

F. OWNERS' MARKS I cent.

47

F269 (P 11142). P1.23. High-neckedjug with 'AKU() globularbody and twistedhandle. Graffitoon PerhapsAquila; in Roman Athens various shoulder.Context:late 1st to late 2nd centuries relatednamesexist: Akulanos,Akulas,etc. (B 14:2). F261 (P 10032). P1.22. Small amphora with LateI-mid-IIcent. 'OvrltpOpoU body taperingto small flat base. Incised on shoulder in soft clay. Context: 1st century F 270 (P 15296).PI.23. Unglazedjug with round (K 18:1). mouth, profiledlip, cylindrical neck, somewhat like Robinson, Chronology,M 43, but with I cent. Aqro( ) twisted handle, round body and ring foot. F 262 (P 10035).P1.22. Shoulderfragmentfrom Graffito on shoulder. Context: mid-Ist to closed pot. Incised on outside. Context: 1st mid-2ndcenturies 17:2). (N century(K 18:1). Late I-mid-II cent. 'EpPaiou I cent. KiKKou iEpfios F 271 (P 15302). P1.23. Jug similar to F 270. Note archaizingIonic genitive. The name Graffitoon shoulder.Context:mid-ist to midmay be an epithet, since the word kikkos is 2nd centuries 17:2). (N variouslydefinedby Hesychios(LSJ, s.v.). But Late I-mid-IIcent. M&ita(0os) related names do exist in an earlier period: Kikos (I.G., XII 9, 222, 1-3rd century B.C.); The name is incised over an earliergraffito: Kikon (I.G., II2, 1953, 9-4th century B.C.); For 'AyaOeas. the name cf. FI274,F 278. We Kikkon (I.G., IV, 926, 45-4th century B.C.). havefound no evidencefor this name. F 263 (P 14623). PI.22. Fragmentfrom neck of F272 (P 15303). P1.23. Jug similar to F 270. Graffito on shoulder. Context: mid-lst to plain amphora. Dipinto in black. Context: 1st century. mid-2ndcenturies 17:2). (N I cent. Late I-mid-IIcent. Evy( ) 'PoOPou F F 264 (P 17005).PI.22. Fragmentfrom floor of Compare 275. Graffitoon underside,within F 273 gray-ware plate. (P 15304). P1.23. Jug similar to F 270. ringfoot. Graffitoon lower part of body. Context:midI cent. ]Acoviou 1st to mid-2ndcenturies 17:2). (N Late I-mid-II cent. F265 (P 19007). P1.22. Base of Samian bowl TTaciTnlKou with foot stampon floor. Graffito underside. on Thereis no evidence this as eithernameor for word. I cent. 'EKX ) ( F 274 (P 15305). P1.23. Jug similar to F 270, PerhapsEklektos. exceptthat handleis ridgedratherthan twisted. F 266 (P 25245).P1.22. Amphora with ovoid body and flat bottom similarto Robinson,Chronol- Graffitoaround shoulder.Context:mid-lst to mid-2ndcenturies 17:2). (N ogy, M 50. Dipinto in black on shoulder. Context:1st century(Q 17:4). Late I-mid-IIcent. MalaOos I cent. Eurro[ F 275 (P 15307). P1.23. Jug similar to F 270. Graffitoon shoulder.Context:mid-lst to midF 267 (P 17144).P1.22. Amphorawith tall cylin2nd centuries 17:2). (N drical neck, verticalhandlesand body tapering to small concave base. Dipinto in black on Late I-mid-IIcent. Ei'v6oou shoulder.Context: 1st century(B 20:1). F276 (P 10447). P1.23. Upper part of ovoid I cent. Auoviov amphora with narrow neck and flaring rim. Dipinto in black on shoulder. Context: late F268 (P 4498). P1.23. Narrow-mouthedhigh1st to 2nd centuries 14:2). (B necked jug like Robinson, Chronology, 43, M but with narrowerneck and twisted handle. Late I-II cent. EiXEifo Graffitocarefullyincised on shoulderopposite PerhapsIlios, whichis not, however,attested handle.Context:1stand 2nd centuries 11:1). (F as a personalname. I cent. 'Ovrola9popo F 277 (P 9513). P1.24. Upper half of large amFor the namecompare 269 andF 279. F phora with wide neck and vertical handles.

48

F. OWNERS' MARKS

Dipinto in red in large letters on shoulder. F286 (P964). P1.24. Small wheel-ridgedamContext: lst-2nd centuries(M 18:1). phora with ring foot. Dipinto in red on neck. Context:late 2nd-early 3rd centuries 16:1). (I I-II cent. FEL( ) 1[TlA ) ( Late II cent. KapTrou for Bilingual, perhaps Felix? But compareHe 17 wherethis wordrefersto F 278 (P 13602).P1.24. Shoulder round-bodied contents.The nameis veryfrequent this time. of at pot. Graffito on outside. Context: latter 1st F287 (P 16704). P1.24. Amphora like F267. and earlier2nd centuries(N 19:2). Dipinto in red on shoulder. Context: 2nd I-II cent. Mala(eos) century(N 21:1). Cf. F 271,F 274. II cent. 'Eriyovos F 288 (P 770). P1.25. Shoulderfragmentof large F279 (P 22234). P1.24. Shoulder fragment of amphora.Lettersincisedin soft clay. Context: round-bodied withnarrowneck.Graffitoon jug 2nd centuryB.C.with later intrusions(I16:5). shoulder. II-III cent. CN ( ) I-II cent. 'Ov]ril9copov TITIO[ F280 (P9835). P1.24. Neck of large amphora F 289 P1.25. Small wall fragmentof (P7063). with evertedrim and verticalhandles.Dipinto small coarsepot with thin black wash outside. in red. Context:firsthalf 2nd century(M 19:1). Graffito outside. on II cent. 'Aao( ) Early II-III cent. ].<pcovo[s Asmenos. Perhaps F 290 (P 25224).P1.25. Amphorawith elongated ovoid body and horned handles. Dipinto in F 281 (P 9925). P1.24. Neck of amphorasimilar black on neck. Context: late 2nd-early 3rd to F280. Dipinto in red. Context: first half centuries 17:4). (Q 2nd century(M 19:1). Late II-early III cent. 'AvrTia.cXos 'Apr ( ) EarlyII cent. F291 (P 10778). P1.25. Two non-joiningfragF 282 (P 12459).PI.24. Ovoid amphorawith flat ments of neck and shoulder of plain jug. bottom. Dipinto in black on upperwall. Conon Graffito shoulder. Context:early3rdcentury text: early2nd century(N 20:5). (G 11:2). 'E-r]fyovos 8' EarlyII cent. EarlyIII cent. Etlr[6]copos neck F 292 (P 12352).P1.25. Tall narrow-bodied F 283 (P 17133).P1.24. Jug with cylindrical amand pear-shaped body on ring foot. Graffition with wide mouth and vertical handles, phora shoulder(a) and neck (b). Context: first half M similar to Robinson, Chronology, 177. Di2nd century(B 20:1). in red on shoulder.Context: early 3rd pinto Firsthalf II cent. century(N 20:5). (a) DOM( ) (b) (illegible) 'E-rryacio0 EarlyIII cent. F284 (P 21393). P1.24. Shoulder fragment of F 293 (P 12354).P1.25. Amphorasimilarto F 292. large plain amphora(=Robinson, Chronology, Dipinto in red on shoulder. Context: early 3rdcentury(N 20:5). H33). Dipinto in black. Context: first half 2nd century(P 8:1). 'AXE( ) EarlyIII cent. Firsthalf II cent. nTpi(pcp F294 (P 12357). P1.25. Amphora similar to EOpupl[ F 292. Dipinto in black on shoulder.Context: Bechtelnotes a Periphosfrom Naxos under early3rdcentury(N 20:5). Periphanes. ( 'HpK ) Early III cent. F 285 (P 10040).PI.24. Amphora(= Robinson, Perhaps Fl. Herklanos (ephebe in I.G., II2, M Chronology, 94). Dipintoin red on shoulder. 2239,241 of A.D.238/9-243/4), sincethis is the thus. Context:secondhalf 2nd century 17:1). (M only namewe findbeginning Secondhalf II cent. F 295 (P 13615). P1.25. Amphora with slender Ka[ rnoiSe ovoid body on base ring. Dipinto in black on first shoulder. Context: half3rdcentury 19:1). (P is PerhapsPudens?Outside Athens TToOSiri Firsthalf III cent. attested(S.E.G.,XV, 214). EuTtrXIavoO

F. OWNERS' MARKS

49

F 296 (P 19203). P1.25. Neck and shoulder of F 306 (P 25475). P1.26. Shoulder fragment of incisedbeforefiring. Letters largeamphora. amphorawith flaringrim. Dipinto in black on shoulder.Context:mid-3rdcentury(B 17:1). [ Kapyivfas EarlyRoman Av ( ) Mid-IIIcent. Comparea Roman lady in Spain (C.I.G., III, 6644); also Karphinas(Prosop.Att., no. F 297 (P 26410). P1.25. Amphoraneck and part 8261-4th century B.C.). of shoulder.Dipinto in red on neck. Context: potteryof mid-3rdcentury. F 307 (P 10613).P1.26. Flat-bottomed similar jug L46. Graffito on KA to Robinson, Chronology, Mid-IIIcent. EivrvXiov shoulder. Context: third quarter 3rd century The name is not attestedin Athens. Kappa(G 11:2). alphamay be a number:21. III Thirdquarter cent. Zcooitou F 298 (P 8040). P1.25. Shoulder fragment of Note branchfollowingname. amphora.Dipinto in black runningdown wall. Context:thirdquarter3rdcentury(C 14:2). F 308 (P 12257). P1.26. Shoulder fragment of Mid-IIIcent. ] GEMMIANO smallamphora. Dipintoin black. LateIII cent. 'louvio ( ) F 299 (P 26127). P1.25. Small jug with narrow neck and ovoid body. Graffito on shoulder. only the upsilon of the genitive Presumably Context:mid-3rdcentury(Q 19:1). is omitted. 'AKe( ) Mid-IIIcent. F 309 (P 14024).P1.26. Smallamphorasimilarto Alketes. on L Perhaps Robinson,Chronology, 3. Graffito shoulder. Context:3rdcentury(M 18:4). F300 (P2228). P1.25. Wall fragment of small III cent. Z[bcr[]os l jug. Graffitoon outside. OIArnT[ EarlyRoman F 310 (P 11196). P1.26. Neck and shoulder fragmentof small amphora.Dipinto in black F301 (P 3549). P1.25. Base of small bowl of at base of neck. Context: late 3rd-early 4th yellow clay once glazed red (Pergamene?). centuries (C 14:4). withinringfoot. Graffitoon underside, 'AAXicov LateIII-earlyIV cent. EarlyRoman ExKOv The name is known (Pape, s.v.) but not in Sakos is not attested;perhapsforeign.Or a Athens. from the commonnoun? nickname only F 302 (P 3671). P1.25. Base fragment of red- F 311 (P 16360).P1.26. Amphorapreserved up to shoulder (=Robinson, Chronology, bowl. Graffitoon underside. glazed L 32). Dipinto in black on shoulder.Context: EarlyRoman 'AyEp[ early4th century(F 19:1). Agerros. Perhaps EarlyIV cent. ]aaoli. .a F 303 (P 6992). P1.26. Shoulderfragmentfrom F312 (P9794). P1.26. One-handledjar (= large amphora.Graffitoon outside. Context: Robinson, Chronology,M279). Dipinto in mixed Hellenistic to early Roman (D 11:4). black underhandle. Context:late 4th century Roman (M 17:1). ( Early Ei9p )
ZCOTIKOi Late IV cent. F304 (P 15719). P1.26. Shoulder fragment of small coarseamphora.Dipinto in black. F 313 (P 13130).P1.26. Shoulderfragmentfrom TOU iepoerTou Atoykv9[u]s Early Roman large plain pot. Graffito on outside. Found coins. with late 4th-century ODXpoKcpa[o]vs 'Ep.oScbpou PASINI Some letters were no longer visible when Late IV cent. finaldrawing made. was F 314 (P 2281). P1.26. Rim fragmentfrom small F 305 (P 18255). P1.26. Shoulder fragment of jug. Graffitoon outside. Found with 4th-centurylamps. wheel-ridged Dipintoin red. amphora. IV cent. E*p ) (ligature) EarlyRoman ( 'HpaoKe7l[

50

F. OWNERS' MARKS LateV-VI cent. (Cross) EOKapTos (Cross) En ( ) IE Theiota-epsilon beeitheranabbreviation, may for perhaps lepe5s,or a number:15.

F 315 (P 12306). 26. Wallfragment amphora. P1. of Graffito on outside. Context: 4th century
(N 20:3).

IV cent.

EIP SeeM 20 for picture.Thelettersin the second F 324 (P 25940).P1.28. Neck of amphorasimilar line could be a number:115. M to Robinson, Chronology, 333. Dipinto in red on side of neck. F 316 (P 15576).P1.27. Shoulderfragmentfrom V-VI cent. (Cross) amphora. Dipinto in black. Context: 4th 'Av-nr[ century(U 22:1). F 325 (P 26090). P1.28. Shoulder fragment of IV cent. AiArav6o one-handled similarto Robinson, Chronojar ApOiou TroaXatIos logy, M 315. Graffito on outside. Context: 5th-6thcenturies 19:1). (Q F 317 (P 12836).P1.27. Amphorawith elongated McAihKov V-VI cent. ovoid body and low ring foot, similarto RobThe name M&?AiKos is knownin 5th-and4thM inson, Chronology, 302. Dipinto in black on B.C. centuries Athens(S.E.G.,X, 424, I; Prosop. shoulder.Context:4th century(O 19:1). Att., no. 9661). IV cent. Eprl( ) r F326 (P 13365). P1.27. Wheel-ridged jug with flat bottom and trefoil mouth. Graffito on Severus? Gammamay be number:3. shoulder. Context: second half 6th century F 318 (P 12842). P1.27. Bell-mouthedjug with (S 19:6). twisted handle and pear-shaped body on high Secondhalf VI cent. Ttypt( ) foot. Graffito on shoulder in soft clay. ring Neither Tigris nor Tigrios is attested in Context:4th century(O 19:1). Athens. IV cent. 'Erriyovos F327 (P26595). P1.27. Amphora with ovoid F319 (P 27211). PI.27. Upper part of Roman body and rounded bottom. Graffito below jug. Graffitoon shoulder.Context:4th century handle.Context:6th century(Q 17:7). (E 29:5). VI cent. 'Hla ( ) IV cent. STpaTco[ In this period the biblical Elias may be F 320 (P 11569). P1.27. Small cylindrical ammost likely, although Elianax (Prosop. Att., M Robinson,Chronology, 307).Grafno. 6403) and Eliades (I.G., II, 1986) are phora(= fito on neck.Context: knownearlier. (M early5thcentury 17:1). 'AKIV. ) ( EarlyV cent. F 328 (P 22162). PI.28. Neck fragment of amF 254. phora.Dipintoin red. Compare Q( ) L( ) FUND[ F 321 (P 12351).P1.27. Upper part of amphora Late Roman PAT[ with short neck and sloping handles. Graffito (traces) on shoulder. Line 2: patronus? Line 3: tracesmay be part V-VI cent. 'AvBPEa of a Romannumeral,since thereis one X and F 322 (P 13149). P1.27. Wheel-ridgedamphora perhaps another. with ovoid body on ring foot. Dipinti on F329 (P 12158). P1.28. Rim fragmentof large shoulders,red on one side (a), black on the just other (b). Context: late 5th-6th centuries pot. Graffito belowrim. Late Roman (0 18:1). 'Eprrivea LateV-VI cent. Only Herpinikosis attestedin Athens (I.G., (a) chi-rho Mapfa III, 1202,3526). (b) chi-rho Mapfa F323 (P 13466). P1.27. Amphora similar to F 330 (P 10181).PI.28. Fragmentof small bowl with flat bottom and keeld rim. Graffitoon on M Robinson,Chronology, 328. Graffiti upper outside. wall. Context:late 5th-6th centuries(P 19:1).

'IEpcov[

F. OWNERS' MARKS Late Roman Mayfpou X[ The name is not known to us, but the common noun may well have been used as a proper or name,nickname title. Late Roman
Ei.orat{ou

51

M 'HpaK7ias Joint ownership? producer city? or and F333 (P1992). P1.28. Shoulder fragment of F331 (P5028). P1.28. Shoulderfragmentfrom at largejar. Graffito base of neck. largeamphora.Dipintoin red. Late Roman 'Epriq[ Late Roman EuKap ) ( F334 (P2095). P1.28. Shallow bowl with flat bottom.Graffito underside. on F 332 (P 1850). P1.28. Neck fragment of large Late Roman coarseamphora. ( Dipintoin red. EOxa ) INTRODUCTIONTO PUBLIC OWNERSHIP (Fa, Fb)
Except for the two pieces (Fa 25, Fa 26) which were found in late Roman fill, the finding places of the delta-epsilon pots may be considered significant. Fifteen (Fa 2-15, Fa 24) came from under the Stoa of

Zeus; sevenothers(Fa 16-21, Fa 23) camefrom the Tholos area;the othertwo camefrom wells about of 40 meters(Fa 22) and about70 meters(Fa 1) southwest the Tholos.
Since both the Tholos and the Stoa Basileios (which presumablyused the well under the Stoa of Zeus

beforethat stoa was built)were seats of governmental that activity,it is not surprising vesselsmarked
as public property should be practically limited to their neighborhood. (There are also about a dozen vessels of the 5th or 4th century B. c. which are marked with the two letters delta-epsilon not in ligature.

These come from variousplaces in the Agora and are thereforemore probablyto be interpreted as of abbreviations personalnamesbeginning thus.) Threelater pieces with the ligaturedelta-etashouldbe listed, since de(mosion) would be so written
after the introduction of the Ionic alphabet. All three come from the neighborhood of the Hephaisteion. (Four pieces inscribed with delta-eta, not in ligature, come from this neighborhood or the Tholos area, but may again be abbreviations of personal names.)

Fa 1 (P 6139). P1.29. Base fragmentfrom large Fa 5 (P 5121).Graffito floor: on open bowl with thin blackglazeinside.Graffito 6(5Gitoiov) on underside,within ring foot. Context:early Fa 6 (P 5123). Graffito on floor: 5th century B.C.(E 15:6). Fa 7 (P 5125).Graffito floor: on Elevenblack-glazed kylikes or fragments(PI.29), 6E(Oi6cov) all inscribedwith the delta-epsilon ligature,were on in the wellunderthe Stoa of Zeus (H6:5), Fa 8 (P 7575).Graffito floor: found 6E(g6C1ov) which producedmany other inscribedpots (see List of Deposits).The date of bothpots and con- Fa 9 (P 5116).Graffito underfoot: text is 470-460 B.c. Hesperia,V, 1936,pp. 333ff. 6E(i.6o'ov) Fa 2=Sparkes-Talcott,no. 436; mentionedthere underfoot: also are Fa 3-7, Fa 12, Fa 16-19; Fa 11 is referred Fa 10 (P 5119).Graffito 6E(i6o'ov) no. to under 413. underfoot: Fa 2 (P 5117). Graffition floor and undersideof Fa 11 (P 5122).Graffito E(P.o6alov) foot: 6E(0C16oov) (ligature) 6E(Vi6aiov) (ligature) Fa 12 (P 5124). Graffito under foot: on Fa 3 (P 5118).Graffito floor:
8E(P6C7Iov) SE(6oalov)
Early V cent. B.C.

(ligature) (ligature) (ligature) (ligature) (ligature) (ligature) (ligature)

s8E(6'cov)

E(pO6cnov)

(ligature)

on Fa 4 (P 5120).Graffito floor:
68E(I6cov)

(ligature) morethan half (ligature) As will be seenfrom the drawings, of the examplesuse the continuedleft stroke of the delta as the top stroke of the epsilon (Fa 2, Fa 4, Fa 7-9, Fa 11, Fa 12). (ligature)

52

G. DEDICATIONS AND CONVIVIAL INSCRIPTIONS side. Context:second quarter5th centuryB.C. (nearTholos).


Second quarterV cent. B.C. (ligature) E(QOClnov) (ligature)

Fa 13 (P 5140). P1.29. Partlyglazed one-handler.


Graffitoon floor. Context: 470460 B.C. (H 6:5).

Cf. Sparkes-Talcott, 740. no.


Ca. 470-460 B.C.

SE(Coalov)

Theligature hereis madeup of severalstrokes so that part of the epsilonappearsto be within the delta.

Fa22 (P 10616). P1.29. Half of black-glazed saltcellar. Graffitoon underside. Context:mid5th century B.C.(near Tholos). Mid-V cent. B.C. 8E((6Ci1ov)

(ligature) Fa 14 (P 5158). P1.29. Small lekane. Graffitoon saltunderside,within ring foot. Context: 470-460 Fa 23 (P 5458). P1.29. Half of black-glazed cellar. Graffitoon floor. Context:ca. 470-425 B.C. (H 6:5). B.C. (E 13:1). Cf. Sparkes-Talcott, 912. no. Ca. 470-460 B.C.
SE(p6oiov) 6E(LO6atov) SE(i6Craov) (ligatures) Mid-V cent. B.C.
6&(6o'iov)

(ligature)

The thricerepeatedligatureappearsin over- Fa 24 bowl (P 13227).PI.29. Base of black-glazed lappingconfusion. or stemlesscup. Graffitoon floor. Context:to late 5thcentury (underStoaof Zeus). B.C. Fa 15 (P 5181). PI.29. Shoulderfragmentfrom amphora. Graffitoon outside, sideunglazed V cent. B.C. 5E(IO6aiov) (ligature) outside. glazedkylix.Graffito

ways to pot. Context: ca. 470-460 B.C. (H 6:5). Ca. 470-460 B.C. &E(l6aiov) (ligature) Fa 25 (P 10422).PI.29. Wall fragmentof black-

Floor fragments of four black-glazed kylikes V cent. B.C. 8E(p6caov) (ligature) of the same type as Fa 2 and all inscribedwith the delta-epsilonligature (Pl. 29), werefound in Fa26 (P5595). P1.29. Base fragment of small a rubbishheapfrom the Tholoskitchen (G 12:22). bowl. Graffitoon underside. black-glazed Graffiti are in each case on the floor. Context: V cent. B.C. SE(Cio6'ov) (ligature) 470-460 B.C.

Fa 16 (P 10813). Fa 17 (P 10814). Fa 18 (P 10815). Fa 19 (P 10816).

8E(6o0OV)

6E(p6rtov) 8E(oL6o'iov) 8E(6cnlov)


6?(goi6aiov)

(ligature) Fb 1 (P 8600). PI.29. Base fragment of blackglazed bolsal. Graffitoon underside.Context: (ligature) 4th century B.C.(E 6:3). (ligature)
IV cent. B.C.
8rl(cr6cov)

(ligature)

(ligature) Fb 2 (P 8611). P1.29. Black-glazedone-handler. Graffito on underside.Context: 4th century Fa 20 (P 10838).P1.29. Floor fragmentof blackB.C. (E 6:3). glazed kylix similarto Fa 2. Graffitoon floor. Context: second quarter5th centuryB.c.(near IV cent. B.C. 86rn(i.6clov) (ligature) Tholos). Fb 3 (P 6825). P1.29. Neck fragmentfrom unV Secondquarter cent.B.C.8E(i06nov)(ligature) glazed amphora.Ligatureincised in wet clay. Context:1st century B.C. Fa 21 (P 10839).P1.29. Foot fragmentof blackI cent. B.C.? 6rn(p6oiov) glazedkylix similarto Fa 2. Graffitoon under(ligature)

G. DEDICATIONS AND CONVIVIAL INSCRIPTIONS of The smallnumber graffito dedications rathersurprising viewof the manysanctuaries is in knownto have been locatedin and aroundthe Agora (see Wycherley, 48-125). Besidesthe piecespublished pp.
here there are only a few fragmentson which part of the word aViSTjKE be read. Parallelsfor informal can

of see E. pot-dedications this sort may be found in most sanctuaries; particularly A. Gardner,NauBoston and cratis,London, 1886-88,I, pp. 54-64; II, pp. 62-69; C. Waldstein,The ArgiveHeraeum, New York, 1902-1905,II, pp. 185-187; P. Woltersand G. Bruns,Das Kabirenheiligtum Theben, bei
Berlin, 1940-, I, pp. 43-79; B. Graef and E. Langlotz, Die antiken Vasen von der Akropolis zu Athen,

and Berlin,1909,II, pp. 114-124;C. Roebuck,Corinth, XIV, TheAsklepieion Lerna,Princeton,1951,

G. DEDICATIONS AND CONVIVIAL INSCRIPTIONS

53

pp. 131-136; Ch. Dugas, Delos, X, Les Vases de l'Heraion, Paris, 1928; R. M. Dawkins, The Sanctuary of Artemis Orthia, London, 1929, pp. 371-382. Drinking cups of the Hellenistic period are not infrequently inscribed with the name of some deity or some abstract idea, illustrating the banqueting practice attested by Athenaios (XV, 692e) of naming successive mixings of wine after various gods (presumably in the genitive case; see G 9-11). For some examples, see Hesperia, III, 1934, p. 339 and the bibliography cited there; also Hesperia, XVI, 1947, of camefromthe potter'sshopwith theirinprobably p. 240. The greatmajority ypaan-iKa KTrcbLaCrTa scriptions already painted; these belong to the study of Hellenistic pottery. Only the graffiti, or homemade versions, are included here. The four pieces (G 1-4) which are dated before the middle of the 5th century B. C. show letters typical of a standard old Attic alphabet (see above, p. 16) with eta as the aspirate, epsilon used for eta and omicron for omega. In the later pieces the regular Ionic alphabet is used, but in G 6 and G 7 omicron

is still usedfor omegawhilein G 6 (but not in G 7) epsilonis still usedfor eta. A lunateepsilonappears B. alreadyin G 13 (late 4th-early3rd centuries C.); lunatesigmaas well as epsilonand cursiveomega on G 21 (2nd-lst centuriesB. c.). An attemptat serifs is made on G 16, and broken-barred appear alphasappearon G 22 and G 23. Odditiesin spellinginclude:one of the manyvarietiesof Eileithuia in G 8; an absenceof iota subvertically) appearsonly on G 17, but thereis a (threedots arranged scriptin G 15 and G 21. Punctuation in word-divider G 7. G 1 (P 12629). P1.30. Fragment from edge of G 3 (P 13754).P1.30. Partof clay ring. Letterson on heavy flat unglazedtile. Graffitoon top, obtop in blackglaze(a); graffito underside (b). Context: late 6th century B.C.(U 23:2). written on the sherd. Context: third viously quarter 6th century B.C. (Q 18:1). Hesperia, Late VI cent. B.C. ]KOV (a) VIII, 1939,p. 259, fig. 15 (no. 9). (b) EiXE[
Third quarter VI cent. B.C.
hEpiEi

pa KcaK6v The graffitois perhapsthe owner's name. 'CayaX 'T. is (The drawing upsidedown.) An informal label on a dedication: "To Hermes (someone dedicated) me, a pleasing G 4 kantha(P 24062).P1.30. Small black-glazed gift." The inscriptionis complete, so that it ros (= Sparkes-Talcott, 627). Graffitoon no. looks as if the writer,findingno room for his outerface of one handle.Context:ca. 520-490 name, abandonedthis attemptand looked for B.C.(Q 12:3). a largerpiece of tile; thus the sherdwas found hEpETi "out of context,as far as Hermesis concerned." LateVI-earlyV cent. B.C. 'E'roCvaoos This interpretation closest to that of Jeffery is The nameis not known. see p.78,no. 33);forothers theHesperia G5 (L.S.A.G., (P 14676). P1.30. Fragmentaryred-figured referenceabove and H. R. Immerwahr, "Some pyxis lid. Graffitoon top, aroundglazed band Inscriptions on Attic Pottery," The James between central tongue and dot pattern and SpruntStudiesin Historyand PoliticalScience, outeregg pattern. XLVI, 1964,pp. 16-19. Second half V cent. B.C. 'A]V[C]K.oiv K[cAias G 2 (P 9634). P1.30. Part of flat clay ring. Letters The nameof the dedicator supplied is in black glaze on top. exempli gratia. LateVI cent. B.C. ri8sev] Oyav G 6 (P 12336). P1.30. Base fragment of blackG Compare 3. Thesetwo piecesare included, glazedpyxis of a type found in the secondhalf even thoughas paintedinscriptions they do not 5th century B.C. Graffiti on underside: on reallybelong, becausethey seem to be unique, projecting flange (a); within ring foot (b). do not fit with any other studyand shouldnot Graffito floor (c). on go unnoticed. It is assumed here that they servedsome purpose at the festal board (pot Second half V cent. B.C. stands?)and were inscribedwith appropriate (a) v]eTOvAfa Kai TV 'bVA[rr6AMova maxims. ]Eoi'TEaalTO

Compare G 2. The motto could be: qpECry

54

G. DEDICATIONS AND CONVIVIAL INSCRIPTIONS (b) KalTov[


VETo[s SA?os

0E6[s
O (C) ]K.

G 11 (P 22484). P1.31. Upper wall fragmentof black-glazedkantharos,similar to G 9. Graffito on outside, going around body. Context:
late 4th century B.C. Late IV cent. B.C. 'App[oSiTlsItp]as

from blackno. 1445. The oath of the first line of (a) may G 12 (P 27040).P1.31. Neck fragment on have includedone or two other deities;it must glazedmug. Graffito outside. have been followed by a wish that a certain IV cent. B.C. ]TpcoyovT[ person might be avenged or punished. The Since this can only be a participle from the second inscription (b) was then added to verb "to eat," it seemslikelythat it is convivial includeone more nameddeity and the rest of is the Olympian gods. This inscription included in nature,or perhapsa maxim suitableto the feast. CompareXenophanes,fr. 18 D, line 3: here becauseit has the gods in common with yXuKuvolvov, vrroTpcbyovTr' TrfvovrTa PEPivGous. the convivialand dedicatory texts. G 7 (P 12011). P1.30. Rim fragmentfrom large G 13 (P 20424). PI.31. Lower wall fragmentof Graffito outside, on open black-glazedbowl of 5th-centuryB.C. largeWestSlopekantharos. going around body. Context: late 4th-early on fabric.Graffito outside,just belowrim.
Late V cent. B.C. 6 8EivarTo'Hqaicr] &vaOKEv rol

antiken Vasen von der Akropolis zu Athen, II,

Compare B. Graef and E. Langlotz, Die

The proposed restorationis not the only possibleone, but comparethe roof tile (Agora G 14 (P 16236). P1.31. Rim fragment of West inv. no. A 891) with a painted dedicationto on Graffito outsidebelowrim. Slopekantharos. which was found about 20 meters Context: 3rd century B.C.(N 21:4). Hephaistos VIII, 1939,pp. 214-215). away (Hesperia, III cent. B.C. piMAi G 8 (P 19694).PI. 30. Rim and wall fragmentof G 15 (P 18340).PI.31. Fragmentfrom rim and decoration. lebesgamikosstandwithred-figured upperbody of West Slope kantharos.Graffito on Graffito outsidebelow rim. Context: 3rd below B.C.
Early IV cent. B.C. ivy garland. century
'iXuv i[

3rd centuries B.C. Late IV-early III cent. B.C.

rT]av

8Ea[tv

III cent. B.C.

TrTi KaOKo8Otaiov

Dependingon the case restoredthis may be or eithera dedication a "toast." G9 (P 7360). PI.30. Fragmentaryblack-glazed kantharosof a type found in the latterpart of
the 4th century B.C., approximately like Hes-

peria, III, 1934, p. 320, fig. 5, A 27, A 28. it Graffitoon upper part of body; apparently ran all aroundthe vase, passingunderexisting G 16 (L 3918). P1.31. Black-glazedlamp handleand probablystartingand endingat the Howland, no. 626, Type 48A). Graffito on handle not preserved.Context: late 4th-early eitherside of nozzleand body.
3rd centuries B.C.(E 3:1). Late IV cent. B.C. AtovWiaou XcoT[fpos Ati6S pin]Xas Late III-II cent. B.C. ispos 'ApTErli8os

"let the evilPerhapshortatorysubjunctive: one drink."This requiresthat the iota spirited have been omitted, but it is easier than assuming a second person singular imperative (ris) with the adjectivein the vocativecase. An attempthas been made to erase some of the letters.

A]afliov[os] 'A[y]aefis T<X[ril 'AyaeoO G 10 (P 22483). P1.30. Rim fragmentof blackglazed kantharos,similarto G 9. Graffitoon upperpart of body, startingto right of handle and ending behind handle. Context: late 4th
century B.C. Late IV cent. B.C.
Ai[ovwo'ou Kal 'AqpoSirqs i]spas

G Compare 11.

It is not possibleto say in whichof the many of sanctuaries Artemisthis lamp was dedicated. Its findingplace (some 75 meterssouth of the Tholos) might indicate Artemis Boulaia (in the Tholos precinct:Hesperia,Suppl.IV, pp. 139ff.), but the sanctuaryof Eukleia(thought by someto be ArtemisEukleia)was also in this von generalpart of town (Judeich,Topographie Athen,2nd ed., Munich, 1931, p. 399). It is to to be noted that G 21, dedicated Dionysos and was found only a few metersto the Artemis, west of the spot wherethe lampwas discovered.

H. COMMERCIAL NOTATIONS

55

G 17 (P 12664). P1.31. Base fragmentof black- G21 (P 6878). P1.31. Large West Slope krater with figured scene: hunting near sanctuary. B.C. glazed bowl of 3rd- to 2nd-century fabric. Graffito below painted scene. Context: late Graffitoon underside.
III-II cent. B.C. 'Ayop]a(ouv 'Epioui

The use of punctuation at this period is unusual.The findingplace is just south of the Altar of the Twelve Gods. See Wycherley, AtovOaco 'ApT-p8I Koa MEvoiAyfs pp. 102-103 for the ancient testimoniaabout the shrineof HermesAgoraios. G Compare 16. G18 (P 23205). P1.31. Wall fragmentof West belowbandof painted G22 (P 19179). P1.31. Shoulder fragment of Slopeopenvase. Graffito small unglazed pot of double conical shape. and checkerboard crosshatching. Context:3rdGraffitoabove angle at shoulder,going around 2nd centuries B.C. pot. Context:latestHellenistic 17:11). (D III-II cent. B.C. ]as
'ApTr4[lt8t

VI, 1937, p. 374, fig. 39. Cf. Sparkes-Talcott, p. 24, note 51. Late II-early I cent. B.C.

2nd-early 1st centuries B.C. (D 12:2). Hesperia,

The ending is presumably that of the dedicator'sname. G 19 (P 605). P1.31. Hemisphericalred-glazed bowl (= Hesperia, III, 1934, p. 371, D 14). Graffito on outside wall. Context: mid-2nd
century B.C.(H 16:4). Mid-II cent. B.C. ZEUs

I cent. B.C.

]Eupa Aiov[oCrcp

Found in the same general area as G 16 and G 21, perhaps pointing to a shrine of Dionysos and Artemisjust off the southwest cornerof the Agora.

G 23 (P 17585). P1.31. Shoulderfragmentfrom on round-bodied Graffito outside. unglazed pot. Context:secondhalf 1st century(B 20:1). G20 (P21454). P1.31. Wall fragment of West Secondhalf I cent. 'A]&eva outside. Graffito Slopekantharos.
II-I cent. B.C. iEpov[

H. COMMERCIAL NOTATIONS This groupis dividedinto five sub-groups, which the first four includevesselswith only one notaof tion of this sort:capacity (Ha), tare(Hb),date(Hc) andcontents(Hd).Thefifthsub-group (He) includes vesselswhichcombinetwo or more of thesenotations. orderto facilitatecomparison In amonginscriptions of one kind,references givenin the firstfour sub-groups' are introductions relatednotationsnot to only in He but also in any othercategorylike that of Tax Notations(I). Dimensionsare includedonly when the vessel preserves either diameteror height, since no other measurements meaningful. are and capacityare noted whererelevantand available.In giving Weight
modern equivalents of ancient weights and measures it has seemed right to use the time-honored and generally accepted figures like 0.546 1. for the xestes (sextarius) and 327 gm. for the litra (libra), since variations from these, although developed with much subtlety,are far smaller than the variations immanent in the ancient standardsof capacity and weight as exemplifiedin these common vessels of clay.

INTRODUCTIONTO NOTATIONSOF CAPACITY(Ha) Notationsof capacityhereincludenot only those whichshow both a unit of capacityand a number
but also those with only a number where the size of the vessel makes that number significantin terms of some obvious unit. Generally speaking, the notations of capacity may refer either to the amount which was in the jar at a particulartime or to what it could hold. It is not thereforeright to deduce the size of a

unit by dividingthe measured markedon it, sincethe notationmay capacityof a vesselby the number have beenmadeto recordeithera knownamountbeingpouredin (withoutfillingthe jar) or whatwas left aftera knownamountwas decanted froman understood total.Therefore, if at leasttwo original only

56

H. COMMERCIAL NOTATIONS

more) seem to requirea certainsize xestes, for example,will it be right to assumea jars (preferably it less different standard; otherwise, is morelikelythatthe notationrefersto something thanfull capacity. Not includedhere are the followingcategories:(1) many vessels, mostly from the Greek period, similar in XXV, 1956,pp. 1-24; (2) manyvesselswhich show inscriptions alreadypublished Hesperia,
to the ones presentedhere but which are not measurableand so can add nothing; (3) many vessels which

are include in otherclassesbecauseof othernotations(F 198; Hd 6, Hd 10; He 1-11, He 13, He 14, He He 16, He,17 He , He2, 22, 26, He 29, He 30, He 32-37, He39-44; 5, 10, 12, 18, I 21, 23,
I 24, I 26, I 32). These last are included in the present discussion. For other possible notations of capa-

or city, see Hd 1, Hd 5, Hd 15 andHd 16 for singleletterswhichmayindicateeitherquantity quality.


