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# Explicit vs Implicit

## Implicit Analysis Lecture - 5

CE 264 Non-linear Finite Element Modeling and Simulation

Explicit
q

A direct computation of the dependent variables can be made in terms of known quantities Unknown appears only on one side of the equation
x(t+h) = x(t) + h f(x(t))

Implicit
q

The dependent variables are defined by coupled sets of equations, and either a matrix or iterative technique is needed to obtain the solution Unknown appears on both sides of the equation
x(t+h) = x(t) + h f(x(t+h))

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Explicit, LS DYNA
u

Implicit, LS DYNA
u

Internal and external forces are summed at each node point and a nodal acceleration is computed by dividing by nodal mass

A global stiffness matrix is computed, inverted and applied to the nodal out of balance force to obtain a displacement increment
[M ]{ x} n+1 + [ K ]{ x} n+1 = [Fexternal] n+1 [ Finternal]n [ M ]{ x} n
.. ..

## [M]{x}n = [Fexternal ]n [Finternal ]n

u

..

Solution is advanced by numerical integration of the above computed acceleration in time Courant condition limits largest stable time step Typically requires many relatively inexpensive time steps Well suited for dynamic simulations such as impact and crash (short duration)

Large numerical effort required to form, store and factorize the stiffness matrix Typically involve a relatively small number of expensive time steps Well suited for static and quasi-static simulations
q

u u u

Quasi -static analysis: time represents a monotonically increasing parameter which characterizes the evolution of the loading

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## Activating Implicit Analysis

u

Implicit Keywords
u

q q q

## Fully explicit (default) Fully implicit Explicit followed by implicit (switching)

*CONTROL_IMPLICIT_GENERAL (required)
q q

## Activates implicit mode Defines implicit time step size

*CONTROL_IMPLICIT_SOLVER (optional)
q q q

Keywords
q q q q q q q

*CONTROL_IMPLICIT_GENERAL *CONTROL_IMPLICIT_SOLVER *CONTROL_IMPLICIT_SOLUTION *CONTROL_IMPLICIT_AUTO *CONTROL_IMPLICIT_STABILIZATION *CONTROL_IMPLICIT_DYNAMICS *CONTROL_IMPLICIT_EIGENVALUE Not all features are available in implicit mode

Performs the CPU intensive stiffness matrix inversion, [k]{x }=[f] Parameters for linear equation solver Does NOT invoke a linear analysis

*CONTROL_IMPLICIT_SOLUTION (optional)
q q q

Parameters for linear or nonlinear equation solver (Newton- based methods) Controls iterative equilibrium search, convergence linear analysis selected here (a special case where no iterations are performed)

*CONTROL_IMPLICIT_AUTO (optional)
q q

Activates automatic time step control Default is fixed time step size, results in error termination if any steps fail to converge

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u

u

## Implicit governing equations contain two problems to solve

[ M ]{x }n+ 1 + [ K ]{x}n +1 = [ Fexternal] n +1 [ Finternal] n [ M ]{x}n
.. ..

Nonlinear Problem
q q q

Find displacements x which satisfy equilibrium Fext =Fint Both K, Fext and Fint can be nonlinear functions of x Iterative search employed using Newton-based methods
u

Linear Problem
q q q

Solve system of linear algebraic equations, [k]{x}=[f] Must solve during every nonlinear iteration Great CPU and memory cost makes this problem important
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A linear system of equations of the form K.Du=R must be solved within each equilibrium iteration Stiffness matrix K is inverted and applied to the residual load R, yielding a displacement increment Du Storing and solving this linear system represent a large portion of the memory and CPU costs of an implicit analysis Several different linear equations solvers are available, including direct (Gaussian elimination) and iterative (conjugate gradient, Lanczos) methods Very important to allow enough memory for the stiffness matrix factorization
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## Non-linear Equation Solver

u

Element Formulations
u u

Several different non-linear equations solvers are available. All of them are iterative When the norms of displacement and energy are reduced below user prescribed tolerances (default 1.0e3 and 1.0e-2 respectively), equilibrium is reached within sufficient accuracy, the iteration process is said to have converged, and the solution proceeds to the next time step

Selected using *SECTION keywords Default elements often use single point integration with hourglass control
q

Good for explicit, where element costs can dominate solution Bad for implicit, since hourglass modes cause convergence trouble

For implicit analysis it is generally more effective to use more expensive element formulations which are less susceptible to hourglass instability

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Hourglass
u

Hourglass Control
u

Crash codes use a 1-point integration scheme for elements to achieve fast computation This causes rank deficiency in stiffness matrix and causes hourglass modes or zero energy modes In-plane Mode Two main hourglass modes
q q

q

## In plane (membrane mode) Out of plane (W mode)

Out-of-plane Mode

Lower Youngs modulus than steel, hourglass may occur. Increase hourglass control coefficient Connecting a 1-D element to a shell may generate large hourglassing. Using triangular elements may help Improving connections and refining mesh might help reduce or eliminate hourglass

## Good Good Bad

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Bad
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Hourglass Control

## Element Formulations for Implicit Analysis

u

Shell Elements
q

S/R Hughes Liu shell element #6 2x2 selective -reduced integration 6 DOF per node (dx, dy, dz, rx, ry, rz) Most expensive Fully integrated shell element #16 2x2 integration with enhanced strain formulation 6 DOF per node (dx, dy, dz, rx, ry, rz) Least expensive of 2x2 elements

Bad Bad
u

Solid Elements
q

Good

Good

Hughes Liu brick element #2 3 DOF per node (dx, dy, dz) 2x2x2 selective reduced integration Most expensive
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u

## Implicit Contact Interfaces

u

Beam Element
q

Hughes -Liu #1
6 DOF per node (dx, dy, dz, rx, ry, rz) One integration point along length

q q q

Spring Element
q q

## *CONTACT_SURFACE_TO_SURFACE *CONTACT_NODES_TO_SURFACE *CONTACT_AUTOMATIC_SINGLE_SURFACE etc.,

2 node, 3 DOF per node (dx, dy, dz) or (rx, ry, rz) Springs act only in one direction (no shear strength), unlike beam elements Nonlinear F/D behavior and failure can cause convergence trouble

u u

All implicit contact interfaces use the penalty method Oriented normal vectors are recommended Automatic contact types often fail for implicit
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Loads
u u

## Automatic Time Step Control

u u

Ramp up load from zero to final value Load curve should extend beyond the termination time for stability
Force

*CONTROL_IMPLICIT_AUTO Automatic time step control adjusts stepsize during the simulation
q q

Very persistent, reliable Step size varied such that solving for equilibrium in each step is equally difficult Compare iteration count to target value ITEOPT Increase/decrease size of next step if difference exceeds ITEWIN Decrease step size Back up, repeat failed step with new DT
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q q

## After failed steps

q q

Time

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Model Setup

## Implicit Analysis Examples

CE 264 Non-linear Finite Element Modeling and Simulation

Honeycomb Block
q q q

## 122.5 x 122.5 x 150 C/S Area = 122.5 2 Length = 150 mm

Implicit Analysis
q

## Crosshead speed 10 mm/sec Output Rwforc and nodout

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Dyna Input

Dyna Output

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Force vs Displacement

## Y-axis, q Stress = Force/Area q Stress = F/(122.52)

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Comparison

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