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Course No: S04-003 Credit: 4 PDH

Richard Campbell, P.E., S.E.

Continuing Education and Development, Inc. 9 Greyridge Farm Court Stony Point, NY 10980 P: (877) 322-5800 F: (877) 322-4774 info@cedengineering.com

**FINITE ELEMENT STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS ON AN EXCEL SPREADSHEET
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INTRODUCTION Finite Element (FE) software is an essential tool for most structural design engineers, and at the cost of most commercial FE software, it had better be essential. The commercial FE software used by many engineering firms will provide you with more computer-output than you could read in a month and more than you can understand in a year. Commercial programs are great for impressing clients, and great for performing extensive analysis when really needed. But in design of frame-type structures, rarely is all that power and output really needed. Spreadsheet based FE analysis differs from conventional FE analysis as follows: Spreadsheet-based Finite Element Conventional Finite Element Data, equations, results on one Huge amounts of data & equations spreadsheet Formulas are all on one spreadsheet Complex “black box” algorithms Complex theory, beyond average user Calculation steps and intermediate calculation results all on one spreadsheet Spreadsheets are best for handling huge Commercial software is best for handling amounts of data and equations complex algorithms and complex theory Commercial software is expensive but The FE spreadsheet is free and most needed. engineers already have the software necessary for spreadsheets. Understanding FE theory allows the user to in many cases forego commercial software and use more basic software, such as the FE spreadsheet. In 10 years of private practice, I have relied almost exclusively on a FE spreadsheet for analyzing frame-type structures. That spreadsheet is presented in this course as a teaching tool and as a practical, effective design tool. The spreadsheet is limited to 2-dimensional frames of about 50 nodes, but if a problem is within that range it is easier to use, easier to understand, easier to port, easier to check and much less expensive than commercial programs. In 25 years of engineering, I have never seen a design that was flawed because the designer failed to generate enough computer output. I have never seen a structure that was inadequate because the designer didn’t use enough nodes in his analysis model. I have never seen an analysis that was erroneous because there weren’t enough digits to the right of the decimal point. For most frame-type structure problems, use of commercial FE software results in too much output, too many nodes, and too many insignificant digits. When you buy a new car, you go for a drive before you read the owners manual. In a similar fashion, in this course you will download and use the FE spreadsheet before you learn the underlying theory. Since theory is easier to understand as an explanation of a tool we can use than as a hypothesis of one we could create, we will first learn how to use the FE spreadsheet, then use theory to explain how it works.

• node displacements. There are as many local coordinate systems as there are members. a plot sheet.Section 1: Description of the Finite Element Spreadsheet: Two spreadsheet workbooks in Microsoft Excel format are provided for download as a part of this course. Each workbook consists of three sheets: 1. The plot sheet that shows node and member geometry to assist in verifying model input. Section 3: Definitions ~ Local and Global Coordinates: • The FE spreadsheet is for 2D members in the x-y plane. 3. • and loadings. 2. and may have other or broader meaning in other contexts) • A frame member has both axial and flexural stiffness properties. but there is only one global coordinate system. • member node-to-node connectivity. • In the FE spreadsheet provided with this course. The documentation sheet gives an overview of the structure of the FE spreadsheet and a list of the basic underlying assumptions. Section 2: Definitions ~ Element Properties: (these definitions are in the context of the FE spreadsheet provided with this course. 3. The FE analysis sheet provides all the formulas and calculations to solve frame-type 2D static problem. • “Axx” is member cross-sectional area perpendicular to the local x-axis. • Local coordinates are relative to the member. 2. • member end forces. frame members (including special beam-type and truss-type) are the only elements allowed. • A frame is a structure composed of any number of frame-type members. They are both FE spreadsheets. • “E_mod” is material modulus of elasticity. • member properties. • support conditions. with axial and flexural stiffness continuity at the nodes. 1. Calculated output (on the same sheet) is: • support reactions. Required inputs are: • node coordinates. a documentation sheet. • A truss-type member is a frame member with flexural stiffness approaching zero. • all intermediate calculations. a FE analysis sheet. the other is a sheet for practical use with 16 nodes and 37 members. • “Izz” is member moment-of-inertia about the local z-axis. (Plate-type elements and shear-strain elements are not allowed). • A beam-type member is a frame member with axial stiffness approaching zero. one is a training sheet with just 5 nodes and 5 members. . global coordinates are consistent for all members. joined at nodes.