Except where noted, the capacity was measured to the rim and so is excessive, at least in pots where restoration with modern plaster has not thickened the walls. The rim provides the only consistent upper

limitfor fillingsincenecksare of variouslengthsand the transition from shoulder neckis oftenhard to


to define. What may have been the upper limit for filling in the ancient measurementscan occasionally be

in determined: Ha 9 the capacityto the rim is 2.150 1.; the sevenand one-halfkotylesmarkedthereon
should be 2.047 1. or about 95% of the up-to-rim capacity. It would however be too much to expect consistency from the various measurersover the centuries representedhere. In the Greek period, that is, before Christ, numbers may be expressed by simple tallying strokes

in numerals the 5th and 4th centuries(Ha 5, Ha 6, Ha 9; He 1-3) (Ha 3-7, Ha 11), or by acrophonic both in the 5th century(Ha 7) and later(F 198; Ha 14; He 4). Wherechous numerals and by alphabetic
and kotyle are counted as units (also staters and mnas), their initial letter is used instead of the simple

numerals 6, Ha 7, Ha 9; He 1, He 3); similarly strokein acrophonic both 'nliovand es arerecorded (Ha ( acrophonically 6, Ha 7, Ha 9, Ha 10; He 2). as Chous is abbreviated X (F 198; Ha 2, Ha 6, Ha 10; He 1, He 2) or o( ) (Ha 14), or it is writtenout as Xos(Ha 8), Xoi<s>(Ha 25) or xo6s (Ha 31). Kotyle is abbreviated K (F 198; Ha 7, as Ha 9, Ha 10, Ha 35; He 1) or KO( ) (Ha 29, Ha 40; He 17); other words used for the same unit
(Ha 19) and Trav(Tava) 21). Both units (kotyle and chous) continue to be used (He may be pE(Tpa)

in occasionally the Romanperiod;on the otherhand, the Romanmodiusbeginsto appearin the 1st is of by centuryB. C. (He 4). Capacity also measured the mna-weight the contents(He 3; see also He 5
for mna-weight in the Roman period). The vessels of the Greek period, largely fragmentary,provide only scanty evidence for the size of the

chousand kotyle,but whatthereis can be reconciled with the standard kotyleof 0.273 1. and chousof 3.276 1. (F 198; Ha 9), even the "new chous" of Ha 2, whichis only slightlyundersize and is more to be a joke than an officialstandard. likely In the Romanperiod,exceptfor some tallying 16, He 17, He 33),numbers mostlyalphabetic are (He Ha 19, Ha 21, Ha 22, Ha 24-26, Ha 29-31, Ha 33-52, Ha 54-56; He 5-11, He 13, He 14, (Ha 18, He 17, He 21, He 22, He 25, He 26, He 29, He 30, He 32, He 33, He 35-37, He 39, He 42-44; 1 5, I 10, A I 12, I 18, 1 21, I 23, I 26, I 32) with < or c as one-halfand 8" as one-quarter. few Romannumerals are also used(He 19, He 20, He 41).
The most frequent unit of capacity in this period is the xestes, which appears both written out in full

in (Ha 17, Ha 20, Ha 23, Ha 28) and abbreviated variousways: | (Ha 30, Ha 56) (Ha37; He36, He44; I5,1I26; K 13) X (Ha 38, Ha 43, Ha 45, Ha 46, Ha 48, Ha 50-52; He 41; 1 18, I 21, I 23, 45)
Xestes is defined as a sixth (sextarius) of the Roman chous (congius) and thus the equivalent of two

The of xestesof the firsttwo centuries our era seemsto havebeen0.546 1.3 kotylesor heminai.2 standard
1
2

3 Called Roman or Italic in Metrolog.Script.,I, 208. Such a xestes of wine weighed20 ounces (546 gm.).

Compare Metrolog. Script., II, xxx. 'Hpiva, the alternate word for kotyle in this period, appears only once (Ha 54).

H. COMMERCIAL NOTATIONS

57

or twice the old standard kotyle of 0.273 1.: Ha 21, Ha 22. In the third and following centuriesthe most frequent xestes is one which is larger by one-third, i. e., 0.728 1.: Ha 23, Ha 24, Ha 27, Ha 30, Ha 32,

the Ha 34, Ha 45, Ha 50; He 30; I 18. Thisis presumably xestesknownas the Hellenicoil xestes(MetroI, log. Script.,I, 208, 213; calledAlexandrine, 264) whichhad 24 ouncesor two litrai(654gm.).As long as wineis beingmeasured, litrairequire capacityof 0.654 1., whichis largerthanthe old xestesby two a only one-fifth.But sincethe weightof oil is only 9/10 that of wine or water,the new 6/5 wine xestesof to 0.654 1. had to be multiplied 1019 get an oil xestesweighing litrai,whichin capacity to be two had by 0.546 1., thatis, 0.7281. Wemayimaginethatthe old winexestesmayhavebeenincreased 4/3 theoriginal for one-fifth the sakeof easyconversion litrai(1 xestes litrai),butit is interesting the number to =2 that by
of our vessels which seem to employ a xestes of 0.654 1. (Ha 47, Ha 52)4 are far fewer than the vessels

basedon its companion xestes whichweighedthe samebut was 1/9largerin capacity(Ha 23, Ha 24, oil Ha 27, Ha 30, Ha 32, Ha 34, Ha 45, Ha 50; He 30; 18).
Furthermore, the smaller standard xestes (0.546 1.) seems to continue in use (Ha 44, Ha 45, Ha 48;

He 36, He 39, He 41; 1 5) in the 4th, 5th and 6th centuries.Onejar (Ha 45) even seemsto providea
double standard,giving the number of both the 0.546 1. xestai (24 1/2) and that of the 0.728 1. xestai (19). The apparentlycontemporaneous use of all three xestai is complicated by the fact that the one which the

writersspecifically labelan oil xestesis the veryone whichourpot-notations as metrological designate a


wine-measure: not only does the jug (Ha 27) labeled olvnpos8iKoaoshold 0.728 l., but also He 30 holds

18suchxestaiof something whichis almostcertainly wine.Thusthe application definition and "honeyed" of standards seemto be in confusion,but we must remember how very scantyour evidenceis and how conventions large a role chance plays in what has survived.There may have been well-understood about the use of different xestai for different commodities in different or kinds of tradingat different times.And in additionwe are at the mercyof any sharpoperator who wishedto cheator any wag who wishedto fool his neighbor labelinghis oil-measure a wine-measure. as by Thisbringsus to the threevesselswhichappearto be basedon still otherstandard xestai.In the case of Ha 28, which is labeled O-Trrs are we to take the word of some ancientscribblerwhose 8iKcaos, motivesareunknown solemnlyassumea still largerxestes,becauseits measured and is capacity 0.890 1.? Orcan we say thathereis a cunning customer who likedto takehis ownjug to the shopsand set his own standards? Luckily,we have some other evidence:one kotyle is defined(Metrolog.Script.,I, 236) as three-fourths a standardxestes or 0.409 1.; if anotherxestes was based on such an outsize of being into of kotyle,it wouldbe 0.818 1. andfit reasonably Ha 28. A sextarius 2/2 litraior 30 ounces(0.8181.) is also mentioned one of the Romanwriters by (Metrolog. Script.,II, 128).Also, only if the 15 xestaiof = 12.2701.) wouldtheyfit the measured 1 21 wereof this size (15x0.818 1. capacityof 12.7501. No one of these bits of evidenceis particularly but it may be that all togetherallow us to convincing itself, by presumea xestesof 0.818 1. Still one otherxestes,basedon the 71/2ouncekotyle(Metrolog. Script.,I, 216, 235) is 0.409 1. (2 x 712x 27.3 gm. = 0.409 1.) or one-halfof the 0.818 1. xestes.This seemsto be in exemplified Ha 43, which is markedas holding 27/2 (xestai);its measuredcapacityis 11.500 1., while27/2 x 0.409 1. = 11.2471. Compare 35, whichmayuse this same7'/2 ouncekotyle. Ha The next most frequentmeasureused in our capacitynotationsof the Romanperiodis the modius, to alwaysabbreviated the firsttwo letters(Ha 16, Ha 44, Ha 53; He 4, He 8-11; I 24). Onlyfour of the nine vessels thus markedare sufficiently preservedto providemeasurable capacities,but these give evidenceof two different modii. The firstis the regularRomanequivalent the Greekhekteus(8 choiof nikes or 32 kotyles)whichis defined(Metrolog.Script.,I, 203, 205, 258) as both 16 sextariiand onethirdof a Romancubicfoot, i. e., 8.736 1.; the vesselsbasedon this modiusareHa 53 (witha measured capacityof 9.250 1.) and He 8-11, all of which are labeledas holdingthreemodii (that is, one cubic
4 Actually these two vessels could be interpretedas based on the 0.728 1. xestes since the measured capacity is in both casesless than 6% under the capacitycalculatedwith the largerunit. But since it is difficultto explain the oil xestes except throughthe wine xestes, it seems reasonableto see the wine xestes exemplifiedwhereit fits more easily than does the oil xestes.

58

H. COMMERCIAL NOTATIONS

in one foot) and arecloselysimilar size and shape;the one measurable (He 10) is 27.3201. or just about 3 4% over the calculated x 8.736 1. = 26.208 1. The secondmodiusis the Cypriote modius,whichis said (Metrolog. Script.,I, 261, 272)to contain17 as is and a fractionxestai.Thatthe fractionmaybe morecloselydefined two-thirds shownby one of our and its is 9.8001. or less than1% vessels(Ha 44)whichis labeledboth io6(5tos) iL'p"; measured capacity over the calculated 172/3x 0.546 1. = 9.646 1. Ha 16 has only the modius label, but its capacity of Two otherfragments jars similar fabricto Ha 44 are also of that it too is Cypriote. in 10.2001. suggests markedas containing17213 xestai(Ha 36, Ha 42). He 39, also similarin fabric, is marked171/2 and has seemslikely; sincethey a capacityof 9.800 1. Thatthesejars weremadein Cypruson a local standard to for withtheirequivalent a moregenerally on wereto be exported, example, Athens,theyweremarked in the Cypriote We metrological systemthe xesteswas 1/16of the acceptedstandard. may assumethat modius(9.646 1.) or 0.603 1., that is, about 1/10greaterthan the normalxestes. It will be noted that both the regularmodiusand the Cypriotemodiuswere based on the 0.546 1. xestes. It is likely thereforethat Ha 50 with its inscriptionof 171/2 (xestai)and capacityof 12.930 1.
(17/2 x 0.728 1. = 12.740 1.) is not a Cypriote modius, especially since the fabric is differentfrom that

of Ha 36, Ha 42, Ha 44 and He 39. Otherpossiblemeasuresalso are noted on our vessels.Stamnos,variouslyabbreviated, appearson threejars (Ha54; He 14, He 39), only the last of whichhas a measurable (9.800 1.); but since capacity and this same vesselis marked171/2 is like the Cypriotemodii noted above in fabricit only confuses bothas ten andas fourxestai(Metrolog. whichis elsewhere defined valueof the stamnos, themetrological is of by capacity 8.400 1., Script.,I, 277; II, 102).A possibleknidion exemplified Ha 15 witha measured which appearon these vesselsthere is no evidenceas to the but for the other threemeasure-names vessels'capacity:keramion 18, Ha 56); hydria(Ha 18); medimnos 55). (Ha (Ha
The capacity of a vessel was often defined not by the number of standard units it could hold but by

contents.Thatthis practice fairlygeneral was fromthe the net weightof the particular may be assumed
careful way in which the metrological writers (passim) defined the comparative weights of wine (or

water),oil and honey:i.e., the 0.546 1. xestesof wine weighs20 Romanounceswhilethe sameamount
of oil weighs 18 Roman ounces, and the same amount of honey weighs 27 Roman ounces. Thus the weight of oil is to that of wine as 9:10, and the weight of honey is to that of wine as 13'/2:10. Net weight in of is noted on ten of our vessels,twice(He 22; I 32) with an abbreviation KacSapos,6 presumably the sense of net weight, just as ocrrpaKouindicates the weight of the vessel or tare. Of the other eight, four indicate the nature of the contents: oil in He 7; honey in He 29, He 33 and He 34. Two of the remaining

four (He 26, He 40) give tare weightin additionto net weight,but in the case of the last two (Ha 26; He 32) thereis no indicationof whatthe weightrefersto, althoughit is fairlyeasy to guessby hefting its the jar or measuring capacity.For example,Ha 26 is markedsimply"eightlitrai";6 8 x 327 gm. = of of 2.616kg. or 2.6161. of wineor water,whichis the measured capacity thejug if the remnant modern He is left from restoration discounted. 32 is marked"ninelitrai"; 9 x 327 gm. = 2.943 kg. or plaster
2.943 1. of wine or water; but because the jar's capacity is ca. 3.300 1. it seems clear that the contents

is oil: 10/9 x 2.943 1. = 3.270 1.7 Thus, in He 7 where the contents is specifiedas 20 litraiand 5 ounces of the is oil, the calculated weightis 20 5/12 x 327gm. = 6.676kg.; to get oil capacity formula 10/9x 6.676 =
7.420 1., which compares neatly with the measured capacity of the vessel (7.400 1.). For further discussion of net weight, particularlyin connection with honey pots, see the introduction to Tare Notations below.
6 KOSXapo is writtenin full on Hd 10, which was includedin the Notations of Contentscategoryas a descriptionof the contents, althoughit is obvious that the litrai which follow give the weight of those contents or net weight. 6 Litrais the Greek form of libra or pound; the weight is 327 gm. or twelve Roman ounces. 7 CompareHd 6, whichis includedin the Contentscategorybecauseits net weightindicatesthe natureof the contents.

H. COMMERCIAL NOTATIONS

59

Ha 1 (P 8842). P1.32. Small black-glazedolpe Ha 5 (P 27517). P1.32. Neck and handles of Chian (?) amphora. Graffito and dipinto on B.C. type. of late 6th- and early 5th-century Graffitoon shoulder.Context:ca. 520-490B.C. one side, with latter spreading beyond handle. Contextas of Ha 3. 14: 5). Cf. Sparkes-Talcott, 78, note 12. p. (E H. 0.105 m.; D. 0.059 m. 1111 Late V cent. B.C. (graffito) r1Tv(-rT) .ArF V cent. B.C. Brl-rTpto Early (dipinto) The graffitoseems to be tally strokes with For the eta-epsilon combination compare I.G., I2, 623, 710; Lejeune,Revue des etudes summation(5) of what the ownerhad poured that, after anciennes,LI, 1949, pp. llf. For a similar in or out, althoughit is conceivable a five-unitmeasurehad been poured in and see ClaraRhodos, 1929,111. III, graffito, recordedas such, five additionalsingle units The capacity of the jug is 0.110 1. As the this is not a measure were counted. In the dipinto a fragment of inscription suggests, some sign precedesthe numeral,which may but a middle-sizedvessel (irplov). (urTpov), well give the price of the amphora with its The well depositin whichit was found contains original contents of seven or eight choes. many examplesof olpes whichmay be roughly dividedinto three sizes, of whichthis is indeed Compare the seven-chousChian jar costing 14 drachmas 3 below). the middle. There is a possibility, however, (He that it is the contents that are designatedas Ha 6 (P 27525). PI. 32. Fragmentary upper part "medium" rather than strong or weak, or of Mendean (?) amphora. Graffiti on upper heavilyseasonedor unseasoned. shoulder,both sides (a and b). Context as of Ha 3. Ha2 (P21553). P1.32. Black-glazedoinochoe with trefoil mouth. Graffitoon neck. Context: LateV cent. B.C. (a) 1!!iilil thirdto fourthquarter5th centuryB.C. (P 8:2). (b) rXXXH H. 0.24 m.; D. 0.175 m. AE Fourth quarter V cent. B.C. Kaivi X(ous) The tally strokes of (a) are presumably recorded formallyin (b), with the additionof a The capacity of the oinochoe filled to the X(6Es)X(oC0)X(oiS) rim is 3.200 1., somewhat than the standard final half-chous: -Tr(v'rE) less This looks like a permanent X(o0s) i(liaov). chous of 3.276 1. So the chous it could reasonrecordof the jar's capacity(eight and one-half ably hold while being carried might not be choes), made probably by the owner, whose more than 3.100 1. and so might have been "new"-whether in all metrological seriousness name may be abbreviatedin the two letters scratched below:AE( ) or r( ). or as a cynicaljoke; see Agora,X, p. 48. Ha 3 (P 27513). P1.32. Neck and shoulder of Ha 7 (P 26070).P1.32. Amphorahandle.Graffito on outerface, fromtop down. Chian amphora. Graffito on neck. Context: E V cent. B.C. fourth quarter5th centuryB.C. (S 16:1). ]II1111IIKK The seven strokeswith summation means Late V cent. B.C. 1111 by of the letter zeta (7) representthe numberof Four tally strokespresumably countedmeaschoes which the jar would hold. The fractions ures as they were poured in. Since Chian of an eighthchousarerepresented epsilonfor by amphoras ordinarily held more than four and aivau two kappasfor two kotyles.For the this might not be a permanentrecord choes, use of epsilon for aspiratedeta compareC 8. of total capacitybut a temporarynote about For similarcapacityinscriptions with tallying, a smaller quantity in (or takenout). put see Hesperia, 5. XXV, 1956,p. Ha 4 (P 27515).P1.32. Neck of Chian(?)amphora. Graffiti on side: (a) vertical; (b) horizontal. Ha 8 (P 26181). P1.32. Fragmentfrom neck and rim of partly glazed chous of late 5th-century Contextas of Ha 3. = (irregularly LateV cent.B.C. (a) 111 11 arranged) Late V cent. B.C. X6s 1111111 (b) Note the three-barred sigma and omicron Thesemay be two stagesof tallying,the one for contracted omicron-upsilon. (a) rough and casual as choes (?) were poured the other (b) a neat permanent record.Both Ha 9 (P 18609). P1.32. Small plain amphora in, add up to the seven choes to be expected;see with ring foot and ovoid body (= SparkesHa 5. Talcott, no. 1463). Graffitoon neck. Context:
B.C.

type. Graffito on neck.

60

H. COMMERCIAL NOTATIONS

firsthalf 4th centuryB.C. (C 19:5). H. 0.222m.; be used to catch all the water. Comparethe D. 0.16 m. Hesperia, XXV, 1956, p. 11, no. 47, klepsydrawhich is markedX X for two choes VIII, 1939,pp. 274ff.). pls. 2, 6. (Hesperia, Firsthalf IV cent. B.C. F KKH Ha 14 (P 25474).PI. 33. Fragment from neck and shoulder of amphora. Graffito on shoulder. The presentcapacityto the rim is 2.150 1. Seven and one-half kotyles, 1rr(?VT) K(o-raai) Hellenistic x6(s) P' of K( ) K( ) tl(plaov), 0.273 1. wouldbe 2.047 1. or about 95% of the capacityto the rim. We Ha 15 (P 16723). PI. 33. Amphorawith profiled mouth and deep ovoid body. Dipinto in black may wish to use this percentageelsewhereto on shoulder. Context:early1stcentury 21:1). (N give us the proportionof our up-to-rimcapH. 0.465 m.; D. 0.24 m. acitythat was used by the originalmeasurers. EarlyI cent. Kv<i>81(ov) Ha 10 (P 24760). PI. 32. Neck of amphora of The readingis doubtful.The capacityof the Mendean type. Graffiti on neck (a) and on shoulder(b). Context: third quarter jar is 8.400 1., which is very nearlya modius opposite (8.7361.). The knidionwas knownas a measure 4th century B.C.(O 16:4). but the only indicationof its size (P. Oxy., XV, TI0 Third quarterIV cent. B.C. (a) 1896, 22; 1951) suggests that it held eight (b) XXHK[ xestai (4.368 1.) or half a modius. Perhapsa betafor "two"has disappeared. (a) may be a number:89; (b) may be read: x(o0s)x(o0s) (viov)K(OT0*X). Ha 16 (P 14117). P1.33. Wide-neckedamphora Ha 11 (P 25742). P1.32. Neck of large amphora of Ist-centurytype. Dipinto, in red, on neck. Context: second half 1st century (0 17:1). of Naxian type (?). Graffitoon neck. Context: PH. 0.62 m.; D. 0.27m. third quarter4th century B.C.(A 16:1). = o ( ) / ]lriil Secondhalf I cent. Third quarter IV cent. B.C. M 11 The capacityof the jar is 10.2001., presumSince vertical and horizontal strokes may differentunits of capacity (cf. Hesmodius;see above, p. 58. The ably a Cypriote represent second line may give the producer'sname or or differentiate in as peria,XXV, 1956,pp. 4-6) the contentsin abbreviated form; easiestwould Mycenaeancounting between tens and units, be f]mrip(viov), i.e., monthly (ration or offering). arepossible, several e.g.: interpretations 2 See three other jars of this same shape with p(rTpa): large,2 small; 2 chi-rhoand phi dipinti(L 28). 1 I(ETrpirls), (x6&),2(KorTAa); 22 ji(vaT) (as eithernet weightor tare). Ha 17 (P 11258). PI.33. Fragmentaryroundbodied jug, similar to Robinson, Chronology, Ha 12 (P 27367). PI.32. Upper part of blackG 182. Graffitoon lower body, upside down glazed oinochoe handle of 4th-centuryB.C. on to pot. Context: second half 1st century fabric.Graffito outerpart of top. (B 14:3). IV cent. B.C. irTpi(ov) Secondhalf I cent. <(>tor[rls Ha Compare 1. Ha 13 (P 20903). PI. 32. Fragmentfrom profiled foot of a large open bowl. Dipinto underfoot. Context:down to 200 B.C. (Q 8-9).
III cent. B.C.
TrTp]oX)(OVV

8fK[maos

Note zeta-formof xi. For restorationcomto pare Ha 28. The jug is too fragmentary be measured. from shoulder Ha 18 (P 19491).P1.33. Fragment of large amphorawith inset neck. Dipinti in red on shoulder. I cent. a) ]~ b) vSpiati p' f4(itav) i.e., 45? hydrias
[ KEp&Wia ? keramia

There is no way of judging the capacityof the bowl from the foot, but the restoration above seems most likely. Since the fragment was found in a layer over the floor of the continued SquarePeristyle,which presumably it the law-courtfunction of its predecessor, is likely that the bowl was used to receive the So waterfroma klepsydra. thattherewouldnot be wastage or mess, bowls whose capacity could not alwaysbe known at a glancewould be markedso that a large enough one would

It is likely that the inscriptionrecordsthe amountof a whole shipment,of whichthis jar was one, sincethe hydriais reported (Metrolog. Script.,I, 323) to be half an Attic metretesor which six choes (i.e., 19.6561.). The keramion,

H. COMMERCIAL NOTATIONS

61

is the Romanamphora eightchoes(26.6161.), of xestes of this size, we must presumea change must here be used as an alternate(or transin standard; above,p. 57. see lated) summation. The number of keramia Ha 24 (P 9919).PI. 33. Smallamphora, Robinson, should then have been somethingover 34. M Chronology, 123. Faint dipinto,in black, on Ha 19 (P 12458).P1.33. Amphorawith cylindrical neck. Context: early 3rd century (M 17:1). neck and cone-shapedbody. Dipinto, in red, H. 0.336 m.; D. 0.187 m. on shoulder.Context: late lst-early 2nd cens' EarlyIII cent. turies(N 20:5). PH. 0.48 m.; D. 0.253m. The capacityof the amphorais 4.350 1. Six Aa' Late I-early II cent. (-r(Tpa) xestaiof 0.728 1. (see Ha 23) make4.368 1. The capacity of the jar, which lacks upper jug, neck and mouth, is 8.000 1. Thirty-one kotyles Ha 25 (P 14917).P1.33. High-necked similar M to Robinson, Chronology, 120. Graffitoon of 0.273 1. would be 8.463 1. Evidencefor the neck. Context: mid-3rd century (N 17:1). H. use of metronas kotyle is not known to me. 0.336m.; D. 0.24 m. This jar may have been intendedas a modius Mid-IIIcent. @' 8h<si.e., Xo5(S) xoO (32 kotyles)and was markedto show its vari8(K<ai>(os) ation fromthe standard. The capacity of the jug is 6.400 1., almost twicethe old standard chous of 3.276 1. Ha 20 (P 17130). P1.33. Fragment from the shoulderof an amphora.Dipinto, in black, on Ha 26 (P 9902).P1.33. Round-mouthed Robjug, shoulder.Context:early 2nd century(B 20:1). M inson, Chronology, 169. Dipinti, in black, on neck (a) and underfoot (b). Context:mideo-ras EarlyII cent. [ 3rd century (M 17:1). H. 0.256 m.; D. 0.171 m. The numberof xestai is not preserved, is nor Mid-III cent. it clearwhy the formis accusative. (a) Ai(rpat) rl' n' (b) A(Trpai) Ha 21 (P 19400).P1.33. Amphorawith cylindrical The capacityof the jug is 2.500 1. (i.e., 2.500 G body, similarto Robinson, Chronology, 197. kg. of wine or water). Eight Roman pounds Dipinto, in black, on neck. Context: early (litrai)of 327 gm. would be 2.616 kg. Some of 2nd century (E 17:1). H. 0.445m.; D. 0.26 m. the plaster with which the jug was restored EarlyII cent. K'< was not smoothedaway on the inside and so The capacityof the jar is 11.070 1. Twenty accountsfor the discrepancy 116 gm. (From of xestaiof 0.546 1. wouldbe 11.1931. andone-half the same context there is another similarjug Some plaster remaining inside from reconM [Robinson,Chronology, 170] with the same structionexplainsthe scantnessof the present dipintounderthe foot.) capacity. Ha 27 (P 928). P1.33. Small wheel-ridged of jug Ha 22 (P 15682).P1.33. Wide-necked small ammid-3rdcenturytype, like Robinson,ChronolM phora,similarto Robinson,Chronology, 77. ogy, M 151. Graffito on shoulder. Context: in black, on either side of neck. ConDipinti, mid-3rd century(I 16:1). H. 0.15 m.; D. 0.12 m. text:secondhalf2ndcentury 21:3). H. 0.23m.; (S Mid-IIIcent. o[l]vrlp6s 5iKaio[s] i.e., honest D. 0.17 m. (a) 8'< (b) (illegible) The capacityof the jar is 2.500 1. Four and one-halfxestaiof 0.546 1. amountto 2.457 1. Ha 23 (P 7860).P1.33. High-necked, round-bodied on small ring foot. Graffitoon shoulder. jug Context:late 2nd-early3rd centuries(D 12:1). The capacityof the jug is 0.760 1. Oivrpos6, as an adjective, that a masculinenoun requires be understood.The inscriptionand comparable shapeand capacityof Ha 23 make it clear that the wordto be suppliedhereis xestes. For a xestes of this size see p. 57. Note also that the labeling of this vessel as a wine-measure might suggest that it would otherwise be H. 0.155 m.; D. 0.125 m. else; see above,p. 57. thoughtof as something Late II-earlyIII cent. E<Wa>xs P1. jug, The capacity of the jug is 0.760 1. This is Ha 28 (P 17499). 34. Round-bodied similar to Robinson, Chronology, 150. Graffitoon M 0.546 1. largerby some0.200 1. thanthe regular shoulder. Context: mid-3rd century (J 18:1). xestes, perhaps representingan increase by H. 0.145 m.; D. 0.132 m. Illustratedin Hesperia, one-third(from 0.546 1. to 0.728 1., which is 95 approximately % of the up-to-rimcapacity). XVII, 1948,p. 191,pl. LXIX, 2. Since severallater inscribed Mid-IIIcent. {orrnsBSKOaOS jars also requirea Secondhalf II cent.
wine-measure

62

H. COMMERCIAL NOTATIONS text: 4th century (C 13:2). H.0.54m.; D.


0.357 m.

The capacityof thejug is 0.890 1. to the rim. To explain a xestes so large both absolutely and relativelyto the old standardof 0.546 1. and to the preservedcontemporary examples holding 0.760 1. (Ha 23, Ha 27) requires invoking the so-called "georgic" standardof
Metrolog. Script., I, 236 to authorize a xestes

of that is twicethe kotyle that is three-quarters the regular xestes: 2x3/4 (0.546) is 0.818 1. See above,p. 57.

As' IV cent. i.e., 35 (xestai) The capacityof the jar is 27.040 1. The most likely xestes will be that of 0.728 1., giving a total of 25.480 1., but it is also possiblethat the dipinto does not recordthe total capacitybut merely the amount that was currentlyinside. In this lattercasethe xestescouldbe smaller.

Ha 29 (P 4914). P1.34. Fragmentfrom rim and Ha 35 (P638). P1.34. Small gouged jug like Robinson, Chronology, M 293. Graffito on neck of a closed pot. Graffitoon neck. Found neck. H. 0.175m.; D. 0.125m. in a layerof the 3rd century. 8' III cent. Ko(rXaat) EarlyV cent. K5[ i.e., K(oTXAai) Alr'< i.e., 38/2 kotyles The capacityof the jug is ca. 0.800 1., sugHa 30 (P 17867). P1.34. Micaceouspointed jug gesting the 71 ounce kotyle (0.204 1.) of M similarto Robinson,Chronology, 240. GrafMetrolog. Script., I, 235. The dipinto may, fito on shoulder. Context:3rdcentury 20:2). (M however,be a single number(i.e., 24) with a PH. 0.44 m.; D. 0.20 m. For varietyof possibleinterpretations. example, III cent. 24 weightounces(24x27.3 gm. is 0.655 kg.) of F(orrai) r'T oil would requirea capacityof 10/9 the same Filled to the mouth, the jug holds 6.300 1. weightof wine, or 0.728 1. Eight xestai of 0.728 1. would be 5.824 1. and leave a reasonable marginfor air and a stopper. Ha 36 (P 5671). P1.34. Shoulderfragmentfrom amphoraof same type as Robinwheel-ridged Ha 31 (P 9672). P1.34. Fragmentfrom neck and M son, Chronology, 333. Dipinto, in red. shoulder a smallamphora. of Dipinto,in black, on shoulder.Context: late 3rd-early 5th cenLate V cent. qppcoil'1" "I carry 17%" (xestai) turies(N 18:5). Apparentlya Cypriote modius. Cf. Ha 44 s' i.e., 6- choes Late III-earlyIV cent. X6es and above, p. 58. Beta with a stroke is the symbol for the fraction 2/3 (Metrolog. Ha 32 (P 10556).P1.34. Wheel-ridged similar regularI, jug, Script., 174). to Robinson, Chronology, 219. Graffitoon M neck.Context:firsthalf of 4th century(B 14:4). Ha 37 (P 8050). P1.34. Fragmentfrom shoulder H. 0.16 m.; D. 0.112 m. of largeamphora.Graffitonear handle.Found with coins of late 4th and 5th centuries. Firsthalf IV cent. 68fKo[ i.e., 8fK<ai>o[sorrias] V cent. of the jug is 0.760 1. Cf. Ha 23, i.e., 31 xestai The capacity (o-rai) Xa' Ha 27. Ha 38 (P 12010).P1.34. Top of storageamphora, M similar to Robinson, Chronology, 302. DiHa 33 (P 11579). P1.34. Wheel-ridged,roundbottomed amphora, Robinson, Chronology, pinto, in red, on shoulder. M 273. Graffito on shoulder. Context: late V cent. i.e., 24 xestai (orrai) K8' 4th century(M 17:1). H. 0.59m.; D. 0.335m. fromthe shoulHa 39 (P 21310).P1.34. Fragment Late IV cent. i.e., 372 (xestai) l'< of an amphora.Dipinto, in red. Context: der The capacityof the jar is 25.740 1., but some 5th century(P 7:4). plaster remaininginside from the restoration V cent. i.e., 293/4 (xestai) K9s'<8" probablymakes the difference(less than 6 %) between the present measurementand the Thejar may well have been of a size to hold so manyxestai. presumedoriginal 27.300 1. (37%x0.728 1.). It shouldbe noted that 37% xestai of this size fromthe shoulder are equalto 50 xestaiof the 0.546 1. size, which Ha 40 (P 469).P1.34. Fragment fabric.Red of a smalljar of 5th-to 6th-century the ratherodd numberhere. But may explain dipinto. see above,p. 57. 10' V-VI cent. ]you Ko(r*tXaC) Ha 34 (P 21840). PI. 34. Cylindricalamphora, similar to Robinson, Chronology,M 273. Coni.e., 19 kotylesof [contents]

H. COMMERCIAL NOTATIONS

63

Becauseof its weakstatethisjar couldnot be Ha 41 (P 13150).P1.34. Upper part of amphora, M see similar to Robinson, Chronology, 328. Dimeasured; Ha 45, whichis slightly larger. pinti in red on neck (a) and shoulder(b). Ha 47 (P 11558).PI.35. Storageamphora,RobinContext: late 5th to 6th centuries (O 18:1). M son, Chronology, 327. Dipinto, in red, on LateV-VI cent. (a) 1S' 3"i.e., 14% (xestai) shoulder.Context:early 6th century(M 17:1). PH. 0.42 m.; D. 0.262m. (b) i8' 3" See Ha 36 for the fraction. i.e., 183/4 Early VI cent. ITI' 8' The jar is preserved only to the beginningof Ha 42 (P 13152).P1.35. Upper part of amphora the neck and has a presentcapacityof about of sametype as Ha 41. Dipinti,in red, on neck 12 liters. Since 183/4 xestai of 0.546 1. are (a) and shoulder(b). Context:late 5th to 6th to equivalent only 10.2381., the unit heremust centuries 18:1). (0 be a largerxestes, perhaps0.654 1. (x183/4 = Late V-VI cent. (a) tL' 3" i.e., 17% (xestai) 12.2621.). But see above,p. 57. (b) it' (" Ha 48 (P 9784). PI.35. Small storage amphora, Cf. Ha 36, Ha 41. M Robinson,Chronology, 324.Dipinti,in black, on shoulder,upsidedown to the pot. Context: Ha 43 (P 13164). PI. 35. Wheel-ridged amphora, early 6th century (M 17:1). H. 0.38 m.; D. M similar to Robinson, Chronology, 333. Di0.215m. pinto, in red, on shoulder. Context: late 5th to 6thcenturies 18:1).H. 0.49m.; D. 0.253m. (O EarlyVI cent. ~(oarat)e'< i.e., 9? xestai The capacityof the jar is 5.150 1. Nine and LateV-VI cent. (Eorrat) KL'< i.e., 27/2 xestai one-half xestai of 0.546 1. are 5.187 1. The The capacityof the jar is 11.500 1. Twentydrawingappearsin its orientationto the pot, seven and one-halfxestai of 0.409 1. would be henceupsidedown. 11.247 1. Cf. Ha 35, and see above, p. 57. A graffitoalpha may be interpreted variously. Ha 49 (P 3044). PI. 36. Fragmentfrom shoulder of early6th-century like Robinson,Chronoljar, Ha 44 (P 13463). P1.35. Wheel-ridged amphora, ogy, M 328. Dipinto,in red. similarto Ha 43. Dipinti, in red, on shoulder. Early VI cent. K8' < 8" i.e., 243/4 Context: late 5th to 6th centuries (P 19:1). The capacityof similarcompletejars of this H. 0.463 m.; D. 0.235 m. hererecords typemakesit clearthatthe number Late V-VI cent. (a) ..] the jar's capacityin xestai. a-rt] at'p' Ha 50 (P 12695). P1.36. Wheel-ridged (b) IJ6(5ios) amphora similar to Robinson, Chronology, 328. DiM The capacity of the jar is 9.800 1., a good pinto, in red, on shoulder.Context:early 6th x Cypriote modius of 17% xestai (172/3 0.546 1.= century(O 19:1). H. 0.545m.; D. 0.258m. 9.646 1.). Cf. Ha 36, Ha 42. t' Early VI cent. (Eo-rai) < i.e., 17? xestai Ha 45 (P 26598). PI. 35. Amphora, similar to The capacityof the jar is 12.9301. Seventeen M Robinson, Chronology, 327. Dipinti, in red, and one-halfxestaiof 0.728 1. are 12.7401. on neck (a) and in black, on shoulder (b). Context: early 6th century (Q 17:7). H. 0.55 m.; Ha 51 (P 12157).P1.36. Fragment from shoulder D. 0.282m. of a closed pot. Dipinto, in black. Context: O-Q 18-19. EarlyVI cent.(a) ~(4orrct) i.e., 2412 xestai K8'< iO' (fadedbeforedrawing) VI cent. ~(korai) (b) K.U i.e., 27 xestai The capacityis ca. 14 1. The two inscriptions Ha 52 (P 14055). P1.36. Wheel-ridged amphora, suggestthat this vessel was used in a time of similarto Ha 43. Dipinto, in red, on shoulder. double standards:241/2x0.5461. = 13.377 1.; Context: 6th century (Q 18:2). H. 0.51m.; 19x0.728 1. = 13.832 1. D. 0.31 m. Ha 46 (P 26693). P1.35. Amphora, similar to VI cent. o(-rai) KE' i.e., 25 xestai Robinson, Chronology,M 327. Dipinto, in The capacityof the jar is 17.580 1. Twentyred, on shoulder. Context: early 6th century five xestai of 0.728 1. are 18.2001.; twenty-five (Q 17:7). H. 0.54 m.; D. 0.282 m. xestaiof 0.654 1. are 16.3501. See above,p. 57. EarlyVI cent. (chi-rho) (The drawing shows only the faded remnant
(crTrat) Ka' 8"

i.e., 21 ? xestai

of the original letters.)

