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The Kazakhstan Institute for Strategic Studies under the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan

KAZAKHSTAN TODAY

Almaty, 2010

UDK 323/324 (574) BBК 66.3 (5 каз) К 26
Scientific publication Recommended for publication by the Scientific Council of the Kazakhstan Institute for Strategic Studies under the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan

CONTENTS INTRODUCTION.................................................................................. 13 Chapter 1. THE HISTORY OF KAZAKH STATEHOOD 1.1. Kazakhstan before the 15th Century ................................................. 23 1.2. Kazakh Khanate (15th-18th Centuries).............................................. 35 1.3. Kazakhstan in the Russian Empire .................................................. 41 1.4. Kazakhstan in the USSR .................................................................. 48 1.5. Declaration of State Sovereignty of the Kazakh SSR and the Constitutional Law On State Independence of the Republic of Kazakhstan ......................................................... 57 1.6. The Election of the First President of the Republic of Kazakhstan (December 1991) ............................ 61 1.7. The First Constitution of the Republic of Kazakhstan of 1993 ....... 62 1.8. The Constitution of the Republic of Kazakhstan of 30 August 1995 ............................................................................ 64 1.9. The National Referendum on Extending the Term of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan ............................... 66 1.10 The State Symbols of the Republic of Kazakhstan .......................... 67 Chapter 2. DOMESTIC POLICY 2.1. Kazakh President Nursultan Nazarbayev......................................... 71 2.2. The Kazakhstan-2030 Strategy ........................................................ 77 2.3. The 2007 Constitutional Reform...................................................... 85 2.4. The Parliament of the Republic of Kazakhstan ............................... 90 2.5. The Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan ............................. 95 2.6. Reforms in the Judicial System...................................................... 105 2.7. The Party System ........................................................................... 108 2.8. Kazakhstan Is a Multiethnic State.................................................. 116 2.9. The Non-Governmental Sector ...................................................... 118 2.10. The Media ..................................................................................... 121 Chapter 3. FOREIGN POLICY 3.1. Kazakhstan’s Multi-Vector Foreign Policy .................................... 127 3.2. Kazakhstan’s Nuclear-Free Status ................................................. 137 3.3. Kazakhstan – the Chairman of the OSCE in 2010 ......................... 139 3.4. Kazakhstan and Russia .................................................................. 145 3.5. Kazakhstan and China.................................................................... 152 3.6. Kazakhstan’s Cooperation with Central Asian Countries .............. 157 3

Edited by B.K. Sultanov Editorial board: B.K. Sultanov, L.M. Muzaparova, R.Yu. Vasilenko, U.M. Nyssanbek, N.B. Seydin (responsible for publication)
Authors: M.A. Abisheva (ch(apter) 2; s(ection) 3.11), A.M. Borangaliyev (s. 4.6, 4.7, 4.12, 4.14), A.U. Ibragimova (s. 4.4, 4.13), R.Yu. Izimov (s. 3.5), K.D. Isayev (s. 3.8), T.A. Kozyrev (ch. 2), S.K. Kushkumbayev (s. 3.6, 3.16), M.T. Laumulin (introduction), S.S. Lukpanova (s. 3.3), A.A. Morozov (ch. 1, 2), A.K. Nazarbetova (s. 5.5), M.Ye. Nurgaliyev (s. 3.7, 3.11, 3.12), A.Zh. Rakhimzhanova (s. 4.1, 4.3, 4.8, 4.9, 4.10, 4.11, appendices), G.G. Rakhmatulina (s. 3.15, 4.1., 4.2, 4.5, 4.15), Ye.T. Seilekhanov (ch. 2, s. 5.1, 5.2, 5.3, 5.4), V.N. Sitenko (s. 3.13, 3.14), B.K. Sultanov (s. 3.1, 3.2, 3.4), L.A. Timofeyenko (s. 3.9, 3.10)

К 26

Kazakhstan Today: monograph / Edited by B.K. Sultanov – Almaty: The Kazakhstan Institute for Strategic Studies under the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan, 2010. – 356 p. ISBN 978-601-7242-11-4
This joint monograph aims to present a generalised image of modern Kazakhstan. The book focuses on Kazakhstan’s role in the international community and discusses issues of the political, economic and social life of modern Kazakh society. It contains the history of the country and information on its present administrative-territorial divisions, population and government system. The book presents Kazakhstan’s main steps on the path of the establishment of statehood and interim results of the country’s development in its years of independence. The joint monograph targets primarily foreign readers who do not know much about the Republic of Kazakhstan, and will be also useful to local political analysts, researchers, civil servants, students and university teachers, and others.

ISBN 978-601-7242-11-4

UDК 323/324 (574) BBК 66.3 (5 каз) © KazISS, 2010

Kazakhstan today

3.7. Kazakhstan and the USA ............................................................... 163 3.8. Kazakhstan and the EU .................................................................. 169 3.9. Kazakhstan and Middle Eastern Countries .................................... 177 3.10. Kazakhstan and South Asian Countries ........................................ 183 3.11. Kazakhstan and Asia-Pacific Countries ........................................ 188 3.12. Kazakhstan and the UN ................................................................ 195 3.13. Kazakhstan and the CIS ................................................................ 200 3.14. Kazakhstan and the SCO .............................................................. 205 3.15. Kazakhstan and the EAEC ............................................................ 210 3.16. Kazakhstan and the CICA ............................................................. 215 Chapter 4. KAZAKHSTAN’S ECONOMY 4.1. Strategy for Economic Reform ....................................................... 225 4.2. Kazakhstan’s Natural Resources ..................................................... 232 4.3. The Investment Climate in Kazakhstan .......................................... 237 4.4. Small and Medium Businesses ....................................................... 240 4.5. Oil and Gas Production and Transport ............................................ 243 4.6. Mining ............................................................................................. 249 4.7. Processing Industry ......................................................................... 252 4.8. Space Industry................................................................................. 257 4.9. Agriculture ...................................................................................... 260 4.10. Trade ............................................................................................. 265 4.11. Banking ......................................................................................... 269 4.12. Transport ....................................................................................... 272 4.13. Communications ........................................................................... 276 4.14. Tourism ......................................................................................... 278 4.15. Foreign Economic Relations ......................................................... 281 Chapter 5. HUMAN DEVELOPMENT IN KAZAKHSTAN 5.1. Education ........................................................................................ 287 5.2. Science ............................................................................................ 298 5.3. Public Health................................................................................... 306 5.4. Environment.................................................................................... 311 5.5. Gender Policy.................................................................................. 319 Appendices. KAZAKHSTAN in FIGURES ...................................... 323 Information about authors .................................................................. 352 Information about the KazISS............................................................ 354

FOREWORD

Dear Reader, You are about to read this book about modern Kazakhstan, which is the world’s ninth largest country and the second in the CIS after Russia in terms of territory, and is one of the world’s richest countries in terms of natural resources; it is considered to be the most stable of the former Soviet states. Our country has been attracting the world’s attention over the past two decades with its successes in the creation of institutions of statehood, the implementation of market reforms in the economy and the formation of a tolerant multi-denominational and multiethnic society. Kazakhstan is famous for its contribution to the strengthening of global stability and nuclear security, as an initiator and active player in many processes in the sphere of disarmament, confidence building and the creation of a collective system of security. This book reflects our desire to tell the foreign reader more about Kazakhstan – a country with an ancient culture and a long history, a talented population and a stable economy. Located in the very centre of the great Eurasian continent, Kazakhstan is a country in which different and diverse phenomena have become intertwined and synthesised. This country simultaneously belongs to both the East and the West. Our country is populated by people that belong to different ethnic groups and cultures. In the first chapter of this book you find information on the history of Kazakhstan and the formation of Kazakh statehood. The very history of the statehood of Kazakhs started in the 15th century, although the history of Turkic nomads, who are the direct ancestors of Kazakhstan, stretches for at least another millennium. This chapter provides all the relevant information about the government system of the Republic of Kazakhstan and the documents and symbols of our country. Here you will learn the conditions in which modern Kazakhstan was created when it received independence following the break-up of the Soviet Union in 1991.
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Kazakhstan. China. In the almost 20-year period of its existence as an independent state from the late 1991 to 2010 the Republic of Kazakhstan joined the system of international relations. as a result. NATO. as well as all the main documents of the UN and the OSCE. drafted a clear and coherent foreign policy concept and realised its national interests. became part of the international legal space. rather they are always at the stage of modernisation and reformation. given the first Kazakh President Nursultan Nazarbayev’s contribution to the process of building statehood and his influence on it. The only solution in terms of strengthening the unitary nature of Kazakhstan and preserving its political stability was a combination of the model of unitary state with strong presidential power. For example. its delimitation and the designing of routes to transport Caspian hydrocarbons became a priority. the main political forces and the nature of the political regime established in the country. Thus. the EU. In Kazakhstan. the Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe. became member of the Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) on 30 January 1992. the Eurasian Economic Community. Central Asian and CIS countries. This includes participation in international and regional organisations (the UN. EU member states. the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty I. At the initial stage of the development of Kazakhstan’s foreign policy strategy (in the first half of 1990s) the Eurasian Bridge concept was put forward. The emergence of the opposition was largely a result of the economic reforms conducted. This equally concerns both political reforms in general and reforms in the parliamentary and judicial systems. Muslim countries and Asia-Pacific states).Kazakhstan today The second chapter of the book is devoted to the domestic political processes in Kazakhstan. political opposition exists. as in other liberal countries. This attention is understandable. this concept was transformed into a doctrine of multi-vector diplomacy. During the implementation of foreign policy in different periods Kazakhstan faced different priorities and objectives. To me. the most important is the third chapter. Relations with Central Asian countries have always been a priority for Kazakhstan. adopted its foreign policy. like all former Soviet republics. history and civilisation Kazakhstan belonged to both Europe and Asia. the country’s government system. between 1992 and 1995 nuclear problems occupied a significant place in Kazakhstan’s relations with the USA. Kazakhstan has successfully entered the international community and international structures at global. the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO) and the Organisation of the Islamic Conference). This doctrine aimed to pursue foreign policies in all directions important to Kazakhstan: the CIS. Kazakhstan is party to international security treaties like the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. developed powers and so on. The country has joined most international treaties and agreements and. in the second half of the 1990s. which is devoted to the international standing and relations of Kazakhstan with the rest of the world. Europe and Asia. In the second half of the 1990s the problem of the Caspian Sea. multilateral relations and bilateral relations. the USA. fighting international terrorism. Kazakhstan’s foreign policy and involvement in the affairs of the international community have developed rigorously in all key aspects that have become traditional. as the head of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Kazakhstan. Asia-Pacific. At the beginning of the 21st century the issues of ensuring national and regional security. Kazakhstan’s foreign 6 policy is based on three key directions: international law. Central Asia. development of bilateral relations (with Russia. the Central Asian Economic Community and the Eurasian Economic Community. In this chapter it is noted that Kazakhstan’s government institutions are not static in nature. regional and subregional levels. the Collective Security Treaty Organisation (CSTO). During its entire history sovereign Kazakhstan’s foreign policy aimed to expand integration in the post-Soviet space: within the CIS. which pointed out that in terms of geography. The book draws particular attention to the institution of the presidency’s place and role in the government system. the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty. Russia and the West in general. culture. East and West. the Muslim world. drugs and so on became particularly relevant. Later. From the very first days of its membership of this 7 .

Kazakhstan’s political sovereignty should be 8 preserved in any development of the situation. as well as participating in multilateral talks on the legal status of the Caspian Sea. Between 1992 and 2010 the main aspects of bilateral cooperation were fully defined. Washington arrived at the conclusion that Astana should assume the role of leader in the region which helps the development of infrastructure in the energy sector and the creation of additional transit routes for hydrocarbons. as well as developing democracy. Russia is Kazakhstan’s main foreign policy partner.Kazakhstan today organisation Kazakhstan started actively promote the strengthening of security in the CSCE/OSCE. This approach will make it possible to see problems in their totality and effectively withstand not only the external manifestations of modern challenges and threats but also work with the sources of their origin. In particular attention will be paid to holding the OSCE summit in Astana in 2010. Kazakhstan considers the expansion and strengthening of a consensual field on the fundamental issues of the organisation’s development as one of the OSCE’s main tasks. the state of the Kazakh diaspora in Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region. pursuing balanced policy on ethnic minorities and preserving internal stability. crossborder rivers. The two countries are co-founders of the CIS. Europe and North America and boosting the security of Kazakhstan and the entire Central Asian region. transport and investment. which will discuss current security problems in the zone of responsibility of the OSCE. ensuring human rights. Astana understands that the maximum level of integration can take place only in the economic sphere (and in the military-strategic sphere only in an extraordinary case). Kazakhstan received additional security guarantees from NATO. In 1992 the decision was taken to launch cooperation between Kazakhstan and NATO. On 27 May 1994 Kazakhstan signed the Partnership for Peace framework document. border and military spheres. As OSCE chairman Kazakhstan plans to focus on achieving the best balance between all three baskets of the OSCE. trade. cooperation in the spheres of oil and gas. especially in the 9 . the duties of which our country started performing on 1 January 2010. As early as at the Helsinki summit in 1992 President Nursultan Nazarbayev proposed the creation of special forces under the CSCE for the prevention of regional conflicts and maintaining peace in Eurasia. trade and economic cooperation. the situation in Afghanistan and issues of tolerance. At the same time. In autumn 2007 at the Madrid meeting of the foreign ministers of OSCE member states Kazakhstan was elected chairman of the organisation in 2010. Kazakhstan was the first CIS country to be officially recognised by America as a market economy country. The Chinese factor is permanent in Kazakhstan’s foreign policy. A positive moment in Kazakhstan’s ties with the USA was that Washington practically recognised Kazakhstan as the leader (in terms of reforms and economic development) in Central Asia and to some extent in the CIS. ethnic. the multilateral nature of Kazakh-Russian relations is very noticeable. At the very beginning of the formation of independent Kazakhstan’s foreign policy and foreign economic policy the country’s leadership clearly realised that Western Europe and the EU institutions were the political and economic force that must be taken into account in the country’s foreign policy strategy. The OSCE experience was also useful for convening the Conference on Interaction and Confidence-Building Measures in Asia (CICA). Problems that represent mutual interests are borders. Relations between Kazakhstan and China. In addition. It was precisely then Kazakhstan floated the idea of creating the Asian equivalent of the OSCE – the Conference on Interaction and Confidence-Building Measures in Asia (CICA). Therefore. occupy an important place in Astana’s foreign policy. They cover a broad range of issues in the political. This means that Kazakhstan aims to follow the European model of integration. initiated by Kazakhstan. economic. We in Kazakhstan perfectly understand. the Eurasian Economic Community and the Customs Union and are interacting within the CSTO and SCO. Kazakhstan remains loyal to its role of initiator of integration processes in the post-Soviet space. which is its second largest neighbour. Kazakhstan’s cooperation with the OSCE has been important for strengthening its positions in the international arena in general and relations with OSCE member states which represent Eurasia.

the task is to move our independence from the outside world and the state of the object to the conscious management of processes of borrowing from external elements that help the modernisation of the political and governmental systems. Relations between Kazakhstan and Russia. there are regions with a high level of urban population. The book’s fourth chapter discusses Kazakhstan’s economic development. Progress in economic transformations in Kazakhstan is a shining example of those difficulties that have to be overcome on the path towards a market economy by even a newly independent state that is the richest in terms of natural resources. China. while preserving young people’s attachment to the motherland. In this sphere we have signed international agreements. effect. conducted by the Kazakh government after 1991. but generally positive. In recent years Kazakhstan is believed to be one of the most economically successful countries in the CIS. i. healthcare. yet also independent. The main strategic aim is to enable Kazakhstan to rely on its own resources. including the Bologna Declaration. On the one hand. a small economic growth and a reduction in inflation in the late 1990s. Local differences in climatic and geographical conditions in terms of demographic dynamics and socioeconomic conditions led to the uneven distribution and density of Kazakhstan’s population. The programme is about preparing specialists for the country in the very spheres where there are shortages and taking the best of everything from foreign countries. 10 Even now. The economic strategy placed emphasis on the macroeconomic stabilisation of the economy. building 11 . All this had a complex. Kazakhstan’s future foreign policy. the development of the financial sector and the banking system. Between then and the beginning of the global crisis the Kazakh economy was on the rise. Central Asian states. which objectively cannot be doubted. including in the education system. The latest events have shown that Kazakhstan is indeed capable of conducting an indeed multi-vector. At the local level Kazakhstan has disproportions in terms of the size of the population.Kazakhstan today context of the antiterrorist operation in Afghanistan. Economic reforms resulted in serious socio-political changes in the country. Kazakhstan’s multi-vector foreign policy was shaped by the country’s pursuit of independent policy towards other power centres and regional powers in the second half of the 1990s. had to touch these spheres of social life too. Reforms. with deposits of natural resources and competitive industry. the higher education system is undergoing radical changes in Kazakhstan.e. there are regions with a predominantly rural population and with agricultural and old industrial infrastructure. there are problems in Kazakhstan. the creation of its financial system and privatisation in the chief sectors of the economy. As Kazakhstan’s first President Nursultan Nazarbayev understands the objective of modernising the country and its society. policy at various international levels. which occupied a remarkable place in the Kazakh education system in the mid-1990s. as well the economic progress and sustainable development of the country. the freeing-up of entrepreneurial vigour through economic reforms and investment. when Kazakhstan completed a phase of macroeconomic stabilisation. At present. the USA and the EU are of strategic importance. When referring to education and training specialists we should mention the Bolashak state programme. patriotism and a sense of national responsibility. will aim at ensuring the security of the country and the security of its population security. like in the previous years. on the other. environmental protection and gender policy. science. There are great socioeconomic differences between the different regions of Kazakhstan. its structure and development. accompanied by a dramatic slump in production and high levels of inflations at the beginning and the stabilisation of the economy. that the North Atlantic Alliance is one of the most important guarantors of security in Central Asia. The country’s economy has come a long way. become subjects and creators of our own modernisation. So what is modern Kazakhstan? A country that is successfully leaving behind the negative elements of its Soviet legacy. The final chapter of the book discusses the human dimensions of modern Kazakhstan – education. in the decades to come.

the country is the ninth largest in the world (2. 12 13 .7 million sq km). the USA. which is liberal and secular in spirit. Kazakhstan and its political elite have learnt to solve them and this should be recognised as the chief achievement of the postSoviet era. China. Kanat Saudabayev Secretary of State of the Republic of Kazakhstan – Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Kazakhstan INTRODUCTION Modern Kazakhstan covers a territory in the very heart of the Eurasian continent.Kazakhstan today an open and democratic society. Canada. Australia. ideas of humanism and the best traditions of world cultures and religions. India and Argentina. of leading economically in the region and of remaining loyal to its Eurasian roots. It is a country where various and often contradictory phenomena are entwined and synthesised. a vast territory. Facing various problems and difficulties. behind Russia. Kazakhstan is located in the centre of Eurasia almost at an equal distance from the Atlantic and the Pacific. In Kazakhstan’s policy these priorities stand out: the construction of an efficient state which is capable of surviving in globalising international relations. From a political. Brazil. legal and psychological point of view Kazakhstan is a diverse society. a country which at once belongs to East and West as a link of the Eurasian civilisation that has absorbed spiritual basics. Another inevitable objective faced by the new Kazakh political elite is to consolidate society. In terms of size. Kazakhstan is now leaving the transitional stage with economic reforms outpacing political ones. Its deep continental location significantly influences the country’s climatic conditions. a diverse economy and a well-educated population. Kazakhstan has everything to become a prosperous democratic state: ethnic diversity.

Precipitation is also distributed unevenly: from less than 100 mm per year in desert areas to 1. One of Kazakhstan’s major industrial enterprises is the Sokolov-Sarbai Ore-enrichment Production Association. which is one of the country’s leaders in iron ore production and processing. industrial and thermal water reserves. To the east of the Caspian Sea in the sand desert is the Aral Sea. Kazmunaigas conducts the full cycle of work in this sphere: it explores. Despite Kazakhstan’s particular climate. According to expert estimates. stretching to the shores of the Aral Sea. whose combined water surface exceeds 45.500 billion cu m of gas. transports and sells hydrocarbons as well as building and operating oil and gas pipelines and production facilities in Kazakhstan and abroad [2]. the country’s advantageous geopolitical location. Its relations with the European Union and chairmanship of the Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe in 2010 are important in order for Kazakhstan to advance its interests in the global geopolitical system. Kazakhstan has almost 7. Remoteness from the oceans and the vast territory determine the sharp continental nature of the country’s climate. Other flagships of Kazakhstan’s industry include Mittal Steel Group. In the southeast is another big lake – Balkhash which covers an area of 18. The vast Turan lowland and the Kyzylkum desert are in the country’s south which are replaced by the Moyunkum and Betpak-Dala deserts further to the east. out of the 110 elements of the periodic table. Kazakhstan has a great number of lakes and rivers. coal and metals. wide and deep rivers and dry deserts. while the average temperature in July fluctuates between +19 and +26 degrees Centigrade with varying considerably between regions.600 mm in the mountains. and the Access Komir coal company. manganese and chromium ores. gas. Thus. In its west lies the Caspian depression. Kazakhstan is a major producer of tungsten and occupies first place in terms of reserves. 15 . medicinal. and.Kazakhstan today On Kazakhstan’s expanses one can find mountains and plains. second place in terms of chromium and phos14 phorus ore reserves. Kazakhstan is also rich in mineral. Fourteen promising oil basins. potassium salts. extracts. the nucleus of which is located in the northern part of the Caspian Sea. but so far only 160 oil and gas fields with combined reserves of 2. its zoning and insufficient precipitation.000 lakes. The Ural River that merges with the Ilek tributary and the Emba River all flow into the Caspian Sea. The average temperature in January ranges between -19 and -4 degrees Centigrade. The Kazmunaigas national oil and gas company is one of the largest companies in the country and is involved in drafting and implementing the single state policy and strategy in the oil and gas sphere. Kazakhstan’s climate differs from adjacent countries and from countries located on similar latitudes. a leading steel producer. the Ustyurt Plateau.200 sq km. to its east. located all over the country.340 km the country’s west and southwest. its vast territory and natural resources. Kalamkas and Karazhanbas – are fragments of a greater oil structure. on sunny days its southern regions are not dissimilar to Egypt and California [1].000 sq km. processes. Kazakhstan possesses sizeable reserves of mineral resources – oil. gold.000-2. develops. compounds of bromine. political and economic stability objectively determine Kazakhstan’s firm positions in the Central Asian region. barytes.5 billion tonnes of oil and 2. have been discovered. which not so long ago was the world’s fourth largest lake. while only 60 are actively being extracted. Prorva. Its total reserves may reach as high as 3-3. including Peak Khan Tengri (6.7 billion tonnes have been explored. sulphates and phosphorites. fourth place on lead and molybdenum reserves and eighth place on iron ore. The rich natural resources have encouraged industrial development in the country. 99 have been discovered in the country and 70 have been explored. and the Caspian Sea coast stretches for 2. The results of the latest explorations make it possible to suggest that major oil fields developed in western Kazakhstan on the Caspian Sea coast – Tengiz. The plain is constrained by the southern offsets of the Urals Mountains and the low-rise Mugalzhar Mountains and the Turgai Valley. In the central part of the country are the Kazakh Uplands and in the southeast are mountain ranges. Energy resources occupy a special place in the country. The country also has major deposits of iron.995 m).

the food industry and grain and potato production are well-developed. Animal husbandry and crop farming are well-developed in this region. Taraz. machine-building. chemical. Located in the south. Grain and meat production dominate its agriculture. its administrative centre is Aktobe. the food industry and cotton production are developed well in the country. which has marked its 2000th anniversary. Gas production. South Kazakhstan Oblast is one of the largest regions in the country. Taldykorgan is the region’s capital. metal processing. its real integrity and political. barium. the food sector and meat and dairy production are key sectors in this region. Akmola Oblast is another northern region. Aktobe Oblast is situated on the border of the two continents – Asia and Europe. The region is located in the country’s west and borders the Russian Federation and Uzbekistan. especially well-known for the quality of its grain. Zhambyl Oblast is in the country’s south and borders Kyrgyzstan. calcium. The region has welldeveloped energy. West Kazakhstan Oblast borders Russia. fishing and fish products. third place in Kazakhstan in copper ore and oil reserves and forth place in the country in terms of gas reserves. The region’s main production spheres are the processing of agricultural products which accounts for 35. it borders with Uzbekistan and its capital is Shymkent. machine-building. Non-ferrous metallurgy. Its administrative centre is Petropavlovsk. Mangistau Oblast borders Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. Its main city is Karaganda. oil refining. the timber industry. lime 16 and clay. Its capital is Atyrau. is an ancient Silk Road town. which is an environmental disaster zone. In addition. metal and oil refining sectors.000 metres). watermelons and pumpkins are major sectors of its economy. Its capital.Kazakhstan today Despite the diverse natural and other conditions that exist in any modern country. bromine. Grain production and animal husbandry dominate in the agricultural sector. Ore-enrichment. Most of its territory covers the Altai Mountains (the highest peak is over 4. Oil production. The region has the Aral Sea. The administrative centre of the region is Aktau. It has a unique mineral resources base and occupies first place in the world in terms of chromite ore. Non-ferrous metallurgy. power engineering with 31. Pavlodar Oblast is located in the country’s north and borders the Russian Federation. and the cultivation of melons. produc17 .5% and machinebuilding and metal processing with 23%. Kyzylorda Oblast is also located in southern Kazakhstan. ferrous and non-ferrous metal. food and machine-building sectors are well-developed. machine-building. Grain production and meat and dairy production are the main segments of its agriculture. Atyrau Oblast is in the country’s west and borders Russia. The Amangeldy gas field has been put into operation and will satisfy demand for gas in the entire south of the country. economic and social stability are maintained by a clearly functioning system of cooperation between all of its regions. Kostanai Oblast is also located in northern Kazakhstan and borders Russia. North Kazakhstan Oblast borders the Russian Federation. Its iron ore extraction and food industry are well-developed. Aktau also has a port on the Caspian Sea. The region’s capital is Uralsk. The oil and gas sector is a key sector in the region. which is located in the country’s centre. potassium salts. petrochemistry. The main mineral resources are oil and gas. The region has well-developed power engineering. The region is home to the world-famous Baikonur space launching site which enjoys a special status and is practically run jointly by Kazakhstan and Russia (in accordance with an agreement signed on 25 March 1994) [3]. Kazakhstan now has 14 regions and two cities of national importance. The region extracts oil and cooking salt and cultivates rice.4% of total output. The region is famous for one of the world’s major deposits of phosphorites. traditionally strong in agriculture. East Kazakhstan Oblast borders Russia and China. manganese. power engineering. The key economic sectors are power engineering. The Irtysh River flows through the region. coal. Its administrative centre is Ust-Kamenogorsk. Karaganda Oblast is Kazakhstan’s largest region. The main mineral resources are oil and gas. the region has plenty of mineral resources. Almaty Oblast is situated in Kazakhstan’s southeast and borders Kyrgyzstan and China. chemical and food industries. cooking salt.