If a problem requires fewer than 5 nodes or members this spreadsheet may be used. the number of nodes is set at 5 and the number of members is set at 5. with respect to local axis and upper case represent global properties. lower case letters represent local coordinates. your pointer defines the x-axis. The Figure 1 problem requires 5 nodes but only requires 4 members so member 5 is inactivated by setting its properties to near zero. lower case letters indicate local member properties. Be careful of sign convention with respect to output. the z-axis points up.xls (for Finite Element 5 Node 5 Member) • save the original • save a working copy as FE_Sec4. y & z on the respective digits because if you transpose letters to the wrong digits your axes can also be transformed to lefthand orientation. The Figure 1 Example has input of node-point loads of 2. if the x-axis points East and the y-axis points up. your index defines the y-axis and your thumb defines the z-axis. . including a sketch of the model. In some cases the values can be set to zero. To mirror the results: • download the spreadsheet FE 5N 5M. To inactivate a member.0 and 4.• • • Local x-axis is along the member axis. Coordinate axes are per right hand rule (per the Definitions section previously and as shown in Fig 1B. On this spreadsheet. in which the user selects the number of nodes and members. If a problem requires more nodes or more members a larger version of the spreadsheet is required. and results follow accordingly. This is in contrast to typical commercial FE programs. Similarly. 3 & 4 respectively. connect to it only with inactivated members. Calculated results are annotated in Figure 1B. Section 4: Simple Beam Example on the FE Spreadsheet Figures 1A & 1B show a simple beam problem. 3. but in most cases setting properties to zero will result in a spreadsheet “!NUM” error message.). set properties Axx and Izz to near zero.xls • change the input cells (colored yellow) to match Figure 1A • verify that calculated results match Figure 1A The structure model and input are annotated in Figure 1A. with the extraneous nodes and members inactivated. To inactivate a node. The resulting maximum moment is 60 at member 3. All nodes must be connected and all members must be used. end “i”. maximum deflection is 0.) Right hand rule is that if you point your thumb up. In matrix notation. the input loads and the resulting forces and deflections. your pointer finger straight ahead and your index finger at right angles to both (toward your left hand).0 at nodes 2. If you use this rule to remember the axis orientations it is a good idea to write x. Right hand rule applies such that if the x-axis points East and the y-axis North. Note also that consistent units must be used.0. Typically. capital letters represent global coordinates. with positive being from the “i”-end toward the “j”-end. then the z-axis points South.95 at node 3.

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0) to (10.003 vertical and 0. 4 & 5 can have the same coordinates (0. .0). 2 to your spreadsheet. The maximum member axial force is 3. Therefore. Note that each node is at the end of at least one member (no nodes are unconnected). To mirror Figure 2 results. Output values all change to “!NUM” error message. To see the effect of a zero length member. change member 5 connectivity from 5-2 to 3-2 (by changing cell B21 from “5” to “3”) such that node 5 is not connected to any members. The result summary for the Figure 2 truss example is that node 3 has calculated deflections of 0. to analyze a truss the member moment of inertia needs to be set near zero (it cannot be set to zero or an Excel error message “#NUM!” will result). To see the effect of having an unconnected node. both at node 3. Note that node 1.0 load and a horizontal 2. A truss is essentially a frame with no flexural resistance.0) such hat it has the same coordinates as note 2.Section 5: Truss Example on the FE Spreadsheet ~ [Ref: Figure 2] Figure 2 Example is a triangular truss.0 load.002 horizontal.54 in member 3. but that you can’t connect a member between two identical nodes because the member will have zero length. copy the input from Fig. Verify that your output matches Fig 2. change node 4 ordinates from (0. Output values all change to “#DIV/0!” error message. with a vertical 3.