64

H. COMMERCIAL NOTATIONS

Ha 53 (P 22512). PI. 36. Fragmentary amphora, Late Roman orr& (vot) s-' ft(ivat) y' lackingneck. Dipinto,in black,at base of neck i.e., 6 stamnoi,3 heminai (a) and below one handle(b). Context:6th-7th The stamnos is variously defined as equal centuries(Q 17:1). PH. 0.40 m.; D. 0.22 m. to fouror tenxestai(heminai) (Metrolog. Script., VI-VII cent. (a) illegible I, 277; II, 102). (b) v6(b6os) The capacityof the jar (up to the neck) is Ha 55 (P 9318). P1.36. Fragmentfrom rim of a on 9.250 1., so that it mightbe eitherthe ordinary verylargepithos.Graffito top of rim. ta' modius (16 xestai = 8.736 1.) or the Cypriote Late Roman .iE(S6wvot) modius (172/3 xestai = 9.646 1.). It is not the The abbreviation mightalso be completedas same clay as the Cypriotemodii above (Ha 36, E(TpTrrai). Ha 39, Ha 42, Ha 44). fromthe shoulder Ha 54 (P 5663). PI. 36. Fragmentfrom neck and Ha 56 (P 9322).PI. 36. Fragment of a very largeamphora.Graffitoon shoulder. of shoulder largeclosedpot. Graffito junction at of neckand shoulder. LateRoman K(s)p(&(ata) (orai) 8' < pY'

INTRODUCTIONTO NOTATIONSOF TARE (Hb) for on Tare,or the weightof the emptyvessel,is inscribed pots presumably the sake of determining quicklyand easilythe net weightof contentsfromthe total weightof the filledjar. Thiswouldbe useful both at the time of the originalsale and in laterre-useof the jar whenit was takento be refilled.These uses are perhapsreflected the two different the two different in kindsof inscription, dipintotare being In morecasuallyinscribed the householder. both casesthe writtenby the merchant the graffito and by of presence the tarenotationmakesit evidentthatthe liquidswhichthejarsheldweresoldby weight. In additionto the 31 tare notationsclassified here,thereare 19 morewhichhave been includedwith of the He group(Combinations Commercial Notations)and one morewiththe I group(TaxNotations) becausethey are only one part of texts whichcombinetwo or more items: He 3, He 5, He 6, He 12, He 13, He 17, He 22, He 25, He 26, He 28, He 29, He 31, He 33, He 34, He 37-40, He 43; I 7). The Hb is presentdiscussion basedon these20 as well as on the 31 numbered below. than fromthe Greekperiodarebothfewerandless standardized thosefromthe Roman Tarenotations Earliestis He 3 with what is most likely to be both tare and net weight,since this is the only period. one which of reasonable by interpretation two numbers, preceded aji((popE*S), use mu as the acrophonic of also thatis: am(phora) 12 mnas;( ) - 20 mnas.Probably tareis Hb l's graffito acrophonic unit, the with simpleuprightstrokesas units. Hb 2 and Hb 3 are completelydifferent, one being numerals numerals.The 650 gm. labeled "100 drachmas"and the other "20 ounces," both using alphabetic confirms hundred-drachma the notation,if we mayinvokethe emporicmna of weightof Hb 2 probably of 654 gm. And Hb 3's use of Romanouncesis paralleled the appearance at least one lead weight by for context.Hb 4 introduces the firsttime in Athens8 in basedon the Romanstandard a contemporary one of the tare-formulas He 5, He 22) of the Roman period: oxKcoa == "jar", with the weight (cf. specified. the In the Romanperiodtare notationsare of threegeneralkinds: 1) a worddesignating emptyjar, often in the genitivecase, followedby a weight-unit symboland a number;2) simpleverticalstrokes word or symbolfollowedby a whichseem to be a tally of the numberof weight-units; weight-unit 3) number.The first kind declaresthat it is tare. The secondkind is provedto be so in variousways: Hb 15 andHe 33 both havetheirtalliesreinforced notationsof the "empty jar" sortwiththe number by
8 But see pots from the Hellenisticperiod found in Corinthwhich have dipintirecordingsakomafollowed by a ligatureof mu and nu (certainlythe abbreviationof mna) and so giving tare weight (Hesperia,XVIII, 1949,p. 152, pl. 16).

H. COMMERCIAL NOTATIONS

65

of weight-units agreeing;of the ten vesselswith tallies that are completeenough to weigh (Hb8-10, Hb16,Hb19,Hb24, Hb25, Hb31; He 17, He 33) only three(Hb16,Hb24, Hb31)haveweights whichdo not substantially two because incrustation of inside,theotherbecause agreewiththetallystrokes,9 perhaps the last strokewas inadvertently sevenof thse jarswithtallies(Hb9, Hb 15, Hb 16, omitted;and finaally, Hb 24, Hb 25, Hb 31; He 33) areof the samegeneral shape,whichtheysharewithfive of the vesselswith usedin a similarway over jar" weight(Hb14, Hb 21, Hb 22; He 34, He 37), and wereprobably "empty The themas manygenerations. thirdkind includesa varietyof texts so that the reasonsfor interpreting tarediffer:someare obviouslytareweightbecausethey arecoupledwithnotationsof net weight(He 26, He 29); othersarecompletely but unaccompanied mustbe tarebecause by theyareconfirmed the present of the vessel (Hb5, Hb 18, Hb 29; He 39); othersare uncertain seemmorelikelyto be tare but weight than anythingelse (He 6, He 12, He 13, He 38; I 7). Tarenotationsof the firstkind use five different wordsfor the emptyjar: 1) twelve vessels have 6aeither Tp&Kou (includingone oarparis and one 6aoc-rpaKou) writtenin full(Hb12, Hb 14, Hb15, Hb21, Hb 23, Hb 26; He 31, He 34) or abbreviated five or six letters(Hb7, Hb 30; He 33; He 37 is incomto
plete); 2) on five vessels the adjectiveKoipiou or its abbreviationKouv( ) appears (Hib22; Hb 11, Hb 28; He 25, He 28); 3) two show abbreviations mKTcbuaaTos of of eithertwo or five letters(He 5, He 22); 4)

anothertwo may perhapsbe readas crit(b2 He He 43); and 5) one jar is almostcertainlyto be 40read (He as, 40, readas wpinou 6). Althoughthis last occursin the 2nd centuryand the Hellenistic sekomawe have (Hb distinction alreadynoted has its parallelsin the 1st and 3rd centuries,there is no real chronological the termsused; for example,ostrakou in the 2nd, 4th, 5th and 6th centuries; among appears kouphou occursin the 3rdto 6th centuries. numbers The usedin theseinscriptions all of the Greekalphabetic are the is sort; occasionally symbolfor theweight-unit omitted 15, Hb 30; He 40). The greatmajority (Hb of theseinscriptions dipinti;only threeare graffiti 23; He 31, He 43). are (Hb Tare notations that are made up of tally strokes,alwaysscratched and neverpainted,appearon fifteenvessels(Hb8-10, I-lb13, Hb 15-17, Hb 19, Hb 20, Hb 24, Hb 25, Hb 27, Hb 31; He 17, He 33),of whichtwo (Hb15; He 33) also have "emptyjar" notations.Twelveof these have only simpleupright a strokes,with occasionally half strokeor a horizontalstrokefor a fractional three unit, but the othler Hb 17, Hb 19) used the Roman sign for "ten." Since these threeare the only ones wherethe (Hb 10, weightis over ten litrai,we shouldperhapsthink that all the tallyingwas done on the Romansystem. This would be reasonablesince the Greek alphabeticsymbolfor "ten" was a simpleuprightstroke from The that a ten-litra indistinguishable the "ones."'10 Roman"ten" also suggests weightwas firstput on the balanceand notedas such beforethe single-litra weightswereadded.This kind of notationcontinuesfromthe 2nd centuryforward. Tarenotationswithsimplenumbers appearon the following:Hb 5, Hb 18, Hb 29; He 6, He 12, He 13, He 25, He 26, He 29, He 38, He 39; 17. The chronological rangeis from the firstto the sixthcentury, and the numbers all on the Greekalphabetic are system. In all the taretextswhereit appears litra is abbreviated the eitherto a simplelambdaor to a lambda witha diagonalstroke(variously be placed)whichmaysometimes thoughtof as the followingiota. Ounce as eithergammaenclosingomicron(e. g. Hb 3; He 22, He 39) or omicronsurmounted (ouiyKia) appears by upsilon(Hb22).
9It is understood that the weight-unitis the Roman litra since the only two mna-weightsbelong to the early part of the first century (Hb 5; He 5). 10In the capacitynotations of the Greek period the acrophonicnumbersystem allowed tallyingof this sort (with delta for "ten") for a differentpurpose. The whole shift in the use of tallyingfrom measuresto weights is interestingand suggeststhat commodities began to be sold more and more by weight.

66

H. COMMERCIAL NOTATIONS

Hb 1 (P 9753). PI. 37. Neck of coarse amphora. pinto, in red, on neck. Context:early 1st cenGraffitoon neck. Context: late 4th-early 3rd tury(G 8:1). centuriesB.C. (B 13:8). Hesperia, XXV, 1956, ia' i.e., 11 mnas EarlyI cent. pv(ac) p. 17, no. 73. The jar at present weighs 8.150 kg. and must IV-III cent. B.C. AA111III i.e., 26 (mnas) originally have weighed somewhat more. The For the interpretation He 5; 26 mnas see mna used heremust be that of 150 coin drachare less than 11 kg. and a reasonableweight mas, that is, the commercial mna of 654 gm.; for such an amphora.Tare seems to be the cf. Hb 2 above. Eleven such mnas are 8.194 kg. on right interpretation two grounds:weightof contents is comparativelyuseless except in Hb 6 (P 17129). P1.37. Upper part of unglazed amphoraof 2nd-century type, like Robinson, with tare; a capacityof 26 choes is conjunction Chronology, G 197. Dipinto, in black, on not possible. shoulder.Context:late Ist-early2nd centuries Hb 2 (P 5792). P1.37. Small amphora. Graffito (B 20:1). on shoulder. Context:3rdcentury (E 14:1). B.C. ei'
PH. 0.315 m.; D. 0.157 m. III cent. B.C. 6X(Kal) i.e., 100 drachmas p' Early II cent.

The present weight of the amphora,which lacks one handle and the rim, is 650 gm. The completejar may have been equal to a mna Hb 7 (P 23389). PI.37. Fragmentfrom the wall (100 drachmas, like Pernice, Gr. Gewichte, of a closed pot. Dipinto, in black. Found with Berlin, 1894, nos. 598, 599, 605) on the compotteryof the 1st and 2nd centuries. mercial standardwhich made up a mna of II cent. 6]o-rp(KOU) A(iTpaI) 0' 150 coin drachmas (150x4.36gm. - 654 gin.). i.e., (weight)of jar: 9 litrai See also Agora, X, pp. 19f. This commercial mna is not, however,attestedbefore the 2nd Hb 8 (P 10469). P1.37. Small wheel-ridged amcenturyB.C. handles, mouth and some wall pieces phora; on and most of neckmissing.Graffito shoulder. Hb 3 (P 5929).P1.37. Shoulder neck of small and PH. 0.24 m.; mid-3rd Context: century 18:4). (M amphora. Graffito beside base of handle. D. 0.19m. Context:3rdcenturyB.C. (E 14:1). Mid-IIIcent. I1111- i.e., 5 (litrai),1 (ounce) III cent. B.C. K' o(*)y(Kiai) i.e., 20 ounces The weightof the jar in its presentfragmenThe use of the Roman ounce at this period tary state is 1.235 kg. The recordedweight is in Athensmay also be seen in Agora,X, p. 31, no. 70. It is impossibleto tell from the graffito 1.662kg. it itselfwhether refersto capacity ounces= 1 Hb 9 (P 26602). P1.37. Small amphora, intact, (20 M xestes) or to the weight of the jar, but the like Robinson,Chronology, 238, but earlier. of presence a tarenotationon Hb 2 in the same on Context:early4th century Graffito shoulder. deposit suggests that it might be the latter. (Q 17:7). H. 0.425m.; D. 0.20 m. Althoughonly a small part of the jar survives, EarlyIV cent. (a) Ai (written in soft clay comparison for size with Hb 2 suggests a with bluntinstrument) possibleweightof about 546 gm. or 20 ounces. i.e., (b) 1111111119 (litrai) Hb 4 (P 16404). P1.37. Rim and wall fragment (a) may be either number or abbreviation. of wide-mouthed coarsejar. Dipinto, in black, (b) The jar weighs 3.065 kg., about 4% over B.C. justbelowlip. Context:1stcentury (F 19:3). the 2.943 kg. recorded.A non-solubledeposit inside may account for the discrepancy. I cent. B.C. (The oCXKCOp[ is first of the tally-strokes shorterthan the rest For sekoma(sakomain Doric) as weight of from them.) and somewhatseparated the vessel,cf. He 5, He 22, and also pots from Corinth(Hesperia, XVIII, 1949, p. 152, pl. 16, Hb 10 (P 9881).PI. 37. Amphora withlip andsome 15-17) where the writingis very similar.The M of neck missing,Robinson,Chronology, 232. meaning"jar"is attestedin P. Oxy.,XVI, 1896, Context:early4th century on Graffito shoulder.
19. (M 17:1). PH. 0.452 m.; D. 0.298 m.

of i.e., (weight) empty:15litrai The fragmentary state of the jar makes its presentweightirrelevant.

priwov X(iT-rpa)

Hb 5 (P 3467). PI.37. Early Roman amphora, lacking much of mouth and one handle. Di-

EarlyIV cent.

XIII = 111 i.e., 16 (litrai),2 (ounces)

H. COMMERCIAL NOTATIONS The present weight of the jar, without the lip and part of the neck, is 5.030 kg. The recordedweightis 5.287kg. Hb 11 (P 10267).PI. 37. Unglazedamphora,missing handlesand lip, of early 4th-century type, L like Robinson, Chronology, 31. Dipinto, in black, on shoulder.Context:early 4th century i.e., (weight)of empty:13litrai The presentweightof thejar, withouthandles and lip, is 3.935 kg. The recordedweight is 4.251 kg. Hb 12 (P 25170). PI. 37. Amphora with narrow handlesand a bodylike Robinson, neck,vertical Chronology,M 236. Dipinto, in black, on shoulder. Context: Q 17:4. H. 0.54 m.; D. 0.195m. EarlyIV cent. 6ocrpaK'ns <0'> XA(Tpac) i.e., (weight)of jar: 9 litrai The present weight of the completejar is 2.870 kg.; the recorded weight is 2.943 kg. The number,which must be taken as theta, looks like a rectangular epsilon, which is most to The unlikely occurat thisperiod. form6o'rp&Ki is not attested.
(M 18:4). PH. 0.46 m.; D. 0.257 m. Early IV cent. K.[oU]qp(ou) W(i-rpat) ty'

67

s' EarlyIV cent. (dipinto) oo-rpaKou i.e., (weight)of jar: 6 (litrai) (graffito) '11111 Five strokes tallying for the first five litrai, with a sixthstrokeslantwise. Hb 16 (P 12825). PI. 37. Wheel-ridged amphora of late 4th-centurytype, between Robinson, Chronology,M 238 and M 305. Graffito on shoulder.Context: late 4th century (O 19:1).
H. 0.308 m.; D. 0.214 m.

Late IV cent. 111111 i.e., 6 (litrai) The jar, which lacks only a part of the lip, now weighs 2.180 kg. or 10% more than six litrai(1.962kg.). It is possiblethatit wasmarked underweightby a merchant who wished to give shortweighton the contents.Or theremay be a considerable depositinside. Hb 17 (P 7884). PI. 37. Fragmentfrom neck of amphora.Graffitoon neck. Found in a layer withpotteryand coins of the 4th century. < IV cent. X!I!i111 i.e., 17/2 (litrai) Hb 18 (P 14110).P1.38. Smallamphoraof earlier date but same type as Robinson, Chronology, M 324, M 325. Graffitoon shoulder.Context: 4th century (O 19:1). PH. 0.40 m.; D. 0.22 m.
IV cent.
Xr(Tpat) U'

i.e., 7 litrai

The presentweightof the jar, which lacks a Hb 13 (P 11193).P1.37. Upper part of amphora, mouth and is partly restored in plaster, is of a type related to Robinson, Chronology, 2.075kg.; sevenlitraiare 2.289kg. L 31. Graffito on shoulder. Context: early 4th century(C 14:4). Hb 19 (P 14113).P1.38. Amphoraof 4th-century M type,like Robinson,Chronology, 230. Graffito 111111 i.e., 6 (litrai) EarlyIV cent. on shoulder. Context: 4th century (O 19:1). The jar is too fragmentary its present for PH. 0.46 m.; D. 0.28 m. weight to be significant.Others of this type IV cent. ]XI1111< i.e., 15/2 (litrai) weighabout six litrai. The presentweight of the jar, which lacks a Hb 14 (P 11194). P1.37. Upper part of wheelmouth and has been partlyrestoredin plaster, ridged amphora of 4th-century type, like is 4.750 kg.; 15/2 litrai are 5.068 kg. L Robinson, Chronology, 55 and M 238. Dipinto, in black, on shoulder,very faint. Con- Hb 20 (P 26114). P1.38. Amphora top, comtext: early 4th century(C 14:4). PH. 0.299m.; to L parable Robinson,Chronology, 54. Graffito D. 0.224m. on shoulder.Context:Q 19:1. IV cent. 11111111 i.e., 8 (litrai) EarlyIV cent. OtaKKOU X(iTpai) U i.e., (weight)of jar: 7 litrai The fragmentary state of the jar makes its The preservedupper two thirds of the jar irrelevant. presentweight weigh 1.710 kg.; seven litrai are 2.289 kg. Hb 21 (P 10710). P1.38. Wheel-ridged amphora, (Some letters had faded completelybefore the missingneck and handles,of 4th-century type, finaldrawing.) like Robinson,Chronology, 55, M 238. DipinL to in black on shoulder. Context: 4th-5th Hb 15 (P 11197). PI. 37. Shoulder fragment of centuries (E 15:5). PH. 0.34 m.; D. 0.20 m. small wheel-ridgedamphora like Hb 14. Dipinto, in black, and graffitoon shoulder.ConIV cent. 6O]rTpaKouX(irpai) U' text: early4th century(C 14:4). i.e., (weight)of jar: 7 litrai

68

H. COMMERCIAL NOTATIONS
V cent.

The presentweightof thejar withouthandles and lip is 2.025 kg.; sevenlitrai are 2.289 kg.

Hb 22 (P 16079). PI.38. Small amphoraof 4thM century type,like Robinson,Chronology, 238. Dipinto, in black, on shoulder.Context: 4th century (F 15:1). PH. 0.38 m.; D. 0.215m. Hb 27 (P 14016). P1.38. Small amphoratop of IV cent. KoV<Kp>ou s'/ X(Trpal) oO(yKiai) 5th-to 6th-century y' fabric.Graffitoon shoulder. i.e., (weight)of empty:6 litrai,3 ounces Context:3rd to 6th centuries 18:4). (M The present weight of the jar, which lacks V-VI cent. 111111 i.e., 6 (litrai) mouth,one handleand has beenpartlyrestored The fragmentary state of the jar makes its is in plaster, 1.910kg.; six litraiandthreeounces irrelevant. are 2.043kg. The use of pi for phi was in earlier presentweight times a barbarism; in the Roman period, Hb 28 (P 12914). P1.38. Narrow-bodied jug of for and spellingslike oAXixKios 'Aqpiav6s Sul6th-centurytype, like Robinson, Chronology, p. picius and Appianus(Meisterhans2, 60) sugM 315.Dipinto,in veryfaintblack,on shoulder. to gest that therewere some individuals whom Context:5th-6thcenturies 18:1).H. 0.595m.; (P what seems phi and pi soundedalike. Compare D. 0.203m. confusionon 1 19. to be the reverse
VI cent.

i.e., (weight)of jar: 12 litrai The present weight of the jar, with several pieces missing, is 3.410 kg.; twelve litrai are 3.924kg.

oCrpOKovXi(Tpat)ip3'

Hb 23 (P 26699).P1.38. Fragmentfrom shoulder of small ribbedamphora.Graffitoand dipinto, black.Context:4th century(Q 17:7).


IV cent. (graffito)

i.e., (weight)of empty: 10 litrai The weightof jug, completeexceptfor minor fractures,is 3.120 kg.; ten litrai are 3.272 kg.

KO.Ip(ov)A(iTpai)i'

Hb 29 (P 12936).PI. 38. Amphoraof 6th-century M type,like Robinson,Chronology, 325.Dipinto in black, on shoulder.Context: 5th-6th cenHb 24 (P 11355). PI.38. Wheel-ridged amphora turies(P 18:1). H. 0.451m.; D. 0.205m. of early 5th-century type, like Robinson, VI cent. i.e., 9 litrai A(iTpal) e' M Chronology, 305. Graffitoon shoulder.ConThe complete weighs2.935 kg.; nine litrai jar text: 4th-5th centuries(E 15:5). H. 0.396m.; are 2.943 kg. (Sincethe dipintohad completely D. 0.216m. faded beforethe final drawing,this was copied 111111 i.e., 6 (litrai) EarlyV cent. from the original reading, which bears little relationto whatwas seenby me in 1960.) Restoredwith plasterand with some plaster the jar now weighs2.315 kg., more than inside, 1.962kg. Com- Hb 30 (P 13464). PI. 38. Body of amphora, one litramorethanthe recorded lackingmost of shoulder,neck and handles,of Hb 16; but here it is possiblethat as each pare 6th-centurytype, like Robinson, Chronology, litra weightwas addedto the balancea stroke M 325. Dipinto,in black,on shoulder.Context: was made on the jar until the last, which was 5th-6thcenturies 19:1). (P forgotten in the bustle of removing weights andjar alike. VI cent. oaTpaxK (ou) s' i.e., (weight)of jar, 9 litrai (dipinto)illegible
i.e., (weight) jar: (litrai) Hb 25 (P 13472).P1.38. Small amphoraof 5thfor The jar is too fragmentary its present M century type,like Robinson,Chronology, 305. weightto be of significance. on shoulder.Context: 5th-6th centuGraffito ries (P 19:1). H. 0.333m.; D. 0.173m. Hb 31 (P 14056). PI. 38. Amphora of the 6th 11111 V cent. i.e., 5 (litrai) century,a later exampleof the type of M 305, M 306 in Robinson, Chronology. Graffitoon The present weight of the jar, with some neck. Context: 5th-6th centuries (Q 18:2). is 1.615 kg.; five litrai are plasterrestoration, H. 0.44 m.; D. 0.23 m. 1.635kg. 11111111 i.e., 8 (litrai) VI cent. Hb 26 (P 13477).PI. 38. Amphora, lackingmouth, The present weight of the completejar is one handle and wall pieces, of 5th-century 3.330 kg.; eight litrai are 2.616 kg. See Hb 16 M type, like Robinson, Chronology, 302. Diand Hb24 for possible explanationsof the pinto, in black, on shoulder.Context:5th-6th centuries (P 19:1). H. 0.505 m.; D. 0.26 m. discrepancy. of 6

0' AX(Tpai) 6cr]TpaKou

H. COMMERCIAL NOTATIONS
INTRODUCTIONTO NOTATIONSOF DATE (He)

69

notationsdates are the least satisfactory convincing, Of all the categoriesof commercial and largely becausethey are far more relativeto and dependenton a temporalcontextthan are the notationsof of on capacity,tare and contents.Indications time appearon the 26 vesselsincludedin this category,"1 sevenwhichare classified with Combined Notations(He 4, He 18, He 23, He 24, He 37, He 41, He 42), and on one with Owner'sMarks(F 250), and on three(I 17, I 23, I 44) of the Tax Notations,over and above the indictiondateswhich appearregularly that series.Nineteenof these 37 give datesby era; in 12 dateby magistrates emperors; givemonthdates;the one remaining a possibleindictiondate. or five is Greek alphabeticnumeralsare used throughout,but in some consulardates the Latin languageand alphabettake the place of Greek. Most of the datesby era consistof simplya number;the particular is a matterof interpretation. era Eight examplesmay be assignedwith a fair degreeof certaintyto the Actian era: Hc 10-14, He 16, He 18, Hc 19. Four of these (H 10, H 16, H 18, H 19) are on wheel-ridged of darkmicaceous 16, jars as published "DatedJarsof Early clay with one handleand high-collared foot like the 25 examples ring ImperialTimes" (Hesperia, XXIV, 1955,pp. 277-285).Only Hc 19 has any remnantof the era designationwhichappeared two of the piecespublished on earlier: but (eTOS) Ni(Kms), all four have numbers whichgive datesin the Actianera that fit well into the largergroup.The otherfour notationswhichare hereinterpreted Actianera datesaremorevarious:two dipinti(He 11, He 12) andtwo graffiti 13, as (He He 14). In the case of all four thereseemsto be no othereasyexplanation the number; two of the for for vessels (He 11, He 12) the ceramicdate agreeswith the assumedActiandate; the othertwo are fragmentstoo smallto be assigneda dateon ceramic and grounds, theyhaveno datedcontext. Of the 11 otherdatesby era, three(F 250; He 17, He 25) seemto be Seleucid, four may be basedon Diocletian'saccession(He 22, He 23; He 37; I 44), one appearsto be Christian 24) and threeare (He uncertain 26; He 23, He 24). Thebasesfor theseassignments outlinedin the individual are (Hc catalogue descriptions. The 12 dates by magistrates emperors or includetwo of the Greekperiod(He 1, He 2), six consular dates(He 3, He 4, He 6-8; He 4), two imperial 5, He 15)andtwo uncertain 20, He 21). Ordinari(He (He in the Greekperiodjars weredatedby stampson the handles;thesetwo, withincisionin the soft clay ly on one and dipintoon the other, are unusual.Jarswith consulardatesin both Greekand Latinhave long been knownin Pompeiiand Rome (C.L.L.,IV, 2551ff.,5510ff.,9313ff.;XV, 3636ff.).Of the two which use Touvs, continuesin Greek(He 4) with the abbreviated one name of Gaius Cassius,while the otherseemsto continue,althoughmuchis lost, in Latin,endingwith the regular Latinabbreviation for consuls(He 7). Both of these, like three of the four purelyLatin texts, are dipinti.The exception (He 6), being lightlyand casuallyscratched below the handle,may well have been the work of an just Athenianownerratherthana foreignshipper seller:Druso et Crispino(9 B.C.).He 3 andHe 8 can not or be readwellenoughto givedefinite but He 4 is clearlyassignable 17B.C.(C. Furnio). to dates, The two imperialdates are given as the sixth (year)of Augustus(He 5) and the fourteenth year of Hadrian(Hc 15).12 two uncertain The datesof this sort (He20, He 21) are incomplete, usingthe Erii one
formula, the other
?TOS.

The five month dates are as follows: July (He 9), nones of August (He 18), June 17 (He 41), first month(I 17), and the sixthday of the sixthmonth(I 23). Possiblereferences months also occur on to He 5 and He 11. The one possibleindictiondate seems to combinea day "beforethe Ides" with an indictionyear(He 42).
tentatively)as datesare included,even whenthe magistrateor era on whichthey are basedis not clear. 12 the fourteenth year from the visit of Hadrian to Athens. Cf. P. Graindor,Athines soIus Hadrien,Cairo, 1934, pp. 15ff.; Or Kubitschek,Real-Encyclopadie, Suppl. III.

11All textsidentifiable(even

70

H. COMMERCIAL NOTATIONS

to the are As far as abbreviations concerned usagewithregard etos shouldbe noted:of nineexamples, He 7, He 15, He 21) which are dated earlierthan the late 3rd centuryshow the word the four (Hc 4, the writtenin full; the five datedto the late 3rdcenturyand laterabbreviate wordto its firsttwo letters eitheras p( ) (Hc 9; 1 17) or Upj( ) is abbreviated (Hc 22-24; He 23, He 24). Thewordfor month(li'v) (He 41; 123).

He 1 (P 7699). PI.39. Toe of plain amphora, He 5 (P 9670).P1.39. Chianamphora(= RobinF neatly profiled. Letters incised on underside son, Chronology, 92). Dipinto in black on shoulder. Context: 1st century B.C. (N 19:1). while clay was soft. Context:late 4th to early PH. 0.86 m.; D. 0.309 m. 3rdcenturies B.C. (E 3:1). Late IV-early III cent.B.C. irr 'A.woroo5cbp(ou) I cent. B.C. Avyoicr(Tou) S' [.(rjv6s)'ApT(Eepuoou) The writingis crampedand changesorientaThe sixth year of Augustuswould be 21 B.C. tion. An archonof this name servedin Athens The readingof the secondline is uncertain. in the year 319/18B.C.,but eitheranotherprois venienceor anothermagistracy a possibility. Hc 6 (P 16206). P1.39. Micaceous one-handled The fact that the inscriptionwas made before jar, similar to Robinson, Chronology,F65. firingsuggeststhat this date servedone of the Graffitounderhandle.Context:firsthalf of 1st of purposes the stampusuallyfoundon handles. century(N 20:1). PH. 0.47 m.; D. 0.265m. He 2 (P 9754, P 9755). P1.39. Chian amphora. Firsthalf I cent. DRUSO ET CRISPINO in black on shoulder (a) and inside Thatis, 9 B.C. Dipinti handle(b). Context:late 4th-early3rdcenturies Hc 7 (P21791). PI.39. Ovoid amphora with B.C. (B 13:8). PH. 0.79 m.; D. 0.355 m. shortwide neck, hornedhandlesand shorttoe. Late IV-early III cent. B.C. Dipinti in black on shoulder. Context: early / [&]pXovros NIK'rTOV (a) nIrl 1st century (R 10:1). H. 0.533m.; D. 0.28 m. (b) ToAXuvoio N EarlyI cent. If the archon is Athenian, there are two e1Tous[ ]BA ( ) COSS possible years: 332/1 or 225/4 B.C.The name 6 Balbus,C. Antistius Perhaps B.C.:D. Laelius underthe handlemaybe thatof potter,producer Vetus. Or A.D. 22: D. Haterius Agrippa, C. or of contents,middleman even owner. Galba. Sulpicius He 3 (P 8108). P1.39. Amphoraof Roman type. 39. Micaceous one-handled Dipinto in red on neck. Context: late 2nd He 8 (P 16199). PI. F jar, similar to Robinson, Chronology, 66. centuryB.C. (C9:7). H. 1.017m.; D. 0.291m. Dipinto in black below handle. Context: COS [ Late II cent. B.C. first half of 1st century(N 20:1). H. 0.46 m.; D. 0.245m. Obviously a date by consulship, but the NERONEBO.. EarlyI cent. dipintois now too fadedto be drawn.Another (traces) jar of this type (Agora inv. no. P 8105) found If this is datingby consul, the possibledates in the same context has an inscriptionwhich are: 13 B.C. (Ti. ClaudiusNero, P. Quinctilius betterbut gives less immehas surviveda little an diate sense: ] B-C[ (presumably abbreviated Varus); 9 B.C. (Nero Claudius Drusus, T. in "b" followedby the abbrevia- Quinctinus Crispinus); 7 B.C. (Ti. Claudius name ending Nero II, Cn. CalpurniusPiso). The word tion for consul). Hc 4 (P 3215).P1.39. Shoulder fragmentof small and interpretation. Dipinto in brown. Found with much jar. He 9 (P 15559). P1.39. Upper part of amphora and material a littleLate Roman. Hellenistic with collaredrim.Dipintoin blackon shoulder. I cent. B.C. 'T0oS F(aciou)Kacaa(ou) Context:1stcentury(R 21:2).
1i.(rlv6,) A Gaius Cassiuswas consul in 124, 96 and is 73 B.C. Sincethe colleague not herepreserved, He 10 (P 24853). P. 39. Shoulder fragment of brown micaceous jar, similar to Robinson, it is impossible to determinewhich is meant. (illegible) I cent. 'IovuMov begining "bo. ." is uncertain both in reading

H. COMMERCIAL NOTATIONS

71

Chronology,M 125. Graffito below handle He 16 (P 25464).P1.40. Upper part of micaceous one-handled similarto Robinson,ChronolContext:late 1st century(B 13:2). attachment. jar belowhandle. ogy, M 125. Graffito pKa' Late I cent. II cent. pop' Year 121 of Actian era = A.D.91. Year 172of Actianera = A.D. 142. He 11 (P 10048).P1.40. Upper part of amphora (- Robinson, Chronology,M 102). Dipinti He 17 (P 13599). PI.40. Upper part of onehandled jar. Dipinto in black on shoulder. in black on shoulder(a) and underone handle Context: second half of 1st century to 2nd (b). Context: second half of 2nd century century(N 19:2). (M 17:1). II cent. IIcent. (a) EP( ) i' SE]XWK( ) pB' Year 502 of Seleucidera (from 312/1 B.C.) (b) o'oS would be ca. A.D. 190, perhapstoo late for this context. Year 139 of Actian era = A.D. 109, whichis perfectlysuitableto the jar itself, which finds Hc 18 (P 21631).P1.40. Fragmentfrom shoulder its nearestparallelsin late 1st and early 2nd of micaceousone-handled similarto Robjar G centuries(Robinson,Chronology, 197, H 20). M inson, Chronology, 125.Graffitoon outside. Its later context date is unexpectedbut not Context: 2nd to early 3rd centuries(U 22:1). impossible.The firstpart of (a) might be interce' pretedin two ways: as a monthdate (Hermaios II-earlyIII cent. 15)or as tare(ipilou 15). (b) The jar is sound? Year 229 of the Actian era = A.D. 199. He 12 (P 5774). P1.39. Neck and shoulder of He 19 (P 22211). P1.40. Fragment from the small amphora. Dipinto in red on shoulder. shoulder of a micaceous one-handled jar, Context: second half of 1st century to 2nd M similarto Robinson,Chronology, 125. Grafcentury(F 13:2). fito on outside. II cent. pv III cent. apIa' TrosN] i(Krls) ATO2[ Year 241 of the Actian era = A.D. 211. The number is likely to be a date in the He 20 (P 7785). P1.40. Shoulderfragmentfrom Actianera, i.e., A.D. 120. Dipintoin black. largeplainamphora. He 13 (P 11545).P1.39. Wall fragmentof closed rTri Roman ZauX[ vessel.Graffitoon outside. Roman pV?' Year 155 of Actian era would be The nu is writtenin reverse.
AIATTA[
A.D.

125.

What magistrateof what city is here used for datingis obscure,as is the word or phrase in the secondline.

He 14 (P 2518). P1.39. Shoulderfragmentfrom He 21 (P 11752). P1.40. Top of amphora. Dia large unglazedvessel. Graffitoon outside. pinto in black on shoulder.Context:3rd century(K 18:3). pv[ EarlyRoman III cent. a[ Presumablyan Actian date, ca. A.D. 120-130. He 15 (P 7583). P1.39. Amphora(= Robinson, J Chronology, 5). Dipinto in black on shoulder. mid-2nd century (C 12:1). PH. Context:
0.549 m.; D. 0.295 m. St' Mid-II cent. ETous 'ASpiavoO Eviaucrtiaov

The incompleteness the inscription of makes of emperor era difficult. or any conjecture He 22 (P 3140). P1.40. Shoulder fragment of largeamphora.Dipintoin red. Late Roman
ET(Os)

Whetherthe date was based on Hadrian's accessionor his firstvisit to Athensis uncertain; cols. 28-29. The word in the secondline presumablyrefersto the age of the contents, probably wine.
cf. Kubitschek, Real-Encyclopadie,Suppl. III,

(chi-rho)
Ka[

Year 21 based on the era of Diocletian


would be A.D. 305. Ginzel (Handbuch der mathematischen und technischen Chronologie,

72

H. COMMERCIAL NOTATIONS

A.D. 532 and known to be in use before this II, Leipzig, 1906, pp. 229-231) notes that this time (Bickerman, 74, 81). era was used in private documentsin Egypt pp. throughoutthe 4th and 5th centuries.But the Hc 25 (P 25054). P1.40. Small jug with gouged may begin a word like Kaisaros. decoration similar to Robinson, Chronology, kappa-alpha M 361. Graffitoon wall near handle. Context: Hc 23 (P 14093). P1.40. Round-bottomed cylindrical amphora (= Robinson, Chronology, 6th (-7th?) century (Q 17:4). H. 0.175m.; D. 0.13 m. M 333). Dipinti in red on shoulder.Context: ' VII cent. t,5th-6th centuries (P 18:1). H. 0.495m.; D. 0.211m. The year 964 of the Seleucidera is A.D.642. (The Seleucidera continuedin use in various V-VI cent. 'rT(os) placestill nearmoderntimes;cf. Ginzel,op.cit., pv' I, p. 263.) The context date need not militate TA to againstthe assignment A.D.642 sincethe jug Perhapsyear 150 of the era of Diocletian wasfoundnearthe top of a wellwhichcontinued (A.D. 434)? into the 8th century. Hc 24 (P 9660). P1.40. Round-bottomedam- Hc 26 (P 3457). P1.40. Shoulderfragmentfrom M phora (- Robinson, Chronology, 372). DiDipintoin red on neck,insidehandle. amphora. in black on shoulder.Context: late 6th 6th-7thcenturies 14:2). Context: pinto (L century(M 17:1). H. 0.467m.; D. 0.148m. VI-VII cent. Xp(O6vos) 1i'[ LateVI cent. ET(OS) Trp( )[ e<os) What era or emperorthe year refers to is The perhapsnot worth conjecturing. abbreviaone number (from alpha through If only tion in the secondline may be eitheran addition this may be 58? is lost at the beginning, theta) to the dateor someotherkindof notation. in the Christianera, which was "invented"in

INTRODUCTIONTO NOTATIONSOF CONTENTS (Hd) In additionto the 23 texts groupedtogetherhere, contentsis specifiedin the followingnotations classifiedelsewhere:one in Dates (He 15); 19 in CombinedNotations (He 7, He 13, He 15, He 17, He 18, He 21, He 23, He 24, He 26, He 27, He 29, He 30, He 32-34, He 36, He 40, He 41, He 44); and 12 concernsall in Tax Notations(I 10-12, I 16, I 19, 120, 125, I 29, 14042, I 45). The presentdiscussion 55 texts. is the singlecommoditysincereference madeto it on 27 vessels, Wineis apparently most important whichcan perhaps word(a&pivv) in if we includethe nine occurences Tax Notationsof one abbreviated is withoutmodification, used only once (Hd 13), as OTvos alone, best be interpreted a kind of wine.13 washed and the to distinguish winejug fromjugs used for othercommodities not necessarily perhaps ratherthanan oil or honeymeasure a winemeasure (see to in betweenor perhaps indicatethat this was of ratherthandipintois an indication its informal That Ha 27: oivpos 8SIKcoS). this notationis graffito kindsof wine and all except natureand incidental purpose.All otherwine notationsindicateparticular one (Hd 23) are dipinti and may be thoughtof as labelingthe originalcontents.The kinds of wine of rangefrom a cheapo6os(vinordinaire) the 5th centuryB.C. (Hd 1) to the wine madefrom the finest daturAminaeis proptersenioque firmitatem Aminnaeangrapes(Pliny, N. H., XIV, 4, 21, Principatus era(1 10,1 16, etc.). Mostfrequent of of vini vitam.) the 5th and6th centuries our proficientem eiusutique is are if (raisinwine): interpreted, -rrcaaov afterthe Aminnaean, abbreviations correctly in appearance, He 40 (firsttwo letters).Next in to in Hd 9 (written full); Hd 12 (abbreviated firstthreeletters);He 13, in is wine:Hd 5 (written full); Hd 17, with the sameprovisoaboutabbreviations, Pramnian frequency,
13Since the tax-notationpots all seem to serve the same purpose, the conclusion that some held a specifickind of wine makes it likely that all held wine but that only specialkinds werenoted "on the label." See Introductionto Tax Notations below.

