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Yimin Ge The Vieta Jumping method, sometimes called root ipping, is a method for solving a type of Number Theory problems. This method has been used extensively in mathematical competitions, most recently at the 2007 International Mathematical Olympiad. In this article we analyze this method and present some of its application. The method of Vieta Jumping can be very useful in problems involving divisibility of positive integers. The idea is to assume the existence of a solution for which the statement in question is wrong. Then to consider the given relation as a quadratic equation in one of the variables. Using Vietas formula, we can display a second solution to this equation. The next step is to show that the new solution is valid and smaller than the previous one. Then by the argument of innite descent or by assuming the minimality of the rst solution we get a contradiction. To illustrate how this method works let us solve three classical problems. The rst problem can be considered historical; it was submitted to the IMO in 1988 by the West Germany. In [1], Arthur Engel wrote the following note about its diculty: Nobody of the six members of the Australian problem committee could solve it. Two of the members were Georges Szekeres and his wife, both famous problem solvers and problem posers. Because it was a number theory problem, it was sent to the four most renowned Australian number theorists. They were asked to work on it for six hours. None of them could solve it in this time. The problem committee submitted it to the jury of the 29th IMO marked with a double asterisk, which meant a superhard problem, possibly too hard to pose. After a long discussion, the jury nally had the courage to choose it as the last problem of the competition. Eleven students gave perfect solutions. Problem 1. Let a and b be positive integers such that ab + 1 divides a2 + b2 . Prove 2 2 that a +b is a perfect square. ab+1 IMO 1988, Problem 6 Solution. Let k = a +b . Fix k and consider all pairs (a, b) of nonnegative integers ab+1 (a, b) satisfying the equation a2 + b2 = k, ab + 1 that is, consider a2 + b2 S = (a, b) N N | =k . ab + 1

Mathematical Reflections 5 (2007)

2 2

We claim that among all such pairs in S, there exists a pair (a, b) such that b = 0 and k = a2 . In order to prove this claim, suppose that k is not a perfect square and suppose that (A, B) S is the pair which minimizes the sum a + b over all such pairs (if there exist more than one such pair in S, choose an arbitrary one). Without loss of generality, assume that A B > 0. Consider the equation x2 + B 2 = k, xB + 1 which is equivalent to x2 kB x + B 2 k = 0 as a quadratic equation in x. We know that x1 = A is one root of this equation. By Vietas formula, the other root of this equation is x2 = kB A = B2 k . A

The rst equation implies that x2 is an integer, the second that x2 = 0, otherwise, k = B 2 would be a perfect square, contradicting our assumption. Also, x2 cannot be negative, for otherwise, x2 kBx2 + B 2 k x2 + k + B 2 k > 0, 2 2 a contradiction. Hence x2 0 and thus (x2 , B) S. Because A B, we have x2 = B2 k < A, A

so x2 + B < A + B, contradicting the minimality of A + B. Problem 2. Let x and y be positive integers such that xy divides x2 + y 2 + 1. Prove that x2 + y 2 + 1 = 3. xy Solution. Let k = x +y +1 . Fix k and consider all pairs (x, y) of positive integers xy satisfying the equation x2 + y 2 + 1 = k. xy Among all such pairs (x, y), let (X, Y ) be a pair which minimizes the sum x + y. We claim that X = Y . To prove this, assume, for the sake of contradiction, that X >Y. Consider now the equation t2 + Y 2 + 1 = k. tY

Mathematical Reflections 5 (2007)

2 2

Then t2 kY t + Y 2 + 1 = 0 is a quadratic equation in t. We know that t1 = X is a root of this equation. The other root can be obtained by Vietas formula, that is, t2 = kY X = Y2+1 , X

so, in particular, t2 is a positive integer. Also, since X > Y 1, we have t2 = Y2+1 < X, X

contradicting the minimality of X + Y . Hence, X = Y and thus X 2 divides 2X 2 + 1. Hence X 2 also divides 1, so X = 1 X2 + Y 2 + 1 = 3. and thus k = XY Problem 3. Let a and b be positive integers. Show that if 4ab1 divides (4a2 1)2 , then a = b. IMO 2007, Problem 5 Solution. Because 4ab 1 | (4a2 1)2 , we also have 4ab 1 | b2 (4a2 1)2 (4ab 1)(4a3 b 2ab + a2 ) = a2 2ab + b2 = (a b)2 . Assume that there exist distinct positive integers a and b such that 4ab 1 | (a b)2 . (a b)2 Let k = > 0. Fix k and let 4ab 1 S= (a, b) : (a, b) Z Z | (a b)2 =k 4ab 1

and let (A, B) be a pair in S which minimizes the sum a + b over all (a, b) S. Without loss of generality assume that A > B. Consider now the quadratic equation (x B)2 = k, or x2 (2B + 4kB) x + B 2 + k = 0, 4xB 1 which has roots x1 = A and x2 . From Vietas formula, x2 = 2B + 4kB A = B2 + k . A

This implies that x2 is a positive integer, so (x2 , B) S. By the minimality of A + B, we get x2 A, that is B2 + k A, A

Mathematical Reflections 5 (2007)

and therefore k A2 B 2 . Thus (A B)2 = k A2 B 2 4AB 1 and it follows that A B (A + B)(4AB 1) A + B, a contradiction.

References

[1] Arthur Engel, Problem-Solving Strategies, Springer, 1999 [2] Mathlinks, IMO 1988, Problem 6, http://www.mathlinks.ro/Forum/viewtopic.php?p=352683 [3] Mathlinks, xy|x2 + y 2 + 1, http://www.mathlinks.ro/Forum/viewtopic.php?t=40207 [4] Mathlinks, IMO 2007, Problem 5, http://www.mathlinks.ro/Forum/viewtopic.php?p=894656

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