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Note that maximums may be greater between nodes. applied forces. Verify that your output matches Fig. . and can have distributed load. If more detail is required. Members have properties. copy the input data to your working spreadsheet. Nodes can have supports. Each support node has a k_y spring value of 80. Member end forces are at node locations and are not necessarily maximum values for that member Resulting deflections for this example vary from –1. end “j”. The beam has varying uniform member loads per Figure 3. To mirror results. 3. The input/output sections of the FE spreadsheet are divided into two categories: “Node Data” and “Member Data”.0 to –1. end forces.Section 6: Beam on Elastic Foundation with Uniform Member Load ~ [Ref: Fig 3] The Figure 3 example is a beam on spring supports. “Uni_Load” input cells (G17-G21) are for inputting a uniform load perpendicular to the local x-axis of the member (in the local y-direction). and deflections.8 and maximum moment is 324 at member 2. use more nodes or further analyze critical members as a component problem. Note that Member Data.

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Section 7: 16-Node Building Example with Member End Release ~ [Ref: Fig 4 & 5] Previous examples have been limited to a few nodes and a few members to demonstrate the functionality of the spreadsheet. Most design problems require more nodes and members. which is a functional size for a number of structural design problems. Reactions at node 14 are FY = 4500 & FX =-1016.0 in the y-direction and 4. Member-14 is essentially a pin of 0.01 diameter and very low friction in this example.3 in the x-direction. . Reactions at node 1 are FY = –1500 & FX = -984. Figures 4 & 5 show a 16-node. 37-member spreadsheet. Member end release of member-15 at node-15 is modeled by inserting a very short member-14 with a very low Izz value. Maximum deflections are –1. The particular problem shown is a building frame with two 1000 horizontal loads and some –50 uniform member loads.

0550 1000 0 0 0.00 -0.200 26 10 11 0.200 5 5 6 0.0789 1000 0 0 0.200 10 10 11 0.000 E_mod Uni_Load 596571 596571 596571 596571 596571 596571 -50 596571 -50 596571 -50 596571 596571 596571 596571 596571 596571 -50 596571 -50 596571 -50 596571 596571 596571 596571 596571 300000 300000 300000 300000 300000 300000 300000 300000 300000 300000 300000 0.200 4 4 5 0.050 17 1 2 0.00 -0.3 2. 37 MEMBER SPREADSHEET NODE DATA: Node x 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 y 0 0 0 0 0 0 10 20 30 30 30 30 30 30 10 20 Support Springs Input Forces k_rot k_y k_x Mom FY 0 999999 999999 15 30 40 50 60 60 60 60 50 40 30 15 0 999999 999999 30 30 [rad] Support Reactions Output Deflections FX Mom FY FX Rot Dy 0 -1750 -1124.00 -0.000 0.00 -0.FIGURE 4 3-STORY BUILDING EXAMPLE Rev: 6/25/08 16 NODE.200 8 8 9 0.200 29 13 14 0.3 0.8 -0.0 1.8 2.0541 0 0 0.9 -0.00 -0.0792 0 4750 -875.0855 0 0 0.6 -1.00 -0.0 2.200 25 9 10 0.5 4.200 9 9 10 0.8 -0.200 2 2 3 0.00 -0.050 19 3 4 0.200 30 3 15 0.000 36 4 5 0.3 0.200 6 6 7 0.0456 0 0 0.0455 0 0 0.200 12 12 13 0.050 16 16 12 0.9 3.00 -0.000 0.050 20 4 5 0.000 0.200 3 3 4 0.3 6 MEMBER DATA: Mem I_node j_node Axx Izz 1 1 2 0.4 0.0541 0 0 0.000 35 3 4 0.000 0.31 -0.3 2.050 24 8 9 0.8 3.3 2.200 11 11 12 0.200 31 15 16 0.3 2.200 28 12 13 0.0590 0 0 0.000 37 1 2 0.1 -0.0309 1 2 3 4 Dx 0.200 32 16 12 0.050 15 15 16 0.0415 0 0 0.000 0.000 0.1 -0.3 1.00 -0.200 33 1 2 0.0576 0 0 0.3 0.0333 0 0 0.00 -0.000 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 0.000 Len 15 15 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 15 15 10 10 10 15 15 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 15 15 10 10 10 15 15 10 10 15 Mi 0 -5272 -479 -1210 -1941 -3840 -3048 118 7624 2526 -2572 17750 9014 -21014 -8817 8112 0 -11598 -1054 -2662 -4270 -4709 -3833 -330 3834 1270 -1293 8926 4533 -10777 -4643 1759 0 0 0 0 0 Output Member Forces Vi Axi Mj Vj 351 -1400 5272 351 -1400 10544 73 66 1210 73 66 1941 73 66 2672 171 681 3048 -67 681 -118 -304 510 -5658 510 943 -2526 510 943 2572 510 943 7669 582 2994 -9014 582 2994 -277 -970 36 8817 -1302 36 -6707 -2056 36 -31172 773 -350 11598 773 -350 23197 161 17 2662 161 17 4270 161 17 5878 -88 86 3833 -350 86 330 -613 256 -5799 256 474 -1270 256 474 1293 256 474 3857 293 1506 -4533 293 1506 -139 -613 73 4643 -781 73 -3163 -527 73 -7030 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Axj -351 -351 -73 -73 -73 329 567 804 -510 -510 -510 -582 -582 1470 1802 2556 -773 -773 -161 -161 -161 88 350 613 -256 -256 -256 -293 -293 613 781 527 0 0 0 0 0 1400 1400 -66 -66 -66 -681 -681 -510 -943 -943 -943 -2994 -2994 -36 -36 -36 350 350 -17 -17 -17 -86 -86 -256 -474 -474 -474 -1506 -1506 -73 -73 -73 0 0 0 0 0 .00 -0.00 -0.0908 0 0 0.050 21 5 6 0.3 -0.0 -0.0 -0.0446 0 0 0.050 23 7 8 0.000 0.050 22 6 7 0.0511 0 0 0.0 0.000 34 2 3 0.9 3.4 5 0.050 18 2 3 0.200 27 11 12 0.0 3.00 -0.2 0.9 3.00 -0.69 -0.200 7 7 8 0.4 0.000 0.200 14 3 15 0.200 13 13 14 0.