H. COMMERCIAL NOTATIONS

73

He 26 (first three letters). Honeyed wine is noted twice: olvovu penT-iVOv (He 21); (IiArIT( ) (He 30). Falernianappearsonce (He 27). Threeother kinds of wine may be indicatedby three abbreviations:
(Hd (Hd Kav(-SapiThs) 7); &pco(iaaT-Tis) 15); Spiv(Si-ms)(Hd 23). Wine is described in somewhat differentterms on four other vessels: Kasapou as an indication of net (Hc (Hd weightratherthan of purity(Hd 10); Fviaucaaiov 15), and iTep(uariv6s) 20) seemto indicatethe

seemsto indicateuse (?) and provenience age of the wine; vin(um) saec( ) car ( ) vil(la?)Terg(estina?) and Seealso belowfor miscellaneous uncertain contentswhichmightbe wines. (He 18). Four of the above wine notationsare accompanied single letterswhich may perhapsbe most by as indications quality:alphaon Hd 1 and Hd 20; gammaon Hd 15; deltaon Hd 5. of readilyexplained in is similar significance the &*r-tpos whichappears Perhaps alongwitha pricemarkon He 15. Six vesselsare markedas containingoil. Threeo e are inscriptions graffitiand indicatemerely that the contentswas oil: Hd 2 fromthe 4th centuryB.C. seemsto say that the oil is for external rather Hd 4 and Hd 18, of the 1stand 3rdcenturies thaninternal havethe sameabbreviation, use; respectively,
inai(ov). The three dipinti, on the other hand, indicate the kind or quality of the oil: on He 7 pamrpl(avE-

or Aaiov) radishoil, weighing20 5/12 litrai(6.676kg.), is equatedwith27 kotyles(7.3711., of whichthe oil weightis 9/10 or 6.655 kg.); on He 15 the priceis givenfor what may be secondqualitywhiteoil; on He 32 oil-leesor Tpu(yla), weighingnine litrai(2.943kg.), occupiesa vessel of ca. 3.300 1. capacity (oil weightof a 3.276 1. chousis 9/10 or 2.943kg.). Fivejarsaremarked honeypots, eitherimplicitly explicitly. as or in of Implicit the combination Hd 6's weightnotationwith its capacityis the fact that its contentswas honey:that is, the 14 litrai(4.578kg.) on indicated the shoulder couldbe contained the ca. 3.200 1. capacityonly if the contents'weightwas in notedas contentsof threeotherjars: sufficient 4/3 that of wine(4/3 x 3.052 = 4.578).Honey is explicitly tracesof the word Hymettos twice on He 29 and combinewith the noted net weightto confirm appear the natureof the contents.On He 33 and He 34 the genitiveof honey(iX1iTos) followedby the weight is in litrai.Somewhat different He 36, whichnotesthenumber xestaiof "tawny is of honey"(tavS9ou pLArtos). Thevarietyof miscellaneous contentsis great,ranging fromfish-sauce to (garumn) milk(yaXa).Perhaps most certainare the threejarsmarkedas containing Italianmillet:He 23, He 24 (iEEI6'v(oS) --= AivoS = Two ab p0ivr%, LSJ); He 41 e?Aivns. vesselsprobablycontainedgarum:Hd 3 reads coc(tum) Auso( ), a usedfor fish-sauce L.L., IV,2576,2643, 5671 9418f.);the ligature employing formulaelsewhere (C. ff., of Hd 8 may be reasonably resolvedas yap(ou).Preparations a medicalnaturemay perhapsbe seen of in Hd 11 ("20partsdarnelto four partsasparagus") Hd 21 ("diuretic"). and MorepuzzlingareHd 14, a cookie-jar in the senseof "goodies,"andHd 19 which shapewiththe inscription -rafyvia,presumably readsSEarac(thingsput up? that is, preserves?). The Sacrra Hd 16 are most likely liquids,and the of is are or inscription to alertthe readereitherto the fact that dry materials elsewhere that the measure label in contrastto the (30 units)is wet ratherthan dry. Hd 22 readsy6Aa, a clearand unambiguous of Kaprrou He 17. generalized Four other vessels show notationswhich may well be of contents,but certainidentification not is sincethe abbreviations difficult resolve.TheKopl( ) of He 44 maybe something are to flavored possible with coriander. The ycovo( ) and C&Ti( of I 11 and I 12 seemto parallelthe &dilvv( whichappears ) ) in nine otherTax Notation texts and so mightbe wine. No expansionof 'covo( ) suggestsitself, but either i&-aTov arT-nris is possible for I 12. On 142 pev[ ]/vEXi[ (either or both) could also be wine: or Mendaean. honeyed It is possiblethat in Miscellaneous and Unclassified Notationslurk otherindications conof (K) (L) tentswhichhavenot beenrecognized. otherpossibilities Ha 1, Ha 16 andHa 40. For see

74

H. COMMERCIAL NOTATIONS Sincethe jar holds 3.200 1., the contentscan weigh 14 litrai (4.578 kg.) only if it is honey, whichis four-thirds weightof wine or water. the of Four-thirds 3.200 gives only 4.264 kg., but it seems likely that althoughthis was only a scant chous (properly3.276 1.) it was thought of as six xestai,whichmay have been indicated in the largelyfaded second line. Six xestai of wine were ten litrai; six xestai of honey would be 13% litrai, which might in turn have been called 14 litrai. Thereis no questionof the 14 litraibeing the weightof the jar, whichis only 1.100kg.

Hd 1 (P 11021).PI.41. Upperpart of 5th-century B.C.type wine amphora.Dipinto in black on shoulder. Context: last quarter 5th century B.C. (B 15:1). Hesperia,XVIII, 1949, p. 336, no. 102,pls. 97, 98. A V Last quarter cent. B.C. 06rXos i.e., 6Oos for Sigma-chi xi is found also on ostrakaof Kallixenos; see Hesperia,XIX, 1950, p. 387, be no. 22. Alphamayperhaps takenas a number indicatingcapacity(one amphoraor metretes) or quality.

and Hd 2 (P 20294).PI.41. Partof shoulder upper Graffitowritten Hd 7 (P 3058). PI.41. Upper part of amphora wallof small black-glazed olpe. vertically. like Robinson, Chronology, 197. Dipinto in G black on shoulder. Context: Ist-early 3rd 1 oTi IV cent. B.C. T-r]O TO roOr4([sial& Tfi T]aXafrT[pas century(J 12:1). KV ( ) Restorationis not certain but for example I-II cent. only. PerhapsKcxv&apirls but other possibiliolvos, ties exist: owner'sname;Kav(Sliov) KviS8ov; for Hd 3 (P 7529). PI.41. Amphora of late Koan etc. F type, like Robinson,Chronology, 93. Dipinto in black on shoulder.Context:late 1st century Hd 8 (P 13601).P1.41. Amphorapreservedonly B.C. to early 1st century (D 11:1). H. 0.72m.; to shoulder.Dipinto in red on shoulder.ConD. 0.275m. text:mid-lst to mid-2nd century 19:2). (N Late I cent. B.c.-earlyI cent. Mid-Ito mid-IIcent. (ligature) y&p(ou) coc(tum)ab Auso[ ab Probably (garum)coc(tum) Auso[ . This Hd 9 (P 21381). PI.41. Neck and shoulder of H plainamphora use of the participleis not knownto me from (=Robinson, Chronology, 20). Context:firsthalf but Dipintoin blackon shoulder. elsewhere, the ablativeof agencywithfac2nd century(P 8: 1). turnis familiarfrom Pompeii;e.g., C.I.L., IV, 5671ff.: g(arum) f(actum)ab Umbricio. Firsthalf II cent. (illegible) (illegibleov Hd 4 (P 15380). P1.41. Small jug with rounded (illegible) body, narrowneck and ridgedhandle.Graffito Thatis, raisinwine.Cf. C.LL.,IV, 5594. on shoulder. Context: 1st century (R 21:2). Hd 10 (P 10064). P1.41. Upper part of widemouthed amphora. Dipintoin blackon shoulder. Context: 2nd century (M 18:1). PH. 0.37 m.; Hd 5 (P 9671). P1.41. Top of small coarse amD. 0.25m. G phora, like Robinson, Chronology, 197. DiII cent. KaOapo9u X(iTpa)[ pinto in black on shoulder.Context: lst-2nd centuries 18:1). (M Thatis, weightof contentsnet. Late I-earlyII cent. npa.v[ Hd 11 (P 963). P1.41. Wide-mouthed similar A jar, M to Robinson, Chronology, 118. Dipinto in That is, Pramnianwine. The isolated delta black on shoulder. Context: late 2nd-early may relateto capacityor quality. 3rd centuries(I16:1). H. 0.23m.; D. 0.18m. Hd 6 (P 12373). P1.41. Wide-mouthed K' amphora LateII-earlyIII cent. aipco(v) similarto Robinson,Chronology, 41. Dipinto M 8' a&orapayou in black on side. Context: late Ist-early 2nd a Apparently decoctionof herbsmade up of centuries (N 20:5). H. 0.195m.; D. 0.188m. 20 parts of darnelto four parts of asparagus. 18' Cf. Dioscorides, 122, 152for uses of the two Late I-earlyII cent. Xi(rpai) II, herbsseparately. (orai) I cent.
.at((ov)

PH. 0.15 m.; D. 0.129 m.

H. COMMERCIAL NOTATIONS

75

Hd 12 (P 965). P1.41. Fragmentfrom neck and Hd 18 (P 5717). PI.41. Shoulderfragmentfrom shoulderof a largeamphora.Dipintoin red on storage amphora. Graffito. Context: dumped shoulder.Context:late 2nd-early3rd centuries fill going into 3rdcentury(E 14:1). (I 16:1). III cent. cat(ov) Late II-earlyIII cent. rro( ) racr(craov) of The significance the second abbreviation Hd 13 (P 17894). PI.41. Small wheel-ridged jug is obscure. M like Robinson,Chronology, 122. Graffitoon shoulder. Context:late 2nd to mid-3rd centuries Hd 19 (P 11198). P1.42. Neck and shoulder (C 20:1). H. 0.201 m.; D. 0.128 m. fragment of amphora with short neck and Late II-mid-III cent. o7vou rounded rim. Dipinto in black on shoulder. Hd 14 (P 9918). P1.41. Wide-mouthedjar (= Context:late 3rd-early4th centuries 14:4). (C Robinson, Chronology,M 118). Dipinto in Late Ill-early IV cent. e0~iaTa black below lip. Context: early 3rd century Preserves? (M 17:1). H. 0.217 m.; D. 0.165 m. EarlyIII cent.
irrayvia

(illegible) Cf. Ephippus,fr. 24 (Kock) for this word listedamongothergood thingsof the table. Hd 15 (P 12359). P1.41. Shoulderfragmentof wheel-ridgedamphora. Dipinto in black on neck behind handle, running down. Context: early3rdcentury(N 20:5). ( EarlyIII cent. &pco )

Hd 20 (P 1027). P1.42. Small storage amphora like Robinson, Chronology,M 237. Dipinto in black on shoulder. Context: 5th century
(I16:1). H. 0.57 m.; D. 0.19 m.

Late IV cent.

A
TEPp(uVaVO6S)

If the dipintorefersto the contents,the word above is most probable.The isolated suggested alphamay referto quantityor quality.

Hd 21 (P 8001).P1.42. Neck and mouth of small amphora. Graffito on lower part of neck. 5583: aroma( ). The gamma may refer to Found with coins of late 4th and 5th centuries. qualityor quantity. IV-V cent. Sioup(rnTlKOv) Hd 16 (P 13605).P1.41. Upper part of amphora withthickrounded narrowneckand sloping Hd 22 (P 14086). P1.42. Amphora preserved lip, only up to shoulder,with squat plump body shoulder. Context: Dipintoin blackon shoulder. and rounded bottom. Dipinto in black and firsthalf of 3rdcentury(P 19:1). on graffito shoulder.Context:5th-6thcenturies Sa'-ra Mid-IIIcent. (P18:1). PH. 0.43m.; D. 0.38m. V-VI cent. (dipinto) y?6a Thatis, liquids:30 (probably litrai). (graffito) p[ Hd 17 (P 25195). PI.41. Amphora with pointed toe similar to Robinson, Chronology, 236. Hd 23 (P 7985). P1.42. Fragmentfrom neck and M of Graffito shoulder. on Dipintoin blackon shoulder.Context:mid-3rd shoulder plainamphora. Late Roman 6&pv( ) century (Q 17:4). Mid-IIIcent. TTp&(pveos or d&iveivov. Perhapsolvos&tiveOiris atiov olvos)
Perhaps &pco(panTis oTvos); cf. C.I.L., IV,

INTRODUCTION COMBINED TO NOTATIONS (He) For the most partthese44 texts are madeup of notationsof capacity,date and contentsand so have Thereare two chief exceptions: notationsof price; alreadybeen discussedalong with those categories. and propernames,perhapsproducers, sellersor owners. The threepricesfromthe Greekperiodarefairlyconsistent are expressed knownterms:about and in or two drachms one didrachm (stater)for eachchousof wine(Ha 5; He 1, He 2). The six possibleprices fromthe Romanperiodare moreuncertain both as readings with regard unitsand values.Three and to seemto employthe asterisk-shaped symbolfor denarius 16, He 17, He 38), but the threepricesfor (He

76

H. COMMERCIAL NOTATIONS

about two choes are two, fifteenand fifteendenarii.The firsttwo amountsof commodities averaging but both date from the 2nd centurywhilethe thirdis fromthe 4th-5th centuries, the commodities may exists. Some conin be different eitherkind or quality,so that no real indicationof pricefluctuation for firmationof the higherpricemay be found in another2nd-century price (He 15): 16 drachms14 a not smalljar (probably morethan two choes)of oil. It may be notedthat in the Edictof Diocletianthe for price-ranges wine and oil are similarto each other. are The two otherpossiblepriceinscriptions evenless certain:200 poMXeis doubledphi may be so (if The amount(He 25, 3rdcentury). 500 taken)for six choes(He 35,4th century); keratiafor an uncertain ten 4th-century follis is variouslyequated(Mattingly,RomanCoins,p. 229) with twenty-four, or four is withthe denarii,makingpossiblepricesper chous of 800, 333 or 133 denarii.Thekeration equated threechoes) so thatthe priceper chousfor the possiblecontentsof He 25 (perhaps siliqua(100denarii) the wouldbe a highlyimprobable 16,666denarii.Furthermore, date of this vessel seemsto be earlier thatkeration usedfor was introduction thesiliqua,so thereis somepossibility of than the Constantinian for denarius 1, per (Metrolog. Script., 274),inwhichcasetheprice chous(at500denarii threechoes)wouldbe makethesepriceandcommodities of The uncertainties readings, about166denarii. cumulative equations see indications suchthey are) of little value.Forwhatmayalsobe price-notations K 8, K 16-18;L 20. (if Thenameswhichoccuron someof thesevesselshavelittlein commonwitheachotherbut canperhaps or be grouped follows:personal as case,whichbeingpaintedon names,eitherabbreviated in the genitive or are most likelyto be originaland so producer sellerratherthan owner(He 6, He 11, He 12, He 14, of which may give the provenience the He 25, He 26, He 28); place-names mostly abbreviated, (?), there are other notationswhich may be serial commodity(He 14, He 18, He 23, He 24). In addition, numbers 8-10, He 19, He 20), one Christian monogram 39) and one text whichmay add to the (He (He an amountdelivered amountstill owed(He 30). He 1 (P 11382).P1.42. Mouth and neck of Mendaean-typeamphora. Graffito on either side of neck. Context:thirdquarter5th centuryB.C. (R 13:4). Hesperia,XXV, 1956, p. 10, no. 44.
Third quarter V cent. B.C.
X(6ES) 6(6Ka) K(o *Xn) K(OT,XTi)

400-390 B.C. (Q 15:2). Hesperia, XXV, 1956,

p. 17, no. 71, pl. 4.


Early IV cent. B.C. (v&) 8(iKa) A(v&) (a) a&(cpopcos)(vaot) (b) I(vaT)8(ka) (vaT)8(WKa)

58(Ka) r(T'rcrfipEs)

A combination of capacity and price: 10 choes, 2 kotyles; 10 staters. He 2 (P 2366). P1.42. Chian amphora. Graffito on neck, running downward.Context: third quarter5th century B.C. (R 13:4). H. 0.79 m.; D. 0.31m. Hesperia,IV, 1935, p. 496, fig. 17,
no. 86; p. 516, fig. 28; XXV, 1956, p. 12, no. 58. V Thirdquarter cent B.C.
TrVTr)?(s) E(Ys) X(s) 8EKarrTrapEs

The two weightsshouldbe tare and net. On a goods-mna of 457 gm.15 the jar will have weighed5.484kg. and the contents9.140 kg. If the contentswas wine, the capacitymust have been less than three choes (9.828 1.); if oil, rather more (three choes of oil would weigh only 8.845 kg.); the breadthof the shoulders less makesa dry material likely. He 4 (P 21792). P1.43. Body of large cylindrical amphora,missing bottom, handles and neck. Dipinto in black on shoulder.Context: early 1st century(R 10:1). PH. 0.652m.; D. 0.305m.
Late I cent. B.C. MO(DII) 8'

Both the capacity(sevenchoes) and the price (14 drachms)appearon this jar. In the Chian dialectthe aspiratewouldbe omitted. He 3 (P 23948). PI.42. Upper part of amphora with spreading and broad shoulder.Graffiti lip near base of neck on both sides. Context:

C. FURNIO COS. ANTEA A combination of capacity and date. For of the oppositecombination Greekletterswith see Romannumerals He 19,He 20. Themeaning of anteain this contextis not readilyapparent.

Cf. H. Mat14 The Attic drachmsmay still at this time have been equatedwith the denarius,or at least valued at three-quarters. tingly, RomanCoins,London, 1960, pp. 104, 196f. 16 I.e., 105 coin-drachmsof 4.36 gm. Cf. Agora, X, pp. 2-4.

H. COMMERCIAL NOTATIONS He 5 (P 21788). P1.42. Upper part of large amphorawith angularhandlesand profiledlip. Dipinti between handles on both shoulders. Context:early 1st century(R 10:1).

77

for Thejar is too weakto be measured capacity, but cf. He 10. The numberon the other side might possibly be a date on the Actian era (i.e. A.D. 116), but the doubtfulfirst letter and the comparablenotations on He 9-11 suggest i?'< (a) o'i(KCOiaa) Early I cent. u(vcT) that it mightbetterbe takenas a serialnumber. Xcop.. He 9 (P 12468). P1.44. Amphora of late Koan (b) af(Kco0a) I?'< (val) 1E' F type similar to Robinson, Chronology, 93. Tare is written on both sides; what must Dipinti in red on shoulder(a) and on body on be capacity appears only one side, (xcdbpima ?) below handles (b). Context: second half 1st and the amount(?) is largelyillegible. century(N20:2). H. 0.893m.; D. 0.28 m. with ovoid body, He 6 (P 21789).P1.43. Amphora Late I cent. short neck and angularlip. Dipinto in black e' (no longervisible) (a) Context:early1stcentury 10:1). on shoulder. (R (b) (one side) i6(Siol) y' (monogram) PH. 0.438 m.; D. 0.338 m. (otherside) ,aacs' EarlyI cent. li(Trpai) rl|' For drawingof monogram, He 8, He 10, see AlOWcrvUOVu He 11; see the same for capacity.The second inscription on the body might be a serial The weight of the jar, whichlacks the lower number(1246). thirdof the body, is 4.235kg. or about 13 litrai; 18 litrai are 5.886 kg. Dionysiusis presumably He 10 (P 12469).P1.43. Amphoraof late Koan the nameof produceror seller;for assimilation type like He 9. Dipinti in red on shoulder(a) of the vowel to the ending, cf. Meisterhans2, and on body below handles (b). Context: second half 1st century(N 20:2). H. 0.915m.; p. 22. Theta, which is no longer visible, may D. 0.25 m. give the capacity:nine (choes). Late I cent. He 7 (P 21793). P1.43. Ovoid amphora with (a) (one side) 8' long narrow neck, vertical handles and ring (otherside) o' foot. Dipinti in black on both shoulders. (b) (one side) pO6(S6oi) (monogram) y' Context:early1stcentury 10:1).H. 0.447m.; (R (otherside) ,iu8o' D. 0.217m. Compare He 8, He 9, He 11 for capacity. EarlyI cent. The second inscriptionon the body (with the (a) iaTrp(avcXatov) X(Txpai)K'o()y(Kiai) e' horizontal stroke above the first two letters) (b) ]K' might be a very large number(10,474) or an The lower part of the kappa in (a) is lost in abbreviation the name (?) which appearsin of the break; the abbreviationof ounce is an the same position on He 11. The capacity of angular C-shapedgamma with omicron. The thejaris 27.3201.; threemodiiare26.2081. jar holds 7.400 1. Twenty-sevenkotyles of 0.273 1. (as in the second inscription) are He 11 (P 12471).P1.43. Amphoraof late Koan type, like He 9. Dipinti in red on body below 7.371 1.; oil of this amount would weigh handles. Context: second half 1st century 6.633kg., or something over 20 litrai(20 x 327 (N 20:2). H. 0.92 m.; D. 0.285m. gm. = 6.540 kg.). Late I cent. (one side) O6(Stio) (monogram) y' He 8 (P 12361). PI.43. Amphora of late Koan (other side) 'hEpoV8ou type with hornedhandles(= Robinson,ChronCompareHe 8-10 for capacity.The second ology, M 54). Dipinti in red on shoulder(a) inscription mightbe a name,not knownto me, and on bodybelowhandles(b). Context:second or an abbreviation: 'ICpoV 5OV(?ou). half 1st century (N 20:2). H. 0.775m.; D. 0.305m. He 12 (P 13617).P1.44. Upperpart of late Koan amphora, similar to Robinson, Chronology, LateI cent. (a) (one shoulder) E' F 93. Dipinto in red on neck inside handle. (othershoulder) U' (b) (oneside)1o6(81ot)(monogram) Context:late 1st century(P 19:1). PH. 0.44 m.; y' D. 0.23 m. (other side) .ps"' Aiav( ) The letters epsilon and zeta are probably Late I cent. Ks"' X(irpai) numbers.The monogrammay be read as the numberthree and the abbreviation modius. of Combination personalname (?) with tare. of

78

H. COMMERCIAL NOTATIONS

The next sign is certainlythat for denarius, He 13 (P 3297). P1.44. Upper part of large early with two strokes following presumablyindiRoman amphora with neck tapering toward and handles ribbed. Dipinti in green on catingthe price. top neck (a) and shoulder (b). Context: lst-2nd He 17 (P 10067). P1.44. Amphora similar to centuries 11:1). (F Robinson, Chronology,L 31 but fuller and I cent. earlier.Dipinto in black on shoulder;graffito (a) T'(oc(aov) i' on neck above. Context: lst-2nd centuries (b) ]>' o(U)y(Kiat) (M 18:1). H. 0.346 m.; D. 0.225 m. The first notation is here taken as contents, *lE' II cent. (dipinto) Kp.a ouv i.e., raisin wine; there are obviously other i.' Ko(riXat)K6(a6os) for which compare possibilities(e.g., TaAcai6s, (graffito) 'Ill!i vet(us)in C.LL., IV, 5526, 5536-8, etc.). The 10 ounces) in the second weight (40 litrai, The price of the contents is 15 denarii;the notationmay be either tare or net weight; no capacity,now measuredas 5.500 1. to the lip, similarjar survives completeto be measured. is just over 191/6 kotyles of 0.273 1. (5.233 1.). The weightof the vessel is 2.185 kg., or someHe 14 (P 12460).PI.44. Ovoidjar preserved only over six litrai (1.962kg.), as the six and up to shoulder.Dipinto in black on shoulder. thing (?) tally strokesindicate.(If it is 151/6 one-half Context: early 2nd century (N 20:5). PH. kotyles they must be half of 0.728 1. xestes 0.28 m.; D. 0.25 m. [l51/, x 0.364 1.- 5.520 1.].) 'Epeveas Early II cent. orra(pvoi)KOX?ou He 18 (P 7925). P1.44. Shoulderfragmentfrom between and seven hold 'lar jars six an amphora.Dipinto in black. Context: late Similar jars hold between six and seven (D 2nd-early3rdcenturies 12:1). liters so that these three stamnoi of Kyllos of Late II-earlyIII cent. Aug(usti)N(onae) Ereneiamight be like those reportedby Epivas stig(matum) phanius (Metrolog. Script., II, 102) to hold vin(um)saec( ) car( ) four xestai each. Twelve xestai are 6.552 1. vil(la) Terg(estina) Whether Kyllos made jars or wine is unare The expansionsof the abbreviations not certain.The name,not attestedat Athens,may certain but seem to give date, contents and nickname. be a meaningful provenience. He 15 (P 17128). PI.44. Rim and neck of an He 19 (P 11992).PI.44. Large Roman amphora amphora. Dipinti in black on shoulder (a) with pear-shaped body like Robinson,Chronoland base of neck on other side (b). Context: M 14 but longerbodyand almostno neck. ogy, early2nd century(B 20:1). Dipinti in red on neck (a) and below (b). (a) &/pyi/e?( ) Early II cent. Context:earlyRoman(R 19:2). IS' &pyuvpicov II-III cent. (a) X X V (see drawing) (b) BaerEpos down (written (b) 01 the side) The first letters may be &pyti&(atov) or white oil, a word not attested but analogous For Romannumeralswrittenin this fashion and in meaningwith in form with &yptiAaos to see J. Egbert,Introduction the Studyof Latin The price is apparently 16 apyf-rosXAaiou. Inscriptions,New York, 1923, p. 75. It is as drachms;for &pyupis drachm, see Heraunlikely that the number indicates capacity, clidesLembicus,frag.6. The secondinscription which can not be measuredbecausethe jar is may describethe qualityof the contentsor the both weakand very large,since25 choes is too positionof the jar in some series. muchand 25 xestaitoo little. It is most likelya serialnumber.The secondinscription may be a He 16 (P 11634). P1.44. Amphora (=Robinof wine, or even a number. M son, Chronology, 90). Graffitoon shoulder. trade mark, kind Cf. He 20. Context: second half 2nd century (M 17:1). H. 0.36 m.; D. 0.254 m. He 20 (P 12991).P1.44. Large Roman amphora like He 19. Dipintiin red on neck(a) and body, (see drawing) Secondhalf II cent. runningdown the side (b). H. 0.95 m.; D. 0.40 m. Since the capacityof the jar is 7.000 1., it is II-III cent. (a) X X I I I possible that the first two strokes stand for (b) AO two choes (6.552 1.) and the two crossed Cf. He 19. strokes for two additionalkotyles (0.546 1.).

H. COMMERCIAL NOTATIONS He 21 (P 10247). PI.44. Ovoid jar with one handle, short neck and projectinglip ridged on top. Dipinto in red on shoulder.Context: 3rd century(B 14:1). H. 0.362m.; D. 0.255m.

79

The name in the genitive may be the producer; the tare of 15 litrai is possiblebut can not be demonstratedbecause of the jar's presentstate. It may be that the thirdline gives the price:500keratia(see above,p. 76). Mid-III cent. Trav(Tracva) olvou Ky' pjeAtrirvov He 26 (P 9675). PI.45. Amphora with ovoid (two lines illegible) body taperingto ring foot. Dipintiin black on ravwra- shoulder(a) and body (b). Context: 3rd cenThe inscription combinescapacity (33 vai = TprpAila kotyles)and contents(honeyed tury (N 18:5). PH. 0.425m.; D. 0.26 m. or wine).The capacityof the jar is 8.250 1. to the III cent. ,u' (a) A / Mf(Tpai) base of the neck, which is broken above; 33 X(Trpat)Iy' kotylesof 0.273 1. are 9.009 1. (b) Up&(vvEos) TT]oXuKn() He 22 (P 9897). P1.44. Small amphora(= RobThe capacityof the jar is ca. 13 1.; if the jar M inson, Chronology, 199). Dipinto in black held wine, the net weightwould be just about Context:late 3rdcentury 17:1). on shoulder. (M 40 litrai(13.0801.). The secondweightmust be H. 0.295m.; D. 0.188m. tare; 13 litrai is 4.251 kg.; the jar, without LateIII cent. mouth and handles, now weighs 4.550 kg.; 0M7'KC0i(arTOS) X{(Tpat) y' o(O)y(Kiat) rI' presumablythere is considerablenon-soluble Kaeap(ou)Xi(Tpai)i' of depositinside.The identification the contents or is uncertain, is the nameof producer seller. as The vessel weighs 1.116 kg.; three litrai and is eightouncesare 1.199kg. Thecapacity 3.3001. He 27 (P 9676). PI.45. Upper part of amphora, to the lip; ten litrai of wine or water would similarto He 26. Dipinto in black on shoulder. weigh3.270kg. and havea volumeof 3.270 1. Context: 3rd century (N 18:5). PH. 0.375m.; D. ca. 0.28 m. He 23 (P 26599). P1.45. Amphora,lackingneck, with slender ovoid body and pointed toe. III cent. (DaEApv(6s) Dipinto in black on shoulder. Context: late (see drawing) 3rd century(Q 17:7). PH. 0.51 m.; D. 0.238m. The secondline is veryobscure. He 28 (P 17799).P1.45. Upper part of amphora &rro ,EsATiv(os) Mecco( ) with handles from shoulder to midThis and the following are writtenin differ- neck.arching in blackon shoulder. Dipinto ent hands but have the samedate. The context III cent. Oeo9 ( ) date of the jars is late 3rd century,so that the Q' di(Trpa) era on which the date is based must have its KOl?p(oU) in Combinationof name and tare, if reading beginning the secondhalf of the 1st century. is correct. Unfortunately,the name of the persons or places from which the millet comes are so uncertainthat the era can not be localized. He 29 (P 11195). P1.45. Fragmentaryamphora similarto Robinson,Chronology, 31. Dipinto L in black on shoulder; graffito near handle. He 24 (P 26601). PI.45. Amphora with ovoid Context: 3rd-4th centuries (C 14:4). PH. body, tall neck and vertical handles; bottom 0.336 m.; D. 0.223 m. missing. Dipinto in black on shoulder. Context: late 3rd century (Q 17:7). PH. 0.54 m.; III-IV cent. (graffito) A((Tpai) AP3' D. 0.235m. (dipinto) ] Xi(-rpac)6'
Late III cent. Tr(os) p96'
&Tr6 IE]XATv(os) TpwKcop( ) ] Xi(rpai) Ky'
] ...TTOU

Late III cent.

ET(os) p95'

See He 23. He 25 (P 7405). PI.45. Upper part of amphora K similar to Robinson, Chronology, 112. Diin blackon shoulder. pinto III cent. TRAivfov
KOVT( ) X(irpa) iE'

CYP.TCO tI.AT]OS

K?( ) q'

the Presumably graffitogivesthe total weight of jar and contents(32 litrai).The first line of the dipinto must be the weight of the jar (9 litrai)and the secondthe weightof the contents (23 litrai). The presentweight and capacityof the jar provide some confirmationfor these figures although it is very much restored in

80

H. COMMERCIAL NOTATIONS

plaster(whichis lighterthan clay) and still has He 33 (P 11301).PI.46. Upper part of small no mouth. The jar weighs 1.935 kg. (instead amphora, similar to Robinson, Chronology, on M 238.Dipintoin blackandgraffiti shoulders. of 2.943kg.) andholdsca. 5.5001. Evenwithout Context:4th century(G 11:2). the two words which may be most convincwe ingly restored as 'YI-rITTO, should have 1illl on IV cent. (graffito one shoulder) known that the contentswas honey, since the on (graffito othershoulder) illIllI metrologicalwriters emphasizethe fact that (dipinto, now largely illegible) OM honey weighsheavierby a thirdthan an equal Ai(rpal)s.'< 6oarp(xKou) litrai quantityof wine or water. Twenty-three IAlITOS K5'< Ai(Trpa) of honey (7.521kg.) will fit into a jar which Both tallies and the dipintoindicatethat the holds three-fourthsof 7.521 1. or 5.640 1. jar weighedsix and one-halflitrai.The contents (The jar could not be located for the final based on an earlier weighed24? litrai;and sinceit was honey,the drawing,whichis therefore the capacitymust have been only three-fourths sketch.) amountof wateror wine neededto weighthat withovoidbody He 30 (P 26119).P1.45. Amphora (241/ x 327 gm. = 8.010kg. x 3 = 6.006 1.). and pointedtoe. Dipinto in blackon shoulder. amContext: 4th century (Q 19:1). H. 0.56 m.; He 34 (P 27220). P1.46. Small wheel-ridged M D. 0.30m. phorasimilarto Robinson,Chronology, 238. Dipinto in black on shoulder. Context: 4th LateIII-earlyIV cent. century(E 29:5). l' pEAtT(fvou) / 65px.(a) e' v illegible) The capacityof the jar is 14.1001.; eighteen IV cent. 6arrpKoui(rpai)[(nowpartly IiArTOS A(Trpat)[ xestai of 0.728 1. are 13.1041. It is likely that the contents is honeyed wine (pe^(TIvoSolvos) The numberof litrai is no longer legible on rather than honey; cf. He 21. The above He eitherline, but compare 33. of interpretation the second line is somewhat from speculativeand assumes that the contents of He 35 (P 16728).P1.46. Shoulderfragment in black. Context: large amphora. Dipinto this jar are part payment only of a debt or 4th century(N 21:1). is still shipment of which the greater part IV cent. ]c ca' owing. ]X(?s) s' He 31 (P 9806). P1.45. Amphora(= Robinson, the If the doubled phi stands for qoACTIs, Chronology,M 230). Graffiti on shoulders, on the pricefor six choes (of wine?)will depend front (a) and back (b). Context: early 4th to valueassigned thefollis; see above, particular century(M 17:1). H. 0.44 m.; D. 0.285m. p. 76. IE' (a) 6ca<>Trp6Kou A(Trpal) EarlyIV cent. (b) &v.( )11111 He 36 (P 25175). P1.46. Amphora similar to M of 5.125 kg. is somewhat Robinson,Chronology, 234. Dipintoin black The presentweight on shoulder.Context:4th century(Q 17:4). H. of 15 x 327 calculated heavierthan the weight 0.42 m.; D. 0.22 m. gm. = 4.905 kg., probablybecause of large insidethe jar. amountsof pitch IV cent. 7T(AXpcowta) gav.6oU Xr-Tos E(orrai) ty' He 32 (P 12841). P1.46. Tall narrow amphora The expansion of the first letter is only with handles from shoulder to below rim. tentative.The jar holds almost exactly7.098 1. Dipinto in red on neck. Context:4th century or 13 xestaiof the 0.546 1. capacity. (O 19:1). H. 0.542m.; D. 0.17 m. He 37 (P 124).PI.46. Neck and shoulder fragment 0' Second half IV cent. A(i{rpat) of a small wheel-ridgedamphora similar to Tpuv(yia) M Robinson,Chronology, 238. Dipintoin black on lower neck and shoulder, now almost The weight is not tare, since the jar weighs faded. completely only 2.480 kg., or only about seven and oneIV-V cent. 6o-p[&aKov half litrai. The capacity,however,is just about ikTpa) s' one chous (3.300 1.), and althoughone chous of wine weighs ten litrai, one chous of oil The inscription combines tare, capacity, weighsnine. Hesychios(s.v.) providesevidence and perhapsa date in the era of Diocletian: for of the use of rpuyyia oil as well as for wine. 139 =A.D. 423. The phi is unexplained.

H. COMMERCIAL NOTATIONS He 38 (P 11357). P1.46. Upper part of small wheel-ridgedamphora. Graffiti on shoulders. Context:4th-5th centuries 15:5). (E IV-V cent. (one shoulder) e'< (othershoulder) IE' for (see drawing othersigns) The jar is smallenoughso that five and onehalf (litrai) may represent tare; the other inscriptionmay be either price or the weight of the contents. He 39 (P 12866). P1.46. Wheel-ridged amphora M similar to Robinson, Chronology, 333. Dipinti in red on shoulder(a) and inside handle on neck (b); graffito on neck. Context: 5th century(O 19:1). H. 0.464m.; D. 0.235m. V cent. (dipinto)(a) (chi-rhomonogram)
( o-raTvo ) / IL'<

81

LateV-earlyVI cent.
(a) (b) (c) (orTal) XXV wIEXivns 'IouvlouiZ' PTi(v6s) 'rr6 wTp9eOTco Tro Tro EcoS

The capacity is 14.530 1., very close to 25 x 0.546 1. (13.460 1.). The contents was apparentlymillet. The date of the month is clear,and the line below seemsto be a perfectly command:"Let him put it up for sale from date is to convey that June 17 is the terminal -TO0 date; in that case &rr6 must be "now." It is also possible that the dipinto has been lost at the end. He 42 (P 1567).P1.47. Shoulder fragmentof amM phora similarto Robinson,Chronology, 333. Dipinti in red on shoulder(a) and on neck behindhandle(b). VI cent. (a) ] \i' 3" (b) rp(6) i5[cov
EnTv(tEi.aEcos).

this (time) until the ...." Perhaps the line which appears to connect the ecows to the TOU

(b) (almostillegibleand not drawn) 5' (graffito) t' o(*)y(K(ai) the Despite what is apparently name of the this a modius jar (stamnos), is certainly Cypriote of 17 plus xestai(Metrolog. Script.,I, 263, 272), i.e., 9.646 1.; its capacityis 9.800 1. to the lip. The almost illegible dipinto (b) might be the
abbreviation for TriVEwpiIEcos; He 42. The cf.