ethnic Kazakhs account for 59. by a presidential decree Akmola (it was renamed Astana in 1998) was announced as the capital of the Republic of Kazakhstan. scientific and cultural centre. socioeconomic and cultural centre of not only Kazakhstan but also of Central Asia and Eurasia. education. Current and more precise data will be obtained from the results of the census held in the country between 25 February and 6 March 2009. Now claiming a broad reputation as a rapidly developing city. The strongest agricultural segments are grain. The country’s population is 16. ethnic Russians 25. This is explained by.Kazakhstan today tion of equipment and instruments and the light and food industries. According to 2007 statistics. and this figure now stands at around 1. The new capital of sovereign Kazakhstan – Astana – is becoming an increasingly important political. Almaty. p 44]. It is the largest financial. The pace and wide range of transformations that are taking place in Astana have not gone unnoticed by the international community. Astana is generating professional interest among politicians. The city is home to 75% of the country’s commercial banks and a majority of private pension funds and this determines its role as the country’s financial centre. Tselinograd in 1961-1992 and the previous name in 18 the Kazakh spelling of Akmola was returned to the city from 1992 until 1998 and it received the new name. The Kazakh settlement of Karaotkel was located on the site of modern Astana and it was on the northern branch of the Great Silk Road which linked Europe and Asia.5 million.000. Cairo. on the other hand. Berlin. Gdansk. and life expectancy is 66. a steady reduction in natural growth. Seoul and Amman. By 2008. cultural and tourism centre of the country. Chisinau. the wine industry and tobacco cultivation. political scientists and sociologists. Baku. In the past two decades population growth has slowed in Kazakhstan. In 1992 the government began encouraging ethnic Kazakhs who were living abroad to return to Kazakhstan. Kiev. acquiring the image of international business centre. From 2002 natural growth has outpaced a negative migration balance.19% [15. Kazakhstan’s population is multiethnic: there are 131 ethnic groups in the country. as a financial. political and cultural life. Its population was 1.63% and other ethnic groups total 15. while natural growth increased. scientific. On 20 October 1997. Astana became a member of the International Assembly of Capitals and Cities in 2000. beetroot and potato production. Bangkok. and since 2004 Kazakhstan’s population has started growing as a result of natural growth and inward migration. on the one hand. Kazakhstan has a relatively small population – its population density is 6. The city’s northernmost point is at an altitude of 670 metres above the sea level and the southernmost at 970 metres. UNESCO awarded Astana with the title and medal City of Peace in 1999. Dubai. and. a military fortification was founded in the settlement and it swiftly turned into a major trade centre. Warsaw. Astana is the capital of Kazakhstan. The town changed names several times – it was called Akmolinsk until 1961. However.1 people per square kilometre. The city is located on the northern foothills of the Ile (Zailiyskiy) Alatau Mountains between the Ulken Almaty River and Kishi Almaty River.4 million people (2009). Tashkent. Budapest. The city of Almaty was Kazakhstan’s capital from 1929 until 1997.6 sq km. The city’s many research establishments conduct studies practically in all spheres of science and they are united under the umbrella of the National Academy of Sciences.100 people at the beginning of 1998. Tbilisi. Astana. the capital’s population had already exceeded 600. It is the country’s largest transport hub. As one of the world’s largest nations. In 1832. on 6 May 1998. President Nursultan Nazarbayev initiated to move capital from Almaty to Akmola and this decision was passed by the Supreme Soviet of Kazakhstan on 6 July 1994. Ankara.18% of the population.5 years. The capital now has 20 twin cities – Moscow. and Astana is now the centre of the country’s economic. emigration of significant part of the population. has high investment attractiveness and fulfils some of the functions of a capital city. which was set up in 1946. Riga.130. Minsk. 19 . emigration rates gradually slowed. Almaty has the status of a city of national significance. Islamabad. The city covers an area of 287. Vilnius.

the significance of which is acquiring increasingly immense topicality. Kazakhstan. and in modern history. which is why a constructive dialogue between denominations is one of the main ways to achieve stability – both in the country and in the world. as a multicultural country. ground and underground tests had been carried out. The situation was resolved in the following way: the cosmodrome. religion is playing an increasingly noticeable role. nuclear-free zone. Kazakhstan. All types of Soviet-made booster rockets have been launched from this cosmodrome. it also launched the manned spacecraft Vostok. Important decisions aimed at ensuring the peaceful and stable development of Kazakhstan were the closure of the Semipalatinsk nuclear testing ground and the declaration of the country’s territory as a * In 2007 it was renamed the Assembly of Kazakhstan’s People. With the aim of strengthening social stability and interethnic accord in the country. Judaism and Islam. like in the entire world. after the break-up of the USSR. The annual rent is $115m.500 religious organisations. It is expected that it will 21 20 . This historical step has become a great contribution by Kazakhstan to the global process of nuclear disarmament and non-proliferation. the Assembly of Kazakhstan’s Peoples [sic] was set up as an advisory body under the Kazakh president in 1995. inherited the world’s fourth largest nuclear arsenal. Plans to build Kazakhstan’s Baiterek space launching facility at Baikonur were announced in late 2004. Zoroastrism. which was a symbol of the Soviet Union’s geopolitical power. The third Congress of World and Traditional Religions was held in Astana in July 2009. Buddhism. representing 46 denominations.* The assembly aims to draft practical recommendations to consolidate society based on assessment of events and forecasts of the political situation in the country. one which exceeded those of Britain. which are designed to launch manned spacecraft. As a result of joint efforts by government agencies and the Assembly of Kazakhstan’s People the state of interethnic relations is stable and has favourable dynamics. Having voluntarily given up nuclear weapons and built peaceful relations with the rest of the world. which have contaminated the ground over a considerable area and caused irreparable damage to the lives and health of almost half a million Kazakh citizens. along with the ones on Cape Canaveral (the USA) and Jiuquan (China).Kazakhstan today The state takes into account the multiethnic nature of the country’s population. The role and place of religion have significantly changed in modern Kazakh society. It was Baikonur that sent the first satellite and the first man into space. Baikonur is one of the world’s three space launching facilities. The cosmodrome experienced a critical period in 1991-1993 after the break-up of the USSR. which obtained independence in December 1991. and this specifically concerns socio-political processes. along with the town of Leninsk (renamed Baikonyr in December 1995) was leased out to Russia in 1994. which is paid in kind with military and other vehicles and equipment. In Kazakhstan. Voskhod and Soyuz and orbital stations Salyut and Mir. It is through religion that a significant part of the population is trying to revive traditional values and fundamental morals. A further $50m per year is provided for maintaining infrastructure. as well as the Energiya-Buran space system and interplanetary space apparatuses. Kazakhstan has become one of the few new independent countries to develop steadily and without conflict. now acts as a bridge between East and West. The role and place of religion are also changing in the system of social relations. Kazakhstan has ensured favourable conditions for its economic development and prosperity. France and China combined. Christianity. There are about 3. Kazakhstan is an ideal place for this type of meeting because interethnic and inter-religious accord has always received particular attention here. Since then Kazakhstan has fully freed itself from the entire nuclear arsenal and destroyed the entire auxiliary infrastructure such as launching silos and test tunnels at the site. Kazakhstan has for a long time distinguished itself because of the peaceful coexistence of many different ethnic groups practising various religions – Tengrianism. Over 40 years (1949-1989) 450 atmospheric. Another major facility of strategic importance Kazakhstan inherited form the USSR was the world-famous Baikonur space launching site.

Султанова. During this period economic activity was about consuming readily available natural products – cavemen collected wild crops.1.materik. научн. 3. ред. – Алматы: КИСИ при Президенте РК. Ogiz-Tau. which have to bear the main workload of commercial launches now. Russia and Kazakhstan will operate the new facility on a parity basis. but also all countries with transitional economies. A total of 80. Kazakhstan is now an example of successful development among post-Soviet countries. Svinchatka. launches practically all the newest spacecraft that are designed in Russia. Kainar. Shayandy in Atyrau Oblast and other camps. Ulken Ak Maya in central Kazakhstan. Большой Атлас истории и культуры Казахстана / Гл. modern Kazakhstan acts as a stabilising factor in the Central Asian region and serves as a catalyst for its further development. Kudaikol. Sarykamys. гл. Научно-популярное издание. This base. serviced by space troops. and this has been proven by the excavation of cavemen encampments: Borykazgan and Tanirkazgan in the Karatau Mountains. рук. – К. fruit and berries and hunted wild animals. Koi-Kara. energy resources.. Shatpakol.000 people live at the cosmodrome. Байпаков (пред. designed to launch spacecraft and ballistic objects. Kyz-Yemshek. THE HISTORY OF KAZAKH STATEHOOD 1.Ш. – Алматы: АО «АБДИ Компани». Kazakhstan before the 15th Century People settled in Kazakhstan’s territory about one million years ago in the Upper Palaeolithic Age.К.) и др. Peshchera and Novo-Nikolskoye in eastern Kazakhstan.ru CHAPTER 1. проекта – А. ред. Бимендиев. А. 23 22 . – 236 с. Kanai. The former Kazakh SSR was replaced by a rapidly modernising country which has established itself as a sovereign state and an equal member of the international community in its years of independence. Морозов А. 2005. Shoshdaul. Kazakhstan is a leader in terms of economic growth not only among CIS countries. – 880 с. Because of its geopolitical location.717 sq km. Zhaman-Aibat. Zhylan-Kaban.Kazakhstan today launch commercial satellites with Angara rocket boosters. References 1. Ускенбай. 2008. 2. Obalysai. http://www. The space launching site covers an area of 6. Б. Baikonur today is still a complex system. weighed and balanced foreign policy. З. The greatest value of Baikonur for Russia and global space science is that only this cosmodrome is capable of launching manned spacecraft and heavy Proton rockets. – К. Onezhek in Mangistau Oblast. Arystandy and Karaungur in south Kazakhstan.М. ред. Казахстан за годы независимости / Под общ. half of them are Kazakh citizens who service it and its infrastructure.

arrow-heads. darts and spears were linked to hunting. In addition. the brightest and most interesting of these are the Kul Sary camp in western Kazakhstan and Kyzyl-Su in the country’s east. carving and primitive sculptural arts. For example. The sophistication of activity led to further evolution of the social formation – tribes started uniting into tribal unions. harpoons pointed to fishing. language and culture tribes and tribal unions. Preserved and examined monuments of the Palaeolithic Age make it possible to conclude that proto-Kazakh territory (i. this was the time of greater forms of societal organisation: formations of tribes or tribal unions. Archaeologists discovered tools made of different types of rocks. leather. the consuming economic formation was replaced with a producing one. The main products were meat and milk and the main animals were sheep. Examination showed that these were buildings from the last period of the settlement’s existence. consisted of several tribal communities united by blood relationship and the homogenous nature of economic activity. which. which started the switch from the use of stone to the use of metal. Animal husbandry played a considerable part in the lives of Andronians. rectangular and round pestles for crushing and milling grain. There are currently over 500 known Neolithic monuments in Kazakhstan. Excavations unearthed traces of 158 units of housing. Grain grinders.e. sickles and stone hoes were found in all settlements. Animals produced food. needles. The existence of tools to process and polish skins. wool. Archaeologist Mikhail Gryaznov discovered similar burial grounds in western Kazakhstan. Bronze was invented on the Eurasian steppes at the turn of the second to first millennia BC. mines and petroglyphs) which belong to the Andronian culture (the name was derived from the place of the first excavations of a burial ground outside the village of Andronovo near the town of Achinsk in southern Siberia). Studies of Andronian artefacts led to the conclusion that most of their settlements had been built along river banks. Thus. preserving their specifics and distinctive cultural traditions. The main primitive arts were the painting of animals. The adoption of copper tools of labour gave an impetus to the development of crop farming and animal husbandry. the Neolithic Age was a period of tribal communities and the supremacy of collective labour and common ownership of production tools. the territory of present-day Kazakhstan) was part of a zone of formation and development of humans since the early Palaeolithic Age. which. which 24 received its name from the Botai railway station in Akmola Oblast and are dated back to the third to second millennia BC. knives. bones for items and dung fuel. 25 . burial grounds. Socially. The basics of mining. in turn. sowing and ceramic production were then founded. The period that followed was the Eneolithic Age – copper-stone age. daggers. gradually replaced hunting and collection. clay and bones. Functional definitions showed the sophisticated economic mode of the population. Among the Eneolithic monuments discovered in Kazakhstan. developed in close interaction with tribes of neighbouring regions. economic activity. pricks and pierces described the sophisticated nature of the economic life of representatives of the Botai culture. cows and horses. bone elements of bridles and hopple clasps pointed to the beginning of domestication of horses. At that time crop farming and animal husbandry developed and people made the first bows and arrows to make hunting easier. Later Andronian monuments were also found in southern and southeastern Kazakhstan and other parts of Central Asia. Representatives of the Andronian culture are related by origin. Tribes that inhabited Kazakhstan’s territory in the Bronze Age left archaeological monuments (settlements. The History of Kazakh Statehood Hunting influenced the humans’ outlook on the world – a cult of hunting magic emerged and it was based on a belief in establishing power over animals by obtaining their image or symbol – so-called totemism. as a result. researchers single out the monuments from the Botai culture. stone clubs.Kazakhstan today Chapter 1. Ancient people managed – through adding tin to copper – to make metal articles much stronger. The Palaeolithic Age was replaced with the Mesolithic Age and later with the Neolithic Age. Neolithic tribes of Kazakhstan.

Kangyui in the foothills of the Karatau Mountains and Alans. the population of present-day Kazakhstan switched to a nomadic lifestyle. Karasai. Yelshibek. scenes of hunting animals and sacrificing bulls that had been chiselled on smooth rock surfaces. Alekseyevskoye and Yefimovskoye. northern Kyrgyzstan and western China) and the basin of the Syr Darya River. Compositions depicting chariots are very rare. In the first half of the first millennium BC the primitive formation decayed in these areas and. are mainly separate from much earlier petroglyphs. Archaic forms of economic activity and everyday life of the Neolithic Age were replaced with crop farming and animal husbandry. Later. decorated warriors. and Karakuduk burial grounds and settlements and the Tegisken mausoleums.Kazakhstan today Chapter 1. The chief commodity was silk fabrics. in northern Kazakhstan – Borovoye. In the late fourth-early third centuries BC new tribes of Uisuns formed in the territory of present-day Kazakhstan between Lake Balkhash and the foothills of the Tien Shan Mountains. Most petroglyphs were painted in the Bronze Age. The Tamgaly forge is located 170 km north of Almaty. in southern and southeastern Kazakhstan the Tamgaly. Akshatau and Aishrak burial mounds and settlements. in the 15th century BC. but in some cases they complement and even overlap them. a great number of burial grounds were discovered at Tamgaly: stone burial boxes of the Middle and Late Bronze Age. in the first millennium BC. As a result. round or oval. According to ancient Persian sources. grooms and brides. Bronze Age tribes developed distinctive cultures which became the basis of the culture of early nomads of the Iron Age. while Caspians lived on the eastern coast of the Caspian Sea. It was approximately at that time that states such as Sogd and Bactria existed in the southwest of the region with a significant level of culture for the time. temporary camps with settlements. it was replaced with the feudal formation that existed for over 1. in central Kazakhstan the Bylkyldyk. Archaeologists believe the gorge was home to a sanctuary for one of the Andronian tribes. Bota. in eastern Kazakhstan the Kanai. In western Kazakhstan the Kirgeldy burial ground and the settlement of Tasty-Butak were studied. 26 Thus. Information about tribes and tribal unions that inhabited Kazakhstan dates back to the middle of the first millennium BC. women delivering and multi-figure compositions depicting human beings and animals. played a crucial role in the development of the region. The preserved artefacts are images of sun-headed gods. which cut through modern-day Kazakhstan and linked China with Byzantium. These tribes were involved in animal husbandry and crop farming. many towns emerged along the northern path of the route in the basin of the Syr Darya River. At the beginning of the Bronze Age. i. and the primitive communal society started decaying. earth mounds and stones dated between the Early Iron Age and the present age. they bore the name of Saks and occupied Zhetysu (or Semirechiye in southeastern Kazakhstan. Aksu-Ayuly. The Great Silk Road. The chief ethnographic features of the culture that distinguished the Andronian population from others are burial grounds in form of stone fences of different shapes: rectangular. stone and silicon instruments with high-quality items of alloys of different metals. they developed the drive-to-range form of animal husbandry. Apart from petroglyphs. descendants of Sauromats.500 years. The History of Kazakh Statehood Andronians often roamed when pastures around their settlements became exhausted. Andronian monuments have been found and studied almost in all regions of Kazakhstan. while solar signs are widespread.e. Karabiye. Sarykol and Koitas mounds. 27 . shepherds drove animals to remote pastures and drove them back only in autumn. Temir-Astau. Tegibai-Bulak. Another distinctive trait of the Andronians was the production of metal jewellery – earrings. in the Bronze Age of the development of humankind tremendous changes took place in the territory of Kazakhstan. pendants and pieces for head-dresses. Today a very well-known tourism site is the Tamgaly petroglyphs. Pictures painted in the Sak “animal” style. Sauromats inhabited northwestern Kazakhstan. Tribal unions emerged at that time. in the sixth century. Balasar. settled in the western steppes of modern Kazakhstan. Buguly.

conquered one town after another. The best bows and arrows supplied by nomads were very popular. The oasis is now located in South Kazakhstan Oblast’s Otrar District. Otrar was located at the junction of various geographical landscapes and was a trade and transport hub at the time because southbound routes along the Syr Darya (to Shash. who ordered the construction of the mausoleum to Hajji Ahmed Yassaui in Turkestan and the mausoleum to Arystan Baba in the Otrar Oasis in Kazakhstan. 28 The 13th century historian Juvayni described the destruction of the town by the Mongols in 1219 for showing resistance. which covers an area between the two rivers – the Syr Darya and the Amu Darya. the residents killed the trader and offered resistance to the invaders. In the second half of the 14th century the town became the capital of the White Horde. Buzgul-Uzyak. which was located at the confluence of two rivers – the Arys and the Syr Darya. a grandson of Urus Khan. Only after seven days of attack was Sygnak captured and its disobedient population massacred completely. Sogd and further to Merv. Around the ruins of the town there is now a dry steppe. was visited by Armenian King Hethum I and the town was mentioned once. It ends at the foothills of the Karatau range. Turarband and Turar. Sygnak was ruled by khans – Erzen. Sygnak. Altyntobe and Mardan-Kuik have been excavated. Its construction was linked to Tamerlane. moving downstream along the Syr Darya. which is part of the oasis. To the west it is constrained by the Kyzylkum desert. Jochi was accompanied by two local traders – Hasan Hajji and Ali Hajji. many of which remained in ruins. Hasan Hajji was sent to Sygnak to persuade its residents to surrender. fabrics and luxury items. occupied a strategic place. However. a potters’ quarter from the 13th-14th centuries. Nishapur and Rey) and north. baths from the 13th-15th centuries. This place is called the Otrar Oasis. the ancient names of which are Turband.Kazakhstan today Chapter 1. is a plain yet slightly hilly steppe covered with monotonous flora. After the failed fight of Tokhtamysh against Tamerlane the town was captured by Tamerlane’s grandson – Ulugbek. The Otrar Oasis has always occupied a convenient strategic position in southern Kazakhstan. the Volga region. located on the border with the always boiling and restless steppe. his son Mubarek Hajji. It had a mint and a construction boom. was suspended for a long time. Urus Khan and Tokhtamysh. 29 . In the middle of the 13th century. a brick workshop from the 13th-14th centuries and a mosque and palace from the late 14th-15th centuries were unearthed in Otrar. 14th-15th and 11th and 12th centuries. the Black Sea region and the Caucasus) intersected there. which was listed as Sgnakh. Trade was active in noisy eastern markets and the environs were cultivated and watered by canals that took water from the Syr Darya – Ordakent. Kazakh scientists have been conducting archaeological research and excavations in the Otrar Oasis since 1969. Kuiruktobe. In the 14th-18th centuries Sygnak belonged to Kazakhs and was the largest town in the lower streams of the Syr Darya. In the 12th century Sygnak became the capital of the state of Kypchaks. around it. Tyumen-Aryk and others. Kyzyltal. which is why almost all mediaeval Arab and Persian authors mention it. The juma mosque of the late 14th-early 15th centuries was an interesting building in Otrar. Sygnak. but in 1423 he encountered a defeat and was pushed back to the south by troops of Barak Khan. The History of Kazakh Statehood Perhaps the best known ancient town is Otrar. Kok-Mardan. One could only rule the steppe when one controlled Sygnak and the fertile plains cultivated by the farmers. He wrote that Jochi. The ancient towns of Otrar. which meant that they could buy grain. The Great Silk Road ran through Otrar. who tried to gain a foothold on the Syr Darya.and west-bound routes – through Khorezm (to the Aral Sea region. Low-rise hillocks with the ruins of brick buildings and tiles point to the remnants of the architectural constructions which must have been in abundance around Sygnak. The town quarters of the 16th-18th. covered with saxaul and thorny bushes. Life in Syr Darya towns. The Syr Darya’s right bank. No less famous was the town of Sygnak. It was first mentioned in sources in the 10th century.

The first references to the town were made in the sixth-seventh centuries: in 568 Byzantine envoy Zemarch. One of the most interesting facilities of the town is a mediaeval bath. It had a cupola-shape form and walls (5-6 cm wide) of burnt bricks made of crosshatched walls. on his way to Turkic Kagan Dizabul. The eastern side stretched for 390 metres. The ruler of the town lived in the citadel with the walls stretching 145 and 113 metres – he possessed the entire oasis. Arab geographer Makdisi observed that the chief gate of the shahristan had been the eastern gate. Uisuns. which attracted many peaceful animal herders and tillers. black and yellow colours. Water buckets and a bath were found in the rooms. The emergence of the town was helped by favourable conditions – a relatively mild climate.Kazakhstan today Chapter 1. It is conventionally believed that Taraz was founded in 568 when it was first mentioned in Greek written sources. fort walls and many other facilities. The citadel also minted copper coins from the eighth century and. Kanlys and Alans who inhabited in large tracts of Kazakhstan. octagons and trefoils of red. Within the walls there were heat-transmitting pipes laid under the floor and walls which evenly heated the entire premises. Archaeological excavations discovered the artisans’ quarter in ancient Taraz. who crossed Zhetysu in 630. it consisted of five rooms and was decorated with frescoes. The stove was about one metre in diameter and 40 cm tall. fertile soil. including Taraz. the northern for 360 metres. The shahristan represented a rectangular site oriented to all cardinal points. exists and prospers to this day. The most amazing fact is that excavations unearthed five cultural layers of the town and each of them produced many finds (samples of ceramic items of different shapes). later. described some towns in this region. a statue of a horse with a saddle and the entire harness. were found in these. In the eastern part of the shahristan archaeologists discovered a “lock” of gates overlooking the Talas River. secondly. with a total length of 12 metres. The stove was similar to tandoori used now to bake flat bread. A rectangular shape. wells and holes were discovered in several places and many finds were unearthed in them – the handle of a burial sarcophagus in a form of monkey head. items with handles in forms of bird heads and tile pipes with a length of 45 to 70 cm and a diameter of 21 to 23 cm. total area was about 14 ha. A floor was preserved from it as it was made of square tiles of burnt clay. People entered the bath from the north. Samarkand and other Central Asian towns. Archaeologists believe that the ancient Taraz consisted of the traditional parts of Central Asian towns: a citadel and a shahristan (the centre of town). which occupied an important place on the Great Silk Road. Studies of the water pipeline showed that the town was supplied water in three ways: firstly. However. from a water pipeline. and Buddhist pilgrim Suan Jian. Historical sources tell us that it used to be a church which Ismail ibn Ahmed later turned into a mosque. from irrigation ditches and wells (excavations showed that these were numerous). mentioned Taraz. It is worth noting that the third layer produced many Tyurgesh and Muslim coins. the stove 31 . One of the major discoveries was the location of an ancient temple. water was supplied directly from the Talas River (it used to flow nearby town walls). bronze coins. weapons and stockpiles of goods owned by the ruler. The element of the paintings is a geometrical ornament: octagon stars linked via crosses. 30 The most ancient lawyer of Taraz is the fifth – the poorest in terms of finds. A building with an original ceramic stove was preserved inside a clay-wall building. located at the northeastern corner of the citadel. proving the high level of production. Excavations discovered a pipeline. nobility and traders. In some rooms paintings covered the whole wall. rich pastures of its environs. The citadel housed treasures. This sort of heating was popular and was used in the time at Uzbeks baths in Bukhara. pre-gate buildings. Judging by the tandoori and its relatively small size and its complicated configuration (double walls and air-pumping pipe). thirdly. The History of Kazakh Statehood The town of Taraz. The history of the emergence of Taraz is a very ancient one and is intertwined with the histories of the major tribal unions of Saks.