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too complex. Continuity of the system is modeled by compatability equations between adjacent elements. Also. Matrices larger than 51x51 may be accommodated with the use of an add-in function such as “Minverse. The member force check is particularly useful to verify the sign of reaction forces. This FE spreadsheet can be an effective tool for analysis. The stiffness matrix is square with size equal to the number of DOF. rotation in z). The FE spreadsheet allows 3 DOF per node (deflection in x & y. I have seen numerous designs that were flawed because the computer model was too large. and too difficult to visualize and check. • The sum of member resulting forces equals applied uniform load. either by condensing the problem into a small approximation that the spreadsheet can handle. in which the system is discretized into a finite number of elements. Conversely. The number of members is not a factor. but is can be equally effective in checking output from large complex problems. A 51x51 stiffness matrix limits a problem 51 Degrees-Of-Freedom (DOF). Section 9: Checking Results It is a good idea to perform some basic checks on results. It is easy to get mixed up on which direction a member end shear force is acting. • The sum of member end forces at a node equals applied node load. I have never seen a design that was flawed because the designer used too few nodes. This course will focus on frame-type structures in which the elements are the framing members and the compatability is of force and deflection. Be wary of thinking that 45 nodes are just not enough for your problems.EXT” (a free add-in available on the internet) allows up to 256x256 matrix. and sum of member moments equals zero. more recent versions of Excel may allow larger matrices. thus is limited to 17 nodes by the 51 DOF constraint.Section 8: Matrix Size Limitations Microsoft Excel does impose size limitations on matrix operations. or be analyzing parts from within the large problem. Section 10: FE Theory Overview FE method is a numerical solution technique used to analyze continuous systems. • applied forces = calculated reactions • values are of the expected order of magnitude • obvious known values (example: a symmetric problem should have symmetric results. a pinned end should have no moment) • inactive members have no significant force • deflection of fixed supports approaches zero It is also a good idea to check critical results. This course gives a basic description of the . thus allowing an 85-node spreadsheet. The largest matrix that can be inverted with Excel 2000 is 51x51. The number of nodes determines the number of DOF and thus the stiffness matrix size.