For the capacitysee He 39. For the date by


indiction year see Tax Notations (I 1-45); here

however useappears be different. its to present weight of the jar (somewhat light because restored in plaster) is 3.165kg.; ten He 43 (P 4618). P1.47. Amphoraneck. Graffito litraiand four ouncesare 3.383kg. and dipintoin red. He 40 (P 26104).PI.47. Miniature amphorasimiRoman (graffito) (rra]oe(lbs) Ai(Tpa) iy'< lar in shape to Robinson, Chronology, 306. M in blackjust above toe ring. Context: (dipinto) KpI Dipinto 4th-5th centuries (Q 19:1). H. 0.24 m.; D. The first gives tare, carelesslyscratchedby 0.115m. the owner, and the second gives capacity, V cent. oc(a90o6s) &rra(ao'aov) X' P' o(O)y(kiai) formally painted by producer or seller. The presumedsize of the amphorais compatible The actual weight of the jar is 648 gm. or with a weight of 131/2 litrai and a capacityof two litrai (654 gm.). The capacity very nearly 22 xestai(12.0121.). is 0.830 1. or slightlyover 30 ounces(0.818 1.). The abbreviation taken here as contentsmight be somethingelse. Particularly notable is the He 44 (P 22833). P1.47. Wall fragmentof amphora.Two dipintiin black. location of the dipinto, suggestingthat it was to be read while the jar lay undisturbed a on Roman Kov[ shelfwith only the toe visible. Kopi( ) g((orat) O' He 41 (P 12707). P1.47. Amphora with ovoid The first line might be the producer's name, M body similarto Robinson, Chronology, 235. but since it is in a differenthand it might be Dipinto in red on neck (a); in blackbelow (b); the contents of second use: e.g., KovSeITOv. in black on shoulder (c). Context: late 5thThe second must give contents,whethersomeearly 6th centuries (O 19:1). H. 0.482 m.; thing flavoredwith corianderor a tradename D. 0.293m. like Corinthian.

82

I. TAX NOTATIONS

I. TAX NOTATIONS Thetypicaltextin this grouphas two elements: indictiondateandan estatename.Oneor the other an elementis missingon somevessels,perhaps becauseit was wornawayor becauseof a missingfragment, but it is both possibleand probable that on all except 1 both wereoriginally present.In almosthalf of 1 the texts something furtherhas been addedto the two elements,but since these additionsare far less below. uniform constantthanthe indictiondateand estatename,theymaybe considered and separately number. of Theindictiondateis most oftenexpressed an abbreviation by rirwpiouatsl andan alphabetic Of the 37 textswhichpreserve datein wholeor in part35 showthis form;the two variantsseemto the numerals 12, 44). The use the Latinwordspelledwith Greekletters,i. e., TvSu bvwith alphabetic (I l over the nu; next most of is often abbreviation brtvrivnrisl most?irivE( ) with the epsilon suspended an is frequent -rriv() with or withouta strokeover the nu. Thereare two exceptions: earlytext gives in oftenwrittenin this order,but theyare reversed fourexamples 17, I 24, 39,143). Forthe chronol(I I cyclesto ogy of indictioncycles,seeKubitschek, 106ff.;it is not possibleto identifythe particular pp. on whichthe yearsinscribed the jars belong. of formXcopiov. Of the 33 textswhichseem The estatenameis most oftenprefaced an abbreviated by fourlackthis partof the text (9, 10, I 23, to use this formula,27 showa chi witha suspended I omega; 1 38); the variantsare Xcop(rov)32) and X(co)p(fou) 45). Anotherformulaappearson threevessels (I (I withthe genitiveplural(14) or withabbreviations11, 12). fromthe early4th and 5th centuries: Tro ( I a
Often the estate names with Xcpiou too are abbreviated,but those given in full are all in the genitive case And since some of these are 31,132,134,36-38,140,141). 19,110,119,120,123-25,127-29, (15, 1 itself is in the genitive case. Concerning estate names adjectives, it may be right to assume that Xcopiou (I Trr( ) EK&rris4); a late and laconic one gives (rri)ve( ) (I 27). The numbers from ia to iEare most

from Lesbos G., XII 2, the (I. inscriptions generally best sourcesare II112, 2776 and the cadastral .LG., 76ff.), Astypalaia G., XII 3, 180ff.), Thera(L.G.,XII 3, 343ff.), Kos(L. G. R. P., IV, 1083),Tralles (.L seemto be of inscriptions, Berlin,1900,no. 122).Estatenameson thesejars, like those in the cadastral to variouskinds.Most have reference naturalfeaturessuch as a spring(127), or hills (14, 5), the sea I 33, 35), kinds of trees (119, 34, 45) or some more generalaspectof the scene (118, I 36, I 37, (1 I I I I I I 40, 41, 43). A few are known by the namesof persons(120, 25), officials(19), nearbyshrines I to or name(123). Manyaretoo abbreviated uncertain be categorized. or a relevant place (128, 29,131) I makesclear the sortfoundin the tax registers The combination indictiondatesand estatenamesof of for the originalfunctionof thesevesselsas containers taxesin kindpaidin varioustax yearsby various estates.It was Diocletianwho institutedthe systemof annualpaymentsin kind based on elaborate indiction of of censusrecords the sortwe havefromLesbos,etc., but the actualbeginning the fifteen-year date from the that our earliesttax notations cyclescame only in A. D. 3121 so that it is no coincidence
early 4th century.2 (B. C. H., IV, 1880, pp. 336-338) and Magnesia (0. Kern, Inschriften von Magnesia am Maeander,

of the on Not only do the inscriptions thejars indicatethat they represent payment taxesin kindbut of concentration the inscribed in and aroundone buildingsuggeststhe use to also the remarkable jars of whichthe contentsmusthavebeenput. Twenty-five thejarsbelowwerefoundin wellslocatedin four or of the Agora grid(0-P 18-19);3fifteenmore were found in squareseitheradjacent one resquares
1 For a general discussion of indictionesor annual levies in kind see A. H. M. Jones, The Later RomanEmpire,Oxford, 1964,
pp. 61ff., 448ff.
2 1 is included in this group because it employs the estate abbreviation,but the differentform of the vessel and its late 3rdcenturydate set it apart from the rest of the series. P 18: I 35-37, 141 80 18: I 17-19, 123,124,128-34 P 19:19,120-22,125,126 019:15,16,115

I. TAX NOTATIONS

83

in The 0-P 18-19with some outmoved.4 building questionis a LateRomanstructure mostlyin squares in adjacent Thelargesize of the building makeslikelya publicfunction;its domestic lyingparts squares. features(wells, courtyards) suggestthat it was no tax collector'swarehouse;and the presenceof so inscribed in the wellsmay indicatethat they wereemptiedon the spot. Somekind of official many jars householdwith a largeresidentpopulationis likely,eithercivil or military,to whom the taxes in kind could have been issuedas rations. Of the other notationson these jars the most frequentis probablythat indicatingcontents.Nine vessels(I 7, I 10, I 16, I 19, I 20, I 25, I 29, I 40, I 45) show some form of 'ALcvaos,5 wine so called a fromthe veryspecialvines(Pliny,N. H., XIV, 4, 21) originally grownin Aminaea,a regionin Picenum,
but later grown everywhere(loc. cit., 4, 36). The presumptionis that only special wines were labeled, but

that all these similarvesselshad wine as theircontents.The otherabbreviations whichmightbe special


wines are: a&wr() (I 12); irpap( ) (I 13); pev[ ] pEXt[ 42). (I

or Capacity net weightis notedon 15,110, I 12,118,121,123,124,126,132. Tareappears only on wholenotationsof date occuron I 17, I 23, I 44. All these are discussed the introductions the in to 17, Additional unexplained and notationsarefoundon 1 8,111,124. appropriate categories. The jars on which all these inscriptions appearare of four main types; only the first and the last threeothers(18, I 10, I 14) are too fragmentary be classified. to different; (I 1, I 45) are demonstrably Withinthe general the variations fabricandin the thin-glaze in washandthe slightdifferences uniformity in the treatment feet and handlesseemto indicatea varietyof proveniences of whichcoincideswell with the interpretation thesejars as paymentof taxes in kind from variousestatesin a fairlylargearea. of The largestgroup(TypeI)6 is made up of tall jars with narrownecksand one handle.Next most numerousarethejars(TypeII)7withtwo handlesandovoidbodynarrowing to sharply a smallpointedtoe: thesebelongto the late 5th and 6th centuries seemto havereplaced thirdtype.Thejars of Type and the III8are similarto those of Type II exceptthat they have a smallring foot. Fewestof all are the twohandledjars (Type IV)9of soft orangeclay with wheel-ridged body taperingalmost withouta curve from the shoulderto the toe. Becauseof the generaluniformity only of shapesbut also of contexts not for thesevessels,it seemsunnecessary give individual to contextdates.Instead,the type as in the above classification given. is All inscriptions writtenon the shoulder thejar withblackpaintunlessindicated are of otherwise.

I 1 (P 9681). P1.48. Rim and wall fragmentof 1 3 (P 9808). P1.48. Amphorawith ovoid body on false ring foot (= Robinson, Chronology, pithos. Dipinto in black on upper wall. Context: N 18:5. M 233).TypeIII. Context:M 17:1. H. 0.466m.; D. 0.271m. Late III cent. Xco(piou) P9[ EarlyIV cent. frrl(VEPoC?os)1' 1 2 (P 12261).P1.48. Amphorawith ovoid body, similar Robinson,Chronology, 40, P 16704. I4 (P10265). P. 48. Narrow-necked to pl. ovoid jar Early variant of Type II. Context: N 20:5. with one handle and small flat bottom, preH. 0.515 m.; D. 0.254m. decessor of
Early IV cent.
E' wnMv(Elacrscos)

Robinson, Chronology, M 315. I. Context: M 18:4. PH. 0.54 m.; D. Type

(traces)
4 M 17: I3 M 18: I4,I16

0.26 m.

N 18: I1 Q 17: I27,139,140,144,145 N20:1 2, I17 Q 19:I43 N21: I10-12 5 Various forms: 'Avivvios(Ed. Diocl., 2,4); 'AgvvaTos(Diosc. 5,19); 'ApivaTos (Hesych. s.v.); 'AlpivaTos (Geoponica, VIII, 22,1). 6 1 4, 1 5, 17, I 25-40. See Robinson, Chronology, 315 for a late example. M 71 20-24, I 41-43. For early variants (I 2, 1 9) see Robinson, Chronology, 40, P 16074; M 236. pl. 8 3, I 6, I 13, 15-19. See 1I M Robinson, Chronology, 233, M 302, M 324. 1 M 9I 11, 12. See Robinson, Chronology, 334.

84

I. TAX NOTATIONS
8' Late IV-V cent. e[Tnv(E1direcos)]
S' EXAscO[Vo]vErTv(q.e?aecoS)
?7r(IVE|jirCOS) SEKOTTis

EarlyIV cent. &oT6 TptKoXcbvcov The variantforms of both estate nameand indictiondatemarkthis out as an earlyexample, "Threehills" perhapsbefore standardization. seemsa possiblenamefor an estate.

It is not clearthat anythinglike xco(piou) or Tor6 writtenin front of the wordfor "stewwas ards." It mightbe that the jar was markednot with its proveniencebut with its prospective users-a specialvintagetoo good for ordinary I 5 (P 12874). P1.48. Narrow-necked ovoid jar rations. with one handleand small flat bottom, similar to 14. Type I. Context: 019:1. H. 0.562m.; I 10 (P 15766).PI.49. Walland shoulder fragment of amphora with ovoid body. Context:N 21: 1. D. 0.228m. ---]avcov EarlyIV cent. ]trr]w(Fioicos) 'A!uiv(vaTos) y' Xco(piou) Pouvo-v EarlyV cent. [xco(piou) 0' 1S' E(aoTai) E IKE' lv(E?4o'6COs) t13' Gamma is probably right for the date, The beginning of the estate name, which althoughit is obscuredby a diagonal stroke, seemsto be genitiveplural,is lost. The contents which may indicatethat the previousword is follow on the same line. In the secondline the abbreviatedor that the gamma itself is a Ev For number. the estatename,cf. Bouvvs BapOp number27 seems to be too large for capacity (27 xestai are 14.742 1.) or tare (27 litrai are from Tralles(B.C.H.,IV, 1880,pp. 336ff.) and 8.829kg.); it couldbe the weightof the contents Bouviov(Kern, Inschriftenvon Magnesia am no. Maeander, 122); the referenceis obviously (i.e., 8.829 kg. would be about 16 xestai of wine). The theta betweenthe lines is probably topographical.The jar now holds 7.800 1.; the numbernine, but its application obscure. is 14 xestaiof 0.546 1. are 7.644 1. I 6 (P 12827).PI.48. Amphorawith ovoid body I 11 (P 15784).PI.49. Tall amphorawith wheeland smallringfoot, similarto 1 3 but plumper. ridged body taperingto pointed bottom, like M Robinson, Chronology, 334. Type IV. ConType III. Context: 0 19:1. H. 0.47m.; D. text: N21:1. H. 0.59 m.; D. 0.20m. 0.308m. ca' EarlyV cent. i]-rrv(e6icr?cos)ycovo( ) LateIV cent. Xco(piov)Trr() Ka( ) arr6 OUIK ) AA ( Note that the dots above upsilonand kappa The word after the indiction year might be It whether abbreviations. is unclear mayindicate expectedto give the kind of wine but seemsnot the estatenameis made up of two words,e.g., the or whether secondelement to be otherwiseknown. For the abbreviated uvnr6 Ka(XXipp6Ov) at might be a number, e.g., Xco(piou) Cr(&rou), estate name cf. BtKtavos Magnesia on the Maeander(Kern, loc. cit. [I 5]). The reading 21, perhaps indicating capacity. of and interpretation the followingtwo letters ovoid jar 1 7 (P 12262). P1.48. Narrow-necked are uncertain. similarto I 4. Type I. Context: N 20:5. PH. I 12 (P 16679). PI.49. Upper part of amphora 0.465m.; D. 0.238m. like I 11. TypeIV. Context:N 21: 1. E' IV cent. bivs(lio'aEcos) 'Apuv(valos) EarlyV cent. 1p' XE(iTpat) 18' Xf(Tpai) K' aTr( ) v58(1<KTicvos) The jar, which lacks mouth and bottom, &rr6 NoT( ) weighs2.950kg. The 12 litraiof the secondline, (graffito) OY if this readingis correct,are 3.924kg. Line 1: the numberafter the abbreviation is 1 8 (P 3002). P1.48. Shoulderfragmentof jar of uncertain;a similarjar (I 11) holds about 20 coarse grayish clay. Found with pottery and litrai. The contents may be &rdiTnrs (pear-wine) coins of 4th century(Q 15). or nrrta-rov flavoredwith celery).(From (wine IV cent. (traces) of this same well came shoulderfragments two 8' other amphorasof this shape and fabric with ( ]TroT ) 'Tv(e?VCoos) The word abbreviatedbefore the indiction inscriptions in black paint, now illegible: P 16677,P 16678.) yearmay be the estatename. withtapering 1 9 (P 13590).P1.49. Amphora body 1 13 (P 3754). P1.49. Upper part of amphora, M and pointed toe, like Robinson, Chronology, similar to Robinson, Chronology, 302, but with narrow mouth. Type III. Context: late M 236. Early variant of Type II. Context: Roman(I 15:1). P 19:1.

I. TAX NOTATIONS

85

wAx EarlyV cent. Xco(piou) ( ) 1939-71, p. 204) must have influenced even Attic purists. (traces) The ways in whichthe estate name could be 1 20 (P 13433).P1.50. Amphorawith ovoid body completed are various; cf. L 43. The traces and short rounded toe. Type II. Context:
below might be TTp... (vEios). P 19:1. H. 0.385 m.; D. 0.215 m.

I 14 (P 5623). P1.49. Neck fragmentof narrowmouthedjar. Context:N 13:1. V cent. .&rrop[ XCo(p(ou) The indiction year may have been written below.

LateV-VI cent. Xco(piou) lTacrxrrou


r)' 'Ag,vv(aTos) krrivE(pn?oaEcoS)

The estate is apparentlythat of Pasippus; for the single instead of the double consonant in this periodsee Meisterhans2, 73. p. 1 21 (P 13468).P1.50. Amphora,similarto 1 20. I 15 (P 12710).P1.49. Amphorawith ovoid body Type II. Dipinti in both black and red. Consimilar to 1 17. Type III. Context: 0 19:1. text: P 19:1. H. 0.47 m.; D. 0.28 m.
PH. 0.368 m.; D. 0.237 m. 0 V cent. Xco(piou) ( ) Tnve(VrioEcos) cs'

LateV-VI cent.

The first part of the line could as well be ie' (red) (koarat) 0' x6(Es) from the palaeographicalpoint of The capacityis 12.7501., whichis somewhat view, but the certaintyof the indiction date morethan15xestaiof the0.7281.size(10.9201.). easier. The may make the estate interpretation (Dipintinow barelyvisible.) estate may have been known by a number 1 22 (P 13474).P1.50. Amphora,similarto 1 20. ratherthan a name. Type II. Context: P 19:1. PH. 0.42 m.; 1 16 (P 14018).P1.49. Amphorawith ovoid body D. 0.275m. and false ring foot, similar to I 17. Type III. LateV-VI cent. rtlvE(aicrcos) is' Context:M 18:4. PH. 0.37 m.; D. 0.23 m. Traces of letters on the broken edge above Late V-VI cent. ]TrtV(E^Ecrecos) 'Agtvv(aTos) IE' of may be the remnants the estatename. Only indiction year and contents are now I 23 (P 13160). P1.50. Upper part of amphora visible. like 1 20. Type II. Context:0 18:1. 1 17 (P 13178).P1.50. Amphorawith ovoid body LateV-VI cent. and small ring foot, similar to Robinson, KT-eioU s' 6WtV(EPIsco) iE' Ir)(vO6) M Chronology, 324. Type III. Context:0 18:1. MEOivrns [Xoo(piou)] g(Eorat)t'
H. 0.456 m.; D. 0.26 m. o(u)y(Kaa)y

ti3' (black) Triv(6Eio'Ecos) [ Xco(p(ou)

LateV-VI cent. IA(rlvos) nrrve(Iji'aooS)El' a' I 18 (P 13148).P1.50. Amphorawith ovoid body, similar to 1 17. Type III. Context: 0 18:1.
H. 0.407 m.; D. 0.24 m. Late V-VI cent. FwmvE(QcEcos) I' X&)(piou) cyopi(ou)

A complete of similarshapeand approxijar mate size (I 20) holds 6.500 1., so that the presentxestai might have been either size: 10 and 3/20 x 0.546 1. = 5.542 1. or 10 and
3/20 x 0.728 1. = 7.362 1.

I 24 (P 13147). P1.50. Upper part of amphora, similarto I 20. Type II. Dipinto in red. Context: 0 18:1. t' (eorTa) The estate may be oyop<ai>ou; Meister- LateV-VI cent. see hans2, p. 27 for the spelling. The jar holds O6(ios) 7.800 1., whichwouldbe slightlymorethan ten XC)(piou)[.]vouthS rTIVcs(i:aEos) yi' of the 0.728 1. xestai(see above,p. 57). AtOKA( ) AapoKpaTrOS Both the reading and significanceof the 1 19 (P 13158).P1.50. Amphora,similarto I 17. thirdline are uncertain. III. Context: 018:1. PH. 0.39m.; D. Type 0.24 m. 1 25 (P 13465).P1.51. Tall taperedjar with one Late V-VI cent. 'Alvtvv(aTos) handle, like Robinson, Chronology,M 315. P TypeI. Context: 19:1. H. 0.51 m.; D. 0.205m. Xco(piou) Outcovos LateV-VI cent. Xco(plou)MoXrrou The estate name shouldprobablybe read as 'Ati(vvaios) ia' Trtv(6E'cEscos) since in this period the frequent <TT>ucovos interchangeof phi and pi in Egypt and Asia The last word in the first line seems to be a Minor (E. Schwyzer, Gr. Gram., Miinchen, shorterthan usualabbreviation 'Algvvaios. of

86

I. TAX NOTATIONS
Batcov Late V-VI cent. Xco(piou) Cf. xco(piou)Batasin Magnesia (Kern, loc. cit. lI 51). I 35 (P 12863). P1. 52. Tapered jar similar to D. 0.231 m. 0' VI cent. ErivE?(fcrEcos) (traces)
Xco(piou) 'rapa,iou

1 26 (P 13467). P1.51. Tapered jar, similar to 125. Type I. Context: P 19:1. PH.0.535m.; D. 0.198m. a' LateV-VI cent. Trnv(e?fircos)
ai' E(o'rrat)

The capacity is 6.210 1.; 11 x 0.546 1. = 6.006 1. 1 27 (P 25064).P1.51. Tapered similarto I 25. jar, Type I. Context: Q17:4. PH.0.505m.; D. 0.205m.
Late V-VI cent. Xco(piou) -rrniyis
(mI)vE(6or?os) Y

125. Type I. Context: P 18:2. PH. 0.555m.;

(traces)

1 28 (P 13182).P1.51. Taperedjar, missingneck and mouth, similarto 1 25. Type I. Context: 1 36 (P 13063).P1.52. Mouth and neck fragment 0 18:1. PH. 0.432m.; D. 0.225m. of jar like 1 25. Context:P 18:2.
Late V-VI cent. rin[

The traces in the second and fourth lines look like earlier(more faded) versionsof the firstand thirdlines.

p( xco(piou) ) MfOpou Cf. Perhaps Kaivqs? 1 18. The betain the secondline may be a number, e.g., the secondfield of Mithras,or an abbrevi- 137 (P 13065). P1.52. Tapered jar like 1 25.
or or ation of popeioS pcoi6os pouvoXstov. 1 29 (P 13188). P1. 51. Shoulder fragment of jar Type I. Context: P 18:2. PH. 0.465 m.; D. 0.205 m. 18' VI cent. xco(piou) xSv E?hiv(Eraorcos)

VI cent.

Kevfis E[tv(EixaEco5s) Xco(piou)

like 1 25. TypeI. Context:0 18:1. LateV-VI cent. rw[iv(Eao?cos). 'A]i]v(vacos) Xco(pio)p( ) Miep[ou

I 30 (P 13170). P1. 51. Shoulder fragment of jar

1 38 (P 1461).P1.52. Wall and shoulderfragment of jar like 1 25. Type I. Context: mixed fill (G-H 16-17).
VI cent. ]Eou
bE]tv(~iE(?os) 8'

like 1 25. TypeI. Context:0 18:1.

Late V-VI cent. xco(piou)Tlpia[ e.g., nlpiaxrEou 1 31 (P 13171). P1. 51. Shoulder fragment of jar

like 1 25. TypeI. Context:0 18:1.


Late V-VI cent.

I 39 (P 25048). P1. 52. Tapered jar like I25. Type I. Context: Q 17:4. PH. 0.555 m.;

D. 0.20 m.

ta' Xco(pfou) lepoUkrIVE(l6a?wcoS)

VI cent. Xco(piou)rrpoK( )
MlVe?(pJ JCOS) El'

I 32 (P 13151). P1.51. Shoulderfragmentof jar like 1 25. TypeI. Context:0 18:1.


ta' Late V-VI cent. hrTv(EgncrEcoS)
Ka0(apoO)o(O)y(Kiai) o'

The estate name might be anything from


to TrrpoKEiEvoV TTp6KAou.

liters, which would give a net weight of 200


ounces (5.460 kg.) or 10 xestai of wine. For a personal name (?) with &ypou as an estate

'AXco( ) &ypou Xco(pfou) The capacity of similar jars is about 5?/2

1 40 (P 26691). P1.52. Tapered jar like 1 25. Type I. Context: Q 17:7. PH. 0.47 m.; D.
0.21 m. VI cent. ?TrvE?(ji6cEcos) Iy'
'Aiuv[vcTios Xco(piou) oVKO6Aou

or Perhaps ayK AXos oruyKo?.os?


1 41 (P 13064). P1. 53. Upper part of amphora

namecf. Tralles(B.C.H.,IV, 1880,pp. 336-338).

1 33 (P 13157). P1.52. Shoulderfragmentof jar like 1 25. TypeI. Context:0 18:1. LateV-VI cent. Xco(pfou) Eca[ e.g., Eixou
iTrv(e6aoecos) 0'

similarto 1 20. TypeII. Context:P 18:2.

VI cent. Xco(piou) [N]?Epv

S' iTnve(l~fq|o~os) 'A[tv]v(caos)

1 42 (P 12152). P1.53. Shoulder fragment of Late Roman.

I 34 (P 13169). PI. 52. Shoulder fragment of jar

amphora similar to 120. Type II. Context:

like 1 25. TypeI. Context:0 18:1.

J. CHRISTIAN INSCRIPTIONS VI cent. Mev[


xco[

87

Year 239 of Diocletian was A.D. 523; the third year of the appropriateindiction cycle
began in September A.D. 524. This might be an

error?Or the number has some other signi(traces) ficance? wine with honey? PerhapsMendaean 1 43 (P 26083). P1.53. Amphorasimilarto I 20, 145 (P 26690). P1.53. Amphora with wheelridgedcylindrical with more elongatedbody. Type II. Context: body and round bottom like M Robinson,Chronology, 333. Dipintiin black Q 19:1. H. 0.42m.; D. 0.18 m. and red on shoulder. Context: Q 17:7. H. VI cent. +
&Kev() mTnv?(uiaoscos) pt' Xco(pfou)

The cross may be Christian. The estatename bevariously may e.g. acxaivn. completed, 6o&crpos, 1 44 (P 26694). P1.53. Amphora of same fabric as I 11 and of same generalshape but shorter and with small flat base. Type IV. Context: Q 17:7. H. 0.43 m.; D. 0.128m. VI cent. iv8(iKTrcovos) y' eAX' (written vertically)

0.47 m.; D. 0.27 m.

VI cent.
(black) rTiv?(E(7?ecos) ty' x(co)p(ou) 'Axpa( ) pouvaios .. ..ivios

for (red) (fainttracesof abbreviation xestes) This jar, as the only one of its kind with an indictiondate, was probablyre-used.Presumand ably an alternatespelling of 'Amivvcaos a specialvintagefrom the hills.

J. CHRISTIAN INSCRIPTIONS Includedhere are vesselswhichhave Christian inscriptions only. Symbolsthat are most easilyinterwithothernotationson F 322-324,Ha 46, Hc 22, He 39, I 43. in also pretedas Christian appear company For parallelsand generaldiscussionsee C.L.L., 4889ff.andF. CabrolandH. LeClerq, Dictionnaire XV,
d'archeologie chretienne et de liturgie, Paris, 1924-53, s.vv. amphores, chrisme, inscriptions. For the

specificproblempresentedby X M r, see W. K. Prentice,Cl. Phil., IX, 1914,pp. 410-416,who argues to for XpiorosMapiasyivva in preference XpiarosMiXa?A9 rappiiA. J 7, J 8 below give support to for sinceSe(oi) or $(Eo0)is substituted the mu. Prentice's view, J 1 (P 7544). P1.53. Fragmentof small amphora EarlyV cent. (chi-rhomonogram) preserving part of rim, neck and shoulderwith rTiS Tiapeevou one handle. Dipinto in black on shoulder. J 5 (P 9756). P1.53. Amphora neck. Dipinto in Foundwith coins of 4th-5th centuries. red. Context: 5th century(B 14:1). IV-V cent. '1q](chi-rhomonogram)aou V cent. XMr J 2 (P 9766). P1.53. Amphoraneck and shoulder with plain thickenedrim. Dipinto in red on J 6 (P 12713). P1.53. Amphora like Robinson, Chronology, 40, P 16074.Dipintoin blackon pl. shoulder.Context:4th-5th centuries(K 18:1). shoulder. Context: 5th century (O 19:1). X Mr IV-V cent. H. 0.503m.; D. 0.246m. V cent. J 3 (P 16313). P1.53. Wall fragment from tall M one-handledjar like Robinson, Chronology, eoss pon)e6s M 315. Context: 4th-5th centuries (K 18:1). The mu might stand for 40 (kotyles) or XMF IV-V cent. to "modius"; both measureswould be possible. (vertical jar) Orit mightbe for contents,e.g., pEAl. J 4 (P 25133).P1.53. Small ribbedpitchersimilar J 7 (P 13060).P1.54. Small amphorawith cylinto Robinson, Chronology, 291. Graffitoon M drical wheel-ridgedbody and short narrow shoulder.Context:early 5th century(Q 17:4). neck. Dipinti in red on neck (a) and body (b), H. 0.175 m.; D. 0.13 m. Hesperia, XXV, 1956, (c). Context: 5th-6th centuries(P 18:1). PH. b. 0.49 m.; D. 0.202 m. p. 54, pl. 14,

88 V-VI cent. (a)


(b) (c)

K. MISCELLANEOUS NOTATIONS Xr e(oO)


Tp.( ) xaaTrTo( )

J 10 (P 3756). P1.54. Shoulder fragment from small amphora.Dipinto in black on shoulder. Late Roman X Mr

J 8 (P 13087). P1.54. Fragmentfrom neck and J 11 (P 15075). P1.54. Neck and shoulder of amphora. Dipintoin blackat base of neck. shoulderof amphora.Dipinto in red on neck. Foundwith potteryof 6th century. Late Roman X Mr Xe r VI cent. J 12 (P 15560).P1.54. Shoulderfragmentof amJ 9 (P 10564). P1. 54. Tall one-handled jar (= phora.Dipintoin red. Robinson, Chronology,M 315). Graffito on Late Roman X Mr wall. Context: late 6th century (D 15:2). H. 0.52m.; D.0.183m. LateVI cent. (chi-rhomonogram)

K. MISCELLANEOUS NOTATIONS in Included this grouparetextswhichcan be readand interpreted whichdo not belongto one of but the largerclasses. Probableprices (K 8, K 16-18)1are more numerousthan anythingelse. Numbers withoutdefinition also frequent 9, K 14, K 15, K 19). Othersareone or two of a kind:vesselname are (K (K 1, K 10); message(K2, K 3); signature 4, K 6); gamecounter(K 12); equation(K 13, K 14). All of (K discussed underthe individual thesecan be most conveniently items. K 1 (P 18276).P1.54. Wellhead.Graffition side wall, outside. Context: second quarter 6th centuryB.C.(A 17:1). Hesperia,XVIII, 1949,
p. 119. Second quarterVI cent. B.C. VI cent. B.C.
9Ov wT6po[v dyoVI

a Perhaps mascotprepared a boy entering by a contest:"agonistic resource."

K 4 (P 12181).P1.54. Wall fragmentfrom thinwalled vessel, with brownishglaze inside and (a) (upsidedown) icr[e]Oiov<q(>paT(os)out. Graffito on outside. (b) EnAes "Neck of well." The Greekterm is perhaps Late VI-early V cent. B.C. ]s gypa[gcrs more sensiblethan our "wellhead."The name Presumablysignatureof owner, since it is incised. may be of the owner. K 2 (P 4233). P1.54. Black-glazed fragment,per- K 5 (P 16791). P1.54. Fragmentfrom base and floor of black-glazed stemlessbowl. Graffitoon from lower wall of skyphos. Graffitoon haps outside. Found with 6th- to 5th-century B.C. inside, almostcertainlywrittenwhen the vessel was wholesinceit followsthe curveof the wall; pottery. brokenin half and chipped around subsequently VI cent. B.C. Ele]iyois 9*Tr[pas theedges.Context: 6thcenturyB.c. (G 15:1). late Compare C.L.G., I, 545: Kr<pioopro&vTos Cf. Sparkes-Talcott, 446. i no.
Koxtl- eav 6e TISKararn SpaXi,iv TrroTE'itar. Scopovov Trapa=evo ... Also Kretschmer, p. 91: Kal Bu' 6PEACA E OeiyEis with commentary by

K 6 (P 15108). P1.55. Upper part of amphora with bulbousneck and verticalhandles.GrafK 3 (P 27724). P1.54. Wall fragment of large fito on neck and shoulder. Context: second central part black-figured amphorapreserving half 5th century B.C.(E 19: 5). of a shield with whirlingradii. Graffitostarts at centerand goes out and around. Second half V cent. B.C. avriy/pa,[e 6 oeliva
1 For other prices see Ha 5; He 1, He 2, He 15-17, He 25, He 35, He 38; L 20.

Los Angeles,1941,pp. 179-206.

D. A. Amyx, University of California Publications in ClassicalArchaeology,I, 8, Berkeley and

Ca. 500 B.C. ]ot ypap[ Perhaps to be restored as rTOI yp&ovT-r and used as a tag, or -rot ypaqpvypaqpovoi "to

the prosecutor."

K. MISCELLANEOUS NOTATIONS The second line is written retrograde."So and so checkedthe account"?

89

K7 (P 25909). P1.55. Fragmentfrom floor of bowl. Graffitoon inside. black-glazed K 14 (P 19861). PI. 55. Fragmentfrom neck of V cent. B.C. XEX largeamphorawith profiledlip. Dipinto in red on neck. "You pour" (x?ts)is perhaps more proper but less sensible than Xia((a), whether as Late Hellenistic ]IE' of expletiveor definition the vessel'suse. XL]V Obviously Greek and Roman numerals, K 8 (P 19389).P1.55. Part of flat-topped and rim perhapsequated. shoulderof a large pithos. Graffitoon upper surfaceof rim. K 15 (P 21773). P1.55. Fragmentfrom neck of IV cent. B.C. I!11 111' large amphorawith profiled rim. Dipinto in redon neck.Context:early1stcentury 10:1). (R Tallyingand price: nine drachmas(and one obol?). EarlyI cent. XXXV[ K 9 (P 20373). P1.55. Shoulder fragment from CompareHe 19 for the method of writing the tens. jug. Dipinto in black. Found with sherds of 4th-3rdcenturies B.C. K 16 (P 12478). P1.55. Amphora similar to IV-III cent. B.C. A KY M Robinson,Chronology, 12. Dipinto in black Presumablya number, but since the last on shoulder. Context: first half 1st century sign might be seen either as upsilon (400) or (N 20:5). H. 0.395 m.; D. 0.28 m. the drachm-symbol, readingmightbe either the Firsthalf I cent. 8rl(vapta) p[ "424" or "24 drachms." Presumably price,probablyof contents. K 10 (P3983). PI. 55. Amphora with almost cylindricalbody and small toe. Lettersincised K 17 (P 10268).PI. 55. Amphorasimilarto Robbeforefiringat base of neck. Context:3rd-2nd inson, Chronology,M 234. Dipinto in black centuriesB.c. (G l: 1). PH. 0.615m.; D. 0.314m. on shoulder. Context: 4th century (M 18:4).
III-II cent. B.C.
AtorTiou &a(qopeCis)

Not a statementof capacity but a note of equivalence: one chous equals six xestai. writtenon the sherd. Perhaps

H. (restored)0.53 m.; D. 0.27 m.

The part of the handles where a stamp might have been is missing,but the inscription made beforefiringmay give the potter'sname.

IV cent. cr' vo({faac-raT)a See Metrolog. Script., I, p. 253 for equivalencebetweennomisma denarius. and

K 11 (P 17070). P1.55. Amphora handle. GrafK 18 (P 11307). P1.55. Fusiform wheel-ridged fito on top. Foundwith Hellenistic sherds. jar with one handle,like Robinson,Chronology, Hellenistic ap(opEOs) M 240. Dipinto in black beneath handle. Context:4th century(G 11:2). Perhapsthe other handlecarriedthe potter's name; cf. K 10. The abbreviationmight be IV cent. KaAwTr(os) in expanded otherways. e'
Bp(axvait)

K 12 (P 22976). P1.55. A roughly circulardisc cut from the wall of a pot, glazed inside and out. Graffiti both sides. on
Hellenistic (inside) /

This form of the word is more frequentthan either KaXAiri Ka&XTros.inscription or The presumablyrecordsthe priceof the jar.

'HpaAsoous 'ApEos MouacovNiKcov K 19 (P 7628). P1.55. Neck and shoulderof one/ (outside) handledjar similar to Robinson, Chronology, Piece for a game like checkers?Cf. British M 315. Graffiti eitherside of shoulder. on Museum, Guide to the ExhibitionIllustrating VI cent. XII GreekandRomanLife3,London, 1929,p. 203.

K 13 (P 5506). P1.55. Fragment from base of largeamphoraneck. Graffitoon outside. Late Hellenistic xoJs ~(o-rat)s'

Thenumber givenin both Latinand Greek; is why the Greek should be largerby one-halfis obscure.

90

L. UNCLASSIFIED NOTATIONS L. UNCLASSIFIED NOTATIONS

in Littlecan be saidof thisgroupas a wholesincethe variousitemshaveonlytheirobscurity common. is it and But becauseunintelligibility only relativeto the reader'sunderstanding, has seemednecessary
worthwhile to include them in the hope that some at least will come clear.

L 1 (P 14670). P1.56. Wall fragmentsof pithos with incised decoration,similarto Brann,no. 609. Graffito on outside. Context: early 5th
century B.C. (G 3:1). VII-VI cent. B.C. ]. EAIHA ]ANIA

Context: fourth quarter5th centuryB.C. 13:5). (B Fourth quarter 5th cent. B.C. ]EIE ]H2HZ;

The letters are very uncertain.Perhaps a namein the vocativewith a negativecommand,


e.g., ji/ Sillycn~s.