000 Mongols and others were soldiers of Genghis Khan’s vassals – Uighurs and Karluks. like other towns. The town is linked to a tragic event known as the Otrar catastrophe when Genghis Khan sent a trade caravan of several hundreds of camels loaded with leather. was his son Batu. bowls and pialas had. p 6]. Hungary. Batu founded a new Mongol state – the Golden Horde which included the territories of Jochi Ulus – Eastern Desht-e Kypchak. 33 . Most watering vessels. After the death of Genghis Khan this trend increased and the empire fell apart into several independent countries. Taraz. within the building. In September 1219 Genghis Khan started his campaign. The Chagatai Ulus. noisy bazaars. along with geometrical ornaments. Arabic writings – excerpts from the Koran or prayers to God. and robbed their caravan. Ugudei possessed western Mongolia. The Mongols staged en-masse terror and violence and destroyed whole regions and many towns. The Jochi Ulus occupied vast lands to the west of the Irtysh River encompassing the northern part of Zhetysu and the whole of Desht-e Kypchak to the lower Volga region. furs. including the Crimea and the North Caucasus and West Kypchak steppes. During excavations a great number of irrigation and household ceramic items were found. A vessel of Sogdian type with a glossy surface decorated with big ornaments reminiscent of narcissus flowers looking down was also found. jewellery. He destroyed major Russian princedoms and devastated Poland. The numerous finds show that at the time Taraz was a major trade and cultural centre of the Talas valley with busy. Genghis’s descendants tried to turn their realms into independent possessions.000 troops. He seemed to collect information from Muslim traders and defectors about the internal situation and military power of the state of Khorezmshah. shady gardens and magnificent mosques. who died in the same 1227. the lands of Volga Bulgars and further western areas. He conquered western Desht-e Kypchak. Genghis Khan could not forgive such an impudent move and took his troops to wage a war against Central Asia. “Otrar ruler Kypchak KayirKhan Inalchik suspected traders of spying and ordered their killing. but in response his envoys were killed” [1. decayed at the beginning of the 12th century as a result of the Genghis Khan invasion. Genghis Khan through his envoys demanded the extradition of Kaiyr Khan. As a result of a seven-year campaign (1236-1242) Batu took hold of lands west to the Volga River to the lower streams of the Danube. It seems that Genghis Khan paid particular attention to his assaults against Muslim countries. The population of present-day southern Kazakhstan was first to face the Mongol invaders and they offered resolute resistance. southern and southeastern Kazakhstan by the Chagatai Ulus and the northeastern part of Zhetysu by the Ugudei Ulus. Arabic and Persian sources listed about 30 towns in different regions where the population was fully massacred by the Mongols [2. the upper streams of the Irtysh River and the Tarbagatai range. the Czechs and others. Little craft workshops produced household items. silver and gold accompanied by 450 people in summer 1218 to Otrar. p 55]. in addition to previously mentioned areas. The route of the Mongol army’s advancement to Maverannahr lied through the Irtysh River and densely-populated and economically 32 most developed parts of Kazakhstan – through Zhetysu to towns along the Syr Darya. Not far from the stove. unique and original. such as plates. The successor to Jochi. His army was made up of 150. These items were popular in regions far away from Taraz. part of Khorezmshah and western Siberia as well as newly conquered lands in the west.Kazakhstan today Chapter 1. including 111. several of these containers (not decorated) were discovered. occupied East Turkestan and Maverannahr (an area between the Amu Darya and Syr Darya). Genghis Khan’s invasion played an important role in Kazakhstan’s history because its territory became part of the three Mongol Uluses: the largest (steppe) part was ruled by the Jochi Ulus. This demanded high temperatures. The History of Kazakh Statehood was used to bake spherical and conical containers. which were usually of good quality and had good burning.

The History of Kazakh Statehood Russian principalities destroyed by Batu became vassals of the Golden Horde. In the second half of the 15th century Kazakh khanates started to form and this process completed the formation of the Kazakh ethnos in the early 16th century. international relations and established postal services. united previously chaotic tribes. From the second half of the 14th century. Batu’s state was called the Jochi Ulus and it was known as the Golden Horde. Ak Orda had been broken up into several pieces: the Nogai Horde which occupied the area between the Urals Mountains and the Volga and the Uzbek Khanate which stretched from downstream Syr Darya to the Urals and the Tobol River. the Mongols. Obviously. That period included the division of the Kazakh people into three Zhuzes – Great (Uly). which resulted in the formation of the Ak Orda (White Horde) Khanate in the territory of present-day Kazakhstan between the Syr Darya River and the Aral Sea and the Ishim River in the northeast. According to some eastern sources. but by 1260 the Mongol Empire disintegrated into independent uluses. Argyns and Mongol tribes who arrived here in the 13th century. The norms of nomadic lifestyle were regulated by Genghis Khan’s Yasa – a collection of common law adopted for the new conditions. Moreover. tribes that came from the Volga-Urals region. This moment was the beginning of the history of the establishment of Kazakh statehood. The Golden Horde turned out to be an unstable country because it was weakened by internal discord. Under Khan Yesim the process of uniting Kazakh tribes into one state was completed. but remained relatively independent. the Mongol rule encouraged trade. Khan Khak-Nazar (1538-1580). among which the formation named the State of Nomadic Uzbeks by historians was distinguished. In the late 1450s Sultan Dzhanibek and Sultan Kerei. The population of this khanate were Uzbek-Kazakhs. However.2. a brother of Batu. moved to the territory of Mogulistan. Historians single out Khan Kasym (1511-1518). Middle (Orta) and Little (Kishi). By the beginning of the 15th century. and tribes from the disintegrated Siberian Khanate of Kuchum. the destruction of production and the blossom of slave trade. Ever since the emergence of the Kazakh Khanate on Central Asia’s map the word Kazakh has become an ethnonym – the name of a people. 34 1. This khanate reached its zenith under Khan Abulkhair (1429-1468). it is hard to judge the events of that time. From the emergence of the Kazakh Khanate the gradual process of its expansion started because of various Kazakh tribes voluntarily joining. Kypchaks. Argyns. Kanlys. Kereis. with tribes of Alshyns. Kypchaks and Zhalairs. The formation of the Kazakh Khanate was closely linked to the history of both the Golden Horde and Mogulistan. In 1456 Sultan Kerei was elected khan in the territory of present-day southern Kazakhstan – the supreme ruler of Kazakhs. Then under Berke Khan (1256-1266). 35 . following their idea of centralised power. Khan Tauekel (1582-1598) and Khan Yesim (15981628) from among political figures of that period as personalities who played an important role in the formation and strengthening of the Kazakh Khanate.Kazakhstan today Chapter 1. The ethnic composition was made up of ancient tribes of Uisuns. Kazakh Khanate (15th-18th Centuries) The reference point in the establishment of Kazakh statehood is believed to be the emergence of the Kazakh Khanate in 1456. By the 14th-15th centuries most of present-day Kazakhstan was part of the Golden Horde. Many different independent khanates emerged in the territory of Kazakhstan. Initially. the Golden Horde became an independent state. the process of split and later of disintegration of the Golden Horde began. Dulats. Russian princes received titles from the Golden Horde and paid taxes. Konyrats. the Mongol conquest was accompanied by the destruction of towns and large-scale massacres. Its successor Mengu Khan (1266-1280) started minting his own coins. Its capital was Sarai-Batu (near Russia’s Astrakhan) and it was later known as Sarai-Berke. the Golden Horde was subordinated to greater Mongol khans. The south and Zhetysu of Kazakhstan was part of Mogul Stan – the state of Chagatais which was established in 1370 after Tamerlane seized power in Central Asia. As often happens in history.

Carpentry and jewellery also developed at that time. primarily genealogy. blacksmith and shoe-making – also played a particular role in the economy of Kazakhs. The socioeconomic relations that existed in nomadic societies were unique. Suans. That is where the Little Zhuz was formed by three main tribal unions – Alimuly. There were tiny differences in dialects but they could understand one another perfectly. Zhetysu and the areas around the Shu. The nomadic population of the Little Zhuz was linked to the sedentary districts of the Volga and Ural Rivers. The Tores and Kozhas were not part of the traditional Zhuz system and were believed to constitute the steppe aristocracy. Kazakhs grazed their livestock on hills in the summer. Yesil. the Karatau Mountains and the Moyunkum desert. the Yrgyz Rivers and the Mugalzhar Mountains. its human. Zhalairs. Sirgeli. the synonym of the Middle Zhuz was the name of the union of Argyns. mainly. Konyrats and Uaks. Family is still a key notion for Kazakhs today. dresses. One of the earliest forms of ownership was the ownership of livestock. most of which were related to ancient inhabitants of Zhetysu. Dulats. was the territory of a tribal union. Talas. including the Tore and Kozha (Hajji) subgroups. The social organisation of the Kazakhs was above all a combination of different relations. As early as in the 17th century. there was no private ownership of land. Middle classes – kara-suiyek (black-bone) – were the biggest group: these were families which ran their own economic entities. representatives of all three Zhuzes spoke in one language. the Tobol. 36 and the consecutive processing of products of economic activity. The main winter grounds were in the areas around the Syr Darya. not material wellbeing. Winter pastures were in the lower reaches of the Syr Darya and the Ural River and in the meeting point of the Yrgyz and Turgai Rivers and other places. Western Kazakhstan had its own. Another specific district of roaming was to the north of Zhetysu. Kereits. Syr Darya and Arys rivers. even an ethnos. The foundations of the formation of Zhuzes were a merger of certain tribes into tribal unions. furniture and utensils and folklore. Despite the relative distinctiveness. At the same time. There were several groups among the black-bones which had professional and administrative nature. In Russian sources the Great Zhuz was sometimes called the Uisun Horde or the Great Uisun Horde. and this phenomenon helped property and social differentiation deepen. Naimans. Kanlys. These were bis (judges) and 37 . the homeland of the Great Zhuz. until the formation of the Kazakh ethnos. in southern Kazakhstan. and on the plains in winter. Baiuly and Zhetiru. The History of Kazakh Statehood Zhuz is an economically and geographically specific district inhabited by a group of communities which. The Great Zhuz was populated by Uisuns. was a result of the segmentation of one initial family. some scientists believe. The Kozhas were believed to be descendants of first followers of Islam and enjoyed huge authority among Kazakhs. was the defining factor. Routes of roaming had been developed by centuries-long experience. Some Kazakhs were involved in farming crops. Social status. There were also differences in everyday life. Crafts and household trades related to the processing of animal products – tanning. These vast lands were inhabited by the main tribal unions of the Middle Zhuz: Kypchaks. Argyns made up the majority of the Middle Zhuz. while summer grounds were around the Tobol. were the highest social stratum. relatively closed district of winter and summer grounds. In traditional Kazakh society there were three large social groups. military and production resources. However. Nura and Sary-Su rivers in central Kazakhstan. Argyns. in contrast to sedentary societies. Albans. The social relations of the Kazakhs were conditioned by the nomadic lifestyle – domestication of livestock and grazing it on pastures. Major groups. as Kazakhs understood it. is one of the main centres of the ethnogenesis of the forming Kazakh ethnos. while summer ground were along the Ural. Land belonged to a community or tribe. Zhetysu. like now.Kazakhstan today Chapter 1. The word Zhuz means “part” or “side”. The Tores were believed to have descended from Genghis Khan. Ak-suiyek (white-bone) aristocrats. Oshakty and other tribes. They were the main force of a tribe.

achieved a number of victories and relieved the Dzungars of Otrar. Batyr-warlords mainly acted during military campaigns and led militias of tribal unions. Dzungars launched a large-scale assault on the Kazakh Khanate. The Kazakh Khanate was not a centralised state and its political and administrative system was influenced by the nomadic lifestyle and living conditions of the population. khanlyk and some other gifts. This social organisation was characteristic of the Kazakh Khanate. and. After the death of Khan Tauke feudal internal fights worsened. the claimant had the right to perform the barymta (forced seizure of livestock). was to occupy the throne of Kazakh khan. According to Zheti Zhargy. such as imprisonment. but Sultan Abilmambet was elected khan. Little Zhuz Khan Abulkhair became the sardar and led the Kazakh militia to several victories.Kazakhstan today Chapter 1. the chief enemy was the Dzungars or western Mongolian tribes who united into the Dzungarian Khanate. The bis were the most authoritative people in the steppe and they performed administrative and judicial functions. However. so raids stopped for some time. but the principle of collective responsibility of a community was also practised. Volga Kalmyks and Yaitsk Cossacks raided the Kazakh Khanate from the west. The khanate consisted of feudal possessions – uluses. including the well-known battle at Bulanty in the Ulytau foothills in Central Kazakhstan and the Anrakay battle near Lake Alakol. For hearing cases. However. did not exist in Kazakh society. Judicial functions were performed by the bis who also headed tribes. In spring 1723. 38 then the fine was recovered from the entire community. The Dzungarian Khanate strengthened and grew. the institution of slavery in the nomadic society was not developed to such a great extent as in sedentary society and the number of slaves was insignificant. In 1726 the tribal leaders of all three Kazakh Zhuzes held a congress and elected a sardar – the supreme commander-in-chief of united Kazakh troops. or slaves who had practically no rights. The lowest class was the Kuls. This was prompted by an agreement that he. sultans and the khan received remuneration – bilik. Dzungars advanced into the steppe gradually: fierce fights interchanged with truces. with a desire for revenge the Kazakh people managed to consolidate and offer armed resistance. as a result of which the Kazakh Khanate was politically divisive. as a victor over the Dzungars. and this seriously offended Abulkhair. 39 . Siberian Cossack and Bashkirs from the north and Bukhara and Khiva troops from the south. In that period the foreign political situation also worsened. Scientists credit his rule with the establishment of the legal basis of Kazakh society – the Zheti Zhargy (Seven Principles) code of laws. but peaceful periods were short-lived. it also detailed punishment for criminal offences. After receiving a temporary respite. In such cases members of the community exercised the right to punish the guilty person. The History of Kazakh Statehood batyrs (warriors). The judicial system was based on the common law – adapt – and the Muslim law – the sharia. Despite the victories. bis. The Kazakh Khanate reached its highest level of development in the 17th century under Khan Tauke (1687-1817). so there were no prisons. Turkestan and Sairam. which occupied western Zhetysu and the valleys of the Shu and Talas Rivers by the middle of 15th century. led by Khan Abulkhair. Particularly complicated cases were heard by a congress of bis. which were headed by sultans who were descendants of Genghis Khan. A year later Kazakhs. judicial and family relations. The head of state was the khan. Shymkent. For example. if the defendant did not turn up at hearings or did not pay the obligatory kun (price). A measure of punishment. usually criminal liability was extended directly to the guilty person. This code regulated land. This war was remembered as years of great disaster. If the defendant avoided hearings or fulfilling rulings. demanding new resources. military and administrative). who combined supreme powers (civil. Khan Abulkhair called his numerous troops back and returned to his tribal lands in western Kazakhstan. Samarkand and Bukhara. Kazakhs had to retreat and moved away to Khiva. military. Sultans and even the khan took part in hearing some cases.

The Little Zhuz joining Russia was a historically forced step because by the middle of the 18th century. Trade was on the rise. From that time on Kazakhstan’s history was linked to that of the Russian Empire. This was turned down and instead it was suggested that his khanate become a Russian protectorate. The preconditions for Kazakhstan joining the Russian Empire were the strengthening of the latter after it incorporated the Kazan and Astrakhan Khanates and geopolitical considerations of Kazakh khans. starting in the first half of the 18th century and lasting until the 1860s. Rapidly developing Russia was also interested in relations with Kazakhstan in order to ensure security on traditional trade routes through the Kazakh Khanate to Central Asia and build a buffer zone on the southern borders of the empire. there was the danger of the victor’s expansion.3. Russian towns had already emerged in the border areas – Tyumen. On 10 October 1731. after China destroyed Dzungaria.Kazakhstan today Chapter 1. Khan Ablai himself was captured by the Dzungars but 41 40 . was to a lesser extent linked to Russia. In 1730 the Little Zhuz khan. Abulkhair. Empress Anna Ioannovna signed a decree regarding the Little Zhuz voluntarily joining the Russian Empire. In the 16th century Russia was already close to Kazakh tribal lands. then ruled by Khan Ablai. On 19 February 1731. while the Great Zhuz was occupied by the Dzungars and the Kokand Khanate. Abulkhair and a majority of tribal leaders of the Little Zhuz signed a treaty and took an oath on the inviolability of the treaty. In 1741-1742. In 1740 the Middle Zhuz also became a Russian protectorate. the Dzungars again raided the lands of the Middle and Little Zhuzes. as a result of which the Little and Middle Zhuzes adopted Russian citizenship. Tobolsk and Tomsk. Kazakhstan in the Russian Empire Kazakhstan’s accession into the Russian Empire was conducted in several phases. and the Russian Empire’s influence grew in Kazakh lands. but the involvement of Russian troops forced them to withdraw. Abulkhair’s separate treaty became the beginning of the constantly growing influence of Russia on the lives of Kazakhs. 1. It is worth noting that even though the Middle Zhuz. The History of Kazakh Statehood This started another fight for power and the Kazakh Khanate was split. proposed that the Russian government set up a military union.

The History of Kazakh Statehood was released a year later following mediation by Orenburg Governor Ivan Neplyuyev. In 1822. Emperor Alexander II signed a number of additional documents: the Statute on Governing the Zhetysu and Syrdarya Oblasts and the Statute on Governing Turgai. led by Isatai Taimanov and Makhambet Utemisov. Ural. The movement. some Kazakh tribes of the Little Zhuz. It was caused by discontent against the rapid colonisation of lands and the strengthening and expansion of military border lines and the shrinking life expanses of nomads. After a respite. Lands suitable for farming were regularly seized for building Cossack villages. who lost the last remnants of independence. This was of concern to the tsarist government. This discontent helped Khan Kenesary unite a great number of Kazakh tribes. and the vertical power pyramid – khan-sultans-tribal leaders – fell into pieces because each tribal leader tried to independently agree with border and central authorities. After adopting the Russian protectorate the significance of the khan power declined. Srym Datov had to move to lands governed by the Khiva Khanate. Several tribes with their leaders joined the rebellion. They urged people to seize lands of the khan and the Urals Cossack Troops. In 1787. this increased internal confrontation and open disobedience to the Russian administration and increased the number of attacks on border posts. was the impoverishment of the majority of Kazakhs as a result of shortages of pastures. led by Srym Datov. the leaders of the three Kazakh zhuzes elected Kenesary Kasymov khan and declared the revival of the one 43 . As a result.Kazakhstan today Chapter 1. As a result of the weakening of the Kazakh khans’ power and the remoteness of new regions of Russia. In 1818. supported by tribal leader Isatai Taimanov and poet Makhambet Utemisov. In November 1837. the tsarist government decided to send punitive expeditions of Urals and Astrakhan Cossacks along with regiments loyal to Khan Dzhangir. Only by 1797 had Russia managed to pacify the majority of Kazakh tribes and the rebellion subsided. As a result. In the following 30 years (sometimes under pressure. which were pressed by the Khiva Khanate. This provoked spontaneous revolts. This decision was officially fixed by Emperor Paul I in 1801.500 Kazakh households set up the vassal Bukei (Interior) Horde. when 7. The longest and largest rebellion in the 19th century was the one led by Khan Kenesary Kasymov between 1837 and 1844 and covered the entire territory of the Middle Zhuz and parts of the Little and Great Zhuzes. headed by Sultan Bukei. Isatai Taimanov and Makhambet Utemisov managed to attract additional forces and regrouped. The main cause of the rebellion. several tribes of the Great Zhuz announced the adoption of Russian protectorate. The Semirechiye Cossack Troops were established from Cossacks moved from Siberia in the territory of Zhetysu which was regained from the Kokand Khanate. an expedition made up of regular troops. and the lands of the Great Zhuz fell under the Kokand Khanate. which formally became a Russian protectorate. In 1836 a rebellion formed in the Bukei Horde and lasted until 1838. Akmola and Semipalatinsk Oblasts. Dispersed groups of rebels managed to break through to the left bank of the Ural River and regroup. Despite many calls by rebellion leaders to solve the problem in a lawful manner. sometimes voluntarily) most tribes of the Great Zhuz became Russian subjects. were allowed to cross the Ural River and settle in trans-Volga regions. In September 1841. was directly linked to the tsarist government’s attempts to regulate the internal lives of dependent Kazakh tribes. part of the lands of the Middle Zhuz. 42 The continued incorporation of Kazakhstan into the Russian Empire was not conducted without conflict. and they were not distributed evenly. Bukei Horde became part of Astrakhan Province. Urals and Orenburg Cossacks were sent to the other side of the Ural River and the rebels were destroyed on 12 July 1838. freezing trade with Central Asia in the 1790s. This period was also signified by the emergence of the national liberation movement of Kazakhs. cross the Ural River and seize livestock. Military actions started in spring 1838 with the siege and burning of the Akmola fort and rebels moved towards the Turgai River. the rebels were defeated at Tas-Tyube.

Kenesary banned obstacles to and raids on trade caravans which paid good taxes. Russians numbered about 700. Shortages of farmland in the European part of Russia and the possibility of receiving free land encouraged Russian peasants to move to the Urals region. As a result. the local population borrowed elements of animal husbandry such as making hay because nomads grazed their animals in pastures in winter. cabbages. Tsar Nicholas I’s response to these projects (“there will not be two monarchies in one kingdom”) was straightforward – the conflict was solved militarily in 1843. Migration bureaucrats used this right to seize not only pastures from 45 . Migrant peasants started growing their usual crops: winter wheat. The regions were divided into districts. Diplomatic correspondence was established and Russian. while ten to 15 volosts formed a district. According to the Statute on Governing the Turkestan Territory. and in 1850 Kazakhstan was divided into four regions with capitals in Uralsk. who were ranked as Grade 12 officials. Turgai. Migrant peasants were offered over 3 million sq m of land each. and villages were headed by village leaders. melons and gourds and crafts. Zhana-Kurgan. Volosts were headed by sultans. peasants from Russian and Ukrainian provinces were moved to Turkestan. This process was sped up during famines and with the start of the Stolypin reforms. tomatoes and beetroot.000 people. and one in ten was involved in industry. corn. Orenburg Governor-General Perovsky in particular. whose rights 44 were similar to village perfects. Ural and Semipalatinsk Oblasts. and in December 1910 the tsarist government allowed the migration directorate to seize nomads’ lands and give them to migrants. some Russian officials responsible for relations with Asia. Aiming to improve the khanate’s economic situation. In the late 19th century. volosts and villages. clover. Over a half of them lived in Semirechiye and Syrdarya Oblasts. which was often accompanied by die-offs. Turgai. started advocating talks and proposing a semi-autonomous unit similar to the Bukei Horde. flax. By 1916 Russians accounted for a quarter and a tenth of the local population respectively. In August 1841 rebels laid siege Kokand fortresses in Sozak. In addition to Cossacks and regular troops. Some victories over the Kokand Khanate helped expand Kenesary’s army.Kazakhstan today Chapter 1. the administrative management of Kazakh lands by the tsarist government continued. rye. were appointed to strengthen the government’s positions. Entering into conflict with them. More than half of the migrants were involved in agriculture. Famines in central regions of Russia prompted new waves of migration. sultans loyal to the tsarist government launched a campaign against Kenesary. Caught between a rock and a hard place. The bi court system was preserved with slight changes. only “Russian subjects of Christian faith from the rural folk” were allowed to settle. whose administrative powers were preserved by the government. Between 1906 and 1912 over 438. The History of Kazakh Statehood Kazakh Khanate. Akmolinsk and Semipalatinsk. potatoes. then governed from Kokand. It should be noted that the governance of vast territories of Central Asia was complicated because there were shortages of resources for the establishment of administrations and skilled bureaucrats. judicial and military-police structures. which were very rare in Turkestan. Siberia and Turkestan. The census conducted in 1897 showed that out of 8 million people living in Turkestan. Meanwhile. Kenesary and the remnants of troops loyal to him were destroyed in a battle on Lake Issyk-Kul. There was some distribution of labour: the local population was involved in animal husbandry and grew cotton and watermelons. oats. Bukhara and Khiva envoys were received. Ak-Mechet and Zhulek. Kenesary fled to the lands of the Kyrgyz in the foothills of Alatau.000 households of peasants moved to Akmola. Tens of thousands moved to Turkestan Territory in 19051906. Senior sultans. A village had between 50 and 70 houses and ten to 12 villages were grouped into one volost. Rebels were first driven to the lands of the Great Zhuz and Siberian Cossack troops forced them over the Ili River. while Russian settlers supplied bread. The situation in the steppe stabilised in that period. vegetables and were involved in dairy production. a quarter in administrative. In addition.

Turgai and Ural Oblasts with more than 10 million of their multiethnic populations. Kazakhstan and Russia formed a single administrative and economic entity. including Syrdarya. In 1916. the construction of railways helped develop trade both in Kazakhstan and abroad. Today it is precisely these two ethnic groups that constitute a reliable foundation for stability in Kazakhstan’s multiethnic society. Russian settlers and local Kazakhs 46 were actively involved in economic and cultural relations that grew into friendship between the peoples. The History of Kazakh Statehood Kazakhs but also winter grounds with cultivated land. Until then the Kazakh population had not been conscripted to serve in the army. Akmola. The rebellion was more organised in Turgai Oblast where largescale military actions covered the entire central Kazakhstan. Discontent accumulated because of land grabs for building villages for Cossacks and migrants. At the turn of the centuries. 250. according to the decree. Semirechiye. The mining. the fates of the Kazakh and Russian peoples were intertwined. the government issued a decree mobilising male populations of Kazakhstan and other Central Asian regions aged between 19 and 43 “to work to build fortified facilities and do military service on the frontlines”. 47 . The tsarist government was forced to send regular troops to rebel areas and the rebellion was crushed by spring 1917. 60% to 70% of which were Kazakhs. The rebellion. gold and coal sectors developed rapidly. rapid impoverishment because of horse and livestock sales for the needs of the fighting army combined with catastrophic rates of inflation burst the situation.000 people from Steppe Territory were called up to the army. was caused by the crushing of a rally in Khodzhent on 4 July 1916. All this combined with other factors led to the greatest rebellion in Kazakhstan’s history – a national liberation rebellion led by Amangeldy Imanov in 1916. The development of capitalist production formed multiethnic working classes.Kazakhstan today Chapter 1. Land confiscations heavily damaged the nomadic lifestyle of Kazakhs because under the disguise of excess land the government seized pastures. Industrial production in the region started to take roots at the beginning of the 20th century. Rebels laid siege to the regional capital – Turgai. As a result. It was officially reported that about 20 rallies were held in Syrdarya Oblast in July alone. which covered most of Turkestan. Semipalatinsk.000 people from Turkestan Territory and 230. Within the empire.

Semipalatinsk Oblast with Pavlodar. The evolution of opinions held by Bukeikhanov and his comrades between the beginning of the century and 1917 led to the establishment of the Alash party in July 1917 and the subsequent national liberation struggle. Vladimir Lenin. tried to re-establish the Kazakh statehood in 1917 as the Alash autonomy. In his speech. was played at an expanded meeting of Kazrevcom on 27 October 1919. Semipalatinsk. Alash became a national democratic political organisation. The conference’s resolution On the Union of Kazakh Oblasts stressed the need to unite all Kazakh oblasts into the Kazakh Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (ASSR). The expanded Kazrevcom meeting decided to convene an AllKazakh Conference of Soviets to discuss the problem of uniting the Kazakh people. By that time Kazakhstan already had its national cultural elite. Ust-Kamenogorsk. despite this. A significant role in the consolidation of Kazakh lands (governed by the Kazakh Revolutionary Committee (Kazrevcom) and other administrative-territorial units) and the future uniting of the Kazakh republic. 2) the residents of some regions which earlier opposed the Soviet government should be pardoned. 49 . After the Soviet government established itself throughout Kazakhstan. the chairman of the Soviet of People’s Commissars (SPC) of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (RSFSR). in the election processes and spoke in favour of personal immunity. Based on this draft. Zaisan and Karakaraly Districts. Kazakhstan in the USSR The next stage in the development of Kazakh statehood started during 1917. regardless of their origin. This meeting discussed the issue of convening an All-Kazakh Congress of Soviets to solve the problem of uniting the Kazakh people into one Soviet autonomous state that had great political significance. Fergana and Trans-Caspian Oblasts and Alash party members. signed a decree On the Establishment of the Kyrgyz (Kazakh) Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic. Akhmet Baitursynov made a number of proposals: 1) the Soviet government should give the Kazakh people the right to self-government. Their chief demand was to unite all lands of the Kazakh people within 48 the Alash (Kazakh) autonomy. The History of Kazakh Statehood 1. This conference was held in Aktobe on 3-11 January 1920 and gathered 250 delegates from Turgai. the leaders of the Alash party had to recognise it as the central government of all ethnic minorities of Russia. and the chairman of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee of Soviets (ACEC). As a result.Kazakhstan today Chapter 1. Syrdarya. Alash members had consistent views on issues of democratising the government system. which would join the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. Nevertheless. Alash’s main idea was to achieve Kazakhstan’s economic and political independence and adopt capitalistic relations in the country.4. Ural. Alash members fought for Kazakhstan’s independence using legitimate political methods. Semirechiye. freedom of speech. the following oblasts and districts became part of the Kyrgyz (Kazakh) Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic: . The main ideological difference between the Alash party and Bolsheviks concerned issues surrounding the class repressive nature of the state. the Kazakh cultural elite clearly realised the basic differences between their national interests and the interests and views of the Russian liberals. Akmola. led by Alikhan Bukeikhanov at the beginning of the 20th century. In accordance with the decree. as early as 1917. mainly made up of representatives of national intelligentsia. they set a number of demands for the central Soviet government to ensure the independence of the Alash autonomy to a certain extent. In their platform they advocated the presidential form of government that was the most advanced at the time and a democratic nature of elections to ensure the participation of all people. or restore the territorial integrity that was destroyed during colonisation. The Kazakh public. Mikhail Kalinin. who put forward ideas for independent development. freedom of the press and freedom of assembly. a critical year for the country.