It is the fundamental equation for FE analysis. I want to emphasize that this course focuses on FE analysis of 2D structural frames subject to static loading. This is a very specific segment of a huge field of FE applications. a complete solution can be calculated with enough nodes and members. Force and deflection for each member can be related by the equation f = k * d where k is defined as a stiffness matrix and is determined based on the properties of the member. Examples of some typical frame model simplifications are: • Modeling a 3D structure in two dimensions. f = k*d is to structural engineers what E=mc^2 is to physicists. completely detailing each node and member is impractical and the number is typically pared down to simplify the problem. dividing members into increasingly small elements by adding intermediate nodes does not increase solution accuracy. and F = K*D for a system of members. but for background information the closed form integral equations for flexure derive from d2y/dx2 = M/EI. • Parsing a model because of symmetry • Parsing a model for component analysis . If we limit our scope to members in which • stress is linearly proportional to strain and • elements are isotropic. In the broader realm of FE analysis. A very fine mesh with a number of small elements will more accurately capture the system behavior than a course mesh. d and D. • Idealizing boundary conditions (“rigid” or “pinned” approximates reality). Integral calculus is beyond the scope of this course. the system is generally continuous and the model is discretized. with all elements being linear members with nodes at each end.solution method used in the FE spreadsheet without going into the details of the underlying theory. In these examples. FE analysis for this specific segment of problems is really an application of matrix mathematics to solve a series of simultaneous compatibility equations. Examples would be bending in a flat plate or fluid flow around an obstruction. In a FE frame analysis. More detailed theory can be found from a multitude of sources should the user be so inclined to pursue. and once solved can be the key to structural design. the model is discretized. you will learn how to formulate f = k*d for each member. rather it has no effect on the solution. In reality. homogeneous members it follows that member force (f) is linearly proportional to member deflection (d). and the precision of the solution varies with the refinement of the model. Since a building frame is essentially a discretized system. Some would argue that this is not a true FE analysis since the system itself is discretized (a finite number of members connected at a finite number of joints. You will learn how to solve for unknowns f. This is because member behavior between joint nodes is already solved in close-form solution (for the assumption that only bending and axial strains are relevant). In this course. the system is continuous. with shape functions derived by closed form integral calculus).

F & D are vectors with “n” number of elements K is a square stiffness matrix. of size n*n .2) F = K*D. and dx for ends “i” and “j”. D is the resulting deflection vector. The FE spreadsheet performs the following steps using Excel functions (without macros or VBA programming): • Calculates member local stiffnesses • transforms local stiffness to global stiffness components.• Eliminating / ignoring minor members (ignoring wallboard that is nailed to studs). in expanded form becomes: mz _ i vy _ i vx _ i mz _ j vy _ j vx _ j 4 EI / L 6 EI / L ^ 2 0 6 EI / L ^ 2 12 EI / L ^ 3 0 0 0 AE / L 2 EI / L − 6 EI / L ^ 2 0 6 EI / L ^ 2 − 12 EI / L ^ 3 0 0 0 − AE / L dz _ i dy _ i dx _ i dz _ j dy _ j dx _ j 2 EI / L − 6 EI / L ^ 2 0 4 EI / L 6 EI / L ^ 2 0 6 EI / L ^ 2 − 12 EI / L ^ 3 0 6 EI / L ^ 2 12 EI / L ^ 3 0 0 0 − AE / L 0 0 AE / L Bold lettering indicates a matrix. dy. • sums global stiffness components to formulate the global stiffness matrix • inverts the global stiffness matrix • multiplies the inverted stiffness matrix * node forces to calculate node deflections • calculates member end forces from node deflections The basic equation relating local member end-forces with end-deflections is: (6.1) f = k * d. These assumptions are often appropriate. In global coordinates. with the x-axis being aligned with the axis of the member. Note that these are “local” matrices. Lower case matrix letters indicate local coordinates & UPPER CASE letters indicate global coordinates. where: n = degrees-of-freedom (3*num-of-nodes for the FE Spreadsheet) F is a force vector. The equations are handled in matrix form for simplicity and easy of manipulation. and vx for ends “i” and “j”. the stiffness equations become: (6. The stiffness matrix k is the 6x6 matrix with variables E. but a sensitivity analysis may be warranted for verification. I. vy. L and A. Section 11: FE Spreadsheet Method Finite element method involves generating a series of compatibility equations relating structure deflections and forces. The force vector f consists of mz. The deflection vector d consists of dz.