L 2 (P 24998). PI. 56. Roughly oblong piece cut L 7 (P 12965). P1.56. Rim fragment of largemouthedvessel with broad shoulderand short from the side wall of a large pot (wheelmarks verticalrim. Graffitoon shoulder. visible) while the clay was still soft. Letters Late V cent. B.C. U]-rraieplos 6p3oA6[S incised outside, also in soft clay. Context: mid-6th century B.C.(Q 13:5). But why a "spit in the open air"? A cookout?Or is it ivrraiOepo P6Bos? 6 Mid-VI cent. B.C. AE skyphos.GrafWas the piece cut out and fired with the L 8 (P 17125).PI. 56. Black-glazed B.C. intentionof usingit as a plug?Oris it a counter? fito besidehandle.Context:late 5thcentury If so, why is it cut from a pot? XVI, 1947,p. 212. (A 20-21:1). Hesperia, Late V cent. B.C. Tr<v)>T-E a(i&nlca) L 3 (P 7867). P1.56. Part of ring foot of blackglazed bowl. Graffito on reserved resting L 9 (P 14703). P1.56. Fragmentof black-glazed surfaceof foot. kylix base. Graffitoon underside(a) and on top (b). VI cent. B.C. ]A! HOAIBYZT V cent. B.C. (a) ]I[ i.e. Possible readings: 6 Apuoar[iK6s, the
Libyan (bowl, boy, wine?); 681 puor[iK6s,i.e.
]OKOSK[

this saving(drink?).

L4 (P7820). P1.56. Wall fragment of heavy lekane with black glaze inside. Graffitoinside. L 10 (P 23130). PI. 56. Wall fragmentof lekane. Graffito on inside, probably written on the VI cent. B.C. ]ETAe[ B.C. sherd.Foundwith 5th-century pottery. Not apparentlypart of a name. Perhapsa V cent. B.C. TnOY lnE Or phrase, e.g., I-ra e6cov? a fragment of a The scoredtriangleabove (see drawing) may zeta eta theta? spelled-outabecedarium: have been a letter? L 5 (P9483). P1.56. Rim fragmentfrom large L 11 (MC 1011).P1.56. Small terracottaplaque, kraterdecoratedwith slantingpalmetteband. brokenat one end; daubof clay ddedto other Graffitiin reservedbands above (a) and below end. Graffitoon backface. (b) band of palmettes.Context: mid-5th cenV cent. B.C. JIVIKt tury B.C. (C9:6). Hesperia, Suppl.V, p. 142, ? Dative for a tag? E.g., rTC(oliVIKI fig. 69, 30; 70,b. Firsthalf V cent. B.C. (a) (see drawing) L 12 (P 9986).P1.56. Partof base of heavyblack(b) (see drawing) glazedskyphos.Graffitoon underside. They may represent V cent. B.C. Tacr( ) 6 'lC[aL]i<o>vi(lKrs) meaningless. Apparently elsewhere practicelettersfor formalinscriptions Probablytwo inscriptions,because of differsome of whichwereretrograde. on the pot, ent depths of incision. Perhapsthe owner's saltcellar ligature,with the epithetaddedby anotheras a L 6 (P 9994).PI. 56. Partof black-glazed C sides. Graffito on underside. joke?Compare 5. with concave

]u: (b) A namelike Demodokos?

(retrograde)

L. UNCLASSIFIED NOTATIONS

91

from upper L 19 (P 23274). P1.56. Fragment of plain lid L 13 (P 8203).P1.56. Threefragments with flat-toppedknob. Dipinto in black near wall of black-glazedskyphos, one (a) with rim. and tracesof handleattachment, two (b,c) with rim. Graffito on outside. Context: second Hellenistic &p.vco[v 4th quarter centuryB.C. (B 12:5). IV Secondquarter cent.B.c. Al[ ].IQ[ ]ENEIA[ Perhaps cover of vessel containingvarious are Manyrestorations possible,e.g., Ai[oviOacp kindsof fish (cf. Ath., VII, 306c). L 20 (P 15741).P1.57. Mouth and part of neck of amphorawith heavy profiledrim. Dipinto bowl L 14 (P 6904). P1.56. Base of black-glazed in blackon neck. with ring foot. Graffitoon underside,circling II-I cent. B.C. (monogram) Spa(X,ali)y' B.C. around. Found with 5th- to 4th-centuries pottery. fromflat bottom L 21 (P 15200).P1.57. Fragment -rT IV cent. B.C. cvo<p>)oifrs ir&pos of heavycoarsepot. Graffitoon underside. The writer did not finish the inscription, Late Hellenistic IXTA[ probably because he had come almost full PIAX[ circle and there seemedto be no room for the an of Perhaps imperative !o-rrill? object of the verb. Lettersare not orientedin of any consistent direction; generally the work L 22 (P 20839).P1.57. Neck fragment amphora. looks incompetentenough to suggestthat the Blackdipintoat base of neck. syntax might be so too. Perhaps a message Late Hellenistic Eu6upa&vou[s hoping that the addresseemight restore the (illegible) of fragments the pot as before! Name of producer seller? or L 15 (P 18420). P1.56. Base of black-glazed skyphos.Graffitoon underside. L23 (P 20657). PI. 57. Upper part of amphora with rolled rim and vertical handles. Dipinto IV cent. B.C. (see drawing) in red on neck (a) and upper shoulder (b). Perhapsto be read as Tro( ) and the sign Context:last quarter1st centuryB.C. to early for two drachmswrittentwice. The sherdmay have been used as a tag or label on a shipment. 1st century(R 13:2). Late I cent. B.c.-earlyI cent. (a) tp' L 16 (P 19124). P1.56. Rim fragmentof blackpla' glazedkantharos.Graffitoon outside. IV cent. B.C. ]VXuo[ (b) TEI is uncertain. to It is tempting inventa proverb, yXuKo6si e.g., 6 8pi'us,butbothcouldbe goodAthenian Almost certainlynumberin (a); perhapsthe names, 12thday of 111thyear(Actianera?),5thmonth. e.g., Epilukosand Mus. of The obscurity (b) is less suggestive. L 17 (P 21714). P1.56. Half of foot and part of lower wall of black-glazedbowl. Graffiti on L 24 (P 21776). P1.57. Ovoid amphorawith tall outside,on lowerwall (a) and insidefoot (b). vertical handles and pointed toe. Graffition shoulder.Context: early 1st century(R 10:1). IV cent. B.C. (a) ]BE (b) ]NHOX (a) (see drawing) EarlyI cent. (b) ]KOINOAI See drawing.The lettersare too uncertain to allow of easy restoration. (a) Possibly a number?(b) Perhapsthis jar was heldin common or (KoItvS) heldwine(olvos)? L 18 (MC 961). P1.56. Fragmentfrom the rim on of a bandedplate(?).Graffito underside. L 25 (P 16202).P1.57. Amphorasimilarto RobIV cent. B.C. hrri inson, Chronology,F93. Dipinto in black rav ( ) on shoulder. Context: first half 1st century (N 20:1). H. 0.73m.; D. 0.30 m. Theinscription not be complete. Whether may the word in the second line is completeis obFirsthalf I cent. &puv[ scure. 0eo[
eii]EvEda. Even the order of the pieces X,a]fco[v

92

Edited by Foxit Reader Copyright(C) by Foxit Software Company,2005-2008 For Evaluation Only. L. UNCLASSIFIED NOTATIONS

PerhapsGreeklettersfor Latin vas?And age of jar?or contents? L 26 (P 4480). PI. 57. Shoulderfragmentof large storage amphora.Dipinto in black. Context: L 32 (P 16700).P1.58. Amphorawith tall cylin1st century(F 11:1). drical neck and elongatedovoid body, small I cent. 2TPA spur on top of handle. Dipinto in black on shoulder.Context:early 3rd century(N21:1). AMIN[ PH. 0.58 m.; D. 0.19 m. Possible that some letters of an original 6o-rpoKou i(-rpat)have faded completely. It is EarlyIII cent. KipliKfs possiblethatthe secondline mightbe 'Altvvcaos. Kali Cf. Hesychios, KapiKil' &OcVETOS, a6IrEAos. L 27 (P 26675).P1.57. Part of neck and shoulder Or KapuKrl? of amphora. Dipintoin redon shoulder. L33 (P 14077). P1.58. Upper part of small Firsthalf II cent. pa( ) amphorawith short neck and plain thickened 6?( ) lip. Dipinto in black on shoulder. Context: P 18:2. 6oosfor cheapwine? Firsthalf III cent. ]plvias y' L 28 (P 16703, P 16706, P 19401). P1.57. Three Uncertain measures? similar amphoras with tall cylindricalneck, reading:Corinthian angular ridged handles, body which tapers L34 (P 12314). P1.58. Small amphora similar sharply to small concave foot. Large dipinti M to Robinson, Chronology, 177. Dipinti in in red on either side of neck. Context: on shoulder.Context:3rdcentury(N 20:3). red early 2nd century(N 21:1; E 17:1). Average
H. 0.55 m.; D. 0.26 m. H. 0.41 m.; D. 0.195 m.

a Perhaps &upvorip, liquid measure. The second line might be a personal name or a month.

EarlyIII cent.

OYA2
ETCOV y'

EarlyII cent.

(chi-rhomonogram)

Too early for Christianuse of chi-rho, so may have been expanded to four: TpaCrilTos? of name or of perhapsabbreviation producer's contents (e.g., Xpuvaorrri6ov XpTila). The L35 (P 3218). P1.58. Shoulder fragment from otvov, secondinscription mightalso be eitherof these. Dipintoin black. largeplainamphora. other possibilitiesmight be imagined, Many EarlyRoman ]AIHA "owed to the Treafor example,qcfKxc xXpfcos: ]ANIi sury."For 01 see also He 19. L 29 (P 18434). PI. 57. Fragmentfrom shoulder L36 (P7525). P1.58. Upper wall fragment of on plainpot. Graffito outside. of large plain amphora. Dipinto in black. Context:2nd century(C 18:2). EarlyRoman ]TAPA.AH II cent. ]ap( ) Fcal( ) Tri iy' L 37 (P 7843). P1.58. Neck fragment of widemouthedjar; profiledrim with piecrust deca Perhaps date: 13thday of Gamelion. oration on lower side. Lettersincised in soft L 30 (P 17113).P1.57. Neck and upper shoulder clay belowrim. of amphora. Dipinto in black on shoulder. EvE[a Early Roman viyliea]S Context:2nd century(B 20:1).
II cent. KIXHTOY AP vU'
]E6[

Mid-IIIcent. rp( ) air' or rparr ) ( See drawing.The abbreviated word may be Or followed numbers. a two-letter abbreviation by

Wordin genitivecase restoredexempli gratia. and elongatedovoid body on ring foot. Dipinti in black (charcoal)on shoulder. XX X X V EarlyRoman TOA Cf. L 39, which also has Roman numerals relate to capacit or which do not apparently weight.Perhapsserial numbersin a shipment.

number.

The vcoTr6s. secondlinemaynot be "57drachms" but it is likely that the last letter at least is a

P1. withnarrow neck 8 i3at 6 Cf. Hesychios, KIXrTT6OS ,LEai 6 tipa- L 38 (P 11991). 58. Amphora

L 31 (P 25218).P1.58. Amphorawith tall narrow neck and body tapering to small ring foot. Dipinto in red on shoulder. Context: early 3rd century(Q 17:4). H. 0.485m.; D. 0.243m.

L. UNCLASSIFIED NOTATIONS

93

but An abbreviatedname seems most likely for TrcalXi6 the only similarly parallel temporal for Irllwould be irvilaios.(Drawing includes the second line, e.g., Tolmides or Tollios only samples.) (Tullius). L39 (P 17883). P1.58. Amphora similar to L44 (P 11119). P1.59. Shoulder fragment of K Robinson, Chronology, 114. Dipinti in black small wheel-ridged jug similar to Robinson, on shoulders. (charcoal) M 266. Graffitoon shoulder.ConChronology, text: 4th century(B 14:2). (see drawing) EarlyRoman XIL TIPB IV cent. Uncertainletters might be Greek or Latin. If the second line is supposedto be a Roman L45 (P12837). P1.59. Amphora similar to M is numeralthe orderof numbers peculiar.(The Robinson,Chronology, 234. Dipintoin black on shoulder. Context: 4th century ( 19:1). in two lines are reversed the drawing.) H. 0.455 m.; D. 0.275 m. L40 (P 14725). P1.58. Wall fragment of large IV cent. TrpoBij.lAfvou amphora.Graffitoon outside, verticalto pot. Foundwith earlyRomanpottery. Perhaps imitation Bybline wine; for the spellingsee Hesychios,s.v. EarlyRoman ]S1
]pi' Buoio(u) e'

IV cent. AipEpa L 41 (P 22293). P1.58. Part of tall narrow amPerhaps a Latin adjectivein Greek letters phora neck with flaringrim and heavy ridge used as a name?But the blurredletters could below. Dipintoin red on neck. as well be AtOepa. S [E EarlyRoman L 47 (P 13585).P1.59. Tall one-handled DFC jar, an earlierform of Robinson, Chronology, 315. M Perhapssepulchral: s(itus) [e(st)]/ d(e)f(un)c- Dipinto in black on shoulder.Context: 4th[tus]. early 5th centuries (P 19:1). H. 0.60 m.; D. 0.245m. L 42 (P 26120). P1.58. Ovoid wheel-ridged amwith ridged handles and narrow neck. phora ' IV-V cent. Pa&p(os) Dipinto in black on shoulder. Context: 3rdPerhaps better as yap(ou) with the last 4th centuries(Q 19:1). H. 0.48 m.; D. 0.26 m. "letter"taken as the sign of abbreviation? Late III cent. (see drawing) L 48 (P 27050). P1.59. Rim fragmentof shallow ]TrvoS dish of Late Roman red ware. Graffito on L 43 (P 9800, P 11582,P 11583,P 22009,P 11590, inside,belowrim. P22008, P 11584, P 11594). P1.59. Eight jars IV-V cent. or fragments of jars with fusiform bodies (see drawing) (= Robinson, Chronology,M 256, M 278, Uncertainscratchingsof which only a few M 259, M 258, M 242, M 257, M 255, M 241). look like letters.Unreadable. Dipinti in black under the handle of each. Context: M 17:1. Average H. 0.49 m.; average L 49 (P 1026).P1.59. Rim fragmentof amphora D. 0.19 m. with heavyrolledlip. Dipinto in black on neck just below rim. Context: 5th century(I 16:1). IV cent. (a) rrpo( ) (e) Trca( ) V cent. AAEON (f) TrA( ) (b) rrpo( ) L50 (P 2097). P1.59. Fragment of coarse lid. Letters incised in the soft clay. Context: 5th The abbreviations seem to be writtenby all century(H-I 7-8:1). the same hand. Unfortunately,the range of V cent. ]orum[ possibilities is too large to allow any con]tuis a[ of the abbreviations. as If, vincingcompletion ]ciri[ seems likely, the abbreviationsrefer to conand irca might be rrpowrrEpvolv6s and tents, rrpo Perhaps a proverb or motto.
(d) Trpo( ) (h) la( )
(c) Trp[ (g) rA( )

Line 2: perhapsan era date firstand then the Delphi month name seems to be writtenover tracesof the Attic monthBoedromion.

L 46 (P 12870).P1.59. Body of ovoid amphora. Dipinto in black on shoulder. Context: 4th


century (O 19:1). PH. 0.345 m.; D. 0.272 m.

94

M. PICTURES

L 51 (P 1944).P1.59. Upperpart of smallgouged L 54 (P 481). P1.59. Rim fragmentof open bowl. rim on M Graffiti top of outturned (a) and outside jug, similar to Robinson, Chronology, 359. on wall belowrim (b). on Graffito neck. Late Roman (a) ]HA<BE[ VI cent. ANKZB[ (b) ]ENHOHTO[ L 52 (P 7507).PI. 59. Neck of amphorasimilarto An illiterate attemptat an abecedarium? M Robinson, Chronology, 333. Dipinto in red on neck below handle.Found with 6th-century L 55 (P 3076). P1.59. Shoulderfragmentof uncoins. on glazedamphora.Graffito outside. TYTTA VI cent. Late Roman a5( ) ?Ep( ) L 53 (P 7638). P1.59. Shoulderfragmentof large L 56 (P 25852). P1.59. Shoulderfragmentfrom Dipintoin red. amphora. on closedpot. Graffito outside. Roman ]APENrE[
ZOY Late Roman xrru( )
VE( )

Ur'r[

M. PICTURES It sincethe pictures seemssuperfluous, speakbestfor themselves. is possibleto speculate Commentary of is but on the motivesbehindeachdrawing, suchspeculation likelyto be moreproductive amusement than of profit. M 7 (P9889). P1.60. Wall fragment of blackB.C. glazedkylix of 6th- to-5th centuries fabric. VIII-VII cent. B.C. (horse and rider) on Graffito inside(a) and outside(b). Hesperia, M 2 (P 1001).P1.60. Black-figured XV, 1946,p. 278, underno. 30. skyphoswith lotus-budpatternon reservedband at handle VI-V cent. B.C. (a) (two figures facing left zone. Graffito on inside wall, upper part. and a tree) Context: first half 6th century B.C. (116:4). (b) (small round holes and First half VI cent. B.C. theta) (fish) from black- M 8 M 3 (P 24999).P1.60. Wall fragment fromrimandbody (P 7103).P1.60. Fragment glazed kylix of "komast" shape. Graffito in krater. Graffito inside. of small semi-glazed reservedhandle zone. Context: mid-6th cenXV, 1946,p. 273, no. 16. Hesperia, M 1 (MC907).P1.60. Pyramidal (Al). loomweight
tury B.C.(Q 13:5). Mid-VI cent. B.C. (grotesque head) Early V cent. B.C.

(headwith wreathand beard)

Koa7ij/xJv[o]s

M 4 (P 3533). P1.60. Wall fragmentfrom blackglazedkylix. Graffitoon outside. Context:6th


century B.C. VI cent. B.C.

An ostrakon.

M9 (P 27698). P1.61. Half of hemispherical stand(C 15). Incisedbeforeglaing black-glazed (head) and firing. from blackM 5 (P 16789).P1.60. Wall fragment V Secondquarter cent. B.C. (act of sodomy) glazed skyphos. Graffitoon outside. Context: For the verbaltext see C 15. 6th centuryB.C.(G 15:2). Hesperia,XV, 1946, p. 278, underno. 30. M 10 (P 10352). P1.60. Fragment of blackVI cent. B.C. (ithyphallic satyr) glazed lid with incised tendrilborder.Graffito M 6 (P 2714). P1.60. Fragmentary black-figured on upper surface.Context:fourth quarter5th no. B.C. century Cf. Sparkes-Talcott, 1261. skyphos.Graffitoon outside lower wall. Context: late 6th-early 5th centuriesB.C.(G 6:3). Fourth quarterV cent. B.C. XV, 1946,p. 278, no. 30. Hesperia, (at right,pygmyfighting; at left, partof crane) Late VI-early V cent. B.C. (head)

M. PICTURES

95

III cent. B.C. The drawingseems to have been done with (head) a fine point before the glaze was applied, so PerhapsKairos, with hair in front and bald that the head and upper body of the crane, behind. which were too lightly drawn, are no longer visible.The tendrilpatternwas done in the same M 17 (P 14323). 60. Rim fragment Megarian of P1. bowl. Graffitoon outside.Context:Hellenistic. way. III cent. B.C. M 11 (P 19312).PI. 60. Wall fragmentof black(head) Graffitoon outside. Conglazed skyphos (?). M 18 (P 3817). P1.61. Fragment from large text: late 5th century B.C. on Pergamene plate.Graffito inside. Late V cent. B.C.
(head)

M 12 (P 23242). P1.60. Neck and shoulderfragment of red-figured oinochoe. Graffitoon out- M 19 (P 9880). P1.61. Wheel-ridged Graffito jug. on shoulder.Context:1st century. side of neck. Context: late 5th century B.C. Late V cent. B.C. I cent. (swastika) (boukranion?) M 13 (L 2450).P1.61. Nozzle and partsof rim of M 20 (P 12306).P1.61. Wallfragment amphora of = F 315). Graffito outside. Context: 4th black-glazedlamp (= Howland, no. 176 ( C 30 above).Graffito top of nozzle.Context: on century(N 20:3). 4th century B.C. (E 6:3). IV cent. with headandwings) (something Late V-early IV cent. B.C. (phallus) For verbaltext see F 315. For verbaltext see C 30. M 21 (P7048). P1.61. Wall fragment of large M 14 (L 4212).P1.60. Black-glazed lamp(= Howunglazed pot. Graffito on outside. Context: land, no. 267 = F 177 above).Graffitoon sides Late Roman. of body and top of nozzle. Late Roman letters;dolphin) (uncertain IV-early III cent. B.C. (boukranion) M 22 (P 9873). P1.61. Base of low-footedbowl. Graffiti inside and outside. Context: Late M 15 (P 20374). P1.60. Shoulderfragmentfrom Roman. unglazedamphora.Graffitooutside and sideLate Roman ways to pot, probably drawn on the sherd. Context:4th-3rdcenturies B.C. (inside)(head with helmet?) (outside)(letters,perhapsalphabeta gamma) IV-III cent. B.C. (herm) M 16 (P 23231). P1.60. Wall fragmentof West M 23 (P 15343). PI. 61. Wall fragmentof large Slope plate or saucer, with checkerboard unglazed pot. Graffito on outside. Context: Late Roman. pattern inside. Graffito on outside. Context: Hellenistic. Late Roman (face) For verbaltext see F 177.

I cent. B.C.-I cent.

(costume-design?)

DEPOSITS
of of Theletterandfirstnumber eachdepositgivethe grid-square its location(see P1. 62). The second number givesits serialpositionwithinthat square.Sincethe datingof depositshaslargelybeenthe work of in of specialists the particular periods,the indicationgivenhere is only a briefsummary fullerdesin by criptionsappearing relevantAgoravolumes,whichare listed in each case, or of study-notes excavatorsand othersin the Agora. Wheredepositsconsist of severalfillings,ordinarily only those in which objectsfrom this volume were found are included.The cataloguedobjectsare listed for each no over centuries attemptis made to depositor partthereof,exceptthat in the case of those stratified in Differences contextdescriporderis retained. but list chronologically, the usualclass and numerical context. and itemsarethosebetween general immediate the tionshereandunderindividual used include:POU, use filling,or Periodof Use; L, M, U, dumpedfillings,Lower, Abbreviations Middleand Upper. A 16:1 A17:1 A 18:6 A 18-19:1 A 20-21:1 A-B 21-22:1 B 11:l
B 12:5

B 13:1 B 13:2
B 13:5

BronzeCastingPit (Agora,XII) Well (Agora,IV, VIII, XII) Pit Ostrakonfill (Agora,IV, XII) Drainfill (Agora,XII) Terrace fillings(Agora,XII) mouth Channel Well (Agora,IV, XII) Cisternshaft(Agora,V, VII, XII)
Well (Agora, V) Well (Agora, XII)

Late 1st to early3rdcent. (POU)Hc 10 Fourth quarter 5th cent. B.C. L 6


Ca. 325-300 B.C.(POU) F 163 Ca. 300-275 B.C.(U) Hb 1; Hc 2

Third quarter4th century B.C. Ha 11 Second quarter 6th century B.C. D 13; K 1 Late 4th to early 3rd century B.C. F 184 First and second quarters5th centuryB.C. F 56 Fourth quarter 5th century B.C. L 8 Ca. 420-390 B.C. E 5; F 99-101 Late 2nd into early 1st cent. B.C. F 233 Ca. 380-350 B.C. L 13 Fourth quarter 3rd cent. B.C. (L) F 202, F 203

B 13:8 B 14:1 B 14:2 B 14:3 B 14:4 B 15:1 B17:1 B 18:7 B 18:10 B 19:7 B 19:9 B 20:1 B 20:2 BB 17:1 C9:6 C9:7 C 12:1 C 12:2

Well (Agora,IV, XII)


Well (Agora, V, VI) Well (Agora, V, VI, VII)

Well Well (Agora,IV, VIII, XII) Destruction debris(Agora,VII)


Well (Agora, IV, XII) Well (Agora, IV) Well (Agora, V, VII)

Cistern (Agora, IV, V, VII)

Mid-lst to early3rdcent. (POU) He 21 5th cent. (U) J 5 Late 1stto late 2nd cent. (POU) F 269,F 276 4th cent. (U) L 44 Secondhalf 1stcent.F 255,F 256; Ha 17 Firsthalf 4th cent. (POU) Ha 32 Fourth quarter 5th cent. B.C. F 91; Hd 1 cent. F 296 Mid-3rd
Ca. 350-325 B.C.(POU) F 154 First quarter 6th cent. B.C. D 10 Ca. 430-410 B.C. F 90 1st cent. B.C. to 1st cent. F 250

Construction filling(Agora,IV, XII) Well

Second half 1st to mid-2nd cent. (POU) F 267, F283; G 23; Ha20; Hb 6; He 15; L30
First half 2nd cent. B.C. F 227 First half 4th cent. B.C. F 145 Late 2nd cent. B.C. F 228; Hc 3 Ca. 375-325 B.C. F 149

Cistern(Agora,XII) Well Construction filling(Agora,IV, XII) Cistern Well (Agora,IV, VIII, XII)
Well (Agora, V, VI, VII)

Ca. 450B.C. C14; F72,F73; L5

to Mid-2nd early3rdcent.(POU) B 18;He 15

DEPOSITS C 13:2 C 14:1 C 14:2 C 14:4 C18:2 C 18:4 C 18:7 C18:11 C 19:5 C 19:9 C 20:1 D 10:2 D11:l D 11:4 D 12:1 D 12:2 D 15:2 D 15:3 D 17:3 D 17:11 D-E 8-9:1 E2:3 E3:l E6:3 E 11:2 E 13:1 E 14:1
Well (Agora, XII)

97

Cistern Cistern(Agora,VII) Well (Agora,IV, VII)


Well (Agora, V)

Late 2nd to 4th cent. (POU) F 170; Ha 34 Hellenistic F 193 Thirdquarter cent. F 298 3rd First half 2nd to second quarter 4th cent. (POU) F 310; Hb 13-15; Hd 19; He29 Second half 1st to early 3rd cent. (POU)
F 257; L29 First half 5th cent. B.C. F 76 Second quarter 5th cent. B.C. C 23 Ca. 490-480 B.C. F 51

Drain (Agora, XII)

Construction filling(Agora,IV, XII) Construction filling(Agora,XII)

Housefillings(Agora,XII)

Well (Agora,IV, XII) Well (Agora,V, VI, VII) Channel Well (Agora,IV, V, VI, VII) Cistern(Agora,IV, XII) Well (Agora,IV, V, VI, VII)
Cistern(Agora, IV)

a) Secondhalf 5th cent. B.C. B 8; F 110 b) Late 5th and firsthalf 4th cent. B.C. E 12; F 146; Ha9 Early2nd to mid-3rdcent. (POU) Hd 13
3rd to 2nd cent. B.C. F 185 Ca. 425-400 B.C. (POU) F 97 Ca. 400-390 B.C. (U) F 128

Well (Agora,V, VII) Cistern(Agora,IV, XII) Cistern(Agora,IV, XII) Well Cistern(Agora,XII) Foundrypit (Agora,IV, XII) Cistern (Agora,IV, X, XII)
Cistern (Agora, X, XII)

Late 1st cent. B.C. to mid-lst cent. Hd 3 Middle filling: mixed late Hellenistic early to Roman F 303 Bottom filling 3: late 2nd to mid-3rdcent. Ha 23; He 18 Late2ndto early1stcent.B.C. (L) G 21 Late Hellenisticto early Roman (M) F 234 6th cent. (POU) J 9
Ca. 375-330 B.C. Ca. 300-290 B.C. 1st cent. B.C. (L) Ca. 330-305 B.C. Ca. 375-350 B.C. C 33 F 195 G 22 D 43; F 165, F 166 F 142-144

Late 4th to early 3rdcent.B.C. F 182,F 183; Fb 1,Fb 2 Lowerfilling:1st cent. F 259
G9; Hcl Ca. 375-310 B. . C 30 (M 13); F 135, F 136;

Well Cistern(Agora,IV, V, VI, X, XII)

Well (Agora, IV, V)

Ca. 470-425 B.C. C 26; F 58;Fa 23

a) Late 4th and 3rd cent. B.C. F 199, F 200; Hb 2, Hb 3

E 14:2 E 14:3 E 14:5 E 15:1 E 15:3


E 15:5

Well (Agora,IV, V, VI)


Well (Agora, V) Cistern (Agora, IV)

Well (Agora,IV, XII)

Cistern (Agora, IV)

c) Dumpedfillingof 3rd cent. Hd 18 1st cent. (POU) F 258 Mid-lst cent. B.C. (M) F 243 Construction fillingin 1st cent. F 251 Late 2nd to early 1st cent. B.C.(POU) F 230 4th and 5thcent.(POU) Hb 21, Hb 24; He 38 Ca. 500-480B. c. F 27;Fal Earlyto late 2nd cent. (POU) Ha 21; L 28
Second half 5th cent. B.C. K 6 3rd to 2nd cent. B.C. F 210 Ca. 520490 B.C. F 14, F 15; Ha 1

b) Late 1st cent B.C. E 16

E 15:6 E 17:1 E 19:5 E 29:5


F5:1

F 11: F 11:2 F 12:3 F 12:5 F 13:2

Well Well (Agora,IV, XII) Well Pit Well Cistern(Agora,IV, XII) Well (Agora,V, VI, VII) Well (Agora, IV, XII) Well (Agora,IV, XII) Well (Agora,IV, VIII, XII) Well(Agora, VI, VII) IV,

Early4th cent. F 319; He 34


Second half 4th cent. B.C. (POU) E 13 Second half 4th cent. B.C. B 13 7th cent to ca. 570 B.C.D 2, D 8

1st and early2nd cent.F 268; He 13; L 26

Secondhalf 1stcent.to end of 2ndcent.(POU) Hc 12

98
F 15:1 F16:1 F 17:3 F 19:1 F 19:2 F 19:3 F 19:4
F 19:5 Well (Agora, V)

DEPOSITS Cistern(Agora,IV, XII) 4th cent. (POU) Hb 22


Ca. 350-310 B.c. F 164 End of 4th cent. to ca. 225 B.C. (second POU)

Well (Agora, XII)

Well(Agora,V, VI, VII) Cistern(Agora,IV, XII) Well Well (Agora,IV, XII) Well(Agora,IV, XII) Filling(Agora,XII) Road levels(Agora,IV, VIII, XII) Pit (Agora,IV, XII) Rock-cutShaft(Agora,IV, X, XII) Well (Agora,IV, VII) Well(Agora, VI, VII) V, Pit (Agora,IV, XII) Pit (Agora,IV, XII) Well Well (Agora,IV, X, XII) Well (Agora,IV, X, XII) Well (Agora,IV, XII) Well (Agora,IV, XII) Fillings(Agora,IV, XII)
Well (Agora, XII) Cistern (Agora, V)

F 206, F 207 Late 3rdand 4th cent. (POU) F 311

Ca. 375-340 B.c. A 6; B 10 1st cent. B.C. Hb 4 Ca. 490-450 B.C. B7; C24; D39;

F 65, F

F57,

,F68, F69

F 20:1 F-G 12:1 G3:1 G6:3 G8:1 G11:l G 11:2 G 12:22 G 12:23 G 13:5 G 14:2 G15:1 G 15:2 G 18:1 H 5-6:1 H6:5 H6:9 H7:3 H 10:2 H 12:6 H 12:11 H 13:5 H 16:3 H 16:4 H 17:5 H-I 7-8:1 19:1 110:1 115:1 I15:2 I116:1 16:4 I16:5 I 16:7 117:1 J11:1 J12:1 J 13-14:1 J18:1 J 18:4

Ca. 520-480 B.C. F 31 4th cent. B.C. F 150 7th and 6th cent. B.C.D 4, D 32; F 3 Ca. 500-470 B.C. L 1

Late2nd to early6thcent.(POU)D 44; F 291, F307; He 33; K18


Ca. 470-460 B.C. Fa 16-19 Ca. 375-350 B.C. F 141 First quarter4th cent. B.C. (U) F 139 Early 4th into 2nd cent. B.C. F 152, F 229 Ca. 500 B.C.(POU) D 28; F 16; K 5 Ca. 550-525 B.C.(POU) M 5 Ca. 425-400 B.C.(with some earlier) F 74, F 96 Early 5th cent. B.C. F 42 Ca. 470-460 B.C. C 16-22; E2; F 59-62; Fa 2-15 End of 4th cent. B.C.(L) F 160 2nd cent. B.C. F 190 Ca. 375-350 B.C. F 140 Ca. 575-525 B.C. D 18 Ca. 425-400 B.C. F92,F93 Ca. 410-390 B.C.(POU) F 127 Ca.480B.C. B6; C13; D38 Ca. 320-275 B.C. F 179, F 180 Ca. 150 B.C. G19 Ca. 375-340 B.C. F 148 First half 6th cent. B.C. D7

Early 3rd to late 2nd cent. B.C. (POU) K 10

Ca. 510-480B.C. (U) A5; B2; F23, F24; M6 1st cent. (POU) Hb5

Pit (Agora,IV, X, XII) Construction filling(Agora,IV, XII) Pit (Agora,IV, VIII, XII) Well (Agora,IV, VII, XII) Well (Agora,IV, XII) Pit Cistern(Agora,IV, XII) Pithos(Agora,IV, XII) Filling(Agora,IV, XII)
Filling (Agora, VI)

Drain(Agora, VIII) IV, Well Well Filling Well (Agora,V, VI, VII) Well (Agora,IV, XII)
Cistern (Agora, IV) Well (Agora, XII)

5th cent. L 50 Secondandthirdquarters6th cent.B.C. D 14 Late Roman 1 13


Third quarter 4th cent. B.C. F 159

cent. (POU)F 286;Ha 27; Late 1stto mid-3rd Hd 11, Hd 12 4th and 5th cent. (POU) Hd 20; L49 with somelaterintrusions F 288 2ndcent.B.C.
Late 5th to early 4th cent. B.C. F 138 Ca. 450-425 B.C. F 85 Ca. 400-340 B.c. F 158 Ca. 600-540 B.C.(POU) F 8; M 2

Settlingbasin

Filling(Agora,XII) Well (Agora,V, VII)


Drain (Agora, XII)

Well (Agora,V, VI, VII) Pit (Agora,IV, XII)

Late 1st to early3rdcent. (POU) Hd 7 Fourth quarter 5th cent. B.C. B 9 3rd century before A.D.267 (POU) Ha 28 Mid-6th centuryB.C. (lower fill) B 1; C 4; F 12, F 13

DEPOSITS
I

99

K 18:1

Well(Agora,V, VII)

Late 1stto early2nd cent. (POU) F 260-262;


M 19

K 18:3 L 14:2 I M 11:3 M 17:1 I

Cistern Well Well (Agora,IV, VIII, XII) Well (Agora,IV, V, VI, VII, XII)

4th to early5th cent. (POU) J 2, J 3 cent. (POU) G 2 11lth Dumpedfillingof 3rdcent. Hc 21 6th and 7th cent. He 26
Second half of 7th cent. B.C. F 6

Mid-lst to late 6th cent. (POU)B 17; F 285,


F 312, F 320; Ha 24, Ha 26, Ha 33, Ha 47, Ha 48; Hb 10; He 11, He 24; Hd 14; He 16, He22, He31; 13; L43

M 18:1 M 18:4 M 18:10 M 18:11 M 19:1 M 20:2 M 21:1 N 7:3 N 11:6 N 13:1 N 17:1 N 17:2 N 18:5 N 19:1 N 19:2 N 20:1 N 20:2 N 20:3 N 20:4 N 20:5

Well(Agora, VI, VII) V, Well Well (Agora,XII) Pit Cistern(Agora,V, VII) Well (Agora,VI, VII) Cistern(Agora,IV, V, XII) Well (Agora,IV, XII) Well (Agora,VIII) Well (Agora,V, VII) Well (Agora,V) Well (Agora,V, VII) Well (Agora,V) Cistern(Agora,IV, V, VI, VII, XII) Well (Agora,IV, V, VII) Well(Agora, V, VI, VII,XII) IV, Cistern(Agora,V) Well (Agora,V, VII) Cistern(Agora,IV, V) Well (Agora,IV, VI)

He 17 3rd to 6th cent. (POU) F 309; Hb 8, Hb 11, Hellenistic ca. 200 B.C. F 208 5th cent. B.C. E 9

1stand2ndcent.(POU) F 277; Hd 5, Hd 10; Hb27; I4, I16; K17

Firsthalf of 2nd cent. F 280, F 281 3rdcent. Ha 30


Late 3rdand early 2nd cent. B.C. F 212, F 213 Ca. 460-440 B.C. F 77, F 79-83 Late 8th into early 4th cent. B.C. A 1 (M 1)

5th cent. (POU) 114 Mid-3rd into 5th cent. (POU) Ha 25 Mid-lst to mid-2ndcent. (POU) F 270-275 Late 3rdto 4th cent. Ha 31; He 26, He 27; I 1 Secondquarter end of 1st cent. He 5 to Mid-lst to first half of 2nd cent. (POU) Firsthalfof 1stcent.(POU) He 6, He 8; L 25 Secondhalf of 1stcent. He 8-11 4th cent. (POU) F 315 (M 20)
F282, F 292-294; He 14; K 16 3rd cent. before A.D.267 (POU) L 34 Second quarter 1st cent. B.C. F 242 F278; Hcl7;Hd8

First half of 1st to early 3rd cent. (POU)


Ha 19; Hd6, Hd 15;

N 20:7 N 21:1
N 21:4

Cistern(Agora,IV) Well (Agora,V, VI, VII, XII)


Cistern (Agora, IV, XII)

4th cent. 12, 17

Second half of 3rd cent. B. c. F 197

Early 1st to 5th cent. (POU) F 287; Ha 15; a) Late 6th to early5th cent. B.C. F 30 of b) Fourthquarter 5th cent. B.C. F 94
Ca. 450-425 B.C. F 88 Third quarter 7th cent. B.C. F 4 Third quarter 5th cent. B.C. F 89 Second half of 3rd cent. B.C. F 198 Ca. 350-325 B.C. Ha 10 I 17-19, I 23, 1 24, 1 28-34 He 35; 1 10-12; L 28, L 32 3rd cent. B.C. F196; G 14

N-P 20:1 07:10 O 12:1 0 16:1-2 O 16:3 O 16:4 0 17:1 0 18:1


O 19:1

Streetpacking(Agora,XII)