000 people.871. inhabited by Kazakhs. Ilbish.Ural Oblast with Ural. The tenth extraordinary All-Kazakh Congress of Soviets. Moreover. Temir and Guryev (presently Atyrau) Districts. The spheres of powers of the Kazakh SSR and its supreme bodies of government system were clearly defined. The small private holdings of peasants and craftsmen were allowed if they were based on personal labour and excluded the exploitation of someone else’s labour.3% of the Turkestan ASSR. Socialist property had two forms – state and collective-cooperative. Deputies of the Supreme Soviet were elected by popular vote for four years. a new constitution was drafted for the Kazakh SSR.5% of the Khorezm People’s Republic. were still part of the Turkestan ASSR.5% of the Bukhara People’s Republic and 3. while the Kazakh districts of former Semirechiye and Syrdarya Oblasts that were part of the Turkestan ASSR were transferred to the Kazakh ASSR. the Kyrgyz ASSR as part of the RSFSR. and its population by 1. The reform of the republic’s administrative division had been completed by the beginning of 1925. . Yrgyz and Turgai Districts. According to official statistics from 1920. . In accordance with this constitution. the Kazakh SSR was declared a socialist state of workers and peasants.Mangistau District of Trans-Caspian Oblast and Fourth and Fifth Volosts of Krasnovodsk District of Trans-Caspian Oblast. secretary and 15 51 . The national-state demarcation of multiethnic Central Asia was conducted in 1924 and it focused on the Turkestan ASSR.Kazakhstan today Chapter 1.000 sq km. It also recognised single Soviet citizenship and citizenship of the Kazakh SSR. Akmola. Aktobe.046. At the same time.Turgai Oblast with Kostanai. the Tajik ASSR as part of the Uzbek SSR. The constitution also defined the republic’s administrative-territorial organisation and specified that the territory of the Kazakh SSR could not be changed without its consent. which was part of Astrakhan Province.Akmola Oblast with Atbasar.468. Based on and in line with the Soviet Constitution. the Kazakh ASSR covered an area of 1. southern regions. and Sinomor Volost and areas of First and Second Coastal Districts of Astrakhan Province. significant numbers of Kazakhs were dispersed in the territories of the Khorezm and Bukhara People’s Republics: Kazakhs accounted for 19. two deputy chairmen. held in late March 1937.239 sq km and its population was 5. 1. .the Bukei Horde. The territory of the Kazakh ASSR increased by 700. The economic basis of the Kazakh SSR was the socialist economic system and the socialist form of ownership of production tools and means. inhabited by members of the Adai tribe. It resulted in the establishment of the Uzbek SSR and Turkmen SSR. the Kazakh ASSR was transformed into a Soviet republic and this was enshrined in the Soviet Constitution of 1936. . It was stated that the economic life of the Kazakh SSR was defined and directed by a state economic plan. The supreme body of government of the Kazakh SSR was the Supreme Soviet which was recognised as the only legislative body. In 1936. after the capital city of the 50 Kazakh ASSR was moved from Orenburg to Ak-Mechet (presentday Kyzylorda). Kokshetau and Petropavlovsk Districts and parts of Omsk District. Ethnic Kazakhs accounted for over 46% of the total population. the Khorezm and Bukhara People’s Republics. and Orenburg and the districts around it had been transferred to the RSFSR. which consisted of 11 chapters. It also declared that the entire power belonged to workers represented by the Soviets of Workers’ Deputies. populated by Kazakhs. The 1936 constitution also declared that the Kazakh SSR voluntarily united with other Soviet republics into the USSR – a union state and had the right to freely leave the USSR. The declaration of the Kazakh ASSR became a major event in ensuring the territorial integrity of Kazakh Soviet statehood. adopted the Constitution of the Kazakh SSR. Thus. The History of Kazakh Statehood . by 1925 almost all Kazakh lands had been united into one republic and the task of ensuring its territorial integrity had been completed. The Supreme Soviet elected the presidium of the Supreme Soviet consisting of a chairman.000 people.

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members. The Presidium of the Supreme Soviet was given the right to issue legislative decrees and was delegated other powers. Deputies of the Supreme Soviet enjoyed parliamentary immunity. The constitution also defined the structure of the central bodies of government. The supreme executive body of government of the Kazakh SSR was the Soviet of People’s Commissars which was responsible for and accountable to the Supreme Soviet and its presidium. The Soviet of People’s Commissars set up people’s commissariats: union-republican and republican. The local bodies of government were the Soviets of Workers’ Deputies which were elected by popular vote for two years. Soviets elected executive committees which were executive bodies. The forms of the work of the Soviets, the frequency of their convocation, the structure of executive committees and spheres of their activities were also defined. The structure of local executive bodies was always changing, which entailed constitutional amendments. At the end of 1936, the Kazakh SSR was divided into eight oblasts, and then later in January 1938, a further three oblasts – Kyzylorda, Pavlodar and Guryev (Atyrau) – were created; 18 months later, in October 1939, another three oblasts – Semipalatinsk, Zhambyl and Akmola – were formed. In March 1944, Kokshetau Oblast was separated from North Kazakhstan Oblast and Taldykorgan Oblast was separated from Almaty Oblast. As a result, by 1945 there were 16 regions in the Kazakh SSR. Taldykorgan Oblast and Akmola Oblast were abolished (in 1959 and 1960 respectively), and then in 1962 three territories were created within the Kazakh SSR – West Kazakhstan Territory (which included Aktobe, Ural (present-day West Kazakhstan Oblast) and Guryev (Atyrau) Oblasts) with its administrative centre in Aktobe; South Kazakhstan Territory (which included Kyzylorda, Shymkent (present-day South Kazakhstan Oblast) and Zhambyl Oblasts) with the capital in Shymkent; and Tselinny Territory (which included Kostanai, North Kazakhstan, Kokshetau (whose territory was divided between the North Kazakhstan and Akmola Oblasts in 1999), Pavlodar and Tselinograd (which was restored in 1961, present-day Akmola Oblast) Oblasts) with its centre in Tselinograd (present-day Astana).
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West Kazakhstan Oblast was then renamed Ural Oblast, and South Kazakhstan Oblast was renamed Shymkent Oblast. This was done to prevent confusion between these regions with the freshly established territories. On 20 April 1978 the Supreme Soviet of the Kazakh SSR adopted a new constitution. Its preamble stated that a society of genuinely free people of labour in which the prosperity and culture of people had been steadily improving had been created. It was claimed that the Kazakh SSR was an equal republic of the USSR, which united all peoples and ethnic groups. These provisions of the constitution did not reflect the real state of Kazakh society in which discontent was brewing over the worsening living conditions, the Communist Party’s diktat and the absence of any hope for the republic’s sovereignty. This discontent was openly manifested in Almaty in December 1986. The constitution of the Kazakh SSR had 10 chapters and was modelled on the Soviet constitution of 1977. One of its chapters discussed the national-state and administrative-territorial system of the Kazakh SSR. In contrast to the constitution of 1937, the new constitution had a chapter which extended the sovereign rights of the republic to an extent. For example, one of its articles said that the Kazakh SSR was involved in solving issues that fell into the jurisdiction of the USSR in the Supreme Soviet of the USSR, the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR, the Soviet government and other bodies of the USSR. The Kazakh SSR had the right to establish relations with foreign countries, conclude treaties with them and exchange diplomatic and consular representatives with them and take part in the activities of international organisations. It is worth noting that the Kazakh SSR could exercise these legal provisions only under monitoring by central bodies. The republic’s government system was described in the constitution’s fifth chapter which contained provisions about the Supreme Soviet, its structure, lawmaking activities, the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet and their powers. It was stated that the Supreme Soviet of the Kazakh SSR had powers to solve all issues that the Soviet constitution delegated to a union republic. This meant that in this
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constitution, like in previous constitutions, the principle of division of powers between branches of power was not enshrined. Legally the Supreme Soviet was able to solve all issues which fell under the jurisdiction of the Kazakh SSR. However, this was just a formal provision because all those issues were preliminarily solved by the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CC CPSU) and only after that were they legally adopted. The constitution meticulously regulated the status of the Council of Ministers – the government – as the supreme executive body of government. The Council of Ministers united and directed the work of union republican and republican ministries and state committees. In 1986 there was an event that was a harbinger of Kazakhstan’s independence. On 16 December 1986, the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Kazakhstan held its fifth plenum and discussed the sole organisational issue – the replacement of the political figure who had governed the republic for no less than a quarter of a century: First Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Kazakhstan, Dinmukhamed Kunayev. Gennady Kolbin, who had previously been first secretary of the Ulyanovsk Oblast Committee of the Communist Party and had won Mikhail Gorbachev’s approval for actively pursuing an anti-alcohol campaign in Russia’s Ulyanovsk Oblast, became the new head of Kazakhstan. No adviser of Gorbachev in the Kremlin, neither he himself, had analysed the situation at the time and could not predict people’s reaction to an unknown gaining power. Kremlin functionaries continued to regard Kazakhstan as their patrimony. Even the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Kazakhstan was not informed about the new appointment. On 16 December first a small group of working and student youth staged a protest action in Almaty against the Communist Party’s decision. The rally was peaceful and was of a political nature, but it did not call for the overthrow of the constitutional system nor attack any other ethnic group. On the second day when the number of protesters reached several thousand, mainly students, Moscow ordered the Blizzard-86 operation, aimed at dispersing protesters using army units, special-task troops, police and the KGB.
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The December 1986 events, which shocked the entire world, proved that a new generation whose national consciousness was above all defined by the honour of its people had emerged in the Kazakh lands. It was the first time in 70 years the younger generation had delivered a worthy rebuff to all the hardships experienced by Kazakhstan because of the administrative-command and often simply violent policy of the central government in Moscow. This was the beginning of the movement towards democracy as part of perestroika across the entire Soviet Union. Perestroika gave rise to some democratisation of society. For example, the election legislation was amended in 1989. With the aim of ensuring the representation of public organisations it was decided to allow them to elect a quarter of all members of the Supreme Soviet. Public organisations elected members of the Supreme Soviet at their congresses and republican conferences. Another novelty was that members of the Supreme Soviet were relieved of their jobs for the duration of their parliamentary mandate. This was the first, small step towards parliamentarianism. From 1987, production fell in the USSR, and, as a consequence, in Kazakhstan too. At the same time, the party-government system became increasingly paralysed. In 1989 the 15th congress of the Communist Party of Kazakhstan relieved Gennady Kolbin of his post of first secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Kazakhstan and replaced him with Nursultan Nazarbayev. Nursultan Nazarbayev began to implement his own programme. The priority objectives for the new head of Kazakhstan were: firstly, strengthening social stability, civil and interethnic accord; secondly, drafting and conducting a programme of economic reforms; thirdly, carefully defining and dividing powers between republican and central government bodies. In accordance with the Kazakh SSR Law On the Adoption of the Post of the President of the Kazakh SSR and Making Amendments and Addenda to the Constitution of the Kazakh SSR of 24 April 1990, the 1978 constitution acquired a new chapter – “President of the Kazakh SSR” which stipulated provisions on the status and powers of president. That same day Nursultan Nazarbayev was elected the
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republic’s first president by a decision by the Supreme Soviet of Kazakhstan. After the break-up of the Soviet Union and the emergence of an independent, sovereign state, the Constitution of the Kazakh SSR stopped corresponding to new political, economic, social and ideological realities. In October 1990 the Declaration of State Sovereignty of the Kazakh SSR was adopted. The Constitutional Law On State Independence of the Republic of Kazakhstan, adopted on 16 December 1991, blocked the effect of the Constitution of the Kazakh SSR of 1978 without abolishing it legally, because the basic provisions for the new independent state and the corresponding new conceptual ideas and principles required the adoption of a new constitution.

1.5. Declaration of State Sovereignty of the Kazakh SSR and the Constitutional Law On State Independence of the Republic of Kazakhstan Against the background of a general political decline in June 1989, a plenum of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Kazakhstan nominated Nursultan Nazarbayev for the post of the head of the Communist Party of Kazakhstan. After that by the Supreme Soviet’s decision he was elected first president of the Kazakh SSR. Later, at the end of 1991, the popular election of the first president was held for the first time in Kazakhstan’s history. Nursultan Nazarbayev became president with the majority of the vote. In the early 1990s, prior to the adoption of the country’s new constitution, the Constitution of the Kazakh SSR, adopted in 1978, was still formally in effect. It is fair to note that this constitution had many provisions that were democratic in nature, even though it was adopted in Soviet times. It clearly reflected the unity of power and the fact that it belonged to the people. However, this constitution, which was adopted in politically stagnant times, was adapted to the then situation: the extremely high levels of concentration of government functions in the hands of the Communist Party. From 1990 onwards a number of fundamental amendments were made to the constitution, taking into account the situation that emerged. The first legislative act of this sort was the Declaration Of State Sovereignty of the Kazakh SSR adopted on 25 October 1990. Thus, in keeping with existing political realities, Kazakhstan adopted the declaration of state sovereignty in October 1990, which was later enshrined in the Constitutional Law On State Independence of the Republic of Kazakhstan in 1991. These legislative acts defined the realisation of Kazakhstan’s place and role as an independent democratic and lawful state, as an equal and fully-fledged member of the international community. The Declaration of State Sovereignty of the Kazakh SSR started the real, practical fulfilment of the country’s state sovereignty. The Kazakhs, first as part of the RSFSR and then of the USSR, had prac57

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On this day the Supreme Soviet. the declaration became the first fundamental legislative act of the young country that began a preparatory stage of the further development of the country’s state and legal system in order to shape full state independence. confirming the Kazakh nation’s right to self-determination. The History of Kazakh Statehood tically no state sovereignty and. First is the principle of the supremacy of the country’s constitution and laws on Kazakhstan’s territory and the country’s right to suspend on its territory the effect of acts violating the country’s sovereign rights and constitution. solemnly declared the country’s state independence and stated that 58 it exercised full power in its territory. Having developed the key ideas of the declaration of state sovereignty. The second legislative act of this scale was the Constitutional Law On State Independence of the Republic of Kazakhstan. adopted on 16 December 1991. democratic and lawful state. expressing the people’s will. in 1993. socio-cultural and political development. The united people are made up by the Kazakh nation along with citizens of the 59 . In essence. This day is now marked as national holiday – the Independence Day of the Republic of Kazakhstan every year. specified in the constitutional law. literally days after the declaration of independence – on 20 December 1991. the constitutional law clearly defined the future aspects of the country’s economic. the national anthem and state decorations. the national emblem. which recognised the legal status of the country as a sovereign state. were not able to act as a real entity of international law. The historical significance of the declaration is. it proclaimed the country’s right to its share in the common union property. recognised “the united people of Kazakhstan” as the only source of government in the country. Kazakhstan very quickly created all the necessary attributes of statehood. above all. exercising full power on its territory. The economic system. The constitutional law also established the state’s policy for the creation of an independent economic system with its own financial and credit. the Republican Guard. legal. stressing the principle of the territorial integrity of Kazakhstan and declaring the system of division of power as the most important principle of the country’s functioning as a democratic and lawful state. the country adopted the Law On Citizenship of the Republic of Kazakhstan. Second is the principle of Kazakhstan’s exclusive ownership of national wealth in its territory. has strengthened through the creation of financial and credit. This historical document declared three fundamental norms that have considerably expanded Kazakhstan’s sovereign rights. that it has given real meaning to the country’s state sovereignty and reminded Kazakhstan of its own statehood with its centuries-old history. internal and border troops. independently defining and pursuing its domestic and foreign policy. The significance of these provisions is proven by the fact that they have since been fixed and further developed in the provisions of the current Constitution of the Republic of Kazakhstan. Third is Kazakhstan’s right to act as an independent entity in international relations and define its foreign policy to pursue its own interests. the tenge. culture and established state and legal traditions. tax and customs institutions and the adoption of the country’s national currency. The constitutional law declared Kazakhstan as an independent. Moreover. as a result. Based on the provisions of the constitutional law. Single citizenship of Kazakhstan was adopted for the first time. It also endorsed symbols of the state – the national flag. the constitutional law univocally set that the Republic of Kazakhstan would build its relations with all countries on the principles of international law as required from an independent state. tax and customs policy based on a plurality of form of ownership. foreign exchange and gold reserves of the USSR. the constitutional law. Taking into account this institution. The declaration fixed the inviolability and integrity of Kazakhstan’s territory and defined the country as an entity of the international law. In addition. In order to protect the country’s independence and territorial integrity the constitutional law envisaged creating Kazakhstan’s own power-wielding structures – the armed forces. In addition.Kazakhstan today Chapter 1. including in the diamond.

The History of Kazakh Statehood country of all ethnic groups. The break-up of the Soviet Union made former members of it sovereign. The popular election of the first president in Kazakhstan’s history was held on 1 December 1991. The Election of the First President of the Republic of Kazakhstan (December 1991) In September 1989. whose provisions were recognised in the country’s territory only if they did not contradict the Constitutional Law On State Independence of the Republic of Kazakhstan [3]. As the Soviet government’s influence was being eroded. protect sovereignty and bring the state out of the political and economic crisis. security and territorial integrity of the country.Kazakhstan today Chapter 1. united with the Kazakh nation by commonness of historical fate. and represented Kazakhstan in the international arena. The country’s constitution. In essence. The phase of active dismantling of the totalitarian socialist system and freeing society from the communist ideology and switching to a market economy started. The adoption of these provisions bore uncompromising nature between the continuing diktat of the Soviet central bodies and the country’s desire to expand its sovereignty. Nursultan Nazarbayev was elected the country’s president with 98. the president of the Kazakh SSR was given great powers: he acted as the guarantor of observation of human rights and liberties in the country.7% of the votes. 61 60 . this law had become Kazakhstan’s temporary constitution when its independence was being established.6. The president. amendments were made to the 1978 constitution to adopt the institution of the highest executive post – the chairman of the Supreme Soviet of the Kazakh SSR and later in April 1990 – the institution of the president of the Kazakh SSR. Following the adoption of this constitutional law Kazakhstan was recognised by many countries as a fully-fledged member of the international community and all necessary international legal mechanisms were created for cooperation. took measures to protect sovereignty. was entrusted with functions directly linked to both legislative and highest executive activities. The adoption of the institution of presidency in Kazakhstan made it possible to fill the vacuum of power which was created as the Communist Party lost its governing functions. observation of the constitution and laws. As a result of the election. the Declaration of State Sovereignty of the Kazakh SSR and the Constitutional Law On State Independence of the Republic of Kazakhstan have laid the constitutional and legal foundation of the independent state. 1. and the country acquired the voting right to take part in solving regional and global issues. On 2 March 1992 Kazakhstan became a fully-fledged member of the United Nations. As an independent state Kazakhstan is a full member of many international and regional institutions and organisations. The events that followed have shown that in the situation of the rapid disintegration of one union state. The main result of the adoption of the Constitutional Law On State Independence of the Republic of Kazakhstan was the international recognition of Kazakhstan. All this demanded historical decisions that defined the future of Kazakhstan. as the highest government official. the adoption of the post of president was a timely step taken by the country’s leaders that helped establish real independence. which defined the strategic aspects of the development of society and the state. was drafted and endorsed by the people and a new legal system was created on the basis of the constitutional law. In terms of legal force it even exceeded the then Basic Law of the Kazakh SSR and legislative acts of the Soviet Union. common hopes and concerns. The fundamental human rights and liberties and mechanisms of protecting human rights and freedoms were enshrined in legislation. the strengthening of its reputation on a regional and global scale and an increase in the country’s status. Thus.

There had not even been any signs of basics of a market economy – one of the main economic preconditions for the establishments of democracy. However. caused debates and instability in power. The situation was complicated by economic disintegration in the former Soviet Union. which drafted the constitution. on the other. All this was reflected during the public discussion of the wording if the first constitution. As the act of supreme legal power it created the foundation for building national state independence. In this situation the focus had to be first of all placed on the stabilisation and development of the country’s economy. and the emergence of many new hotbeds of interethnic tension in the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) became practically an inevitable attribute of the commonwealth’s post-Soviet development. in its legislative branch because of a failure to solve the issue of the division of powers between the legislative and executive branches. The Supreme Soviet of the 12th convocation voting to dissolve itself in December 1993 and the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Kazakhstan’s declaration of the Supreme Soviet of the Republic of Kazakhstan. democratic state. It is worth noting that that work on drafting the constitution was conducted in the situation of political discords that existed in society. the problem of settling payments. There are plenty of examples. and. which mean that all the elements of the state system had to be transposed to the features of an independent. as illegitimate (following a civil lawsuit) led to a constitutional crisis and the need to draft a new constitution. identifying the nature of the new statehood. The country’s Supreme Soviet. hyperinflation and a slump in living standards. a slump in production. elected on 7 March 1994. Its provisions related to the status of the Russian language. The History of Kazakh Statehood 1.7. This means that the key aspect of the state’s domestic policy at that stage was the drafting and public discussion of the first Constitution of the Republic of Kazakhstan. and finally.Kazakhstan today Chapter 1. high inflation. citizenship and the form of Kazakh statehood prompted heat debates. 63 . The First Constitution of the Republic of Kazakhstan of 1993 After the declaration of sovereignty Kazakhstan faced a number of complex tasks: strengthening independence. historically developed democratic traditions and experience of functioning democratic institutions. a growth in unemployment and falling living standards. interethnic problems worsened in almost all post-Soviet countries. the country lacked its own. private ownership of land and citizenship issue became the subject of increasing attention and factors of social tension. As a result of the break-up of the USSR. and this was bound to influence the situation in multiethnic Kazakhstan. ensuring political stability and national security. language problems. And in the first years of independence the 70-year-long experience of the Soviet past considerably hindered the acceleration of new democratic values in the mass consciousness of the country’s population. no-one has disproved the theory that the “economic base defines the ideological superstructure”. On the one hand. It was high time the country’s 62 Basic Law was brought in line with the new political and economic realities in the country. The country was encountering a deep socioeconomic crisis. In reality. as the act of supreme legal power Kazakhstan’s first constitution was ambiguous. the consequences of which were: the collapse of industry. Some fundamental formulations in the constitution that related to the nature of statehood. The firs constitution of sovereign Kazakhstan was adopted on 28 January 1993 at the ninth session of the Supreme Council of the Republic of Kazakhstan of the 12th convocation. Moreover. the constitution helped to conduct market and democratic reforms. Kazakhstan was forced to resolve these issues under very complicated conditions. laid the foundation for Kazakh statehood. even if they longed to do so.