1) t*F = k*t*D Then. and • applied forces (global). all supports must be entered as support “springs”. t such that: (6. pre-multiply each side by t-inverse. if members 3. Note that if a node is a support point.4) f = t*F Recalling (6. then all the node stiffness values are assembled to form the global stiffness matrix. but absolute fixity can be approached by inserting very high support spring values. K. and their X-force stiffnesses are 1.3) d = t*D Member end forces can be similarly transformed by t such that: (6.1). In mathematical terms. while the global horizontal axis is the X-axis. or t-1. A coordinate transformation is required to calculate the relationship between local and global properties. Knowing local member properties and geometry we can calculate the local stiffness matrix k for each member per Equation 6. F. or 6 kips/ft. Then substituting (6. For example.In a typical structure problem. the global stiffness factor for joint 10 would be the sum of the stiffnesses. there is an external or global support stiffness that must be added to the k_T sum for that node. If the local x-axis is aligned identically with the global Xaxis. where the local member axis is not aligned with the global X-axis. with that transformation being a function of the angle between the “x” and “X” axes. local stiffness does not equal global stiffness. f = k * d. there is no infinitely rigid support. the local member axis defines the local x-axis. first define a coordinate transformation matrix. 4 & 5 connect at joint 10.4) into (6. The stiffness of each node is calculated by summing the contributing stiffness elements from each k_T matrix. The known applied global forces are assembled into the force vector. Once all member stiffness matrices are transformed to a global reference (ie: k_T is calculated for each member). global stiffness at each node can be calculated by summing the global stiffness of each member that is connected to that node.6) F = k_T * D where: (6. In the FE spreadsheet. As in real structures.3) and (6. Knowing the geometric relationship between local and global coordinates for each member allows use to transform each stiffness matrix from local to global coordinates. For all other cases.7) k_T = t-1*k*t = a member stiffness matrix transformed to global coordinates.1 above. t-1*t*F = t-1*k*t *D Simplifying with t-1*t = unity matrix and defining k_T = t-1*k*t: (6. . the known values are: • member properties (local) • structure geometry (both local and global). 2 & 3 kips/ft respectively. In the FE Spreadsheet. then local stiffness = global stiffness.

F = K * D. particularly that stress and strain are related in a linear fashion. global applied load vector • D. FE Method as laid out in the FE Spreadsheet Figure 6 shows local stiffness and transformation matrices (k & t) for each member.Recalling equation (6. deflections are small and materials are isotropic and homogeneous.5) f = k*t*D Figure 8 shows: • K. this simplifies to (6. calculated node displacement vector .3) into (6. where K-1 = the inverse of K. To solve for D pre-multiply by K-1. • Applied load vectors • Calculated displacements • Calculated local member forces by substituting (6. inverse of K • F. but since K-1*K is the identify matrix. k_T.2) K-1 * F = D Inherent in the formulation of the stiffness equations is linear elastic theory.7) result. global stiffness matrix • K^-1.2). • Index numbers to position k_T elements into global stiffness matrix K. shear strains are assumed to be negligible and are not calculated. we have now calculated F & K so D is the only unknown. with all its assumptions. K-1 * F = K-1*K * D. Also note that the elements or members in this spreadsheet are limited to axial and flexural strains. for each member. Figure 7 shows: • Equation (6.

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such as: 1. In contrast. equipment loads. A few examples of this application: • A steel frame structure that has composite concrete – one spreadsheet could analyze the steel-only loads. material properties. Integration of Data: Design data for a project is often voluminous and could typically include items such as material properties. With the FE spreadsheet. There are no macros and no VBA programming. all data. The designer could have the project design details on a series of spreadsheets (a workbook). and no license restrictions. It is common that input-data and output-results from the FE analysis are ported to or from spreadsheets. That data is often kept on a series of spreadsheets. no hardware locks. Cost Estimate 4. commercial FE software is limited in distribution and high in cost. live loads. quantity summaries. if not adept with spreadsheet software. no password protection. commercial FE analysis can only be performed on machines with the FE software. It only makes sense to incorporate Finite Element analysis into an environment in which so many engineers are already comfortable. Consider for example. etc) . the actual analysis data from a FE program is typically not kept on a spreadsheet. A variation on linking is using Excel tables to quantify “what if” scenarios. stresses. analysis can be performed on any machine with corresponding spreadsheet software. a second spreadsheet could analyze loads on the composite section. In contrast. • Calculating deflections during a sequential construction of a cantilever constructed bridge • Analyzing a jacking sequence where the structure is modified in each step. including analysis and results. design of a 3-story building. and that software nearly always has hardware lock. the FE spreadsheet has a minimal learning curve. a third spreadsheet could be a summation of the first two. Uses and Limitations of the Finite Element Spreadsheet: Ease of Use and Minimal Learning Curve: Most engineers are familiar with. Structural framing properties (member properties. Section 13: Benefits. password or licensing restrictions. structure geometry. For those who are regular spreadsheet users. The spreadsheet is all-inclusive using formulas and Excel functions. etc) 3. Finite Element Analysis (member forces. Availability of Spreadsheet and Finite Element Software: Spreadsheet software is readily available on nearly all engineering computers and can be purchased for a modest (or zero) cost. can all be integrated into one spreadsheet workbook. As an exception. cost estimates and more. With the FE spreadsheet. etc) 2. but the actual analysis and results resides in the FE software.Section 12: Linking spreadsheets for progressive analysis One of the powerful features of spreadsheet FE analysis is the ability to link spreadsheets to represent a series of consecutive loadings. Loads (Structure dead load. say by adding or removing a member or by jacking at varying points. loading tabulation.