Pit (Agora,XII) Well (Agora,IV, VIII, XII) Construction filling(Agora,XII) Well Pit (Agora,XII) Cistern(Agora,V, VII, XII) Well (Agora,V, VI, VII, XII)
Well (Agora, V) Well (Agora, XII

Secondto fourthquarter1st cent. Ha 16 4th to 6th cent. (POU) F322; Ha 41-43; Early 4th to 6th cent. (POU) F 317, F318; Ha 50; Hb 16, Hb 18, Hb 19; He 4, He 32,

0 19:4

He39,He41; 15, I6,I115; J6; L45, L 46 Fourth quarter 5th cent. B.C. (POU) E6; F95

100 P7:4 P8:1 P8:2 P 14:3 P18:1 P 18:2 P 19:1


Well (Agora, VII)

DEPOSITS Filling(Agora,V, VI, VII) Pit (Agora,IV, XII) Depositover floor(Agora,XII) Well (Agora,V, VII) Well(Agora,V, VI, VII) Well (Agora,V, VI, VII) Late 5th to early6th cent. Ha 39 Firsthalf of 2nd cent. F 284; Hd 9 5th to 6th cent. (POU) Hb 28, Hb 29; Hc 23; Hd22; J7 Firsthalf of 3rdcent. (POU) L 33 4th to 6th cent. (POU) I 35-37, I 41 Late 1st cent. (POU) He 12 Early 3rd to 6th cent. (POU) F 295, F 323; Ha 44; Hb 25, b 26, Hb 30; Hd 16; 19, 1 20-22, 25, I 26; L 47
Third quarter 5th cent. B.C. (into fourth) Third quarter into fourth, 5th cent. B.C. Ha 2 Ca. 470-460 B.c. E4; F70, F71

Q8:1 Q 10:4 Q 12:3 Q 13:2 Q 13:3 Q 13:5 Q 15:2 Q 17:1 Q 17:4 Q 17:7 Q 18:1 Q 18:2 Q 19:1 Q 19:2 R8:2 R 10:1 R 12:1 R 12:3 R 12:4 R13:1 R 13:2 R 13:4 R 17:5 R 19:2 R21:2 S16:1 S 19:6 S21:2 S21:3 T 18:2 T18:3 T 19:3 T27:1 U22:1 U 23:2

Pit (Agora,IV, XII)


Well

F 111

Well (Agora,X, XII) Cistern (Agora,VII) Footing-trench Well (Agora,VIII, XII)


Well (Agora, XII)

Late 5th cent. B.C. F 123 Ca. 520-490 B.C. F 19, F 52; G 4 Dumped filling of 6th cent. B.C. D 19; F 32

5th cent. B 21

Well Well (Agora,V, VI, VII)


Well (Agora, VI) Well (Agora, IV, XII) Well Well

He 3 6th and 7th cent. Ha 53 Early 1st to 6th cent. (POU) F 266, F290 Hb 12; He 25; Hd 17; He 36; I 27, 1 39; J4; L31 3rdto 6th cent. (POU) F 327; Ha 45, Ha 46; 5th and 6th cent. (POU) Ha 52; Hb 31 3rdto 6th cent. (POU) F 299, F 325; Hb 20; He30,He40; 143; L42
Hb9, Hb 23; He23, He24; 140, 144, 45 Ca. 550-525 B.C.(POU) G 1

Ca. 575-540 B.c. L2; M3 Ca. 420-390 B.C. C31; E 10; F 131-134;

Pit
Well (Agora, IV, VIII, XII)

Well (Agora,IV, V, VII)

Early 1st cent. F 252, F 253; Hc 7; He 4-7 K15; L24


Ca. 520-480 B.C. C 7; F 33-41 Ca. 525-500 B.C.(POU) F 11

3rd cent. B.C. E 15 Third into fourth quarter7th cent. B.C. F 5

Well (Agora, IV, VIII) Well (Agora, XII) Well (Agora, XII) Well (Agora, IV, V, VII, XII) Well (Agora, IV, VII)

Well (Agora,IV, XII)


Well (Agora, VIII) Drain Cistern (Agora, IV) Well (Agora, XII)

Late 1st cent. B.C. to mid-lst cent. F 254 Late 1st cent. B.C. to early 1st cent. L 23 Ca. 440-425 B.c. He 1, He 2 Second quarter 7th cent. B.C. C 1; F 2

Ca. 520-480B.c. C 5; F28,F29

EarlyRoman He 19 1st cent. Hc9;Hd4

Well Well (Agora, IV, V, VI, VII) Well (Agora, XII) Filling (Agora, XII) Pit or well (Agora, IV, VIII, XII) Filling Well

Well (Agora,IV, VIII,XII)

Ha 3-6 Secondhalf 6th cent. F 326 Ca. 600-570B.C. D 11, D 12; F7 Firsthalf 1stto firsthalf3rdcent. Ha 22

Fourth quarter 5th cent. B.C. F 104, F 105;

Ca. 575-550 B.C. D 17 Ca. 600-550 B.C. D 23 Later 8th to mid-7th cent. B.C. D 3; F 1 Second quarter 1st cent. B.C. F 241

a) 2nd to early3rdcent. Hc 18 b) 4th cent. F 316


Ca. 525-500 B.C. (POU) G 3

Well(Agora,IV, XII)

CONCORDANCE
Inv. No. P8 P13 P83 P103 P 119 P124 P133 P136 P137 P195 P199 P226 P266 P410 P416 P469 P481 P526 P580 P605 P633 P638 P770 P772 P897 P928 P963 P964 P965 P989 P 1001 P1026 P1027 P1206 P1265 P1444 P1458 P1461 P1493 P1504 P1538 P1567 P1850 P1870 P1881 P 1944 P1992 P1993 P2004 Cat. No. F43 D 16 F126 F 107 F 190 He 37 F167 F 189 F44 F9 F 168 E3 F 160 C 12 F191 Ha 40 L 54 F 229 F 179 G19 F 180 Ha 35 F288 F 85 F 164 Ha 27 Hd 11 F 286 Hd 12 F8 M2 L 49 Hd 20 F 16 B2 F147 F 148 I 38 F 181 A7 F 181 He 42 F332 F 108 F 215 L 51 F 333 D 19 B 21 Inv. No. P 2022 P 2029 P2030 P 2041 P 2095 P 2097 P2145 P 2228 P2272 P2281 P 2366 P 2518 P 2610 P2707 P2714 P 2759 P 2841 P 3002 P 3044 P3058 P 3076 P3140 P3143 P3144 P 3163 P3215 P 3218 P 3272 P 3285 P 3289 P 3297 P 3446 P 3457 P 3467 P 3512 P3533 P 3534 P 3549 P 3629 P 3671 P 3721 P 3736 P3754 P 3756 P 3784 P 3788 P 3817 P3983 P 4232 Cat. No. B9 F 10 D6 D 24 F 334 L 50 A 10 F 300 F 249 F 314 He 2 Hc 14 F 23 A5 M6 F 24 F 127 18 Ha 49 Hd 7 L 55 Hc 22 F251 (F 251) F 216 Hc 4 L 35 A2 F 217 B 16 He 13 F 218 Hc 26 Hb 5 E 13 M4 D5 F 301 D F 302 F 140 F 109 I13 J 10 B 13 F 219 M 18 K10 F 25 Inv. No. P4233 P4480 P4498 P 4618 P 4627 P 4663 P4664 P 4666 P 4696 P 4723 P 4791 P 4794 P 4899 P4909 P4914 P 4915 P5009 P5012 P 5028 P5109 P 5116 P5117 P5118 P 5119 P 5120 P 5121 P 5122 P 5123 P 5124 P 5125 P 5128 P 5133 P 5137 P 5140 P 5144 P5157 P 5158 P 5160 P 5164 P 5167 P 5168 P 5169 P5174 P5175 P 5181 P 5203 P 5206 P 5449 P 5453 Cat. No. K2 L 26 F268 He 43 D 32 F3 D4 F 26 D 35 F 244 D 41 D8 B 14 E7 Ha 29 F 245 F46 F 45 F 331 F84 Fa 9 Fa 2 Fa 3 Fa 10 Fa 4 Fa 5 Fa 11 Fa 6 Fa 12 Fa 7 C 16 E2 F 59 Fa 13 C 17 C 18 Fa 14 C 19 C 21 C 20 F 62 C 22 F60 F 61 Fa 15 F 115 F 17 C 26 F 58 Inv. No. P 5458 P5506 P 5595 P5623 P 5663 P 5671 P5717 P 5726 P5738 P 5774 P 5792 P 5820 P 5828 P5838 P5918 P 5925 P 5929 P 6034 P 6067 P6074 P6128 P6139 P6153 P 6173 P 6349 P 6578 P 6717 P 6799 P 6825 P 6864 P6867 P 6873 P 6876 P 6878 P 6889 P6903 P 6904 P6992 P 7048 P 7058 P 7063 P 7082 P7103 P 7140 P7247 P 7254 P 7360 P7405 P 7502 Cat. No. Fa 23 K 13 Fa26 I 14 Ha 54 Ha 36 Hdl8 F 243 F 230 Hc 12 Hb2 F 199 F 226 F200 F201 F 199 Hb 3 F 231 D 14 A2 F209 Fa C33 F27 E 16 D2 F 235 D 43 Fb 3 F 234 F 228 F 238 E 14 G 21 F 161 F 169 L 14 F 303 M 21 F 53 F 289 F 233 M8 F63 A3 F 116 G9 He 25 F 149

102 Inv.No. Cat. No.


P7507 P 7525 P 7529 P 7544 P 7575 P 7583 P 7607 P7628 P 7638 P 7670 P 7690 P 7699 P 7740 P 7785 P7820 P 7843 P 7860 P 7867 P 7884 P 7925 P 7957 P7977 P7985 P7994 P8001 P8037 P8040 P8046 P8050 P8105 P8108 P8120 P8203 P8341 P8600 P8611 P8621 P8813 P8826 P8842 P9055 P9177 P9318 P9322 P9482 P9483 P9513 P9634 P 9645 P 9660 P9670 P9671 P 9672 P9675 P9676 P 9681 L52 L 36 Hd 3 J1 Fa 8 He 15 F 193 K 9 L 53 F 170 C6 Hc 1 F 182 Hc 20 L4 L 37 Ha 23 L3 Hb 17 He 18 F 254 F 135 Hd 23 F 259 Hd 21 F 202 F 298 B19 Ha 37 (Hc 3) Hc3 F117 L13 B18 Fbl Fb 2 F136 F14 F15 Ha F 18 E8 Ha 55 Ha 56 C14 L5 F 277 G2 F 171 Hc 24 Hc5 Hd5 Ha 31 He 26 He 27 I P9753 P 9754 P 9755 P 9756 P 9766 P 9784 P 9794 P9800 P 9806 P 9808 P 9835 P 9873 P 9878 P 9880 P9881 P 9889 P 9897 P 9902 P 9907 P 9918 P 9919 P 9922 P 9925 P 9986 P 9994 P 10032 P 10035 P 10040 P 10048 P 10064 P10067 P 10151 P 10159 P 10181 P 10247 P 10265 P10267 P 10268 P 10352 P10422 P10447 P 10466 P 10469 P 10511 P10512 P10537 P 10556 P10564 P 10613 P10616 P10618 P10634 P 10710 P 10712 P 10717 P 10729

CONCORDANCE Inv.No. Cat. No.


Hb 1P He 2 Hc 2 J5 J2 Ha 48 F 312 L43 He 31 13 F280 M 22 F 260 M 19 Hb 10P M7 He 22 Ha 26 (Ha 26) Hd 14 Ha 24 B 17 F281 L 12 L6 F 261 F 262 F285 H ll Hd 10 He 17 F D22 F330 He 21 I4 Hbll K17 M10 Fa25 F276 F75 Hb 8 B5 F118 F91 Ha 32 J9 F 307 Fa 22 C29 F246 Hb 21 F258 D34 F 210

Inv.No. Cat. No.


10775 P 10778 P 10779 P 10803 P 10805 P 10809 P 10810 P 10813 P 10814 P 10815 P 10816 P 10838 P 10839 P 11021 11119 P 11142 P 11193 P 11194 P 11195 P 11196 P 11197 P 11198 P 11202 P 11249 P 11256 P 11258 P 11301 P 11307 P 11355 P 11357 P11382 P 11392 P 11545 P 11558 P 11569 P11579 P11582 P 11583 P11584 P 11590 P 11594 P 11634 P 11752 P 11763 P11798 P 11991 P 11992 P12010 P 12011 P 12030 P12100 P 12152 P 12157 P 12158 P 12181 P12200 D44 F 291 C 25 F 92 F 64 D 37 B 12 Fa 16 Fa 17 Fa 18 Fa 19 Fa 20 Fa 21 Hd 1P L44 F 269 Hb 13 Hb 14 He 29 F 310 Hb 15 Hd l9 F 203 F 255 F 256 Ha 17 He 33 K18 Hb24 He 38 Hel F32 Hc 13 Ha 47 F320 Ha 33 L43 L43 L43 L43 L43 He 16 Hc 21 B20 F145 L38 He 19 Ha 38 G7 F94 F242 142 Ha 51 F329 K4 F220

Inv.No. Cat. No.


P 12212 P 12214 P 12225 P 12257 P 12261 P 12262 P 12306 P 12314 P 12317 P 12336 P 12351 P 12352 P 12354 12357 P 12359 P 12361 P 12373 P 12396 P 12458 P 12459 P 12460 P 12468 P 12469 P 12471 P 12478 P 12510 P 12629 P 12664 P 12695 P12707 P12710 P 12713 P12825 P12827 P 12836 P12837 P12841 P 12842 P 12863 P 12866 P 12870 P 12874 P 12914 P12936 F12965 P12991 P13060 P13063 P 13064 P 13065 P13087 P13099 P 13130 P 13147 P 13148 P 13149 D 15 E1 B3 F 308 12 17 F315, M20 L34 E6 G6 F 321 F 292 F 293 F 294 Hd 15 He 8 Hd 6 F 141 Ha 19 F 282 He 14 He 9 He 10 He11 K 16 F98 G G 17 Ha 50 He 41 I15 J6 Hb16 I6 F 317 L45 He 32 F318 I35 He 39 L46 15 Hb 28 Hb29 L7 He 20 J7 I36 141 137 J8 F95 F 313 I24 I18 F 322

CONCORDANCE
Inv. No. P 13150 P 13151 P 13152 P 13157 P 13158 P 13160 P 13164 P 13169 P 13170 P 13171 P 13178 P 13182 P 13188 P 13227 P 13248 P 13251 P 13282 P 13307 P 13322 P 13333 P 13360 P 13365 P 13386 P 13433 P 13462 P 13463 P 13464 P 13465 P 13466 P 13467 P 13468 P 13472 P 13474 P 13477 P 13585 P 13590 P 13599 P 13601 P 13602 P 13605 P 13615 P 13617 P 13655 P 13754 P 14016 P 14018 P 14024 P 14055 P 14056 P 14077 P 14086 P 14093 P 14110 P 14113 P 14117 P 14130 Cat. No. Ha 41 132 Ha 42 Inv. No. P 14131 P 14323 P 14566 P 14622 P 14623 P 14636 P 14644 P 14658 P 14670 P 14676 P 14687 P 14691 P 14693 P 14703 P 14705 P 14710 P 14725 P 14917 P 14938 P 14943 P 14950 P 14960 P 15075 P 15108 P 15200 P 15208 P 15209 P 15217 P 15218 P 15224 P 15225 P 15296 P 15302 P 15303 P 15304 P 15305 P 15307 P 15343 P 15347 P 15348 P 15379 P 15380 P 15397 P 15446 P 15555 P 15559 P 15560 P 15576 P 15664 P 15682 P 15693 P 15694 P 15707 P 15719 P 15741
P 15766

103
Inv. No. P 17826 P 17827 P 17867 P 17883 P 17894 P 17898 P 17902 P 17961 P 17971 P 18003 P 18009 P 18248 P 18255 P 18264 P 18271 P 18276 P 18284 P 18325 P 18337 P 18340 P 18342 P 18420 P 18434 P 18435 P 18499 P 18609 P 18610 P 18619 P 18620 P 18625 P 18756 P 18952 P 19007 P 19124 P 19170 P 19179 P 19203 P 19287 P 19312 P 19389 P 19400 P 19401 P 19403 P 19491 P 19555 P 19694 P 19861 P 19956 P 19958 P 20019 P 20089 P 20191 P 20216 P 20283 P 20294 P 20329 Cat. No. F 13 C4 Ha 30 L39 Hd 13 F 78 F 173 F 90 F78 F 146 F 184 All F 305 F 223 D 13 K1 F 250 B8 F 76 G 15 D 10 L 15 L29 F 257 C23 Ha 9 E 12 F 154 F 97 F 188 F 213 F 128 F 265 L16 F 192 G22 F 296 D 36 M 11 K8 Ha 21 L28 C28 Ha 18 F 110 G8 K14 F 151 F 121 F 122 F 50 F 204 F 194 F 155 Hd 2 F 205

133
19 123 Ha 43 134 I30 131 117 128 129 Fa 24 D26 D27 A4 F 247 C2 D9 D 18 F 326 F241 120 F30 Ha 44 Hb 30 125 F 323 126 121 Hb 25 122 Hb 26 L47 19 Hc 17 Hd 8 F 278 Hd 16 F 295 He 12 D3 G3 Hb 27 I16 F 309 Ha 52 Hb 31 L33 Hd 22 Hc 23 Hb 18 Hb 19 Ha 16 D 33

Cat. No. B4 M 17 F 221 El1 F 263 F 142 F 143 F 144 L1 G5 D 11 F7 D 12 L9 F 150 C10 L40 Ha 25 F 119 Cll F 31 F 186 J 1 K6 L21 B7 D39 F 96 F66 F 57 C24 F 270 F271 F 272 F 273 F 274 F 275 M 23 F 65 F 65 C9 Hd 4 F 187 F162 C8 He 9 J 12 F 316 D 25 Ha 22 D29 D30 F 74 F 304 L20
I 10

Inv. No. P 15784 P 15867 P 15868 P 15990 P 16024 P 16079 P 16199 P 16202 P 16206 P 16236 P 16295 P 16313 P 16360 P 16391 P 16404 P 16585 P 16594 P 16679 P 16700 P 16703 P 16704 P 16706 P 16723 P 16728 P 16789 P 16791 P 16812 P 16865 P 16869 P 16903 P 16904 P 16905 P 16981 P 17005 P 17043 P 17059 P 17070 P 17113 P 17123 P 17125 P 17128 P 17129 P 17130 P 17133 P 17139 P 17144 P 17380 P 17425 P 17463 P 17499 P 17585 P 17677 P 17794 P 17799 P 17824
P 17825

Cat. No. I1 F72 F73 F68 F69 Hb 22 He 8 L25 He 6 G14 F 196 J3 F 311 B 10 Hb4 F 21 F 248 112 L32 L28 F 287 L28 Ha 15 He 35 M5 K5 D28 D42 F 22 F 99 F 100 F 101 E5 F 264 F 227 F 130 K1 L30 C27 L8 He 15 Hb6 Ha 20 F 283 F 120 F 267 F6 F 222 F 67 Ha 28 G23 F 56 F 172 He 28 B1 F 12

104 Inv.No. Cat. No.


P 20361 P 20373 P20374 P 20422 P 20424 P 20657 P 20719 P 20757 P 20761 P 20768 P 20785 P 20787 P 20788 P 20789 P 20790 P 20791 P 20792 P 20839 P 20846 P20848 P20903 P20987 P21220 P21290 P21310 P21373 P21374 P 21381 P 21393 P21399 P21400 P 21404 P 21454 P 21553 P 21583 P 21631 P 21694 P 21714 P 21773 P 21776 P 21777 P 21788 P21789 P 21791 P 21792 P21793 P 21840 P 22008 P 22009 P 22104 P 22110 P22116 P 22162 P 22211 P 22218 F 239 K9 M 15 F 51 G 13 L 23 F252 F 33 F 36 F37 F38 C7 F34 F39 F 35 F40 F 41 L 22 F 174 F 195 Ha 13 F156 F123 F77 Ha 39 F82 F80 Hd 9 F 284 F79 F81 F 83 G 20 Ha 2 D40 Hc 18 F88 L 17 K 15 L 24 F 253 He 5 He 6 Hc 7 He 4 He7 Ha 34 L 43 L 43 F 175 A8 F158 F328 Hc9 F 157 P 22293 P 22483 P22484 P 22512 P 22709 P 22833 P 22836 P 22914 P 22976 P 22998 P 23045 P 23130 P 23163 P 23205 P 23227 P 23231 P 23242 P 23272 P 23274 P 23283 P 23309 P 23389 P 23452 P23523 P23690 P23693 P23821 P 23835 P 23837 P 23872 P23873 P 23874 P 23948 P 24024 P 24062 P 24126 P 24265 P 24274 P 24668 P 24691 P 24698 P24727 P24735 P 24745 P 24746 P24760 P 24774 P 24853 P 24859 P 24882 P 24910 P24911 P 24912 P 24917 P 24922

CONCORDANCE Inv.No. Cat. No.


L 41 G10 G1 Ha 53 F4 He 44 F224 F 153 K 12 F86 F 232 L 10 F236 G 18 F 237 M 16 M 12 F 137 L 19 F 89 B 15 Hb7 F5 F225 Bll C3 F131 F 132 C 31 F 133 E10 F 134 He 3 F 139 G4 F52 F111 F 54 F 28 F 112 F 87 F11 F55 D 20 D 21 Hal F 106 Hc 10 F 176 F 19 C5 F28 F28 F 29 F 28

Inv. No. Cat. No.


P 24935 F 198 P 24998 L2 P24999 M3 P 25048 139 P 25054 Hc 25 P 25064 127 P 25133 J4 P 25170 Hb 12 P 25175 He 36 P 25195 Hd 17 P 25218 L 31 P 25224 F290 P 25245 F266 P 25464 Hc 16 P 25474 Ha 14 P 25475 F306 P 25742 Ha 11 P 25816 F 240 P 25822 F 124 P 25852 L56 P 25886 E9 P25892 F125 P 25909 K7 P 25922 F20 P25940 F324 P25983 E15 P25998 F206 P 26004 F207 P 26070 Ha 7 P26083 I43 P26090 F325 P 26104 He 40 P 26114 Hb 20 P 26119 He 30 P 26120 L 42 P 26127 F299 P 26179 F48 P 26180 F 47 P 26181 Ha 8 P 26192 F 49 P 26262 F208 P 26389 (F 120) P 26410 F297 P 26420 F 2 P 26424 F 102 P 26452 C1 P 26539 D 23 P 26595 F 327 P 26598 Ha 45 P 26599 He 23 P 26601 He 24 P26602 Hb9 P 26618 D 17 P 26675 L 27 P 26690 I45

Inv.No. Cat.No.
P 26693 Ha 46 P 26694 I44 P26699 Hb23 P 26866 F 114 P 26945 F 159 P 27040 G 12 P 27050 L48 P 27211 F319 P 27220 He 34 P 27314 F 104 P 27353 F 105 P 27367 Ha 12 P 27513 Ha 3 P 27515 Ha 4 P 27517 Ha 5 P 27525 Ha 6 P 27566 F 138 P 27690 F 70 P 27692 F 71 P 27694 E4 P27698 C15, M9 P27724 K3 P27741 D7 P27844 D38 P27848 C13 P27850 B6 L535 L 1096 L2019 L2122 L2229 L 2450 L2653 L3042 L 3077 L 3088 L 3269 L 3293 L3653 L 3773 L3918 L4134 L4194 L4212 L4414 L 5298 F 152 F 42 F185 F211 F 183 C30,M13 F103 F 163 F214 F 93 F 113 F197 F 178 A6 G 16 F 129 F 212 F 177, M 14 A9 C 32

MC216 F165 MC 224 F 166 MC483 C34 MC907 A1,M1 MC961 L18 MC 1011L 11

P 22234 F279

P 24923 F 28

P 26691 1 40

A 2498

D 31

INDICES
Includedin the Index Nominum only those items that are certainlynames of men, women or are divinities. Index Verborum all otheritems,including The some whichmay be eitherplace namesor lists even personalnames;this servesto keep all the "estate"namesof the Tax Notationstogether,since those names range from simple geographical descriptions through proper place names to possible owners'names. Both the IndexNominum the Index Verborun dividedinto Greekand Latin and are sections.The Greekheadings in the Ionicalphabet, are withthe actualspellingof the texts givenwhereit differs fromthe heading. the conclusion eachsectionof bothindicesarelistedbrokenforms. At of The IndexNumerorum, the whichincludeseverything that is numbered whatever unit may be (e.g., with one-halfand goingup; fractionsare givenonly measure, coin,year),is in numerical order,starting in context(e.g., 17 2/3), not separately. combinations whichmight Singlelettersor two- and three-letter be eithernumbers or or and (alphabetic acrophonic) abbreviations be listedin bothIndexVerborum may IndexNumerorum. IndexSigillorum The includesonly those notationsfor measures and such that are not primarily abbreviations whichuse lettersappeareitherunderthe appropriate wordin alphabetical; the Index Verborum as acrophonic or unitsin the IndexNumerorum. All references to cataloguenumbers. are INDEX NOMINUM Greek F 'Appco( ) or 'Appcb 227 'AyoftasF 271
F 'AuaKtioevS: 26 'A]XKtouoi[vos 'A?dcovF 310 'Aua( ) F 60 D 'A"ppovuXos: 39 'Al4pipoXos G 'AvaKss: 5 'A]v[a]K.ov B 'AvsoKISTis: 5 'AvBoKt[o

Hc 'ASpiav6s: 15 'ASplavoi
'AeQva:G 23 'A]eOva5 F AXItav6s 316

'Aya( )F 21 F48 'Ayep[ F 302 'Aypu( ) F 20 'ASpaar( ) F 241 (monogram)

F 'Ay5ccov: 199'AycOcovos

'Ayaeovfis: F 179 'Ayaeo9og[u]s

F F 'AvSSptlros: 131 'AvSpioKo; 132 'A[v6]polco 'AvSpi( ) F 97 F 237 D 'Avirpltos: 3 'AvplTros C 'AvOv,.: 3 'AvOeE

F 'AvSp&as:321 'AvSpFo

F D E AlarXkas:33 A]loaXav; 3 Aloyxia; 65 Altoeio


Alaxt( ) F 119

B 'AvrTiPos: 5 'Avnrp[fo]

C 32 'Av-riTKEi5is

Alox[ C 3

F Alrcowrros:250 A]lacIoTro 'AKiV( )F 254 'AKIV.()F 320 'AKU( )F260 C C 'AAKaios: 19 'A?AKaios; 20 'AAKai(ou);

C 22 'A7]Kdaos
'AXK?( ) F 299 C 'AhKias 32 F "AAKtrrros: 146 'A]?KinTro

'Apiis: K 12 "ApEos D 'Apio-rcSris: 23 'ApiorefS(es) F D 22 'Apia-crov; 16 'Apicrriov 'Apaoricov: F 80 'Apiori( )

C 32 'AvTritUSlir 'Av rip[ F 324 F 'AiroM6Scopos:58 'A-TroXo6po; 1 He 'ArroMoScbp(ou) G 'Ar6TAcov: 6 'A[rr6Sova D 25 'ApyE[LSs 'Apyefrins:

F 'Avrfi.aXos: 290 'AvwrfiaXos

106
'Apioarolvris:C 26 'Aploaro[ves Arls: D 42 'Apr)lTOT[ 'AploLO F 'Aptorrcov 238

INDEX NOMINUM F A^itos: 127 Arifo(u),Arl( ); see Ailos Atav( )He12 Ale( ) F 14 (monogram) Aly( ) F 206
Alta-riqs:D 27 Atac-r&ES AitS( ) F 189 (ligature)

F 'Apiorvu[ 149

C 'ApKErfcias 32 B7 'Apxcritos

'Apiacr() F 153 'Apic( ) F 81 'Api( )F 219

G 16 "AprTEpiS: 'ApT-riSos;G 18 'ApTr[iStl; G 21 'ApT-riSt 'ApTi( ) F 148 F "ApXrwrros:205 'A]pXiTnro[u

'Apo( )F194 'Apr( ) F 281

'Ap( ) F 159; Hc 5 'ApT(Elafiou)

Aioyvrls: F 304 Aioykvo[u]s Aloye[ F 232 Ato,ifis: F 177 AtoKhous AioKX( ) I24 F AtOKA[ 130 Aiov1tios F 150; F 209 F 233 Alovwuiou; He 6 Atovvoa'ou G Ao6vuos; G 9 AIovCmou; 10 Ai[ov*rou;
Al6Tin.L: K 10 AtOTrflouv

G 21 Aiovaoco; 22 Aiov[*crcp] G

'Ap( ) F 112 (ligature) 'A( ) F 208

'Aacr( )F280 'ATrTaia:F 4 'ATTrafas F7 'ATrpO61Tros: ]6owr[o]s 'Arv( ): see ATr( ) AOyovrros:Hc 5 AOyoi(orrou) AOT( ) F 52 (monogram) 'Appoitria: C 11 ['Apqpo]Staia

Aio( ) E 15 F AipiXos: 152 Atpi(aou),AtliXou F Apa:l'rflis 93

Ap*ios:F 316 Apptou

AO( ) F 89 (ligature)

G G 'Aqpo8iTrl: 10 ['Aqpo8iTris]; 11 'Acpp[o8iTrs 'Appo( )F 151 'AXE()F293 'A( ) F 87; see also IndexNumerorum
B7A( )F 17 or D BA6ovus BXcoaus: 29 BA6avs

'EKi( ) F 265 ) 'EAXrri( F 108 'E]jATir( ): F 'Eoancov: 85 'ExacrKov

F EicriSwpos ('Icrfcopos): 291 Eloi[8]copos

Elp( ) F 120 F315

EtAEios (lXos): F 276 Ei?Eoy Eli7tlva: G8 'IAuv0e[ai

'Eqrl( )F53 D 'E6pTtos: 13 'EopT[; F 22 'Eop( ) 'Ewayca6s:F 292 'ESrayaoou

raFos: 4 r(aiou) He rFv( ) F 210 rfpus:F 142 rfipuos


racifisF 230

B rv6ecov: 5 rv[&ecvos rva( ) F 102 rov( )F239 D Fopyias 6; F 64 ropyio


rpaCmKos:F 256 rpa<lKou

raCxos: B 9 F1aiKot !rau( ) F 114

F249 'ETrnTK[ G 'ETorvacos 4 F 'Eppatcos: 270 'Eppaiou 'Ep,fis: G 1 G 4 heppte; G 17 'Ep.po 'Epnrl[ F333 'EpLto[ F 226 F "Epi'rrnos: 198 'Eppinrro 'Ep6ocopos:F 304 'ppiobpou 'Epp[ F253 F 'EprTrivta 329 'Epco( )F247 Eorr( ):F57 hEa( );F68 hrr( )

'Eirty( ) F 110

D 'E'rryovos 44 F 287 F 318; F 282 'Ei]Ifyovos

D F 'ETrlyivyjs:38 'EwtyvbFs;223 'Ermyvous

Aafilcv: G 9 A]caiov[os D Aoaicea: 31 Aanotl[s AaloKprls: I 24 AaooKp&orous

Epil( )F 186
Ernl( )F236 EepoviSris:F 43 E]ebpovi?[o E0euivris: D 12 .E8.OV6s L EOvuvwvris: 22 E0OvStvo'[s F 323; F 323 EVK( ); F 331 EKap( ) EvKaprros

F Aewvias 135

AEp( ) F 41

Akios: F 136 AEi(o[


Arii'.evEa: D 8 Aeiwvdia

F 165 Aqli,Tnrpia: AqrlTyrpias Arl.ln( )F 95

EnKfiiC 24 K I EQ?S B7 EiOnATi{: EO,ef{S Euvo( ) F 229


.F_rro[ F 266

F AqoqtliAos 187; D 14 AE?l6piaos F 261 AT|o( )

F EuvoCos: 272 Ev(( );F 275 E*v61tou

INDEX NOMINUM D Eirnrpaots:7 Ernrpaxcris F EOpuvp[ 284 D EpOTnr: 10 EpiOre F 314 EOp( )
I: see Et 'lavOiSTis 'laveIs):C 10 'lavei6[ (or
'IEpoK[F 218

107

EOicrrtos:F 332 .E.o-raofov F EUrEK[ 10 F EOTruXia:165 EOrvuxf[as F ECrruxiav6s: 295 EOruxtavou (EOvpcov D 15 Et<(>po[ ?): E*cpp6vios F 303 E1p( ) E?xa( ) F334 Exe[ G 3 F EOVpXlos: 297 EOuXfiov E0( )F89 F "EqEaa 257 F 'ExKpaCriSas: 157 'ExEKpaT-i6a F 155 'Ecov( ) 'E( )F98

He 'IEpoSi6rs: 10 'I(Epo),So(u); He 11 'IEpo86ou 'Ieprbvuios:B 18 ['I]epoov[]pico 'IEpcy[ F 315 'I|<oo0S:J 1 'Ilq]-C0U

He 'loAilos:F 308 'louXAo(u); 9 'louAiou F 217 'Irrra( )


('IrroXOyr .?): D 16 'lqIoAOyE 'I<pooX*yq

M KcMiAevos: 8 KaAAcfXav[o]s
Koaicrrp&ri: D 39 KaAicrrprrr Kd6Acov: 17 K&Aovi D F 176 KaiAnr

F KcAMias 214 (monogram); cf. F 166

Kacr( )F 166 Kapa( ) F162

Kp-ros: F 286 K&pwou

ZaOAos ?): (aAOXos Hc 20 Zac.A[ou

Zes G 19; G 6 Afa; G 9 Ai6s

F F Zcbacnios: 307 Zcocarlou; 309 Z[cba]tlpos F Zco'rK6s: 312 ZcoTIKOV 'Hyicrrparos:C 8 'Eyarpa-ros; C 9 'Eyar(p>aTos F 'Hy?iravSpos: 116 'Hy'crSv[Spou F 168 'Hyatrr( ) 'Hyiacirrros: 'HAia( ) F 327 'HpaAeiE[F 305 'HpaKqs: K 12 'HpaKiAous F 'HpavAita: 332 'HpcAfcas F 294 'HpK( ) G 'HPaToros: 7 ['Hpat]CrToi 'Hqal( ): F 54 'Eal( ) 'H4qa( ) F 183

F 306 Kapqpvica: K.apqvifas He K&anoos: 4 Kacrai(ou) Ka[F 285 F KKpo[ 101 Kep( ) F 105 Kepa[ F 161 K9l( ): F 66 KEp( ) F KiKxos:262 KiKKou K{icov: 41 Kf]gov D D Kiooaos: 30 Kfono[s KAe( )F29 F74

Ke( ) F 73 (monogram) KrS( ):F 45 KE( ) (monogram)

B KAl-rToqcv: 6 KAEi<To>pov'n K?npiov:F 76 Kkepiov KAia( )F88 Kpr( )F15 Kpe( ) F 197 D KuSiiiacXos: 12 9uSiiaX[os

H2EF 191 F 192 H[ C 14 F225

He KOXAos: 14 K*AXou

OaXfs:D 41 [O]acfis Eaef: see T-roT


F B OalvvES: 1 [eOalvE]u; 12 F 13 eOavios eioBoaoia 33 C F GOElcopn6rs: 259 OEIoScopiSou F 220 OEoyEdTCo[ OEoyEfToov: F eEopvrns: 231 eEotvou(s) E)OG<e> ) (

F 6eppias: 3 Oapio

F Kutrp6o8aos: 67 (Cypriote syllabary) Kv( )F242 F Kcb&is:123 KOE KGvos:D 4 Q98o[s;F 212 Kc&ou;F 213 Kcb(.ou) K( )F173

K[G5
Aai( ) F 207 Aapta( ) F 137 Aagia: F 182 Aagfas A?( )F47 Fll Aeco[ F 128 AE( )Ha6 F Afrrapos: 63 [A]ir&po D A6Kpos: 18 A69po C AuK6paaXos:10 AuK6la)x[os D34 AUVK[ Avaias: D 20; F 267 Aucrio

soyl[: F 55 Oeroyi[

EEop( )He 28

C OECrnrtis 17 &covF 185 C eQptKvfis: 21 OsplKMS

D Ooupli&tsx 11 epa( ) F 32-37; F38 e[; F39 ep; F40 e F epaaOvcov 231
e( ) F185

108
F AucyiSrloS: 9 Av]atSigo C AucIKAijs: 7AuVaCKAe F Avaiuorp&.l: 158 Avauorp[[x]Trls Au( )F28 F296

INDEX NOMINUM
NIK( )Ell

NiK[C 15 Nov( ) F 156

N( )F245
-ave0js: D 39 Eav9es

F M&yipos: 330 Mayipou McLaeos: F 274; F 271 F 278 M[Lca(8os) F MA.IKOS:325 MaCiKoU MapiaF 322; F 258 Mapfas; J 2 J 3 J 5 J 10-12 M(apfas) Map( )F87 ME1i( )F 98
K( MEKI( )or ME( F 129

-av(

)F 106 F 109

-a( ):F42Xoa(

F EEV6&pavTos141 -Evoq>Sv:F 145 -VO.,opS(vros)

F 46 MENsayyK,6iaS: McAa<y>K6pa D MeXavel's 32 D MEXavrlnrrrls: 37 MeAa[ ]8es C M?his: 19 MfIT-r


D MEvi&ISlo5: 39 MEvi8SEIos

B MOvaros: 5 'Ova[ro D 'Ovrilcrpios: 19 'O]veyiipj[os F 215 'Oviicig[ F 'Ov-aiipopos: 268 F 269 'Ovrlnq6pov;F 279 ['Ov]rlcpq6pou

'Opiv( )F49
TTavraocov 31 C ) F 193 TTapuL( Tap( ) F69
F aTTlrrlitKos: 273 nIlxrniTlKO

C7 MIEvEKp-rqS: M[EvE]Kp&ASs D2 MevE?Co&: ME]vECOSI F Mkvrns: 202 MvrT)TOS


G MEvoKhyis 21

nav5r( )F 147

MvcovF 164; F 163 Mvcovos,Mivco(vos), M(bvcovos) MEv( ) F 190 (monogram) Mr0i|rlF 184
MrTryE[F 171