“We. the highest government official. Being unitary means single citizenship. but with its entire structure and technical-legal basis and a system of clear-cut state. As a result.000 proposals and remarks had been made on it. is national referendums and free elections (Item 2 of Article 3 of the constitution).” The constitution defines Kazakhstan as a unitary and indivisible state. realising our high levels of responsibility before the present and future generations. through national referendums and free elections or may be delegated by the people to government bodies. united by a common historic fate. Item 1 of Article 1 of the new constitution states that “the Republic of Kazakhstan proclaims itself a democratic. the people of Kazakhstan. take part in national referendums. enshrined in the Constitution of the Republic of Kazakhstan. elect and be elected to government and local government bodies. one of the fundamental principles of the Constitution of the Republic of Kazakhstan is the principle of people’s sovereignty. The Kazakh constitution legally supports a strong presidential form of government.” In this way Kazakhstan chose a democratic model for state development. legal and social 64 state whose highest values are an individual.” These are the exact words the Basic Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan begins with. considering ourselves a peace-loving and civil society. The text of the new Constitution of the Republic of Kazakhstan was endorsed in a national referendum on 30 August 1995. and. In total. is a universal principle which has a value that is common to all humankind and inherent to the majority of modern democratic constitutions. rights and freedoms. adopt this constitution.100 amendments and addenda were made to 55 articles. Kazakhstan’s constitution – not declaratively.e. there were about 33. his life. equality and concord. From this constitutional provision it derives that state power in the country comes from the people and it belongs to them and may be exercised by them directly. political and legal categories – creates firm preconditions for building and developing a modern state and a social market economy. secular. The general outline of Kazakhstan’s statehood is clearly defined in Article 1 of the Basic Law. legal and social state whose highest values are an individual. the combination of representational and direct democracy. according to the constitution. This means: Kazakh citizens have the right to take part in governing the state directly and through their representatives. According to the constitution. 65 . secular. At the same time. The chief characteristic of a unitary state is that it does not have any national-state or autonomous entities. the legal provisions of which met the needs of the state construction in the country.000 public discussions of the draft constitution in Kazakhstan and they involved over 3 million citizens. which says that “the Republic of Kazakhstan proclaims itself a democratic. The History of Kazakh Statehood 1. proceeding from our sovereign right. dedicated to the ideals of freedom. as a result. his life. wishing to take a worthy place in the international community.8. which was preceded by wide discussions over the new provisions of the constitution among the Kazakh public and foreign experts. legislation and a system of government. The principle of the people’s full power. creating a state on the indigenous Kazakh land. Kazakhstan is a republic with the presidential form of government. over 1. increasing the role of political parties and public associations in the political system of society. which means that the only source of government in Kazakhstan is its people. a sustainable and consistent institution of strong state power has been created in the country. i.Kazakhstan today Chapter 1. where the president is the head of state. The Constitution of the Republic of Kazakhstan of 30 August 1995 The recognition of the Supreme Soviet in March 1994 as illegitimate prompted the need to adopt a new constitution for the country. the adoption of democratic rules for forming representative bodies and democratic procedures for their activities. The supreme direct expression of the people’s power. who defines the key aspects of the country’s domestic and foreign policy. As part of this campaign almost 30. rights and freedoms.

the national emblem and the national anthem.9. loyalty and hope. Proceeding from the situation that had emerged and taking into account the views of all social strata of the country’s population (which demanded that the president take measures to avoid a split in society). the height of the intentions of the people of Kazakhstan. which was followed by the delegation of legislative functions to the country’s president and the constitutional crisis in March 1995. it symbolises hidden talents and creative power of the young state. Nursultan Nazarbayev agreed to hold the referendum. The eagle embodies generosity and vision. This preconditioned a crisis of the representative branch of power in 1993-1994. In heraldry blue and its shades correspond to human traits such as honesty. free-willed and independent spirit of multiethnic sovereign Kazakhstan. open to all peoples and nations who respect the proud. The national flag is a piece of rectangular cloth of sky-blue colour with a picture of a golden sun with a soaring golden eagle in the centre and a vertical strip with a national ornament. The main element of the national emblem is the shanyrak – the chief element of the yurt which is the basis of its dome.3%. embellishing the country’s emblem. The History of Kazakh Statehood 1. The horned horse in many cultures is regarded as a holy animal. The sky-blue colour of the flag symbolises sky. surrounded in sunrays. and the president announced that developing democracy was the main objective. unresolved problems related to private property. It came from ancient times and today. education and reforms in the agricultural and legislation spheres had to find their solutions in the new constitution. and symbolises the breadth of the soul of the steppe people. The referendum held on 29 April 1995. Constitutional reforms. resulted in 95. a referendum became the most rational solution to the constitutional crisis and an instrument in reforming the Kazakh political system. On the edges of the emblem are the heads of winged horses-unicorns.4% of voters favouring the extension of the president’s term. The design of the national flag of the Republic of Kazakhstan was proposed by artist Shaken Niyazbekov. native home.Kazakhstan today Chapter 1.10. The sky-blue background of the national flag aims to stress the purity and goodness of intentions of the people of Kazakhstan in their aspirations to a new statehood and the adherence of the people of Kazakhstan to the good and noble idea of unity. had a turnout of 91. Winged horses. This means that the shanyrak on the national emblem symbolises Kazakhstan as a common home for all ethnic groups who reside there. according to official information. the Assembly of Kazakhstan’s People adopted a resolution on the need to hold a national referendum on extending the term of the Kazakh president until 1 December 2000. The national emblem was designed by Zhandarbek Malibekov and Shot-Aman Ualikhanov. The golden sun. The National Referendum on Extending the Term of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan The 1993 constitution did not envisage a procedure for resolving critical situations between the branches of power. are 67 66 . On 25 March 1995. 1. embracing the shanyrak on the emblem. The referendum results enabled President Nazarbayev to continue radical reforms. For Kazakhs the shanyrak is a symbol of the tribal nest. In the situation of the absence of a legislative branch. embodies peace and wealth. which. The State Symbols of the Republic of Kazakhstan The official distinctive symbols of Kazakhstan and symbols of its sovereignty are the national flag. with the aim of preserving unity in society and preventing the polarisation of the political and social situation in the country.

filling you. 2. written by a group of Kazakh poets about Kazakhstan obtaining its independence. It was written in 1956. 68 Our glory has been known. On 7 January 2006. nurtured by you. Is my country! Since ancient times. Three of them Muzafar Alimbayev. The epic of courage. Кременецкая Ю. and about 750 applications were received. – с. 2001. The rules for playing the national anthem were also adopted. Guarding their honour. thus showing the confidence of the people of Kazakhstan in a bright future. which was held dear and close to the heart of every citizen of Kazakhstan (it was composed by composers Mukan Tulebayev. Сатпаева. at official events people have to stand up and put their right hand on the left side of their chests when the national anthem is played. Монгольское нашествие на территории Казахстана и его последствия: Сборник статей. my people. and its lyrics were amended by President Nursultan Nazarbayev. Unity suits My independent country. the popular song Menin Kazakstanym (My Kazakhstan) was made Kazakhstan’s national anthem. 55. The winners of the competition were four authors who worked together. The national anthem of Kazakhstan has a compelling history. A competition for the tune and lyrics of a new national anthem of Kazakhstan was announced in early 1992. Meeting the new era As an old friend Our country is happy This is my country! Refrain: My country. my Kazakhstan! References 1. I am your song. nurtured by you. my people. Until 2006. – с. On the steppe is a golden grain.Kazakhstan today Chapter 1. Strong are my Kazakh people! Refrain: My country. it used the tune of the anthem of the Kazakh SSR and lyrics. К. During discussions the public favoured preserving the tune of the previous anthem. You are my country. Кан Г. – 14 декабря 2002. История Казахстана. 3. – Алматы: Алматыкiтап. Хитрин Ю. I am your flower. I am your song. 2007. The lyrics of the national anthem In the sky is a golden sun. You are my country. Великий день нашей истории // Казахстанская правда. 6. filling you. I am your flower. – Алматы: КазНПУ им. my Kazakhstan! A path has been opened for new generations By my vast country. The national anthem was translated from Kazakh into Russian by Bakhyt Kairbekov. The History of Kazakh Statehood elevating it to the sky. Kadyr Myrzaliyev and Tumanbai Moldagaliyev are well-known young-generation poets who were joined by the young talented poetess Zhadyra Daribayeva. The national anthem is another state symbol in which the tune and lyrics express the same sense as the national flag and the national emblem. 69 . Now. Yevgeny Brusilovsky and Latif Khamidi in 1944).

– Алматы. 7. Жестокий век. – Алматы. – Алма-Ата: Жазушы.tarsu. Nursultan Nazarbayev. Байпаков К. 1985. 2007. 1997. Летопись трех тысячелетий. 1996.Kazakhstan today Chapter 2..Г. – № 11. 70 71 .Н.Г.К.1.ukg. Аяган Б. Валиханова. Кан Г.). Султанов Б. – Алматы: Институт истории и этнологии им. Кумеков Б. within the political and constitutional field. The first president of Kazakhstan. Кляшторный С. 12.kz Chapter 2.ru 13. 8. История Казахстана.И. 10. Бурханов К. Султанов Т. The efficiency of the presidential form of government in Kazakhstan is that the Kazakh president. Пищулина К. the president is a symbol and guarantor of the unity of the people and government. Исмагамбетов Т. Domestic Policy 4.А. – Алматы: КИСИ при Президенте РК. Ш. 9.В. История Казахстана с древнейших времен до наших дней: очерки.. – Алматы. Развитие казахского истеблишмента в конце XIX – середине XX веков // Центральная Азия и Кавказ. 11. http ://каzhistory. http://www.. Морозов А.Е. DOMESTIC POLICY 2. is not a passive observer.kz 14. 2007.А. 2005. the inviolability of the constitution and human rights and liberties of the citizens (Article 40). Constitutional provisions regarding the president of Kazakhstan show that he is an active and authoritative participant of state and political processes [1]. Калашников И. Казахстан за годы независимости. 1992. Kazakh President Nursultan Nazarbayev In keeping with the current Constitution of the Republic of Kazakhstan.. http://www. 5. История Казахстана в средние века. Современная политическая история Казахстана (1985-2006 гг. 6. – Алма-Ата: Рауан. 1993.. Казахстан. was born in the village of Shamalgan in Almaty Oblast’s Kaskelen District on 6 July 1940.М.

switched to the semi-presidential model. 1973 – 1977 – secretary of the Party Committee of the Karaganda Metal Combine. 1989 – 1991 – first secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Kazakhstan. 24 April 1990 – the Supreme Soviet of the Republic of Kazakhstan creates the post of president of the Republic (after the creation of the post of president of the USSR on 14 March 1990) and Nursultan Nazarbayev is elected the first president in Kazakhstan’s history. The Strategy of Resources-Saving and a Switch to Market. The Strategy of Establishment and Development of Kazakhstan as Sovereign State. formally remaining parliamentary. Without the Right and the Left. in essence. The basic model of the presidential power that was set up then is still in force. good organiser and talented orator. the creation of the post of president played a particular role in the subsequent transformation of the entire political system of Kazakhstan. and Market and Socioeconomic Development. 1979 – 1984 – secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Kazakhstan. Domestic Policy He is a doctor of economics and a full member of the National Academy of Sciences of Kazakhstan. the Academy of Social Sciences of Russia and an honorary member of the Belarusian Academy of Science. 1977 – 1979 – secretary. The Eurasian Union: Ideas. the presidential form of government became a political reality which was legally formulated in the 1995 constitution*. In the Flow of History. Mr Nazarbayev is an honorary professor of the al-Farabi Kazakh National University and an honorary professor of the Lomonosov Moscow State University. From this moment his personal history is inviolably linked to the history of the whole nation. where during the first decade of his work he had claimed acknowledgement and respect of his colleagues as a responsible worker. It should be noted that it has demonstrated a fairly high level of efficiency and largely helped the country to overcome * The clearness of the choice in favour of the strong presidential power and its correspondence to the people’s expectations were confirmed by a referendum on 30 August 1995 (89% of “yes” votes). 1994-1997. It is worth noting that at the initial stage the presidential power was limited: the president was a figurehead without real power. Some of his books. 1984 – 1989 – chairman of the Council of Ministers of the Kazakh SSR. the International Engineering Academy. 1967 – graduates from the Higher Technical Educational Establishment under the Karaganda Metal Combine. In accordance with this document. the president was declared the head of state with the highest executive powers. 73 . in which Nursultan Nazarbayev received 98. 1969 – 1973 – performs functions at the Communist Party and the All-Union Young Leninist Communist League (VLKSM) in Temirtau in Karaganda Oblast. 72 April 1990 – December 1991 – experts regard this as the period of institutionalising the presidential form of government in Kazakhstan [1]. second secretary of the Karaganda Oblast Party Committee. 1960 – the president begins his professional career at the Karaganda Metal Combine. Nevertheless.Kazakhstan today Chapter 2. The Epicentre of Peace. The further development of the institution of the presidential power in Kazakhstan was linked to the adoption of the Kazakh SSR Law On Improving the Structure of Government in the Kazakh SSR and Adopting Amendments and Addenda to the Constitution (Basic Law) of the Kazakh SSR on 20 November 1990 and amendments and addenda to it on 25 June 1991. such as The Steel Profile of Kazakhstan. February – April 1990 – chairman of the Supreme Soviet of the Kazakh SSR [2]. and The Critical Decade have become bestsellers which have been widely translated abroad. The final legitimisation of the institution of presidency took place after the first presidential election on 1 December 1991. Practice and Prospects. which meant the adoption of the new constitution. for example On the Threshold of the 21 Century. After the voluntary dissolution of the Supreme Council at the end of 1993 and delegation of legislative rights to the president before it.7% of the vote. With the adoption of this law the government system of Kazakhstan. President Nazarbayev is the author of more than ten books.

the president proposed his own vision of this model: “The need to build Kazakh statehood and a market economy from scratch and develop a liberal political system for the first time in our history demanded the bold consolidation of society. The unity and stability achieved under the leadership of President Nazarbayev was a deliberate political decision taken by the majority of the country’s population. When considering the first president’s role in Kazakhstan’s modern history. It is no great exaggeration to say that the history of the establishment of independent Kazakhstan’s statehood was fully personified in and revolved around one person. Ukraine under Leonid Kuchma or Kyrgyzstan under * On 4 December 2005. meets the people’s expectations [5. a solution to the problem of the division of branches of power and the decentralisation of power. p 11] Since 2007. which has always helped mobilise and consolidate political and economic elites during reforms that were crucial for the country. including Kazakhstan’s current leadership in Central Asia. the president’s Nur Otan party won a vast majority in the parliamentary and local elections. ** On 18 August 2007. speaking at a joint session of parliament’s chambers. in this case stability acts as an en-masse demand and the policy of stability. However. adopted by the Kazakh president. p 11]. demanded the consolidation of efforts in solving these. objective needs for further development demanded the country’s government actively search for an efficient model for the state and political system. 74 This was all prompted by the consensus nature of the political course. Kazakh society was consolidated around the strong and dynamic leader with a clear vision of prospects of further development. pp 45-50]. p 8]. repeatedly confirmed in elections. in turn. when the country’s constitution was amended. However. Nursultan Nazarbayev once said that “having chosen the model of a presidential republic. concentrating the efforts of elite groups on solving important political problems. Nursultan Nazarbayev was re-elected president of Kazakhstan with 91. when all important parameters of the process of modernising the country have been defined and we realise that it is irreversible.15% of the vote. we have brought the country out of the post-Soviet economic and political chaos” [4. I propose to choose a way of changing the constitution in which the country remains presidential but with the considerable expansion of parliament’s powers. a politician on a global scale who has had successful experience in economic and social reforms: Kazakhstan’s indisputable success is not only and not that much about oil or the elements of the periodical table hidden in the depths of the steppe. Analysts point to the fact that “in Kazakhstan the presidential form of government is one of the fundamental organisational conditions for the stability of the entire political system of the country. today. the basis on which the mechanisms of self-regulation of branches of power develop and their organic integration into the structure of public life and deep strata of social culture. 10]. It is no accident that Russian experts on Kazakhstan and Central Asia consider Kazakhstan’s phenomenon inseparably from the Nazarbayev factor. including the final choice of a presidential or parliamentary form of government. That is why I assumed all responsibility for what is taking place in the country and this was a must. for example in the mid-1990s (the economic crisis) or at the beginning of the 2000s (the elites crisis) [5. as was the case. Another advantage of the head of state’s policy was the ability to conduct large-scale reforms with minimum conflict. the institution of presidency has preserved its role as an element stabilising the system. not least. In short. 75 . As a result. Domestic Policy the serious crisis of the 1990s [3. The presidential power in Kazakhstan embodies not only the strength of government but also. Successes achieved during the years of independence. are largely linked to Mr Nazarbayev’s personality.Kazakhstan today Chapter 2. there is sense in redistributing some duties and responsibilities between the president and parliament. it is necessary to note the special role personalities play in the political process in modern Kazakhstan and the post-Soviet space in general. inherent to Kazakh society” [1]. including the presidential election in 2005* and the parliamentary election in 2007**. On 16 May 2007. This will transform our country’s model of government from presidential into presidential-parliamentary.” [4. Kazakhstan under Mr Nazarbayev has to a greater extent managed to become a fully-fledged state than Georgia under Eduard Shevardnadze. which. pursued by Mr Nazarbayev.

on the contrary. pp 14-15]. the president stressed: “We have adopted Kazakhstan’s development strategy for decades to come. In Kazakhstan. Domestic Policy Askar Akayev. taking the strategy’s priorities into account. or the Kazakhstan-2030 Strategy. The most important fact is that this successfully functioning statehood has been built not in the context of high oil prices. Developing and strengthening the national security system Strengthening national security is one of the necessary mechanisms that ensure the stable and sustainable formation of any state. and our experience in turning it into the country’s real successes have made us confident in our own strength and we have become convinced of the correctness of the path we have chosen. At the first stage of our development we had to focus on institutional construction and the solution of immediate macroeconomic problems. to draft our own strategy” [7]. After the adoption of the Kazakhstan-2030 Strategy the development of 76 77 . For example. p 117]. 161] 2. The Kazakhstan-2030 Strategy is based on seven long-term priorities: 1. in his address Through the Crisis to Renewal and Development. has met a much more important objective for his country.” [7] Russian political analysts. is a shining example of the most successful postSoviet statehood. President Nazarbayev noted at the time that “it is now important to thoroughly comprehend our situation and analyse our development from the point of view of international experience and compare the degree of implementation of our reforms and formation of new institutions with the best international experience. This strategy was presented by the head of state in 1997 in his first State-of-the-Nation Address Prosperity. Political analyst Yury Solozobov notes: “Nursultan Nazarbayev.Kazakhstan today Chapter 2. pp 159. only after that. from the basis of the almost total collapse of the economy in the early 1990s… Kazakhstan. have concluded that “in the end. made on 6 March 2009. whereas as early as 1998 we managed to look at longer-term prospects. Security and Improvement in the Wellbeing of All People of Kazakhstan until 2030. whatever fervent Kazakh opposition members say about him.2. Experts claim that this is an obvious historical fact [6. the country’s wellbeing lies in the implementation of the Kazakhstan-2030 Strategy” [6. The Kazakhstan-2030 Strategy The defining factor of Kazakhstan’s development was strategic planning. a new national state has been built on a great territory with a small multiethnic population. I am deeply convinced.” [6. It is no less important to soberly analyse our strengths and weaknesses and. closely watching our successes. but. All of the president’s state-of-the-nation addresses that followed set the main aspects of the country’s domestic and foreign policy.

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Kazakhstan’s national security system acquired strategic importance and purpose. Our country has now created a comprehensive and efficient security system which takes into account its social, economic and military-political aspects. Kazakhstan’s security system is based on laws and special programmes, including the 1998 Law On National Security, the Strategy for National Security in 2006-2010; the Military Doctrine; and the Blueprints of Military Reforms. The latter programmes resulted in Kazakhstan launching the process of creating a professional army, capable of defending the country from foreign aggression. In issues of ensuring national security Kazakhstan sticks to a multi-vector policy with singling out strategic partners. This foreign political course has led to Kazakhstan’s present membership of various systems of collective security which make it possible to maintain the balance between interests of global powers in its territory, ensuring the basics of the strength of our state’s national security. These systems of collective security are the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe, the CIS Collective Security Treaty Organisation and the Conference on Interaction and Confidence-Building Measures in Asia (CICA)*. Kazakhstan’s active involvement in these international organisations coincided with the beginning of the implementation of the Kazakhstan-2030 Strategy. 2. Ensuring domestic political stability and the consolidation of society Ensuring domestic political stability is a key priority for Kazakhstan’s development until 2030. Implementing this priority will only be possible when the following main components, defined in the strategy, exist:
* It was Kazakh President Nursultan Nazarbayev’s idea to establish the CICA belongs to. Kazakhstan is an active member of the organisation, proven by its summits held in Kazakhstan. This organisation is expected to occupy an important place in creating a system of collective security in Asia. That Kazakhstan initiated and took part in its creation shows the maturity of our state and its ability to fulfil a considerable role in the context of Asian and global security.

- equal opportunities for all citizens of the country; - the removal of interethnic contradictions and the quality of rights for all ethnic groups; - the reduction of the gap between the rich and the needy; - the solution of social problems and rural problems; - the development of all forms of communications between people; - the strengthening of mutual respect, tolerance and trusted relations between different denominations [7]. As a result, our formula for domestic political stability can be presented as the sum of two components – social stability and interethnic stability. And now we can proudly say that his formula is working successfully. This is also stressed by Russian experts: “Kazakhstan is the most successful country in the CIS. It is the only country to efficiently modernise the economy while preserving social and interethnic stability.” [6, p 187] In the 2008 state-of-the-nation address the head of state noted that “over the past 16 years of independence we have designed our own model of ensuring social stability, interethnic accord, building Kazakh identity and Kazakh patriotism. This is our Kazakh know-how, which we are proud of and have to carefully preserve” [8]. 3. Economic growth based on an open market economy with high levels of foreign investment The development of private initiative and business, active foreign trade and the attraction of investment in the country’s economy are important preconditions for ensuring sustainable economic growth in Kazakhstan. In terms of this indicator, for the past few years Kazakhstan has been on a par with rapidly developing countries, such as China, India and ASEAN countries. Our country’s economic growth was based on the implementation of the first, preparatory, stage of the Kazakhstan-2030 Strategy in 1998-2000. Kazakhstan then built the basis for the fulfilment of all
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the provisions of this programme. The present stage aims at the postcrisis development of the economy with high rates of development of oil and gas fields as the basis of reviving the oil and gas sector and increasing budget revenue. The rapid development of the oil and gas sector brought Kazakhstan out of the economic crisis in the 1990s. Since 2000 Kazakhstan has been firmly moving along a path of intensive economic development that coincided with the second stage of the Kazakhstan-2030 Strategy. The second stage was intended to be carried out between 2001 and 2010. This phase organically continues the previous policy based on high economic growth rates, macroeconomic stability and the creation of conditions for a switch to sustainable economic growth model. Generally, since the beginning of the strategy, Kazakhstan’s GDP has increased five-fold, and its foreign exchange and gold reserves now exceed $40bn. We can say that Kazakhstan is now, despite the consequences of the global economic crisis, ready and able to make a new qualitative breakthrough in its economic development: “We have all the necessary resources and experience to withstand the global crisis… We will overcome all the difficulties and make our Kazakhstan a strong, prosperous and respected state in the world.” [9] 4. The health, education and wellbeing of all of Kazakhstan’s people The issue of the social wellbeing of Kazakhs has always been a priority for state policy. Kazakhstan has adopted a comprehensive approach to their solution, envisaging increasing not only the living standards of the population but also developing human capital and improving the quality of life. In the healthcare sphere the priorities of the state policy are to improve the quality of medical services offered to the population and assist the healthy lifestyle of citizens. This means that emphasis is placed not on the treatment of diseases but their prevention. These priorities are being implemented as part of the programme of reforming and developing the healthcare sphere in Kazakhstan in
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2005-2010, which aims to build an efficient system of medical services that meets the modern needs of the population. The programme has already produced good results. For example, Kazakhstan has managed to considerably improve medical services for the population, medical and demographic indicators of births, deaths, natural population growth and stabilise the maternal and infant mortality, and decrease the occurrences of diseases caused by poor living conditions. The Code of the Republic of Kazakhstan On the Health of the People and the Healthcare System has been drafted and submitted for the Mazhilis’s consideration. Since Kazakhstan aims to build a knowledge-based economy, the government is paying particular attention to the education sphere. Reforms have been conducted in secondary and higher education to ensure access to education for all the citizens of the country, especially young people, and international standards are being adopted. Funding for the education sphere has constantly been increased, teachers’ salaries have also been increased and school infrastructure has been improved. By 2008 public spending on education had increased by 6.4 times between 2000 and 2008 and it will have grown by almost 10 times by 2011. Kazakhstan was the first country in the CIS to computerise its schools. A new mechanism of enrolling students through comprehensive university entrance tests has been adopted. A multilevel system of training specialists which meets international standard classifications of specialities has been introduced. A market of education services based on the mechanism of the multi-channel funding of universities has emerged. Special focus has been placed on the social protection of the population. Government spending on social security and assistance totalled 566.5 billion tenge in 2008, up by 22.5% from 2007. Growing funding for social programmes has made it possible to increase social allowances for all categories of recipients. For example, the minimum pension paid under the solidarity system is 12,700 tenge, the average pension is 18,400 tenge and the maximum pension is 26,700 tenge. The average size of pension has almost doubled in the past five years.
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The central budget makes timely monthly social payments to 4.3 million people, or about a third of the country’s population. In addition, local authorities allocated 1.1 billion tenge for target social support; 1.7 billion tenge for child allowances and 3.6 billion tenge for housing support. 5. The efficient use and development of energy resources It is no exaggeration to say that the main locomotive that has the pulled other sectors of Kazakhstan’s economy is the oil and gas sector. That is why the development of energy resources was singled out by the president as one of the strategy’s long-term priorities. Moreover, the growing Kazakh economy is demanding more spending on energy, and so Kazakhstan needs to adopt energy-saving technologies and develop alternative and traditional sources of energy. In order to achieve this aim the Law On Energy-Saving was adopted on 25 December 1997 which, along with the industrial and innovation development strategy, gave rise to the process of intensive development of energy-saving technologies and of alternative sources of energy. The further development of our energy potential has necessitated the solution of a number of important problems, the principle of which is to ensure the outstripping development of deep refining and quick entry for products with high added value to the international market. Aside from this, the key aspect of the work on energy potential is to diversify and ensure stable energy routes to global markets. Kazakhstan bears and realises its significant responsibility to maintain an energy balance and security on the global scale.

opment of transit transport corridors. The main objective in this sphere is to create a rational transport network integrated into the international transport system that ensures access to global markets. To this end Kazakhstan has adopted the Blueprint to Develop International Transport Corridors and the Transport Strategy until 2015, which envisages running 80 investment projects worth about $30bn from different sources of funding. The building of transport corridors with relevant infrastructure, mainly telecommunications, is playing a significant role in the development of Kazakhstan’s transit transport potential. Fibre optic lines have been built along the North-South and East-West transport corridors. Kazakhstan plans to build a national information superhighway which will become the shortest telecommunications bridge between Europe and China, Japan and Asia-Pacific. In addition, as part of the strategy the country is carrying out comprehensive work to develop the telecoms sector. At the end of 2005, the KazSat telecommunications and broadcasting satellite was launched. The satellite has become a good basis for the development of broadcasting systems and fixed satellite services in Kazakhstan. The number of Internet users in Kazakhstan has exceeded 2 million people and is expected to increase to 3.5 million people in 2010. The wide use of the Internet in schools makes it possible to use innovative, above all interactive, methods of teaching. 7. The formation of professional government One of the long-term priorities of government building in Kazakhstan is, undoubtedly, to improve the efficiency of the government system and build a professional government. This aim demanded the reformation of the civil service and the principles of its work and the creation of a body of professional civil servants. During the entire period that the Kazakhstan-2030 Strategy has been being implemented a lot has been achieved. For example, the Law On the Civil Service, adopted on 23 July 1999, laid the foundations to optimise and improve the quality of government. Other
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6. The development of infrastructure, particularly transport and telecommunications Kazakhstan’s favourable location between the developed countries of East and West and the lack of access to open sea requires the devel82

The commission completed its work on 19 March 2007. Kazakhstan had to make a choice. it was clearly seen that the pace of political reforms was far behind that of economic reforms. On Fighting Corruption.3. In addition. 85 84 . freezing the process of political modernisation. On Administrative Procedures. opted for the second scenario. a functioning civil society.e. In other words. International organisations and experts admit that Kazakhstan has brought its legislation and procedures in the civil service significantly in line with modern international standards. The second scenario required that Kazakhstan undergo a stage of political liberalisation and gradually switch to the classic model of democracy with a balance between branches of power. The legislative basis of this process has been laid in the Laws On the Civil Service. the authorities. The 2007 constitutional reform increased the local government capabilities: local legislative bodies were given powers of local self-government. issued on 20 March 2006. as well as the Code of Honour of Civil Servants that was adopted. i. citizens’ involvement in political decision-making and other attributes.Kazakhstan today Chapter 2. it was necessary to identify the main problems that hindered political modernisation and find solutions to these. The country and the government faced the problem of finding a formula for stability. the permanent conference on drafting proposals on further democratisation and the development of civil society. which. Domestic Policy steps in this direction were the creation of the Agency for the Civil Service in September 1998. the adoption of the Rules for Re-training and Improving Qualifications of Civil Servants (on 11 October 2004) and the adoption of a testing system for applicants for jobs in the civil service. It was for this reason that various platforms for dialogue were created in the country: first. to their credit. The 2007 Constitutional Reform The need for political reforms first emerged in the second half of the 1990s. For the country’s sustainable development. The first scenario meant the preservation of the political situation as it was. The state commission faced a complex task: to draft a strategy for political reforms that would make liberal democratic transformations in the country systematic and irreversible and find a compromise on the vision of the country’s future development. and using government structures to ensure stability. set up a state commission to draft and specify a programme of democratic reforms. The events of autumn 2001 showed that the need to further democratise the political system was increasing and was acquiring a more shaped and systematic nature. A presidential decree. demanded the creation of a mechanism for the coordination of the interests of major socio-political and social groups. All these acts created a mechanism to increase transparency in the staffing of government agencies and increase the professional skills of civil servants. 2. in turn. and later the national commission for democratisation and the development of civil society.