formatting. This is in contrast to using commercial structural analysis software that is not seamlessly integrated into the Excel workbook for the project. intermediate calculation steps and final output. With the input. commercial software is a black-box. • Checking large program output. Ease of Modifying Spreadsheet: An adept and frequent user of the FE spreadsheet may want to customize it for a special need. output from commercial programs is often ported to Excel for the purpose of displaying. For example. you can easily format output with colored cells.The data can all be linked to assure continuity of design in the event of a design change. You see the input and output. nor all underlying formulas. Each detail can be scrutinized and checked if necessary. or parts of large program output. etc. with all of Excel’s capabilities readily available. Ease of Checking: The FE spreadsheet is all-inclusive with respect to input. In contrast. sequenced with other FE spreadsheets. Depth of Data on Spreadsheets: The FE spreadsheet has all of the input data. calculations and output all on the same Excel spreadsheet. bold or italic font. Uses as presented in this course: • Frame. Ease of Processing Data with Spreadsheets: Post-processing capability of the FE spreadsheet is superb. intermediate calculations and supporting formulas on one sheet. the FE sheet shows you need to upsize beam weight by 30 plf. or further using results. In contrast. the DL weight is increased on that sheet and the cost estimate interactively reflects the new weights. Uses beyond what was presented in this course on enhanced spreadsheets: • p*y soil-structure interaction • p*delta analyses • Excel tables to analyze varying data input • Seismic response spectrum analysis. Changes need to be updated manually across different programs. change the loading of floor-2 from 50 psf to 150 psf on the loading sheet. etcetera. The FE spreadsheet for structural analysis can easily be linked to other spreadsheets. This is in contrast to commercial programs that typically do not produce all intermediate steps. equations. Each step and calculation can be checked in minute detail. truss and beam-on-elastic foundation problems. but little of what is in between. output results. . modified for use in other engineering disciplines. you can add arrows or notes.

and post-process. can also be solved by enhanced versions of the spreadsheet. More advanced analyses. • Limited to 2D frame-type elements (no 3D. so it would be easy to inadvertently (or intentionally) revise the formulas.Limitations • Limited graphics / plotting. commercial FE software can be cumbersome to use. and expensive. difficult to port between machines. difficult to check. subject to the size limitations above. Section 14: Summary: Finite Element method is a powerful analysis tool used by almost all structural design engineers. no plates). The Excel Spreadsheets provided with this course are believed to be accurate. easy to pre. . Those problems are beyond the scope of this course. easy to port between machines. The user is cautioned that the spreadsheet original shall be saved and only copies used for calculations. • Member end release is not an input variable and must be achieve by manipulation of member local stiffness matrix or inclusion of a short member with small Izz.) • Expansion of the spreadsheet to vary number of nodes or members requires user manipulation. but use thereof shall be at the users risk. such as seismic response spectrum problems or soil-structure p*y problems. 80 nodes with an add-in matrix inversion function. Many if not most frame-type structural design problems can be solved with the provided Excel spreadsheet. The formulas in the spreadsheet have minimal protection. Results of the software should be independently checked (as when making any calculations or using any software). easy to use. The software is free. In contrast. but may become available in subsequent courses. 17 nodes with Excel 2000 capabilities. • Limited to relatively small problems (Approx.

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