D nlauvaas: 26 Trauoafas nlau( )F27 F30 D Tlipaia6rSs: 9 lhpacla8[


TTliforrpaTros: D 1 rihCcr<T>pcrros

Mn( ) E 12 Mi(as: F 180 Mifou F Mi6Ecv 78 I Miepas: 28 Mifpou;129 Miep[ou] MIKa( ) F 195 Mtiicov F 72 MiXcov: 56 MfiAcvos F Mip( )F175
MvralIcaXos:F 92 Mvrlicnt&Xo

D evrapiorrTl: 39nh rapopre F rTEpipos: 284 nefpptq

fie( )F31 TlTr()F 133


F 1TAavTrrlos 224

MAa( )F173 He lTTivios: 25 RTAviou F TToAXKrros:167 MloAvui(Trou)

Mv[C 25 MoCacr: 12 Movurov K Mo( ) F 112 D MupTrc: 20 Mupr6 F MUs 204

He TnoiQufis: 26 [Tl]oXuW ) (
TloXopaos:He 2 TloXv6io(v)

F TnoiSEs 285

nPAI( ) D 26

MfNOF 86
M( ) F332 NEIKOV252 F D NEsoKAfi: 32 NEoK(<A>o(s)

Nrcr( )F 196

Nty( )F235 E NtK&vcop:3 NIK&vop F 172 NiK<acr[ HC NK'pTraS: 2 NuK<jTou


NiKI: K 12 NtKCov

NIKT( ) F121 NIKI( )F200 Nti6Xaos:F 245 NIKoA&OU F NiKoa[: 75 NtKccwa[ NiKcb 188 F

tnpaciasC 32 D 10 ppaCXivvi: TIpaXa<i>vw C 21 vos TTp&Ecov: np<A>XC TTPE( F 221 ) C 31 Tpocrooucra: lpocroria nlpoa( ) F 255 D npcbTrapXos: 39 Tlp6TapXos Tpco( )F248 fnve6copos:C 19 nue6iopos see nTTOcov: Tnp&Ecov nupoeouptiSrlsD 11 D nTvppovf6rls: 37 rlupp[ ]5s D 11, see text; D 21 rlopos TTOppos: D TTvppcb: 11, see text F 138lnlpov TTpcov:
F 'PoOqxos: 263 'PoOpov

INDEX NOMINUM
EaL( ) F 178 F X&KOS:301 26xKO atrrpa[ F 169 actrpa: F 113 EaTcrpas EaTm( )F 180
EPqrl( )F317

109

F (tXoKp&rrls: 304 OlxoKpp[Tro]us PiXo( )F51 F90 (DAcov: 2 DiXovos F OiA( ) F 126 D Op*vcov: 28 Opivov Xatp( ) F 240 Xai( ) F 174 F Xapi&v&r: 24 Xapl&[v]Os Xapfas D 39 C XappiiSrs: 21 XappfieS Xap( )F61 Xot( )F25 F Xpfocros: 243 Xpcr-roU Xpicr( ) F 244 X(pto-r6s)J2 J3 J5 J7 J8 J 10-12 F Xpio'inrrros: 201 XpvuT[f]Tnlou X( )F 182 F230 X[ C14 F330 ): 'Q29(pE( F 59 'Oq9E ]ayv( ) F 122 ]alrs: D 40 ]aiES ]cqKtT9[ D 35 ]aX.ta[ F 124 F ]aoalK.uEa311 ]as G 18 ]aTafrlF 117 ]aTos:F 94 ]&-rT ]6atos: F 144 ]6afou D ]Bt6Kos: 5 ]St59os D ]EiBrIs: 24 ]eSEs;F 115 ]eio8 ].v( ) D 24 ]?SC 12 ]Eupa G 22 ]qlcov: F 140 ]^ovos ]icrcov:D 25 ].kcov ]fas F 63 F ](vaBoS: 234 ]va&Sou ]iv( )F82 ]ios C 14 F ]tcrri86rs: 216 ]tIcrT5ou C 14 ]fov ]kov: ]Kaio8[D 36 F ]A&TlXOs1 F 5 ]Mos ]oous: C ]XvT 29 F ]XXos 131 F ]AcXvios: 264 ]?coviou ]papiTrl:D 16 ] oaprTE ]v( )F194 F224 ]rlvo[ D35 ].OHT.[ F171
]ovTos F 82

6EA?UK(Hc 17 [ZX]AVK( ) ): F eE'vios: 125 Yeevto

C EIKCa 27
Eipzcas:F 183 lfi{a

F fipoS: 107 I(lo


ZlUv( )F91 Xfiiov: 86 Eico0vos F Zt'ciJpppr:F 84 []'Jio~<<>Ppes ZKI( )F70 EKvea( ) F 79
F EzuIKpvos: 23 IEIlKpiVQo

D Trparcov 43 F 319 XTrpaTco[ IZpa( ) F 222 D X61papis: 6 .vp&pios C EuvSpo6aXos 23 Euv( )F 19 l0pos F 170; F 203 Srpou C Ecoofias: 18 oacias B 2cao'tvecs: 9 SoafvEo(S) EcoaX[F 134
cbcrrparTo:F 143 2aooTrp&TO Ecorlp: G 9 2coT[filpo

F coyppovaS 150 TaTr:F 11 Eaei Tiypi( ) F 326 F TtI6Evos: C 16 C 21 TtIg6Xovos; 160 Tilo( ) F 71 TiTas C 5 Tpfpacxos:F 62 Tpfplaos F Tp6XtXos: 104 TpoxiXo Tp'rrls D 4

T]tpcov[ou

F Tupcrav6s44 G T*Oix: 9 TX[rIs

F OaifoTios: 77 Oatacrrfo

B2 ODcXavOos: cOac6[veo
F OaviAXrl: 8 OavAXs

Oa&ccov: Oaaov F6

OeiSorrpacros: F 181 ]?1i6oo0Tp(&rov)

$fiXA:F 277 0[qiXl OiSfas:F 246 Ot619u D fAnrl: 41 [$]fDAT


OtLXrilcov:D 44 OXiXAovoS OiXTr[ F 300

B OlAxrMnr 17; F 103 OlAhr1s F OfcXiAros 225; B 17 OlAirc O?iAt( ) F 211 C OcAt68rlljoS:32; F 50 OIXopi]ot

]o B 5 C15
F ]OTOS 18

110 D [.rTraa 40

INDEX VERBORUM
F ]aoos: 118 ]cro
]o'rparos C 28

]..PKEF 96 ]sD42 F117 F209 K4


]aa C 14

F ]nKrcop: 118 ]Kncopos ].pcovo[s F 289

Latin AusQ[Hd 3 Ba( ) He 7 C( ) He4 Cn( ) F 288 Co( ) F 228 Crispinus:He 6 Crispino Dom( ) F 283 Drusus:He 6 Druso Fel( ) F 277 Fund[ :F 328 Q. L. Fund[ Furmius: 4 Furnio He F Gemmnianus:298 Gemmiano L( ) F328 Marinus:F 251 Marini Nero: He 8 Nerone Pasinus:F 313 Pasini Pat[ F 328 Q( )F328 Titius: F 288 Titio Non-Greek (possiblyCarian?) AITZKPI99 F
APXAH?O: F 100 Se( ) F 228

INDEX VERBORUM
G &yaO6s: 9 [&yaouo],&[y]aOfis

Greek An L34

&pyliA(aov)He 15 OyavG2 dpyupis:He 15 &pyvpi6cov L ayopcaos:G 17 [3yop].dou; I 18 &yopl(ou) a&peva: 19 d&ppivy[v 1 32 &ypou L 25 &ypos: &pva[ K He dycoIK,6S: 3 cyoviQ96v &pXcov: 2 I[]pxovrTo B B 17 &Sr^&:C; 18 &5sp[Co], Hd &8EXp6s: [t&]8&)p[Cv] &pco(l.rrTirs) 15 AA L 55 'Acra:B 11 'Aaias &du Ad [B8 itpayo: Hd 11 ao ,iap6you &otrB9 AOL2 ATOZHe 12 alpa: Hd 11 atpcov Al F 163 AO He 20
&KEv( )I43

G cycAula 1

AAEON 49 L AAI 11 AMIN 26 L 'Amgv( ) 17 110 116 I19 I20 I25 129 I40 I41
K &3(q9opaVs):10 K 11; He 3 &4(qpop&os) G avOT-rfeil: 7 &vfKEiv &v8( )He 31 L dvope6co: 14 &vo<p>eoils K d&vrypa&co: 6 &wvrTypcx[e AN F 103 &rrm( I12 ) B rrroSifcoUt: 17 drr66os I &frroq[ 14

B &KuXos: 19 KU( ) B 2 &hos;G 6 [IAos] aXXos:

'AXPO()I45
'AXc( )I32 Hd &nlv(e{Tts) 23 I 45 'A[...][vios A( )F87 F170 Hdl A[ Hc 21

Hd20

He26

51 ANKZB[L

rr6He23He 24 He 41 I4 I11 I112

B P3rT&Vov: 12 Paiv(a) B pev&~ppiov: 21 [.. .]a ppi( ) L 45 Plu1pAvou PiLpAivos: C 14 4[v,Tro], pIVt3: C 2 VE[EqC; L 40 Borip6lllov oqe6s J 6 Boi( )F65 I pouvcaos 45 I PovvUs: 5 .ouvoi Po[ I1

B&aai:34 Batcov I L P&pos: 47 P&p(os)

er*[o]

INDEX VERBORUM L Bartos: 40 Bvoio(v) B( )F65 F233 128 129 y&ia Hd 22


L FraI(iXtov) 29 B Tro'WrrXo: 9 I-ctu ve brnirpacrItov: B 13 r1TrpaCrrfi[a it[ B 10 He 'Epevefa: 14 'Eppvdis Hb EprTlos: 6 :pfllou B ppI[ 10 EP( )Hc11 EO 33 C

111

Hd y&pov: 8 yap( ); L 47 ydpgy?

J3 J5 J7 J8 J10-12 y(ev...)J2 yiyvoiati: B 10 .yEv1irn C K yp&qco: 18 yp&coaas; 4 gypa[9oe; K 5 ypa(p[ r( )F317 Hd15 86: B 10 6' 58(a): see Index Numerorum He SEKaTiCapEs 2 86aTos: I 4 SEK&xTn
8&irrpos He 15

ros[Hc 19] Hc 21; He 4 He 7 Hc 15 hrous; L 31 T-rOv; 22-24 He 23 He 24 fr( ) He

fcosHe 41 E( ) F98; He 2 (s) E[B 10


lalrrlov: L 8 la(i&6rna)

Ha lATnA Hc 20 fi.oUv: 18 fill( ); see also IndexNumerorum [ Ha HaHa Ha 17 8IK[ ; Ha 25 8Ke(os); fillxa B 15 6Kcatos 28; Ha 32 6iKEo[S B fplfXous: 12 'fiXouv iKaxicos 131; F 94 8tK[ ; F 1 37 fX5ov fXi1: F 132 [81]Kacos; 139 [St]iKacos; 154 F F G Oe&: 13 Oea[Tv] [6S]Kafco[s Hd 21 Stoup(1rTK6v) i,ga: Hd 19 0icpara 81oupil-rK6s: J WE6s:6; J 7 0(ou); C 21 eiol; G 6 C6[s] 8i( )Hb9 (ace.) L13 Oco[ L25 8i[ SoK&o:C 3 [8o]KEI; 10 [8]oET;C 19 Somt C K lyyT&vco: 2 [e0]yois B 16 8oAfXou B 1 eOpas 86XAXOs: e0pa: Spaxpi: E 9 [6pax]pov; E 16 K 18 L 30 8p ( ); e( )I15 J8 L 20 bpa( ); see also Index Numerorum A( )F162 F282 Hd5 16( )He 42 A[B3 lipeiS:F 262 Ieprios lipoer*Ts:F 304 itpoOirov B 10 i?p6sG 16; I 31 kpou; G 10 G 11 lepas; G 20 !6 ' tycb: C 8 poi; G 1 lepov[ el: K 2 [ei] iE( ) F 323 Elpt (variouslyspelled and preserved) F 3 F 5 lv8(tKnTIv)I 12 1 44 F12 F13 F18 F32 F56 F58 F63 F 65 IN( )F82 F 94 F 107 F 115 F 131 [F 1321 F 144 F 177; 'loAtoos: 9 'lovfou He Hd 2 [o-ri] 'lovtios: He 41 'louvfou
EtS:B 9 es; B 20 Is

fKco: B 7 hiK[E] 8rl6Criov: Fa 1-26 S(ii6noov);Fb 1-3 'rl(6o'tov) hfltva:Ha 54 Jg(lvai) K 8Tlv&piov: 16 8q(vapla); see also Index Sigillorum fflo-rrov: B 14 t(lo'r(a)

Ets:see Index Numerorum I Eibcros: 23 KcrTeou


ecalov: Hd 4 Hd 18 MAai(); Hd 23 [ciatov]

raeItov: K 1 T[eO]iov L 'Clor0toviKrs: 12 'lCO[l]t<o>)vi(Kns)

IETA[ L21
Kaeap6s: Hd 10 oKaapQu;He 22 KaOap(ou); 132 Kac(apou)

EMF 177

B gv8ecrpov: 9 fvSeoaT(v)

L Evrxa: 37 v?K[a He 1viavuiaTos: 15 &viarcrlaiov


iac[ 133 Hc 1 Hc 2 Hc 20 L 18 L 29 -rrf Trrie?lpa:B 13 1rrlfipa(Ta) rlfiwvlov: Ha 16 []rrmlfi(vwov)

Kai:C7 C14 C34 G6 [G101 G21


G KaKoBafplov 15 KtaCrrro( ) J 7

B Kaoeflql: 1 Kd&sO

B Kaiv6s: 2 Ka<i>v6s (ace.); Ha 2 Katv; 1 36 KEviS

He rlvi,rtocn:(in variousabbreviations) 42
1 7-11 15-18

2-5

I 20-29 1 31-33 I 35-41 I 43

I45

C7 [C 10 C13 C 15-17 C19 C21 C 28 KaX6s C 31; C 3 C 11 KCai; C 29 C 31 KaiA K KAcTris: 18 KaXrr!8(os) L KdAvppra 19

112

INDEX VERBORUM He uia:He 33 He 34 He 36 XAi-ros; 29 [OhtT]os; I 42 AIt[


gEi{vr: He 41 ieXivris He He IEi-riTvoS: 21 eXi-rivou; 30 I 42 MEv[alTos] 9EP( )L55 B paCos: 12 fooit Mecp( )He 23

)Hd7 KCav( B 12 [Kd&p6]oroS L 32 Kaplifis mKaplK': He KaprroS: 17 K&perou KaTaTrtycovC24 [C261; C5 C18 C22 C25 C KarraTrOyov;27 KaaTanry(alva) 16 Ka( )F297 Ka[B 10 F 103 F 285 KE!( )L23
I KEvri: 36 KEVjs (see Katv6s) KEV[B 10 Kep6alov:Ha 18 ipalina; Ha 56 K(E)p(qiala) KEpatos:E 5 KEpa0os KE( )He 25 B K1Tros: 1 Krro

) ITrr(

Trpios:Ha 1 Utr'rpto; Ha 12 iTpi(ov) Ha 6Trpov: 19 He 37 e'(Tpa) Ha55 Pe( ) P4I:C 19 P G n6E?is: 2 [lrQ8v]

KIXHTOY 30 L
KA'TTS: F 199 vA-rTT[OU

!wv: He 41 1 23 nl(v6s); He 5 He 9 1 17 lr(qv6s) Prl( )L43 Iicryco:C 8 liaoyT


C IoIrcTOS: 1 I{CErTOS

D KMaois: 18 [K]XSais Klivrfip: B 2 KA[ivT-p]as Kvi6iov: Ha 15 Kv<i>B)(ov) Koivos:F 83 Koivai C Ko6KKAos: 30 KOKKOA(oi) KOV( )He44

iva: Hb 5 pv(al); He 3 He 5 n(vai) p6(8ios) Ha 16 Ha 44 Ha 53 He 4 He 8-11 1 24 1 25 MoA6rTO: MoXrroO M( )F332 Hall J6

[[ Hd22

Kopitv[ B 10 Ha 7 Ha 9 Ha 0OHa 35 He 1 K( ); see also Index Numerorum 11 Koopoos:Hb Hb22 Hb28 He 25 He 28 KcjaeoS: 17 Kv(a0os) He D KuSaOrivalwis 44
Ko<vos:B 20 KCbvco[v

B vcSXAoS: 20 vaoAou

Kopi( ) He 44 Ko'rXTA:Ha 29 Ha 40 He 17 Ko( ); B 21 F 198

va[ B10 I vlJios: 41 [N]Eclv )L56 VE( vti: G 6 vE He vf(K:B 16 VlKal; 19 [N]i(KrS) v6jiicaa: K 17 vo({ioacrr)a
B vopOqn: 19 [v]opirr NoT( )I12

K( ) F173 K<L9
C AcKa.lco: 33 XaiK&8e[t
C 33 X(atcic-rpta) C 23 AcxKK6OTp[o]TroS AaKK6rOTrpcOKOS: B WAyco: 11 Xeyo[
AalKao-rpia C 34;

vUvB 10 N( )F206

Hc7

(av6os: He 36 aav0oui

(in cTrrlTs various spellings or abbreviations):


Ha 17 Ha 20 Ha 23 Ha 28 Ha 30 Ha 32 Ha 37

B XixKuos 12 B Mieos: 16 Aieo<u> AiTpa:(variously abbreviated) Ha 26 Hb 6 Hb 7 Hbll Hb12 Hb l4 Hb 18 Hb21-23 Hb26 Hb28 Hb29 Hd6 Hd10 He6 He7 Hel2 He22 He25 He26 He28 He29 He31-34 He43 17 112
B AoTra6rr 14 Aoxr&atov: 12 XoTr&dia B A7fco: 10 aOIcaTo B Afpepa L 46 L Apvuo-r.K6s: 3 Atlpucr[IK6s]

Ha4Ha46 Ha:Ha50-52 4 Ha 38 Ha e44 15 118 121 Ha56 Hd6 He 36 He4


123 126 145 K 13; see also Index Sigillorum EHETYAP 5 L 1 6,, ,6: C C 4 C 18 C 23 D 6 L 3 ho; L 126; Hd 2 T6; B 1 B 2 F 304G 6 G 13 He 41 J 4 K 5 L 14 (various oblique cases) B 6opeAas: 12 [6]peial; B 14 [6]p-hima 6poA6sL 7 6e: Hd 2 [Tr]68;L 3 ho5i olKosB 10 oivrpos Ha 27 olvos: Hd 13 He21 otvou; B20 olvov; (understood

onHdl5
Jiyca: B 14 iey&Xrn I MOievn: 23 MeOfvnrs I 9 Hex2c[VjO]V AESCvosVOS:
He vehMiv(os) 23 He 24

E 6OAK: 15 6AK(ai);Hb 2 6A(Kai) C 'OAuITri6vtKoS: 5 'OhAu<i>i) t6v[t]K.os OM He 33 B 6v&piov: 106vO'pia

Hd17 Hd23)

INDEX VERBORUM L o6os:Hd 1 8o'xos; 27 5( ) rrpo( ) L 43 B 6S,aWiov: 20 60i[,[aca] iTp( )Hc26 C B O'rTOV19 mrvyaTio: 121ruy[ Hb lnvcbv, see Ouvcbvv 6carp6aK: 12 6orTp6cns Hb7 Hbl4 Hbl5 Hb21 Hb23 Hb26 mru( )L56 o6rrpaKov: Hb 30 He 31 He 33 He34 He 37 d&rrpd&ou )J3 H( (variously spelled,abbreviated) preserved,
&OT 11 B OTInB 8

113

He OarrRr(avcXaov) 7

oVyK{a: B19

OYAEL 31 (vas?)
Hb3

pa L27

PIA[ L 21

Hb22 He7

He 13 He 22

He 39 He 40 1 23 1 32 (variously abbreviated) o866s:B 1 ho85i Hb He OUIK()I 11 onYKcola: 4 q6C<KCo[; 22 arlcKCj(aTos); He 5 ( )* oiros: B 8 rTaTa;B 10 TraOIrv OY 1 12 MOY 53 L 6cpicna:He 30 6oAl(pia) crr[B 10
6y&piov: B 20 6oapEi(ou) rraiyviov: Hd 14 rraiyvia B 'raTs: C 1 C 4 Tratis]; 2 Trat

B poqpeTov: 12 5oclta L purTlK6S: 3 pOcrr[lK6S

F 316 rroacat66

TTAPAMYNQTOX F 91

B -rrap&: 18 [Tra]p& I 'rapxAios: 35 nrapaAfov

rroa( )I 13 L43 wrav( )He21 L18

Hd TraAaIo-rpa: 2 [Tr]aAaCfT[pas]

He araOei6s: 40 ar( ); He 43 [ora]e(ci6s) B B arT&uvos: 18 [co-r&]vos; 17 -r[a]v]lov; Ha 54 crrt((voi); He 14 crr&( ); He 39 crrlvo( ) (-rcarip)E 3 He 1

ETPA 26 L ovyye[ B 10 cosS 11 He

or aryKo?Aos oarycoaos:I 40 ovvK.6Xou B rT&Xos7 TEI L23

L rrapoS 14 I 20 naoaarrov a&no'rrTros: r&caaov: 9; Hd 12 Trar(oov); 13 He 40 Hd He


Tra(r(aoov)

J rrap0Nvos: 4 rrapeEvou

Ha T-rTprpXoUs: 13 [TrTp]6cXovv rTivco: 6 TrdiiTro G T-Xaco: 23 T-r?A C

Tracr()L12 TrrVTE: 5 Trv(-rE);8 -rrT<V>Tr Ha L


B irrEpriS: 20 'rrEpai
Hd TEp(uoav6s) 20 F 65 L 10 TrE( )

TOA L 38 see Tpacrr(rrir6s): L 34


I4 TptK6XCOvoS: TpIlKOcbvcOV He 24 'rplKcop( ) rTppA3iov B 12

'rrriy:I 27 TrrlyiS 'rivat:B 12 TrivaKES irivco: 15 Trrir G


IIPB 44 L B Tr9gvrpos 10 K TropoS: 3 or6po[v

Tpu(yia) He 32 G rTpcyco: 12 rpcoyovr[ TYnA L52 Tcb:C 19 'r6 06cop:Hd 16 0'Sa-ra He 'Yiirr6IOS: 29 ]..rTTou,c'Y.rTC L U]'rrcaipios 7 B Trrrp: 5 [iTr]?p B 0TrEpa 19 imrO 1 htrro B vcar[ L56
68pfa:Ha 18 0Spiat

B TroXAs:10TrO L 10 rro(<>) 9i;


B F 'rroTIlptov: 12 rrOT-rlpa; 3 'rro-rptOV

rr(Aipcotia) He 36

Hd 2 T'rrr&AElca: rrrCa[XAtica]

-rov( )L10 7ro( )Hd18 L15 Hd 5 ;Hd TTPa&VEIOS: TTpacxiv[ 17 He 26 Tpa( );

I 13 npa.( )

iTr( )1 6

Trp.I( )J7 rrpia[ 1 30


rrpoK( ) I 39 He 'rpOTrie01i: 41 wp9Ogerco

Y.rTA L 5

L rrp6 45; He42 Trp(6)

B rrpicov: 1 Trpiov(a)

He O)aAEpv(6S) 27 ipco:Ha 36; C 19 9ps C 1fprli: 18 (cnvtv

114
OH .....AA L 48 qlfa G 14; G 9 [pl]Aas pi( )He19 L 28

INDEX VERBORUM L54 ]ENHGHTO ]soi G6 ]eo 1 38 ]EP-T[B4


]es C12 ]? Ha 18

C qpAos 7 C qniAoTioov: 6 [pli]oTroaov

I Ou$cbv:19 Ou(vovos
00 He 35 0( )He32

B qpotv6s: 19 cpovoU 9opCo: B 2 4p6pE? K pp&ap: 1 'TpaXT(oS)

]ETA.[ L4 L ]HA(SBE[ 54 ]HXHI L6 ]f5es B 15


]ITorcov B 10
]IVlKt L 11

]InE[ B4 F Xa(KouS: 199 XCAKci ]IPE B3 B X&PTTs: 14 [X1&p'r[s] ].If[ L 13 XE K 7 L24 2 ]KOINOAX Xois K 13; Ha 8 xo; Ha 31 X6s; F 198 Ha 1 He 2 He 35 (variously ]K,ov G3 Ha 6 Ha 14 Ha 25 He ]KoS G6 see abbreviated; also IndexNumerorum) ]Xipas B 10 B Xprlcrr6s:18 [Xp]no-r'r ]A.[ B 12 Hc Xp(6vos) 26 ! ]A.KE L23 B 13 Xrrpas; K 2 9JrT[pas] B21 XC(p(ou)I1 I 5 16 113-15 118-21 124 125 ]A( )L 16 ]uacr 127-37 1 39-43; 1 45 X(co)p( ) ] L4L9 182F230F330 X( )F ]NHOE L17 ]veov B 10 TA He 23 ]NN![ B4 Wcoifov: 20 yc(fco[v B ]voulrls 1 24
wcovo()I 11
]v.ra B 10

Xrarpa: Xcop.. He 5

]AUO[ L 16

cvfi F 199 bs:C 18 hos; B 7 6s ]A[ B10 ]a E4 B4 ]AMME[ ]ANIA L ]ANI L35

].N F 194
]KOS L9

].OM[ B3 ].02o B 10
]os C2

]A! L3

]TrrTl() Ha 16 ]hrop( ) 1 8
]piveias L 33

]AMA2 B11

]EIE L6 ].I L40

I ]&vcov 10

]oEv9os B 10

]APENrE[L53 ]ap( ) L29 ]AXHAL 35 ]BE L17 ]you Ha 40


].EAIHA L 1
L 37
]ei8[

]XOnOA[B 4 ]ZX[ B 10 ]EQT[ B 10 ] B 10 K4 L37

][ B 10

]TAPA.AHL 36 1EMAXB 11 ]TA5AIIt ]TA Bll ]qnQP() B 21


]Tuqos L 42 ]u L9

]EI.[ B3 B15 ]E! B5 ]ENEIA[L 13

INDEX NUMERORUM1
Latin

115

ab Hd 3 antea He 4 Aug( ) He 18 a[ L50 bol Hc 8 car( ) He 18 coc(tum) Hd 3 co(n)s(ul)Hc 3 He 4 co(n)s(ule)sHc 7 L d(e)f(un)c(tus) 41 L 41 [e(st)] e, Hc 6 mo(dius): He 4 mo(dii)

N(onae) He 18 saec( ) He 18 s(itus) L 41 He stig(matum) 18 Terg( ) He 18 tuus: L 50 tuis vas He 18 (see L 31 OYAX) vil(la) He 18 vin(um)He 18 Iciri L 50 ]orum L 50

INDEX NUMERORUM one-half:Ha 21 ( thirteenplus: He 43 ty'< Hc26 Hd6 15 112 fourteen: He 2 &xa Cr LapEs; one:B141; E13 F-;F87 F170 117 126a' 41 37 iS'; Hb 9 Hcl15 Si' one plus: E4 two:B 12 B 14 He16 1l; L151I; Ha7 He1 KK; fourteen plus: Ha 41 tS'P" F198 Hal4 Ha25 HaS6 He40' fifteen: F323 Hcll He5 Hel17 He25 He31 two plus: Hal1OXXHK[;Ha 1l II= He38 116 121-23 ie'; Hb6 1 17 139 El' F 317 Ha 54 Hb 22 He 8-11 He 14 He 22 fifteen plus: Hb 19 XIIIII<;He 5 IE'< three: sixteen: Ha 5 ].APF; He 15 is' IS 123 127 144 L20 L31 L33y' B12 Ha31111; B21 F162 F282 Ha35 sixteen plus: Hbl1O XIIIIII= four: Hdll1 He 4 He 10 He 39 I 8 19 1385S' seventeen: He 41 iL' Ha four plus: E 4 F+FFICKT>; 22 Ha 56 S'< seventeen plus: Ha 50 He 39 i<'(; Hb 17 XIIIIIII<; B Ha36 Ha42 Ha44 He42 iL'13 five:Ha 5 Hb25 He 31 11111;12 He 2 P; E 3 IF; B21 He7-9 12 17 K18 L23 L40e' eighteen: E 14 APF-l-; He 6 He 30 irl' five plus: Hb 8 11111-; 65 PE; He 38 e'< F eighteen plus: Ha 47 tri'KSB six: Hbl3 HblS Hbl6 Hb24 Hb27 111111; nineteen: Ha 40 Ha 45 He 17 tO' E 9 F1-F-F-;104 Ha 24 Ha 31 Ha 54 Hbl5 twenty: B 12 E 12 AA; He 3 AA; Hb3 Hd ll F Hb 22 Hb 30 Hc 5 He 35 He 37 115 I 23 141 He7 I12 L24K' K13 L 47 s" twenty plus: Ha 21 K'< six plus: He 17 He33 iII He 33 s`<; E 6 PHFCTtwenty-one: F 285 (?) F 297 Hc 22 (?) 16 (?) Kc' III; seven: Ha 4 1111111; 2 PEE; B 19 F104 Hb 14 twenty-one plus: Ha 46 Ka'S" He Hbl 8 Hb21 He8 L' Ha twenty-two: 11 II=; He 43 i'zB sevenplus: Ha 7 1111111 Ha 9 PIKKH He IEKK; twenty-three: E 8 AAIII[;E 7 AAFL-F[; 29 Ky'; Ha6 Hb2O Hb3l 11111111; Pill; Ha26 B13 He 20 XXIII eight: Ha30 He22 13 120 if twenty-four: Ha 38 KS' Ha 6 [mXXXH Ha eightplus: twenty-four plus: Ha 45 He 33 YB'<; 49 KS'<5' nine: Hb9 111111111; PH-H-; Hb7 Hb12 twenty-five: Ha 52 iE'; He 19 He 41 XXV E9 Hb23 Hb29 He6 He28 He29 He32 He44 twenty-six: Hb 1 AAIlIlll; He 12 ics" I 10133 135 0' twenty-seven: Ha 51 He 7 10 KUK nine plus:K8 IIIIIIIIIPl-I-H-; O'< Ha 48 twenty-seven plus: Ha 43 KL'< ten: B 12 A; He 1 AA$; Hb28 He 13 He22 twenty-nine: F 250 Ke' He39 1 18 123 i' twenty-nine plus: Ha 39 Ke'<S" eleven: F198 Ha55 Hb5 Ill I25 131 132 thirty:Hdl16 He 40 A' Ha ta'; 1 26 at' thirty-one: 19 Ha 37 ?a'; Ill rL' He twelve: He 3 AMM; Hb 26 17 I 10 121 L23 tn'; thirty-two: 29 Ap' 143 Pt'; K19 XII He thirty-three: 21 Ay' twelveplus: K 19 tp'< Ha34; K 15 XXXV thirty-five: thirteen: B 21 Hb 11 He 26 He 36 1 40 1 45 L 29 thirty-six: E9 AAAPIty'; 1 24 yt' thirty-seven plus: Ha 33 VL'<

116 plus: Ha 29 Xq'< thirty-eight

INDEX SIGILLORUM
15?: He 14 pv[ 172: He 16 pop' 194: He 23 He 24 p96' 200:He35 132 K17 a' 210:Ell HHA[ 229: Hc 18 oxe' 230: L 23 acr' 239: I 44 0ha' 241: He 19 caa' 329: F 250 KOr' 424: K9 SKv' 500: He 25 q' 502: He 17 qpP' 580: He 24 'rr 701: He 23 pa' 964: Hc25 F86' 1246: He9 ,acrls' 9975: El PXXXXPIHHHHraAAP 10474: He 10 ,tv8o' 11100:E2 MXH

forty: E15 F332 He13 He26 I' 14 forty-five:E5 AAAAP[;K s'[XL]V;L38XXXXV Ha 18 IE'fi(icv) forty-five plus: forty-seven: B 19 Ii'; L 40 ]Pi' fifty: E 10 F 130 FA; E 16 AAAAA; F252 rF, v' fifty-seven: L 30 vl' sixty:E 13 PA; He30 ~' sixty-one: L 39 XIL seventy: He 10 L 24 o' eighty: J 3 rr' eighty-one: L 34 air' eighty-nine: Ha 10 eir' 100:Hb2 K16 p' 111: L23 pia' 115: F 315 Eip' 121:He 10 pKa' 139:Hc 1 He37 pAO' 146: He8 ppis' 150:Hc12 Hc23 pv' 155: He 13 pve'

INDEX SIGILLORUM

K
A

(litra): Ha26 IHb2 Hb18 Hb21-23 Hb 26 Hd 6He 6 He 22 He 26 He 28 He 29 He31 He33 He34 He43 112 (xestes): Ha37 He36 He 44 K13 (xestes): Ha 38 Ha 43 Ha 45 Ha 46 Ha 48 Ha 50-52 He 41 118 21 23 1 45

(half):see IndexNumerorum He (denarius): 16 He 17 He 38 (?) K (drachm): 9 (?) see IndexNumerorum

F K +
-P

(xestes): Ha 30 Ha 56 (ounkia): B 19 HIb3 He 13 He22 He 39 He40 I23132 (ounkia):He 7 (cross):F 323 F 324 143
(chi-rho):F322 Ha 46 He 22 He39 J1

J4 J9 L28 xer (see text):J 8 XMr (see text):J 2 J3 J5 J 10-12

Plates

PLATE1

A1

A3

A2

tcRt
A6

A4 A5

A7

A 10

-...

PLATE2

n nD B2

B3

rR D I

/-

ON/< '
i

FX 3 po< AC\V nl F

A oi\ AT:
W T/4\lI

r AF

AX

PLATE 3

B14

B15
-T."/

B 16

1l

AIn
!A

A NrrOOC HC I 7A1

s IttVI
B17

B 19

PLATE 4

C1

:2

:3

c. J 8g (

C5

1:4

<)k

F\\

0 C 15 1:2 > C 15 1:2

PLATE5

C17 C 14

C19

1:10

C19

1:10

C 21 1:2

L A Kk

f 1"T

kO

C 2:3

PLATE 6

C25

1:4 C26 C27

C31

1:2

C 31 1:2

C29

C30

C32

-,,
1/C33 1:2 A~7

/A- \>~

PLATE 7

AIvy piro0
D3 D1

D6

FrP
D8

D 11 D12

AVJ 1Q
D14 D16

PLATE 8

D18

D28

D30
ol

D27

D 29

I" Li la4 I

PLATE 9

0--l" )N

D41

A
D42

PLATE 10

E 10

E12

E13 E 15 E14 E16

PLATE 11

T3
F1

<

oKF
F2
F3

F4

F6

*9\

F8

F9
J'F10

F 11

t
A
F12

\ N

'

F13

LvF2
F28 1:4
4

/,u

F 17 F19 1:4

F'20 F18

i\p
//
F21

PLATE 12

VNI.,-

F 34 E38

ff^^^_Q

r,

A 7

r4/

f F 50 ." F49

ti,
F54

A>

F 52

1:4

F51

F53

F55

PLATE13

If
F67

F59 F59 F F 61 1:4

F76

F60 1:4

__

F63 F 62 1:4

F 64

/ 1:4

F 66

F 69

H57 E57
\ F70 1:2

r
F 68

F65

1:4

F75

F71

IV

PLATE 14

F 92
F 93

F94

F 95)
F 95

F96

PLATE 15

I
F 97 1:2 \/ F 101 F 102 F 102 F 98

F 100I F 100

F 105

F 106

F 109 F 108

/F E F pir
F 110

F 111

F 115

F 116

F 113

PLATE 16

/<-T0
F 117

K5

0
F 118 F 119

/EI

?-;----a

F 131

L1A

<o

I
p

iAlb)

F 131

PLATE17

I ,;11
.-O 11--

F 139

--..

'.--'

F 140

\\

/ /

/ ',,,

148 F148

N,

F
_L2

F 144 , f~~ f 142


/AU
Ti

F 132 1:2

F151
F 149

F 143

777-^<7**-\,

(\

150

152 FF
M O-NW

^<A~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

PLATE 18

F 158

F 156

F 161

zif

F 162

F 163

~~---------,

F 173

F 171

F 169

PLATE19

F 174

F 175

F 176

Al

oF177 F 177

?
F 178

/Nll*sN
F 177
F 177

F 178

F 178

178

Vp
F 181 F 180

(
F 179

'a L /
F 185

F 183
F 182 F 185

F 187

F 197

PLATE20 F\ 2 F 198

F 204

tN

..

,*

r r ^.V^ e ~~~~~~~~~
C.

,0I.'I.'

r,

^yr~~~~~~o
"--1

F 201

I`
F 203

y
F 205

C
F 207 F 206

*SCk
F 208

rG
a

s
F 210

CI^

k\c

F 209 F 206

F 211

WA^1
\

F 212

14

F 213

F 214
. ,? . I . I ...

F 215

-O.'~-

?''~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
000

F 21 6

1:2
r-

222

Aft

F 217
F 219
ipyp

F 220
F 226fi ..-.

fA^7 ?jrrTc^4
\ F 225
\

F 221

In'r9aYy
F~3
Ca4Qt

g/,gX4NP~~~~~~~
FIF\2 224~

2l2 I

F 227

PLATE 21

LA-LY^A 6 e
a

)y

F 229
1:2

F 230

F 231

F 228

L F 232 F 231 F 230 F 235

DI
1,

rC) O
F 233

P05

F 234

F 236
Qulrr"~~pwb
S"j

F 237

F 238

1/
F 2z41 . 4,
F 242

F 240

F243
F 245

F 244

F 245

/
F 248 F 247

F 250

1:2

F 251

1:2

PLATE 22

F 253

1:2

F 255

4(,j<4^25h^
F 256 F 257

CbQ
)

F 258
.. -

1:2

1~

F 265

I
F 260

F 259

1)()Y 4o
F 263
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PLATE 30

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PLATE 34

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PLATE 55

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PLATE 57
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PLATE 62

Actual State Plan of the Agora

Related Interests