e. Particular attention should be placed on the state’s funding of political parties on the legislative basis. discussion and public argumentation of its vision on the development of the political. the wide spectre of political forces. Prior to these amendments the development of political institutions in Kazakhstan was largely according to a trajectory set by the executive branch. a new configuration of the party sphere. ensure wider social representation in parliament and strengthen relations between government bodies and society on the most crucial issues of everyday life. party factions and parliamentary groups will become the main players of the election process as the new powers of political parties (which. economic and social spheres of the country’s life. Another breakthrough aspect in the development of constitutionalism was the abolition of the ban on public funding of political parties.Kazakhstan today Chapter 2. On the one hand. all of which would ensure the direct involvement of wide-ranging groups of the population in political processes. but now with parliamentary involved in appointing the Constitutional Council. As a result. the development of real civil society and the non-governmental sector. In turn. these changes laid the foundation for better coordinated operation of the government system because all central bodies of power will now be mutually dependent and mutually supplemented. The lawmakers. this was in practical terms a fundamental reformation of the existing political model. which will be presented in parliament. on party tickets. politically and socially active groups of the population involved in political parties will have a direct impact on the functioning of power. By involving parliament in the processes of choosing. These functions will enable Kazakh society to get involved in the election process and the process of adopting the country’s budget. New ideas touched various aspects of political life. the interests of different strata of Kazakh society and the main political and ideological forces of society. in line with the new amendments. This means that the responsibility for appointing a prime minister will be equally distributed between the president and the legislative branch. public funding will boost the population’s civil activity and improve civic-consciousness. What is the point of this step? The constitutional provision for funding the entire range of political forces will legalise their activities. The new functions and powers of parliament include both chambers’ right to take part in the formation of the Constitutional Council. increase the efficiency of dialogue and cooperation with the government. On the one hand. In addition. will be elected to the lower chamber of parliament by a proportional system. and the number of MPs was increased by 30 people. based on the results of this commission’s work and recommended by the head of state. the members of parliament represent various regional interests. the whole cycle of endorsing a candidate for prime minister will be at an equal distance from the main centres of power mechanisms because the right of the final vote will be exercised by the political parties represented in the Mazhilis. NGOs and public associations. agreeing and finally endorsing a candidate for prime minister. is an important condition for the national dialogue that is needed for Kazakhstan’s sustainable development. Public funding seems to have become the necessity of the time. Moreover. 86 the Audit Committee and the Central Election Commission. the Audit Committee and the Central Election Commission. this significantly narrows the field for hidden lobbying of interests of various groups 87 . as the architects of the constitutional reform intended. i. passed by parliament in spring 2007 opened wide opportunities to boost the entire political process in Kazakhstan. the president significantly strengthened powers of lawmakers and gave them the right to get involved in the formation of the executive branch. the most vivid characteristic of the new political system will be the strengthening of the mechanism of checks and balances in relations between the branches of power. On the other hand. including nine to be appointed by the Assembly of Kazakhstan’s People) significantly increase the public’s access to representation in branches of power in our country. Generally. resulting in significant expansion of the powers of the legislative branch. define development priorities and will serve as an impetus to expand access to information. Domestic Policy New constitutional amendments.

The Senate is in essence turning into a balancing component in the activities of the Mazhilis within the legislative branch in usual conditions and the main centre of power in force-majeure circumstances and situations. Powers assigned to the Senate. Moreover. generally this state of affairs is the most preferable and acceptable in the present reality in Kazakhstan. This means that a party member who becomes a deputy cannot discredit the work of their party in 88 parliament or contradict it or themselves and cannot manipulate the will of voters who elect them as representatives and defenders of their interests. the government’s activities will largely be coordinated with parliament. Domestic Policy within the country and practically abolishes the practice of funding from aid.Kazakhstan today Chapter 2. are a very strong argument in favour of boosting the activities of the upper chamber. will aim to act within the country’s legislation. the backbone factor of stability and sustainability of the presidential-parliamentary form of government. The Mazhilis will be capable of raising a vote of no confidence in any member of government according to the principle of a simple majority. The Mazhilis’s increased control over the work of the government following the constitutional amendments will prompt the government to raise the quality of its current and future work and make the principle of competitiveness an obligatory condition for the executive branch. chairman of the National Security Committee. such as its consent to the appointment of prosecutor-general. The failure to endorse the report will also mean a vote of no confidence in the government. because in the legal field political players. Even though some researchers found that this amendment violated the rights of Kazakh voters and negated the very principle of democracy when the election of the head of state is dependent on time limits set by the terms of office. as a rule. the responsibility of the MPs also grows. These changes could also be described as progressive because they have laid a new system of relations between MPs and their voters through the party political system. At the same time. i. which will significantly increase the degree of responsibility of the executive branch. there will be no grounds to accuse the state of directly supporting certain parties in during election campaigns because the state will offer support to all legally existing and promote their platforms when they achieve recognition by the electorate.e. Along with powers. On the other hand. In other words. The provision of the absence of the imperative mandate of deputies was excluded from the constitution which should strengthen intra-party discipline and order and help parties develop as participants of the political processes and boost party factions and groups of deputies. Cutting the presidential term from seven to five years after 2012 and limiting the number of consecutive terms to two is the most important part of the constitutional amendments. making them not just transparent but also grounded. This is precisely what is described as the mechanism of checks and balances in action. increasing the efficiency of the work of parties. reputation and socio-political activity in the perception of the conservative majority. the government will not be able to rely only on its administrative powers because of a new provision which enables parliament to judge the government’s work based on the report on the fulfilment of the central budget. 89 . the experience in some developed countries shows that party factions are the main centres of intra-party discussions and debates. Increasing the number of senators appointed by the president by eight (taking into account the necessity to present ethnic and cultural and other important interests of society in the Senate) will improve the positive perception of parliament’s upper chamber by society because in Kazakhstan the image of a politician depends on their recognisability. chairman of the National Bank and its powers to adopt laws when the Mazhilis is dissolved.

The next election to the Supreme Soviet of the 13th convocation was held on 7 March 1994. This was the first democratic election to the country’s highest legislative body when the Soviet administrative-planning system was still strong. The further implementation of reforms and the deteriorating socioeconomic situation showed the inefficiency of central bodies of power. the national flag and the national anthem were adopted. 91 . Public and political movements exerted pressure on political institutions. the Social Democratic Party and others. Over 2. which proposed a package of reforms titled the New Economic Policy.000 candidates contested 360 seats in parliament. Parliamentary opposition very quickly emerged in the Supreme Soviet of the 13th convocation and it was led by the Progress group of deputies. Taking the new conditions into account. in the legislative branch represented by the obsolete Soviets.84% of voters took part in the election. which failed to react quickly to the rapidly changing events and adopt appropriate measures. The results of the work of certain bodies of the Supreme Soviet of the 12th convocation that were functioning on the permanent basis also confirmed the idea of creating a professional parliament.Kazakhstan today Chapter 2. blaming it for the economic crisis and failures in economic reforms. it made the transformation of the totalitarian system irreversible. the legislative basis for the formation of the armed forces and the law-enforcement agencies of the state was created. new state symbols: the national emblem. the new name of the state was adopted and the citizenship of the Republic of Kazakhstan was established. On the Election of President of the Republic. The peculiarity of this election was that 90 people were elected from republican public organisations. The changing political situation set its demands – after the declaration of independence the country badly needed to develop the new legal basics of its statehood. duties and responsibilities between all of its players. However. It was in these conditions that the country’s leaders chose to create an orderly state structure based on the principle of a division of branches of power functioning on a permanent basis with a clear distribution of rights. Zheltoksan. above all. Unity. and out of 910 candidates 692 met the registration requirements and contested 135 parliamentary seats in single-seat constituencies. the new constitution was drafted and adopted by the ninth session of the Supreme Soviet of the Republic of Kazakhstan of the 12th convocation on 28 January 1993. A total of 73. From 1990 the political system changed significantly in Kazakhstan. the Declaration on State Sovereignty. discord emerged among the Communists and calls were made for reforming the party.4. when the election to the Supreme Soviet of the Kazakh SSR of the 12th convocation was held. Even though this election was held in the absence of fully-fledged political parties. This resulted in the adoption of the Law On the Voluntary Dissolution of the Supreme Soviet of the Republic of Kazakhstan on 10 December 1993. which would work in one pattern with the government. the Socialist Party and the Federation of Trade Unions set up their party factions and a further 14 groups of deputies were set up based on their members’ occupations. the People’s Congress Party. the new possibilities opened up and the growing economic crisis diverted the people’s attention from politics. mainly on the power structures of the Communist Party of Kazakhstan. This became the beginning of a switch to a qualitatively new stage of ensuring national independence and real guarantees 90 of civil rights and liberties and the practical implementation of the promising ideas of building a democratic society and lawful state. Alash. That is why the first laws to be drafted were the Laws On the Establishment of the Post of President. The Union of People’s Unity of Kazakhstan. The Parliament of the Republic of Kazakhstan The history of Kazakhstan’s parliamentarianism begins in March 1990. with an average of five candidates standing in each constituency. and it helped the development of a multiparty system in Kazakhstan. Domestic Policy 2. New parties and movements then emerged – Azat. Moreover.

was more professional and started its work by hearing many urgent laws. Two years later in December 1995 the first bicameral Parliament of the Republic of Kazakhstan was established: the election of members of the Senate. On Excises.” [10] Thus. because the relatively 93 . However. the election of half of the senators every two years makes the parliamentary system very flexible. to some extent. who cast doubts on the constitutionality of certain actions in the organising and holding of the election to the Supreme Soviet. In accordance with the Constitution of the Republic of Kazakhstan. According to the Law On the Parliament of the Republic of Kazakhstan and the Status of Its Deputies. In that period his work was more intense than it had ever been. and the election of members of the Mazhilis. On the National Bank.Kazakhstan today Chapter 2. adopted by a referendum on 30 August 1995. This has. in line with the Constitutional Court’s ruling. The Law On Elections in the Republic of Kazakhstan set different procedures for the election of members of the Senate and members of the Mazhilis. On Bankruptcy and so on [11]. He went on to issue laws that were vital to continue the reforms – the Laws On Land. adopted by the Central Election Commission. including 132 that had the force of law. but it also distorted the election results. In the 92 absence of parliament the head of state signed 511 decrees. was held on 5 December. the Senate was appointed to represent the interests of regions and limit excessive radicalism by the Mazhilis. By this the Central Election Commission violated Article 60 of the constitution. Senators were elected by regional legislatures (two senators from each region) with a two-year cycle of election of half of the senators. the Parliament of the Republic of Kazakhstan is the supreme legislative body of the country. The parliamentary crisis grew into a constitutional one. parliament’s upper chamber. The events that took place in March 1995 had considerable influence on the political situation in the country. the tenge. On 6 March 1995 the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Kazakhstan issued a ruling on a lawsuit brought by the former parliamentary candidate. the second composition of the Supreme Soviet was found illegitimate and the unconstitutionality of parliament’s powers meant the unconstitutionality of the government’s powers. and. By this ruling the Constitutional Court found the March 1994 parliamentary election and the powers of deputies illegitimate. the lower chamber. the Supreme Soviet ceased to exist. On Oil. while regions received the opportunity of comprehensive discussion and weighted decision of their main problems through the senators. As a result. was held on 9 December. Domestic Policy For the first time in Kazakhstan’s history political parties and movements gained access to the real levers of power and the possibility of influencing government policies. Tatyana Kvyatkovskaya. elected in March 1994. integrated the lawmaking initiatives of each region of the country. changed the election system established by the Code On Elections. in essence. while members of the Mazhilis were elected in a direct election in single-seat constituencies for four years. the sluggishness of the Supreme Soviet in adopting necessary market laws created a deadlock in the political and economic sphere. 15 deputies of the Senate are appointed by the country’s president with account of the need to ensure the representation of national cultural and other significant interests of society in the Senate and nine deputies of the Mazhilis are elected by the Assembly of Kazakhstan’s People. According to the architects of the constitutional reform. as well as the members of the Supreme Soviet. In addition. It was precisely this reason that Kazakhstan’s national currency. In this situation the entire responsibility for the future development of Kazakhstan fell onto President Nursultan Nazarbayev. As a consequence. to revive the economy through the creation of a new and sufficient legislative basis. On the Parliament of the Republic of Kazakhstan and the Status of Its Deputies. lead to widespread violations of the constitutional principle of ‘one voter – one vote’. The new Supreme Soviet. collapsed at the beginning of 1994. exceeding its powers. the imperfection of the Code On Elections. The ruling stated: “not only did the methodology of the vote count. the continuing debate about many provisions of the constitution. government members had to resign.

The term for senators is six years. forms. on the prime minister’s suggestion defines the structure of the government and appoints and dismisses members of government. and drafts foreign policy. The government drafts the main aspects of the state’s socioeconomic policies. with parliamentary approval. and signs resolutions. reports to the president about the main aspects of the government’s work. presents a central budget to parliament and reports on its implementation. At the same time. If parliament rejects the programme again by two-thirds of the vote. The president. Ministries and state com95 94 .Kazakhstan today Chapter 2. Members of parliament take an oath before the people of Kazakhstan. The government has powers to make lawmaking initiatives. public order. The government within its powers adopts resolutions which have compulsory force throughout the country. If parliament rejects the government’s programme. Each chamber of parliament has powers to discuss reports by government members on the issues of their activities. The government composes a plan of lawmaking work under which it submits draft laws to parliament’s Mazhilis. The prime minister forms and heads the government and bears responsibility for its work. Members of government independently take decisions within their powers. In case of a government member failing to observe laws.5. which includes ministries. abolishes and reorganises central executive bodies. security. committees and local executive bodies – regional. manages the state property. It tops the system of executive bodies. appoints and dismisses the prime minister. this means a vote of no confidence in the government. Domestic Policy frequent election changes the social composition of the upper chamber in line with social and political changes in Kazakh society. district and town administrations or akimats. its defence capability. while the term for members of the Mazhilis is five years. and accepts an oath by members of government. The Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan The government is the highest body of the executive branch. They are responsible before the prime minister for the work of bodies they run. The newly-formed government drafts a plan of action and presents a report on it to parliament. 2. the other half of senators ensures the continuity and efficiency of the upper chamber. deputies can propose the president dismiss that government member. submits draft laws to the Mazhilis and ensures the observation of laws. it should resubmit the programme within two months. agencies.

The government fulfils orders by the president on submitting laws to the Mazhilis. Domestic Policy mittees take part in drafting laws and their heads bear responsibility for their quality. other armed and military formations and drafts plans for speedy preparation of the country in the interests of defence. education. The Ministry of Defence of the Republic of Kazakhstan leads the armed forces. global and regional security. solves tasks relating to the country’s defence and drafts a blueprint for building and developing the armed forces. The Office of the Prime Minister also coordinates the work of government bodies in the process of drafting and implementing acts by the government and prime minister and monitors the deadlines of implementing acts and orders issued to the government by the head of state. the pursuit of a single state policy in the sphere of protecting state secrets and coordination of the activities of government bodies and organisations to protect state secrets and ensure information security. The chief organ to manage the country’s armed forces during peacetime and war is the Committee of the Chiefs of Staffs of the Armed Forces of the Republic of Kazakhstan. The Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan acts within the term of powers of the president and resigns before the election of a new president. Relevant legislative acts of Kazakhstan regulate the provision of military security of the state when there is a threat and during war. financial. It takes decisions on the implementation of international agreements and carries out measures to develop foreign relations in the trade. The main tasks of the ministry are: drafting a blueprint for and the main aspects of Kazakhstan’s foreign policy and presenting the relevant proposals to the president and the government. other armed and military formations. resolutions by the government and prime minister and instructions by the prime minister. the rules for creating and operating wartime government agencies and military command. which is a government body which supervises the activities of ministries and agencies of Kazakhstan. security. The Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan includes 17 ministries. its political. The MFA is also responsible for advancing through diplomatic means and methods Kazakhstan’s efforts to ensure international peace. implementing the country’s foreign policy and assisting its foreign economic 96 policy and strengthening Kazakhstan’s international reputation. It coordinates plans for the creation and development of the armed forces. ensuring through diplomatic means and methods the protection of sovereignty. and provides material and technical supplies to the armed forces and cooperates with other government agencies on issues surrounding the defence of the country. territorial integrity and the inviolability of borders of the Republic of Kazakhstan. their speedy combat and mobilisation preparations. The main tasks of the Office of the Prime Minister are: the information and analytical. The work of the Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan is coordinated by the Office of the Prime Minister. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Kazakhstan (MFA) is the central body that performs foreign political activities and heads the single system of diplomatic service bodies of the Republic of Kazakhstan. organises and conducts operative-strategic plans for the use and coordination of the armed forces. 97 . its citizens and legal entities abroad. The ministry also drafts proposals for the president on Kazakhstan’s foreign political and foreign economic strategy and implements the president’s international initiatives. The government also implements external functions. conducts a single military and technical policy in the state. science and other spheres.Kazakhstan today Chapter 2. and defending the rights and interests of Kazakhstan. drafts a state programme for the development of weapons and military equipment and proposals on state defence order and spending on defence. trade and economic and other interests in relations with foreign countries and international organisations. other armed and military formations. organisational and legal and paperwork provision of the activities of the prime minister and the Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan.

the Information and Archives Committee and the Languages Committee. The main functions of the Ministry of Transport and Communications are: the formation of state policy in the transport and telecoms sphere. The main functions of the Ministry of Health are: developing state policy in the healthcare sphere. The Ministry of Culture and Information of the Republic of Kazakhstan is a central executive body of Kazakhstan. The main objectives of the ministry are: formulating state policy in the spheres of labour. domestic political stability. environmental protection territories and the management of water resources and flora and fauna resources. The Ministry of Agriculture of the Republic of Kazakhstan is a central executive body that fulfils state policy in the spheres of agriculture. pedigree animal husbandry. Domestic Policy The Ministry of Transport and Communications of the Republic of Kazakhstan is a central body which manages and coordinates any inter-sectoral coordination of issues around the development and implementation of state policy in the transport and telecommunications sphere. In addition. health and safety at workplace. the ministry drafts 98 government policy in the sphere of managing state-owned assets in various sectors of the economy. customs and budget investment policies with account of priorities of the country’s socioeconomic development and monetary-credit policy and policy in the sphere of international economic and financial relations. The ministry includes the Culture Committee. information. efficient and quality medicines to the population and medical establishments. The Ministry of Employment and Social Security of the Republic of Kazakhstan manages the sphere of labour and social relations and conducts any inter-sectoral coordination in it. The main tasks of the Ministry of Economy and Budget Planning are: the formulation of strategic goals for and aspects of the main priorities of Kazakhstan’s socioeconomic development. the Civil Aviation Committee and the Transport Control Committee. publishing and printing. proposals to improve the application of legislation and drafting and adopting legislative acts regarding transport and telecoms issues it is responsible for. drafting government and sectoral programmes for the development of transport and telecoms networks. 99 . The Ministry of Economy and Budget Planning of the Republic of Kazakhstan is involved in creating and developing a system of state planning to help the efficient implementation of priorities of Kazakhstan’s socioeconomic development. the ministry is also responsible for supplying safe. medical science and medical and pharmaceutical education. In addition. and food production. its functions include drafting and adopting technical and other standards in the transport and telecoms sphere on issues which are within the powers of the ministry. interethnic accord and the development of languages. drafting legislative acts. melioration. the formulation of state fiscal. phyto-sanitary.Kazakhstan today Chapter 2. The ministry incorporates the Committee for Sanitary and Epidemiological Supervision. This ministry includes the Water Resources Committee and the Committee for Forestry. irrigation and drainage. archives and paperwork. forestry. Fish and Hunting Industry. the Railways Committee. and its main purpose is to formulate state policy in the spheres of culture. The main tasks of the Ministry of Transport and Communications are: the formation of state policy in the transport and communications sphere and the reactive creation of an efficient and technologically advanced transport and telecommunications system to meet the demands of the economy and society for transport and telecoms services. employment. the Pharmacy Committee and the Committee for Monitoring the Quality of Medical Services. fishery and hunting. The ministry includes: the Committee for the Development of Transport Infrastructure. making predictions and offering timely and quality services to meet the transport and telecoms needs of the country and the economy. veterinary. In addition. The ministry coordinates the work in the spheres of agricultural machine-building. medical and pharmaceutical education. ensuring free medical services to the level guaranteed by the government (stipulated in legislation). The Ministry of Health of the Republic of Kazakhstan is a central executive body which manages the sphere of healthcare.

organisations and citizens. Domestic Policy social partnership. petrochemistry and nuclear. ensuring traffic safety. the unity of command. The Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Republic of Kazakhstan (MIA) is a central executive body that manages the system of interior bodies of Kazakhstan and protects public order and ensures public security in Kazakhstan. construction and architecture. the ministry’s powers include: detecting and preventing homelessness and crimes by minors. The most important objective of this ministry is to create favourable conditions for encouraging private investment in the non-extractive sector of the economy. guarding government and other facilities and individuals and escorting detainees and convicts. improving scientific research and boosting the nation’s labour competitiveness. preventing terrorist attacks and releasing hostages. questioning and administrative procedures within remits defined by legislation. preventing. technology and aerospace activities and the state youth policy. including in emergency situations and under martial law.Kazakhstan today Chapter 2. technical and innovative development of the country. This ministry also coordinates the development of the trade. The objectives of the interior bodies are: protecting public order and ensuring public security. the Ministry of Education and Science drafts blueprints. The activities of interior bodies should be based on the principles of lawfulness. strategies. officials. In addition. conducting preliminary investigation. The ministry implements state policies on the law-enforcement. pension. The Ministry of Industry and Trade of the Republic of Kazakhstan performs the functions that draft state policy and legislative regulations in the sphere of industrial development. to ensure rights and legal interests of children. The ministry also monitors the observance of rules of living in Kazakhstan by foreign citizens and stateless persons. science and aerospace and develop the space sector. the rational use of mineral resources and the comprehensive development of petrochemical productions. The ministry includes the Committee for Supervision and Examination in the Education and Science Sphere and the Aerospace Committee. the development of the defence industry and the scientific. In addition. oil and gas. mineral resources. social insurance and migration in line with its powers. The ministry runs territorial bodies in regions and Astana and Almaty. the Committee for the Regulation of 101 . state and targeted programmes and plans to implement state policy in the spheres of education. landscaping and housing and utilities spheres. The ministry also drafts programmes for the development of the country’s fuel and energy sector and ensures the sector’s development and the country’s energy security and independence. The main objective of this ministry is to ensure the sustainable development of Kazakhstan’s economy. The Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources of the Republic of Kazakhstan is a central executive body that formulates state policy and coordinates management processes in the spheres of energy. entrepreneurship and protection of competition. investigating and uncovering crimes and administrative violations and searching for criminals. In line with legislation. formulate the policy to improve the quality of 100 education and draft the innovation policy in the spheres of education. ensuring the protection of rights and legal interests of children. The ministry includes the Committee for Industry and Scientific and Technical Development. It also includes the Migration Committee. creating the conditions necessary for people to receive education. The Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Kazakhstan conducts management and inter-sectoral coordination in the spheres of education and science. the unity of the system of interior bodies. science and technology and the state youth policy. science. energy-saving and the use of renewable and non-traditional sources of energy. The main objectives of the ministry are: formulating a single state policy in the spheres of education. one of the ministry’s most important functions is to ensure the replenishment of the mineral resource base. transparency and coordination with other law-enforcement and government agencies.

and the State Property and Privatisation Committee. acts of civil status. In line with legislation. registration of movable property as security and issuance of documents to citizens of Kazakhstan. The ministry includes territorial bodies in the regions. the management of state property. The Ministry of Finance of the Republic of Kazakhstan is a central executive body that manages the budget and financial sphere. the Committee for Construction and the Housing and Utilities Sphere.Kazakhstan today Chapter 2. The Ministry of Emergencies of the Republic of Kazakhstan formulates state policy in the sphere of preventing emergency situations of a natural or manmade nature. financial reporting and auditing. Astana and Almaty. licences and environmental conclusions. The main objective of the ministry is to improve the environment and achieve favourable levels of the environmentally sustainable development of society. Domestic Policy Trade and Tourism Activities. property rights and operations with them. officials and citizens. the ministry formulates state policy on environmental protection and drafts proposals to formulate a single state policy in this sphere. the Penal and Penitentiary System Committee. customs and tax control. the Committee for the Protection of Competition. ethyl alcohol and alcoholic products and certain types of petroleum products. The main objectives of the ministry are: formulating and implementing state policy on the budget. 103 . the Intellectual Property Rights Committee. The Ministry of Environmental Protection of the Republic of Kazakhstan conducts management and inter-sectoral coordination on the drafting and implementation of state policy in the sphere of environmental protection and the use of natural resources. organisations. legislative acts. In addition. and the Committee for Legal Advice and Services. state environmental expert examination. the Ministry of Justice develops national legislation. activities relating to the issuing of permits. offering legal advice and services to the population. ensuring the protection of the rights and lawful interests of citizens and organisations. accountancy. Astana and Almaty and the Registration Service Committee. the ministry supervises the government registration of legal entities. rehabilitation procedures relating to insolvent debtors. 102 The ministry includes the Treasury Committee. In the order set by legislation. the Financial Control and State Procurement Committee. the Committee for Work with Insolvent Debtors. ensuring the legality of the work government agencies. out-ofcourt procedures of liquidation of indebted companies. and protecting intellectual property. the Tax Committee. handling the consequences of these and civil defence. organises lawmaking work and conducts the legal examination of legislative acts. The ministry’s powers also include issues of bankruptcy. This ministry also develops and improves the system of state management in the environmental protection sphere. regulation and standardisation within its remits and a system of economic methods and mechanisms of encouragement of the rational use of natural resources and environmental protection. the Committee for Technical Regulation and Metrology and the Investment Committee. registration of citizens. Its powers also include providing a legal basis for the drafting and conclusion of Kazakhstan’s international agreements. the Customs Control Committee. Relatively recently the ministry’s functions expanded into administering criminal punishment and the temporary isolation of suspects in detention centres. The main objectives of the ministry are: providing a legislative basis for the work of the state. The Ministry of Justice of the Republic of Kazakhstan is a central executive body of Kazakhstan that manages the sphere of the legislative provision of activities of government and public organisations in the country. This ministry also conducts state regulation of the production and sale of tobacco products. The ministry incorporates the Committee for the Supervision of Environmental Protection and territorial environmental protection bodies in the regions. internal financial control and state purchases.

Kazakhstan declared that its aim was to build a lawful state. In addition. 2. improving their living conditions was made a priority. The ministry incorporates territorial bodies in the regions. The decree fixed the defining status of the judiciary’s independence. The ministry includes the Tourism Committee and the Sport Committee. and the prevention and extinguishing of fires. the powers of judges and personnel issues. In line with the tasks delegated to it. The ministry also monitors safety in industry and the building and expanding of state material reserves. Achieving this required radical legal reforms which would better meet the socio-political. The president’s Resolution On the State Programme of Legal Reforms in the Republic of Kazakhstan of 12 February 1994 became a historical document that defined the priority aspects for reforms in the judicial and legal system: just and independent courts. The institution of people’s assessors was abolished.6. This resolution clearly regulated the structure of the country’s judicial bodies. Astana and Almaty. The composition of regional and town courts has been the same since that time. it drafts proposals to use material. It was decided that the Supreme Court would rule on all economic issues and issues relating to the carriage of justice and the provision of judges with everything they needed for this was delegated to the head of the apparatus. technical. making it one of the equal branches of government. The structure and composition of judicial bodies were also defined at that point.Kazakhstan today Chapter 2. The president’s next step in reforming the judicial system was the 1995 Decree On Courts and the Status of Judges in the Republic of Kazakhstan. socioeconomic and international status of the new state. Therefore. impartial judges appointed on a permanent basis. Reforms in the Judicial System After the adoption of the Constitution of the Republic of Kazakhstan on 28 January 1993. while the powers and objectives of martial courts in Kazakhstan enabled them to become members of the plenum of the Supreme Court of the Republic of Kazakhstan. The Ministry of Tourism and Sport of the Republic of Kazakhstan formulates state policy in the spheres of tourism and sport. the Constitutional 105 104 . ensuring the functioning and development of the state system for the prevention and handling of emergency situations. highly-qualified. the Committee for State Control and Supervision in the Sphere of Emergency Situations and the Committee for State Material Reserves. The development of tourism has been acquiring particular importance for the country’s economy. new social and political relations emerged in the country. Moreover. food. which had the force of constitutional law. The main government bodies of Kazakhstan responsible for legislative and legal issues are the Supreme Court. The development of amateur and professional sport in Kazakhstan is also an important aspect of the government’s activities that aims to diversify the development of the economy and the social sphere in Kazakhstan. improvements in the living standards of judges – these are the foundations of impartial judiciary and it is precisely a decent life for a judge that stresses the importance and immeasurable responsibility of their work and provides social security for them. Domestic Policy This ministry is responsible for state control in the sphere of fire and industrial safety. and health and safety at hazardous production facilities. the ministry prevents and clears up natural and manmade emergency situations and takes civil defence measures. medical and other resources from state and mobilisation reserves and means from government reserves.

investigation. Prosecutor’s offices compose state legal statistics to ensure the uniformity. The organisation and work of the Constitutional Council is regulated by a constitutional law. three of whom. and monitor the application of laws in the sphere of legal statistics and special records. freedoms. The chairman of the Constitutional Council is appointed by the president. In addition. presidential decrees and other legislative acts. Involvement in the activities of the prosecutor’s offices is banned. objectivity and sufficiency of statistical indicators. The Constitutional Council considers the president’s protests and if they are not overcome by a majority of the vote decisions by the Constitutional Council are regarded as void. it is the body that gives explanations on issues of judicial practice and the application of legislative acts. protest laws and other legislative acts contradicting the constitutions and laws. other legislative acts and international agreements of the republic. presidential decrees and other legislative acts in the country and monitors the legality of search. In addition. 106 The government body that monitors the observance of law is the Prosecutor-General’s Office. the members of which are appointed by the Senate following the president’s nominations which in turn are based on recommendations by the country’s Highest Judicial Council. Domestic Policy Council. The Prosecutor-General’s Office carries out its duties independently of other government bodies and officials. has the right to conduct criminal prosecution in the order and within the powers set by law. All former presidents receive lifetime membership of the Constitutional Council. investigation. and represent state interests in court. 107 . are appointed by the president. while exercising supreme control over the exact and uniform application of laws. The Prosecutor-General’s Office reports to the president. exercise control over the legality of search. It exercises supreme control over the exact and uniform application of laws. The Prosecutor-General’s Office takes measures to establish and eliminate any violations of law. officials and citizens. the Prosecutor-General’s Office and the Ministry of Justice of the Republic of Kazakhstan. Acts issued by the Prosecutor-General’s Office are obligatory for all bodies. Article 76] The highest judicial body in the country is the Supreme Court of the Republic of Kazakhstan. organisations. questioning. Four members represent the chambers of parliament: two members are appointed by the Speaker of the Senate and the other two by the Speaker of the Mazhilis. administrative and penal procedures. administrative and penal procedures. questioning. The Constitutional Council has seven members. With the aim of ensuring the supremacy of the constitution and laws and protecting human rights and liberties of citizens. The Supreme Court has powers to supervise and overturn rulings of lower courts. The Constitutional Council of the Republic of Kazakhstan issues rulings on all issues relating to the observance of constitutional norms and procedures adopted. political parties and other public associations. on behalf of the state prosecutor’s offices: detect and take measures to eliminate violations of the constitution. including the chairman. The state prosecution represents a single centralised system of bodies and establishments with prosecutors at a lower level being subordinate to prosecutors at a higher level and the prosecutor-general. “Judicial power shall be exercised on behalf of the Republic of Kazakhstan and shall be intended to protect the rights.” [12. and legal interests of citizens and organisations and ensure the observance of the constitution. legislative acts and acts by the president. The Constitutional Council rules on the legitimacy of presidential and parliamentary elections and examines laws to establish their conformity with the Constitution of the Republic of Kazakhstan.Kazakhstan today Chapter 2. laws. and when votes are divided equally the chairman’s vote is critical. They are final and cannot be appealed against. carry out special records. The Constitutional Council’s rulings come into force from the day of their adoption and are obligatory throughout Kazakhstan. the Prosecutor-General’s Office appeals against laws and other legislative acts contradicting the constitution and laws of Kazakhstan. represent state interests in court and conduct criminal prosecution.

the law regarding political parties aims to strengthen the multiparty system in the country on democratic principles. free elections) helps parties to develop. and. acting as a link between society and the state. except for those whose activities aim to change the constitutional system with force. The Constitution of the Republic of Kazakhstan guarantees the rights of parties. In this regard. undermine the state’s security and incite social. The state is not allowed to become involved in the business of parties and public associations. The law stipulates that if as a result of an election only one party is elected to parliament. The establishment of democratic institutions and the reformation of the party system in Kazakhstan have not yet been completed. 109 . on the other hand.Kazakhstan today Chapter 2.7. On 9 February 2009 the Kazakh president signed the Constitutional Law On Adopting Amendments and Addenda to the Constitutional Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan On Elections in the Republic of Kazakhstan. on the one hand. The objective of parties is to actively take part in political life at all stages of the political process: in elections. Generally. interethnic. Due to understandable reasons – the dissolution of the previous. “the process of party construction. interethnic. violate Kazakhstan’s territorial integrity. which from the very beginning accompanied political transformations in Kazakhstan. The Party System Political parties play an important role in socio-political and public life. in order to prevent the possibility of a one party monopoly. in the first decade of the reforms. The law aims to create a legal mechanism to form a parliament of at least two parties and improve the election process. one can suggest that the establishment of democratic institutions (above all. In July 1996 the country adopted the Law On Political Parties in the Republic of Kazakhstan. class and tribal discord. was chaotic in nature. religious. This law bans the creation and activities of political parties which aim to change the constitutional system with force. Soviet model of political system and ideology – the process of party construction in Kazakhstan developed under the conditions of the lack of a social base and the blurring of political platforms of most parties. religious. movements and associations. state-by-stage nature of party construction in the country. the development of the party system can be considered an indicator of democratisation in general. In accordance with this law. Kazakh society has not yet fully realised the role of parties as a mechanism of government by the people. class and tribal discord. in forming legislative branches of power and adopting political and government decisions. Thus. racial. violate the integrity of the country. This conditioned a complicated. Domestic Policy 2. we should note that mechanisms for the parties’ real involvement in government have not yet finally been devised. we can already state that parties have all the preconditions to become a bridge between the people and the government. the territorial 108 principle of forming parties was adopted and the creation of political parties in government agencies and the establishment and activities of militarised political parties were banned. As for the role and significance of parties in Kazakhstan’s sociopolitical life. foster government thinking in the masses and express and represent the population’s interests. With the aim of preventing a bond between government and party bodies the law stipulates that civil servants are guided by requirements of legislation when performing their duties and should not be bound by the decisions of parties or their bodies. This was mainly conditioned by the fact that political transformations in the country took place in parallel with the creation of the foundations of Kazakhstan’s statehood and the adoption of market mechanisms and the transformation of public consciousness” [13]. the next party with the second highest vote is allowed into parliament even if it does not clear the 7% barrier. undermine the security of the state and incite social. racial. The institution of strong and large political parties with wide regional networks is becoming an additional factor in the stabilisation of society and a mechanism through which the electorate receive the possibility of consciously influencing government policy. competition between political parties plays an important role. In a democratic state. However.

This result was achieved because of a merger with the Nagyz Ak Zhol Democratic Party. The party has branches in all regions of Kazakhstan and in Astana and Almaty. with the official number of members exceeding 700.5% of the vote. After the 18 August 2007 unscheduled election to the Mazhilis. after the adoption of the new election law which banned election blocs. On 4 July 2006. was established on 29 April 2005 as a result of a split in the Ak Zhol Democratic Party. As a result of their merger. The party aims to build a democratic. lawful. the party came second with 4.4% of the vote was the only party that cleared the 7% hurdle and became the only party to sit in the Mazhilis. The chairman of the party is Zharmakhan Tuyakbai.54% of votes in the election. The chairman of Nur Otan is President Nursultan Nazarbayev. The Alga! party remains unregistered. * The National Social Democratic Party The National Social Democratic Party was set up on 10 September 2006 and was registered on 25 January 2007. to improve the living standards of citizens. the leaders of Nagyz Ak Zhol – Bolat Abilov. after the defeat in the election. there are ten political parties operating in Kazakhstan’s political field. The following parties are officially registered: The Nur Otan People’s Democratic Party The Nur Otan People’s Democratic Party is the most powerful political force. However. in turn. However. and was registered on 17 March 2006. of which nine are officially registered.000. to foster patriotism among citizens and responsibility for all-round and harmonious development of Kazakhstan. Tulegen Zhukeyev became secretary-general 111 The previous name of the Nur Otan People’s Democratic Party 110 . Domestic Policy As a result. which. The number of members is 140. an influential international organisation. but preserved its registration. Nagyz Ak Zhol merged with the National Social Democratic Party. On 9 October 2007 Nagyz Ak Zhol split from the National Social Democratic Party. On 23 May 2007 Nagyz Ak Zhol and the National Social Democratic Party decided to create the For a Fair Kazakhstan election bloc to take part in the election to the Mazhilis. On 29 February 2008 the party renamed itself as the Azat Democratic Party. the Asar Republican Party merged with Otan. Oraz Zhandosov and Tulegen Zhukeyev – announced their withdrawal from the National Social Democratic Party. Nur Otan with 88.000 people. the prospects for parties which operate within legitimate boundaries in terms of their political stability and ability to influence are very promising and stable. The Otan* Republican Political Party was set up in January 1999 and was registered with the Ministry of Justice on 12 February 1999. to establish social justice and preserve stability in the country. The party’s main goals are: to actively conduct economic and political reforms to further democratise society. The structure of the party also changed: Bolat Abilov was elected chairman instead of three cochairmen of the party. Nur Otan is now the largest political force in Kazakhstan. In the Mazhilis of the parliament of the third convocation. Nur Otan held the majority.Kazakhstan today Chapter 2. social sate and an innovative economy and pursue a new humanist policy. it was decided to rename the Otan Republican Political Party as the Nur Otan People’s Democratic Party. The Otan party acquired its new name at its tenth unscheduled congress in Astana on 22 December 2006 when it united with the Civil and Agrarian parties. The National Social Democratic Party received 4. The National Social Democratic Party is a member of Socialist International. In the election to the Mazhilis in 2007. to strengthen interethnic and inter-religious accord. At the moment. at the ninth unscheduled congress of Otan in Astana. The Azat Democratic Party The Azat Democratic Party of Kazakhstan was set up from the Nagyz Ak Zhol Democratic Party. but failed to get into parliament.

and it has branches in all regions of the country. The party aims to build an independent. It is worth noting that the leader of Ak Zhol. independence. receiving one seat. democratic and free Kazakhstan.04% of the vote. Its fundamental values are democracy. Domestic Policy and Marzhan Aspandiyarova and Petr Svoik became deputy chairs of the party. The Communist Party of Kazakhstan was registered on 27 August 1998 and underwent re-registration on 20 March 2003. In local elections. The party’s membership exceeds 54. That is why on 8 July 2005 the fifth congress of Adilet decided to join the Ak Zhol party. Nevertheless. The parliamentary election on 18 August 2007 made this party realise that it would not be able to enter parliament with its limited cadre and material resources. As a result.09% of vote and failed to clear the 7% hurdle. The Communist People’s Party of Kazakhstan The Communist People’s Party of Kazakhstan was formed by several members who split from the Communist Party of Kazakhstan in 113 . prosperous. The party has lately been drifting towards the national-patriotic field. democratic and free Kazakhstan. the Adilet party will most likely re-emerge as a political player.000 people. The party’s main objective is to build a lawful. after the election became somewhat radicalised. The Communist Party of Kazakshtan The Communist Party of Kazakhstan is a successor of the Socialist Party of Kazakhstan. the party won 2. it is too early to talk about the consolidation of constructive and radical opposition forces into a single party. Alikhan Baimenov. In the 2004 election to the Mazhilis the party collected 12. protesting against the election results jointly with the leaders of the National Social Democratic Party and the Communist People’s Party in public and in court. the plenum of the Central Committee of the Adilet Democratic Party discussed the results of the election to the Mazhilis and the local elections of the Ak Zhol Democratic Party. it won one seat in a district legislative body. In the latest parliamentary election. who was seen as a moderate opposition member.000 members and branches in all regions. In the Mazhilis of the third convocation the party had one seat one in a single-seat constituency. democratic and social state in Kazakhstan. The plenum unanimously decided to convene the fourth unscheduled congress of the Adilet party to discuss splitting from the Ak Zhol party. workers and pensioners. The party has 70. Its chairman is Maksut Narikbayev. prosperous. create an efficient. The party boycotted the election to the Mazhilis of the fourth convocation. 112 The Adilet Democratic Party The Adilet Democratic Party was registered on 14 June 2004. freedom and justice. to consolidate citizens’ efforts to build an independent. Adilet received 0. In the 2004 election to the Mazhilis.000 people. Astana and Almaty. secular. The party aims to build a democratic. Its membership exceeds 175. The election defeat forced Ak Zhol to split into two independent parties. The party’s main objectives are: to create conditions for building a society of freedom and social justice based on the principles of scientific socialism in Kazakhstan and build a communist political system.Kazakhstan today Chapter 2. Azat positions itself as a party of the middle class.76% of votes. On 18 September 2007. but the possibility of this occurring in the future should not be ruled out. Party members are chiefly WWII veterans. Its leader is Serikbolsyn Abdildin. lawful and social state and an open society. advanced and developed economic system and build a civil society. The Ak Zhol Democratic Party The Ak Zhol Democratic Party of Kazakhstan was registered on 3 April 2002. set up in the early 1990s from the branch of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union in the Kazakh SSR.

and managed to receive only 0. pensioners. The party’s declared goals are to strengthen government regulation and support to the agricultural sector and protect the interests of farmers. The party aims to develop the economy. and this is expected to boost the party’s development. The support base of the party is workers of the education. Astana and Almaty. The leader of the party is Gani Kasymov. and it was re-registered on 2 April 2003. entrepreneurs and students. In local elections it managed to win 10 seats in local legislatures. healthcare. mainly workers. It was not represented in the Mazhilis of the third convocation. to improve the living standards of the population and to prioritise people’s health.29% of the vote in the election to the Mazhilis of the fourth convocation. lawful state and a civil society with a market economy.000 members and branches in regions. In late August 2007 President Nazarbayev appointed Gani Kasymov senator.37% of the vote. It won 1.000 members and branches in all the country’s regions. Domestic Policy February 2004. It received one place in local legislatures.000 members. According to its political platform. science and cultural spheres. In the election to the Mazhilis of the fourth convocation it received 0. and claimed 31 seats in local legislatures. The Auyl Social Democratic Party The Auyl Social Democratic Party was registered on 1 March 2002.Kazakhstan today Chapter 2. The party held no seat in the Mazhilis of the third convocation. On 21 June 2004 the party received state registration.7% of the vote in the 18 August 2007 parliamentary election. to involve the socially active groups of society in government and public affairs. and entrepreneurs. 114 The party’s declared aims are: to help the national revival of Kazakhstan’s peoples. It has 172. It received 1. It has 72. Its leader is Vladislav Kosarev.000 members. The Rukhaniyat party The Rukhaniyat party was registered on 6 October 2003. representatives of the intelligentsia. The Party of Kazakhstan’s Patriots The Party of Kazakhstan’s Patriots was registered on 4 August 2000 and re-registered on 21 March 2003. to build a democratic.51% of votes in the parliamentary election on 18 August 2007. adapted to new realities of the development of society. solve social problems and develop a highly moral and spiritually rich society. Its leader is Altynshash Zhaganova. It has over 61. students. The party is chaired by Gani Kaliyev. the party’s activities are based on the Marxist-Leninist ideology. The party has over 100. 115 . The party held no seat in the Mazhilis of the third convocation. It had no seat in the Mazhilis of the third convocation. to ensure the country’s sustainable development. but secured not a single parliamentary seat.

starting with the constitution. Kazakh. A natural process of mastering the state language. especially by young people. Kazakhstan Is a Multiethnic State Kazakhstan has become home to over 130 ethnic groups. Ukrainian. As a result. is a good basis for preserving civil and inter-religious peace in the future. 44 television studios broadcast in 12 languages and 18 radio studios broadcast in seven languages. Under state purchase orders up to 30 book titles with a total number of over 80. This principle is the foundation of the government’s policy on ethnic minorities. Domestic Policy 2. an advantage to the country. and Kazakhstan is one of the few countries that have solved these problems without serious conflicts and shocks. Among the significant auxiliary measures to revive and develop cultures of ethnic monitories are the houses of friendship that are funded from the budget. 116 As a result of its activities. Chechens. historically inherited by the present generation of Kazakhstan. Various reasons – historical. on the contrary. In the 1930-1940s Koreans.8. boosting the unity of multiethnic Kazakhstan. as did Cossacks who were called to protect the frontiers of the Russian Empire. Tolerance in the religious sphere. With state support. The country’s spiritual revival and inter-religious accord and tolerance are being ensured. Russian peasants who were in search of lands ended up there. Polish and Bulgarian settlers with their families. is under way. which was set up by a presidential decree of 1 March 1995 as an advisory body under the president and which later became an official body. Generally.Kazakhstan today Chapter 2.000 are published in minority languages every year in Kazakhstan. A balanced policy on languages is being pursued. This experience is being studied by some of the neighbouring countries. each ethnic group has their own traditional folk holidays that have been revived during the years of the country’s independence and that are marked with representatives of other ethnic minorities. Germans. Kazakhstan has created a unique and efficient mechanism to pursue a policy on ethnic minorities and hold an interethnic dialogue in form of the Assembly of Kazakhstan’s People. Ingush. After WWII. A great wave of Russian. A few centuries ago the Kazakh steppe started to see people from outside. Meskhetian Turks and many other ethnic groups were forcibly deported to Kazakhstan. political. In addition. the process of the cultural revival of ethnic groups is under way now and the assembly ensures an all-round dialogue between them. which ban any activities that could disturb interethnic accord. Kazakhstan has created a legislative basis which is founded on civil and political commonness of all citizens which ensures the equality of rights and liberties of citizens regardless of their ethnic or religious origin. newspapers and magazines are published in 11 languages. Kazakhstan’s language diversity enriches the culture of Kazakhstan and acts as an important factor. by the country’s citizens. and social – helped make this the case. Kazakhstan is a multiethnic country and the basis of its political stability is interethnic accord. Belarusian. 117 . dozens of thousands of people from all over the former Soviet Union flooded Kazakhstan – either for the “great construction projects of communism” or to tame virgin lands [14]. it has been proven by deeds that multiethnicity is not a fault but. and the Day of the Unity of Kazakhstan’s People. The Dostyk (Friendship) socio-political magazine is published with the editorial board involvement of all of the heads of the country’s national cultural associations that are members of the Council of the Assembly. the country’s policy towards ethnic minorities is based on the supremacy of law and the rational combination of collective rights of ethnic groups and the individual rights of people. The legislative basis of Kazakhstan’s policy towards ethnic minorities is a set of legislative acts. junks and livestock moved to the Kazakh steppes during the Stolypin reforms. In the 19th century many Uighurs and the Hui people fled China in search of peace and security and settled in modern-day Kazakhstan. the Day of the Remembrance of Victims of Political Repressions and the Day of Spiritual Unity and Accord are marked. Festivals of folk arts and languages of Kazakhstan’s peoples are held regularly.

the economic state of the country hindered significant state support to this sector. healthcare. One of the instruments that boosted the role and importance of NGOs in society is their participation in election processes. In addition.9. During the 2007 parliamentary election in Kazakhstan. As a result. The non-governmental sector is the most dynamic of them. Domestic Policy 2. This boosted the professional level of legislative acts. Generally. These include issues of environmental protection. in addition to observers from the OSCE. to parliament. gender relations.Kazakhstan today Chapter 2. In addition. the Civil Alliance initiated the creation of the chamber of Public Experts at the Kazakh parliament’s Mazhilis. education. Over the last several years. as a result of which a ban on state funding of public associations was lifted. about 8. the social sphere. Nor was there a legislative basis for the operations of NGOs. involvement in public life and the growing understanding of the fact that NGOs can have an important positive impact on the development of society in general. Earlier. For example. the number of officially registered NGOs has increased considerably. The Non-Governmental Sector During the years of its independence Kazakhstan has managed to conduct major political reforms that have made possible the creation of a new political system and the development of new civil society institutions: political parties and independent media. the situation was complicated by unhealthy rivalry between them. Its activities significantly strengthened the role of NGOs in society. culture. Annual civil forums which represent an efficient platform for dialogue for discussing existing problems and finding solutions to them based on the principles of equal partnership and cooperation are one of the indicators of the growing significance of the civil sec119 . Moreover. all this damaged the development of NGOs. Aigul Solovyova. A shining example of the sector’s growing role in the country’s life is the election of the Civil Alliance president and co-chairwoman of the Union of Women Entrepreneurs of Kazakhstan. NGOs’ views on elections reflect the level of socio-political maturity of NGOs themselves and the state’s readiness for democratic elections. In March 2006. The presence of civil society activists in power structures offers additional opportunities to establish an equal dialogue between the authorities and civil society groups. human rights and so on. This will lead to wider involvement of NGOs in the process of reforms and closer cooperation with the state. NGOs received a new impetus for their development and involvement in solving socially important problems. However. The creation of the Civil Alliance of Kazakhstan in 2005 has played a great role in strengthening the positions of NGOs in Kazakhstan. They were disunited and did not coordinate their work to solve social problems. Another important step in boosting the non-governmental sector in Kazakhstan was a constitutional reform. The abovementioned Civil Alliance of Kazakhstan was called on to consolidate 118 local civil society institutions to maintain efficient cooperation with the government. The number of issues NGOs deal with is approaching 6. Its involvement in the lawmaking process is also strengthening the non-government sector. at the initial stage of the development the non-governmental sector was barely surviving and lived on foreign grants. the full development of NGOs had been hindered by lack of a strategy for cooperation between non-governmental organisations. this chamber exercises public control over parliamentary work. the CIS and other international organisations. the situation has now drastically changed and as a result of real state support to NGOs the sector is now a fully-fledged member of the political process. At that time Kazakhstan did not have a holistic system of interaction and cooperation between the state and NGOs. Non-government organisations (NGOs) operate in all socially important spheres of life.000 activists from the national public Committee for Monitoring Elections observed the election. The characteristic features that accompany the development of the third sector in Kazakhstan are: its noticeable activity.000. public organisations carried out advert campaigns to boost voters’ participation in the voting and monitored the course of the election. However.

Article 1 of the law pronounced freedom of press and freedom of speech. the third Civil Forum in October 2007 defined the priority aspects of cooperation between the state and NGOs and drafted mechanisms for this. as well as a great number of new publications of diverse editorial policies. Domestic Policy tor in Kazakh society. The country’s competitiveness should be based on civil initiative that aims to develop the economy. the democratic modernisation of state-owned and private media outlets. 2. the ideology of the fourth estate and the myth about the independent press were prevalent among Soviet and Kazakh journalists. emerged on the Kazakh media market at that time. The first stage. Local experts single out specific stages of the development of the media market in Kazakhstan. “Today non-governmental organisations have great opportunities to draft breakthrough ideas and are capable of offering invaluable assistance to the state in solving many social problems. advance social programmes and laws that encourage their development. The Media Kazakhstan’s media market has matured after undergoing the necessary stages of development. economic and legal problems because the main requirement of the current stage of development is to overcome the autonomy of components of the political system and establish equal cooperation.10. Government officials were also banned from involvement in editorial issues and from hindering journalists’ professional activities. This stage started in 1991 when independent Kazakhstan adopted its first legislative acts – the Law On the Press and Other Media Outlets. This was a period of the beginning of the era of openness: the media started to criticise certain aspects of the political system. This process was not chaotic. information security and the efficient work of political institutions in the country. Forum participants arrived at the understanding of the need to build an equal dialogue between society and the government of all levels. The first politicised newspapers and private television channels. public associations and in121 120 . from 1991 to 1995. The law also expanded journalists’ right to seek out and obtain information. Finally. During the forum NGOs secured the support of the main political player in the country. it is feasible to consider the main stages of the formation of the Kazakh media market. The party intends to lobby the interests of NGOs. which also started the creation of a systematic mechanism for cooperation between civil society. The role of the non-governmental sector in democratising the country was legitimised at the Civil Forums held in 2003 and 2005. After obtaining independence Kazakhstan faced the problems of creating its media market. the state sees the non-governmental sector as a reliable partner in solving social. was characterised by state monopoly of the media when there were practically no independent media outlets.Kazakhstan today Chapter 2. It was conditioned by the purposeful government policy on the media. At this point. and it granted political parties. the main principles of which are: the creation of a single media space in the country.” President Nursultan Nazarbayev told the third Civil Forum. Following this. government agencies and businesses. and the creation of conditions for ensuring political stability and interethnic accord. Censorship was banned by legislation for the first time. There are a number of reasonably strong media outlets and media groups in the country that unite their efforts in order to survive in fierce market competition conditions. which confirmed Kazakhstan’s adherence to democracy. the Nur Otan party. We should note that the president is an ideologist of the priority development of non-governmental organisations and the establishment of civil society in general and prioritises these tasks in his annual state-of-the-nation-addresses. continue democratic transformations and improve the country’s life. All in all.

A number of amendments to the media law in 2001 played an important role in the development of the local press. falling behind the requirements of the time. there was a clear trend of the politicisation of the media and the strengthening of political and economic elite groups’ influence on major media outlets and the media acquired the status of a separate functional resource. many provisions of it quickly became obsolete. In addition. the large-scale privatisation of previously state-owned media outlets and printing enterprises. their gradual loss of independence in the media system. . this started the formation of the independent media in Kazakhstan. but very strict about the press’s duties.legislative (administrative) leverage. In line with this law the state retained only two means of influencing the media: . as a result. which gave an impetus to the formation of democratic principles of the functioning of the media. but in terms of quality the media grew slowly in the market economy.Kazakhstan today Chapter 2. the privatisation of some media outlets reduced the market share of the state-owned media. offering assistance with paper and other materials as part of the state orders and tax breaks. which was applied through the system of the state purchase orders (the state purchase orders were placed through tenders. which meant that the state could intervene only if the media law were violated. it required the local electronic media expand their volume of production and encouraged the qualitative growth of local television products. in which private media outlets could also take part). New publications and television and radio stations started to emerge on the Kazakh media market. These amendments aimed to protect local television which encountered great problems competing with more developed and powerful foreign television channels. The second stage of the development of the media was between 1996 and1999. A switch to market relations drove the prices of paper. The media legislation helped the development of the media field to an extent. The third stage started in 1999 and ended in 2002 after the adoption of another Law On the Media. The law was passed in July 1999 and consisted of 26 articles. This law abolished the state monopoly to the media legislatively. One of the main features of this stage was a boost in the role of the media in the system of political and economic relations and. Electronic media outlets also adopted the format of live broadcasting. However. and the emergence of media groups. This was also the first wave of the privatisation of the media. Simultaneously. and the high level of trust in the media by the population. printing and postal services up and this hindered the development of the local media. This stage had specific features: the partial departure of the state from controlling the media. New outlets started using the models and formats of modern Western journalism and tried to separate news from commentary and making newspapers on the principles of thematic columns. 123 . The novelty and democratic values of the first media law became a powerful factor for the rapid development of the Kazakh press. the emergence of the party press. This period saw the government depart from unconditional domination of the media market and the rapid development of the private media. 122 This stage was characterised by: the beginning of the crystallisation of Kazakhstan’s media market. a switch from state funding and subsidies for media outlets to state purchase orders to conduct state media policy. and it was concise in its content. In essence. At the same time. In April 1992 the government drafted measures to support the media in this period. At the same time. This stage saw the dynamic qualitative and quantitative growth of the media market and an increase in the role of the Kazakh media in the country’s socio-political sphere. Particular attention was paid to the gradual limitation of the retransmission of foreign television programmes by Kazakh stations. the government drafted a programme to privatise state-owned media outlets. Domestic Policy dividuals the right to set up media outlets. Many media observers describe this period as the golden age of the national media.economic (non-administrative) leverage. since this law was adopted at the very beginning of Kazakhstan’s independence.

and the emergence of public organisations that protect media freedom. References 1. Президент Республики Казахстан // www. documents and material from government agencies and listen to reports by government officials and media organisations on the observance of the media legislation.kz 125 .kisi. 142 cable television operators and five satellite broadcasters. The president signed the Law On Adopting Amendments and Addenda to the Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan On the Media on 6 February 2009 [16]. the final switch to practice. Ашимбаев М. The main result of the council’s activities so far is the rejection of the new edition of the Law On the Media in 2004. President Nazarbayev stressed the need of further liberalisation in the media sphere and the removal of excessive bureaucratic barriers. The landmark of this stage is the creation of the Public Council on the Media under the Kazakh president in 2002. The council is an advisory body. the significant increase in the media’s influence during election campaigns. On 6 February 2009 after discussions throughout 2008 there was another important event: the president signed the Law On Adopting Amendments and Addenda to the Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan On the Media. and it was adopted at the first Congress of Journalists of Kazakhstan. of which 21% were state-owned and 79% private. At that time the idea of drafting the Code of Professional Ethics for Journalists was floated. the media’s involvement in rivalry between power groups.С. Even though this draft law had undergone all stages of discussion and was ready for signing. Формирование института президентства в ходе политического транзита в Казахстане // http://www. In summer 2006. editors-in-chief and addresses changed. as of December 2008 there were 2. there are now 63 television companies. technical amendments were made to the Law On the Media to improve the media situation in the country: outlets were made to undergo the process of re-registration if their circulations. The council has the right to request and obtain information. According to the Kazakh Ministry of Culture and Information. The country’s Internet community is the region’s largest with over 2 million people. The main characteristics of this stage were: the adoption of the new rules of the game in relations between the media. Organisations that protect the rights of media workers.Kazakhstan today Chapter 2. political and economic elite groups started investing in the media market. 40 radio companies. the Kazakh media market is the most developed in Central Asia. after learning arguments put forward by the Public Council and NGOs. At present. for example the Solidarnost (Solidarity) foundation for protecting the rights of journalists.kz 2. were set up. as well as media experts. the president. Domestic Policy Having been convinced in the efficiency of information technologies. President Nazarbayev was praised for this by the international community. 124 The work on these amendments took into accounts opinions of many media and human rights organisations. and its main objectives are: the systematic comprehensive analysis of the activities of the media and the drafting of recommendations for the president on building and improving state media policy. The fourth stage started in 2002 and is still under way. there are 11 news agencies operating in Kazakhstan at the moment.akorda. and the devising of a mechanism to ensure a balance between freedom of speech and the media’s responsibility before society. decided to veto this law. In addition. opposition-minded and neutral. the state’s increased role in controlling media activities.810 media outlets. the increased role of the media in political processes. this stage was characterised by: the clear division of media players into pro-governmental. As for electronic media. apart from the administrative and economic regulation of the activities of media outlets. These amendments were initiated by the head of state. In general. Speaking at the opening of a parliamentary session. the personal responsibility of editors for the content of their outlets was increased and so on. creating their own media groups that divided practically all national media outlets among themselves.

in East and West. Назарбаев Н. By pursuing 127 126 .А. – Алматы. because of its geopolitical position and economic potential. – Алматы: КИСИ при Президенте РК. 1990.. Абишева М. – Алматы: КИСИ при Президенте РК. 2007. 16. – Алма-Ата: Арыс. – Алматы. мат. – 2001. 2001. К вопросу о факторах и особенностях политического развития Казахстана // Саясат-Policy.К. принятый народом // Известия-Казахстан. – М.-практ. Kazakhstan. Выступление Президента Республики Казахстан Н. Морозов А. Тепло казахстанской земли. 14. (с изменениями от 7 октября 1998 г. 2008. President Nazarbayev believes that the multi-vector policy means “the development of friendly and predictable relations with all states that play a significant role in global politics and represent practical interest for our country. 7 марта. научн. 15. 16 мая 2007 г.akorda. Назарбаев Н. конф. FOREIGN POLICY 3. – 2005. Назарбаева на совместном заседании Палат Парламента Республики Казахстан «Новый этап демократизации Казахстана – ускоренное развитие свободного демократического общества» (Астана.А. Kazakhstan’s Multi-Vector Foreign Policy Since obtaining independence Kazakhstan’s foreign policy has been based on a principle of multi-vector relations that was declared by Nursultan Nazarbayev as soon as he was elected the country’s president on 1 December 1991. – 1995. 8. 6 февраля 2008 г. КИСИ при Президенте РК. 5.: Бослен.. МКИ РК: поправки в Закон РК «О СМИ» направлены на либерализацию в сфере СМИ // http: // www. // Казахстанская правда. 2007.1. Султанов Б.) // Конституционная реформа – новый этап в развитии Казахстана: Материалы «круглого стола» (22 мая 2007 г. Дымов О. Послание Президента РК народу Казахстана «Рост благосостояния граждан Казахстана – главная цель государственной политики». 12.). Шокаманов Ю. Ашимбаев М.С. This would not be understandable to not only our multiethnic population but the entire international community. Путь к лидерству: социально-экономические и политические реформы в Казахстане. Foreign Policy 3. Закон. Послание Президента РК народу Казахстана. Kazakhstan’s future is both in Asia and Europe. 7.akorda. Казахстан-2030: процветание. 13. безопасность и улучшение благосостояния всех казахстанцев. Конституция Республики Казахстан от 30 августа 1995 г.internews. cannot limit itself to narrow-regional problems. 4. 6 марта 2009 г. – № 3. Казахстанская модель политического реформирования // Казахстан в современном мире: реалии и перспективы. Через кризис к обновлению и развитию. Решение Конституционного суда РК от 6 марта 1995 г. 11.К. 2007.kz 9. Б.. 30 августа.А.). // http://www.К. // www.A.Kazakhstan today Chapter 3. Абишева М. 2008. Султанова. Современные демократические преобразования в Республике Казахстан / Под общ. ред. Мусабек Е. Этнодемографическая характеристика населения Республики Казахстан на современном этапе развития // Казахстанская модель межэтнического согласия: проблемы и перспективы: Сб.Г. – Алматы: КИСИ при Президенте РК. 6. Послание Президента народу Казахстана.А.kz 10.kz CHAPTER 3.А.

. extremists.” [1] This position has largely been defined by the country’s geopolitical position. European Union countries and international organisations. Taking into account the current international realities the main emphasis in Kazakhstan’s foreign policy strategy has been placed on ensuring an efficient security system in Central Asia which is aimed at preventing unconventional threats and challenges (international terrorism. An important step in this direction was the creation of the CSTO. Kazakhstan and Russia signed the documents to create the Customs Union. the CICA is turning into a locomotive of mutual approaches in fighting challenges to security in Asia and making a significant contribution to ensuring peace and security in the entire world. whose main objective is to boost cooperation through multilateral approaches to ensuring peace. Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. In order to encourage the development of hi-tech sectors the decision was taken to set up an international centre of high technology. Foreign Policy exactly this policy will we be able to avert any manifestations of threats to Kazakhstan’s security. security and stability in Asia. At the same time. it is necessary to stress that the SCO is not a military political bloc and its activities are not aimed at other countries and regions. with specific mechanisms to ensure stability in the 128 region. The creation of the legislative basis of the Customs Union is expected to be completed in 2010. Taking into account the situation developing in the world.5bn) and Kazakhstan ($1bn). At the SCO 129 . military and political and humanitarian nature. the summit of the EAEC in Moscow on 4 February 2009 decided to set up an anti-crisis fund worth $10bn. In order to solve this problem Kazakhstan found it expedient to focus on the following priority foreign policy aspects: . destroying terrorists. the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO) and the Collective Security Treaty Organisation (CSTO). These forces should become an efficient and universal instrument to maintain security in the entire space of CSTO. The backbone of the CRRF will be one division and one brigade of air-borne forces (ABF) of Russia and one brigade of ABF of Kazakhstan. Cooperation within the SCO is also acquiring particular significance and it includes a wide range of mutual actions of an economic. In order to overcome the consequences of the global economic crisis. its multiethnic and religiously diverse population and the level of economic development as a whole. .constructive cooperation with the USA.partner relations with Asia-Pacific countries. and .strategic cooperation with Russia and China. we think that a quite promising international organisation is the CICA. The Eurasian Economic Community (EAEC) is also acquiring greater weight and reputation: it is aimed at economic integration that envisages the creation of a free trade zone and the formation of a customs union. At the summit of the heads of state of the EAEC member states in Dushanbe on 6 October 2007. As a result.cooperation with the countries of the Islamic world. The legislative basis for the Asian security system has already been laid out. . religious extremism. the leaders of Belarus.friendly relations with Kyrgyzstan. The escalation of tension and the conflict situations which constantly emerge on the borders of CIS countries raises the issue of drafting joint measures to counter various phenomena that threaten their stability and development.Kazakhstan today Chapter 3. On 4 February 2009 the CSTO summit in Moscow decided to form the Collective Rapid Reaction Forces (CRRF). Tajikistan. if need be. We will be able to strengthen favourable external conditions by economic and political transformations in our country. including rebuffing military aggression. . From the very beginning the idea of convening the CICA was backed by a number of Asian countries that define the political climate on the continent and by leading international organisations. drug trafficking and illegal migration) posed by Afghanistan and other countries bordering the region. The largest donors are Russia ($7.involvement in interstate associations – the Conference on Interaction and Confidence-Building Measures in Asia (CICA). such as the Organisation for Security and Cooperation Organisation (the OSCE) and NATO. organised crime and drug trafficking gangs and the consequences of emergencies.

Developing bilateral economic. including in the energy. and it grows by 30% a year on average. Kazakhstan oc131 . In 2009. We had to get rid of the legacy we inherited from party ideologists. analysing the situation in those years. the SCO Business Council and the creation of a transcontinental transport corridor between Europe and Asia. Cooperation with China remains a priority aspect of Kazakhstan’s foreign policy and its long-term aim is to preserve the peaceful international situation. Kazakh-Chinese economic cooperation is currently developing well. agricultural. a significant share of Russian speakers in Kazakhstan and ethnic Kazakhs in Russia. pp 35-36]. The SCO places a lot of attention on increasing economic cooperation. transport. Foreign Policy summit in Dushanbe in August 2008 particular attention was placed on joint work on the Afghan issues. The special importance given to Kazakh-Russian relations is also proven by three other visits made to Kazakhstan by President Medvedev in 2008 – in July. Russian-Kazakh cooperation has been developed both in bilateral and multilateral formats – within the CIS. had to define its relations with the People’s Republic of China from scratch. Jiang Zemin. cultural and humanitarian relations with close neighbours plays a key role in ensuring stability and security in Central Asia and creating conditions for mutually beneficial cooperation.600 enterprises that have the involvement of Russian capital in Kazakhstan [2]. the CSTO. 130 The significance the Kremlin attaches to relations with Kazakhstan was evidenced by the fact that his first foreign trip as president of Russia Dmitry Medvedev was to Kazakhstan (in May 2008). energy. said that China would always be a reliable friend and good neighbour despite any changes taking place in the world [6. Sovereign Kazakhstan had to build its policy towards China from scratch.” [5. religious and geographical reasons (the world’s longest land border. This point of view is also shared by Russian President Medvedev who stressed at a meeting with President Nazarbayev on 4 February 2009 that Kazakhstan and Russia were developing a friendly and allied dialogue [4]. after obtaining independence. It should also be noted that relations between Kazakhstan and Russia are a foundation for the creation of Eurasian financial. interest in political and trade and economic cooperation and so on). ethnic. Under the auspices of the SCO a special conference will be held on Afghanistan to discuss the fight against terrorism. Kazakhstan’s cooperation with regional and international integration associations shows our government’s openness and readiness to build and develop international relations both in bilateral and multilateral formats and on the basis of mutual respect. drug trafficking and crossborder crime. the EAC.Kazakhstan today Chapter 3. In China’s foreign trade with CIS countries. Kazakhstan and Russia. the SCO and the Central Asian Cooperation Organisation (CACO). Kazakhstan’s trade with Russia exceeds its trade with all the other Central Asian countries combined. President Nazarbayev. Kazakh President Nursultan Nazarbayev believes Kazakh-Russian relations enjoy a high level of trust and strategic partnership. needed for the successful implementation of internal modernisation in the country. said: “Both sides had been forming an image of an enemy and [their] military doctrines declared one another as potential foe… General policy and general propaganda had tuned us to a belief that China is enemy No 1… Kazakhstan. partnership and prospects. He thinks that there are no political or economic problems between the two countries that cannot be solved “through a constructive dialogue and account of mutual interests” [3]. are extremely intertwined countries. In 2008. trade and investment sectors. demographic.5bn in 2005). page 221]. This is proven by bilateral trade and economic cooperation. political. transport and customs infrastructure. The former president of China. The Chinese leadership also showed readiness to start a largescale dialogue with Kazakhstan on all aspects of bilateral relations. political. as well as the activities of an interbank association. bilateral talks at the highest level were held in Moscow on 4 February as part of the summits of the CSTO and the EAEC. There are over 1. language. bilateral trade reached $20bn in 2008 (against $9. as a result of various economic. September and December.

behind Russia. Astana proceeds from the fact that the regional countries are bound not only by economic interests but the common fates of the peoples. bilateral trade reached $9. is acquiring increasing importance for the EU (for example. There are 374 Kazakh-US joint ventures and 91 representatives of US companies registered in Kazakhstan. The USA is one of the largest investors in the Kazakh economy. investment and labour. Kazakhstan joined the transCaucasian Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan (BTC) oil pipeline in June 2006. exports. At a meeting of the heads of states of the CACO in Bishkek on 9 and 10 January 1997 Central Asia’s first trilateral Treaty of Eternal Friendship was signed by Kazakhstan. This may be achieved via the conclusion of intergovernmental agreements to remove protectionist barriers to imports. Developing relations (bilateral and multilateral) with Central Asian countries – Kyrgyzstan.5% of Kazakhstan’s total foreign trade).7bn in 2005).Kazakhstan today Chapter 3. including $628. security in the region as a whole. as a result.1bn (against $3. The Kazakh president’s initiative to set up a Union of Central Asian States is still a topical issue. China shows interest in. The energy sector plays a special part in the development of economic cooperation. which commenced the development of the Tengiz oil field in 1993. on the provision of security guarantees by the United Kingdom. Russia and the USA which aims to ensure the long-term security of the country. This fact largely predetermined the future nature of bilateral relations. on the one hand. Kazakh-US trade stood at $2. 132 Kazakhstan favours expanding constructive interaction with the USA. Foreign Policy cupies second place. water and energy and transport and telecommunications. Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan – is a strategic foreign policy priority for Kazakhstan. taking into account this country’s leading role in the world. Kazakhstan. Maintaining relations with EU countries and expanding mutually beneficial political and economic contacts is another of the main foreign policy priorities of Kazakhstan. The West Kazakhstan-West China oil pipeline with a design capacity of 20 million tonnes of oil a year is expected to be completed by 2011. who are in a good sense doomed to live together in close friendship. An important way of eliminating conventional and unconventional threats to Central Asian countries is regional integration. signed in Budapest on 5 December 1994. The next stage may involve the creation of regional consortia – food. above all else. which will support not only US energy projects in Kazakhstan but will also attract US investment and innovations in the non-extractive sector of the Kazakh economy.2m that was placed in the Kyrgyz economy and $200. Article 3 of this treaty stipulates that “the parties will offer to one another all-round support.046m in 2007 (2. The former US president. and joint projects important to the entire region. Chevron and Mobil were involved in the construction of the Caspian Pipeline Consortium (CPC) pipeline. For example. the energy sector. on the other. Kazakhstan provides sizeable economic and humanitarian aid to neighbouring countries because this helps their stability. In 2007. Of particular significance in establishing constructive relations with the USA was the Kazakh leadership’s decision to voluntarily give up the status of nuclear power. like Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. Great hopes are pinned on the Kazakh-US initiative of publicprivate partnership adopted in February 2008. One of the first foreign companies that started operations in Kazakhstan was Chevron. especially in the issue of preventing threats to independence and sovereignty and territorial integrity”. Kazakhstan’s investment in the four other Central Asian countries exceeded $1bn in 2008. and. Two gas pipelines – one from Uzbekistan and the other from Turkmenistan – are being built through Kazakhstan to China. The initial stage of this project envisages the creation of a favourable business climate in the entire territory of the region. Bill Clinton said that the world had been saved from another threat of nuclear terrorism and nuclear proliferation and praised President Nursultan Nazarbayev for this [6. in the energy security 133 . This policy resulted in the memorandum. Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan. Tajikistan. Direct US investment totals about $15bn.8m in the Uzbek economy. p 13]. which was completed in 2001.

Britain. France. the former Kazakh foreign minister. France (5. The bulk of this investment was placed in the energy sector. Britain (2. he proposed to consider the possibility of cooperation between the two organisations on issues of migration and integration of Muslim communities in European countries.5%). political and defence measures aimed at the prevention of the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD). The EU is also interested in other issues – security (border management. Kazakhstan attracted about $40bn in foreign direct investment from EU countries. including the Partnership for Peace programme. but also implementing serious economic and political reforms in the country.6%).1%) and Spain (1%). international terrorism. Trade between Kazakhstan and the EU reached $36. Marat Tazhin. Developing cooperation with EU countries is a very current priority for Kazakhstan. Kazakhstan initiated a forum of the foreign ministers of Muslim and Western countries titled “Common World: Progress via Diversity” in Astana in October 2008. Germany and Italy. transport infrastructure. Foreign Policy sphere). Astana hosted three congresses of world and traditional religions in 2003. transport. the Netherlands (4. The main sphere of cooperation is energy. adopted in 2007. This programme aims to lift Kazakhstan to the level of strategic partnership with leading European countries. energy. With regard to this.445-km-long West Europe-West China road corridor is expected to be completed by the end of 2013. Germany (2.Kazakhstan today Chapter 3. the rights of Muslim women and young people in Western societies. regional cooperation. 2006 and 2009 and gathered spiritual leaders of the world’s major religions. proposed that Muslim countries join the process of drafting the agenda of the OSCE’s activities in 2010. Kazakhstan is now interested in bringing European investment to knowledge-intensive and innovative sectors of industry. 134 With this aim President Nursultan Nazarbayev endorsed the Path to Europe Programme for 2009-2011 on 29 August 2008. human rights. consistent development and are mutually beneficial in nature. This envisages not only performing diplomatic functions. accounting for about 20% of its total oil and gas consumption.4bn in 2008. Kazakhstan is cooperating with the EU in projects like the creation of the INOGATE project to ship oil and gas to Europe and the TRACECA transport corridor from Europe to Central Asia via Caucasus and the construction of the 8. EU member states’ investment capabilities are of significant interest to Kazakhstan. at the 11th summit of the Organisation of the Islamic Conference in Dakar on 13-14 March 2008. scientific research. environmental protection. with stress made on developing cooperation in the technological. drugs and weapons). consistently speaking for the realisation of the existing potential in aspects such as defence policy. Kazakhstan attaches particular significance to developing cooperation with the influential military and political organisation NATO. or almost 50% of the total. migration. with the largest trading partners being Italy (12.8%). stresses that new prospects are opening up for cooperation between the EU and Central Asia. For example. In particular. During its chairmanship of the OSCE Kazakhstan intends to expand cooperation between this organisation and the Islamic world. modern understanding of international law and environmental protection [7]. education and culture. The creation of liberal conditions for Kazakh investment in the EU is of similar importance. drafted 135 . Another important aspect of Kazakhstan’s foreign policy is to develop a dialogue between civilisations and religions held by the Kazakh leadership over the past few years. Kazakhstan is one of the EU’s main suppliers of hydrocarbons. The current relations between Kazakhstan and NATO are characterised by positive. Since obtaining independence. A special aspect of Kazakhstan’s foreign policy is the chairmanship of the OSCE in 2010. the European Union and Central Asia: Strategy for a New Partnership. trafficking in human. the development of defence technologies. the fight against organised crime.9%). The main investors are the Netherlands. trade and economic and humanitarian spheres.

Moreover. Muslim countries. For example. India. As for the revival of Islam in the country. but it is also involved in cultural exchange with the Arab world. including 1. Kazakhstan does not just receive Arab investment. Kazakhstan attracted attention from global geopolitical centres immediately. Kazakhstan has shown significant interest in expanding cooperation with Japan. China and France put together and it was enough to destroy everything alive on Earth completely. Aside from the stockpiled nuclear weapons. It is a member of the OIC (since 1995) and it is cooperating with the Islamic Development Bank and the Islamic Educational. the country could afford to preserve a small amount of nuclear weapons in its warehouses. Later Kazakhstan joined the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty I. and the last nuclear warhead that remained underground at the Semipalatinsk nuclear testing ground on 137 136 . Singapore. our country builds relations with them not on an ideological or religious basis. We have to pay tribute to the wisdom of the Kazakh leaders who withstood pressure from local hawks and did not give in to the temptation to show their nuclear ambitions. where he is buried. but proceeding from its national interests and common norms of international law. an important task for Kazakhstan is to position itself as a secular country. Now.2.Kazakhstan today Chapter 3. despite the complicated economic situation. With such nuclear capabilities. Pakistan. Malaysia. has managed to occupy a well-deserved place in the system of international relations and claim a reputation as a reliable. As a result. Discussions on the need to preserve nuclear potential preoccupied Kazakh society in order to guarantee security and deter the ambitions of potential foes. in particular Arab ones. Kazakhstan is also building the Abu Nasr al-Farabi historical and cultural site in Damascus. it is hard to even imagine what negative effect our country’s decision to obtain the status of nuclear power would have had. principled and predictable partner. it should happen as part of the general development of culture and spirituality in Kazakhstan. Kazakhstan had the world’s second largest nuclear testing potential. Kazakhstan. However. 3. In its cooperation with Muslim countries.216 nuclear warheads for intercontinental ballistic missiles and nuclear reserves for strategic bombers. Kazakhstan has already established economic and cultural cooperation with all leading Muslim countries. Kazakhstan had the necessary infrastructure and resource basis for the production of the active components of nuclear weapons. Kazakhstan also pays particular attention to developing relations with Muslim countries. Kazakhstan’s inherited nuclear arsenal exceeded those of the United Kingdom. Thailand and Indonesia. Kazakhstan’s Nuclear-Free Status On obtaining independence in 1991. are active in placing investment in the Kazakh economy. South Korea. In particular. Kazakhstan joined the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty in September 1996. Kazakhstan was the first country in the CIS to withdraw all nuclear weapons from its territory. In addition. especially when in the early 1990s. our country is funding work to restore the Sultan Beirbars mosque in Cairo – Sultan Beibars was a prominent ruler of Egypt in the 13th century. On 29 August 1991 President Nazarbayev signed a historical decree to shut down the Semipalatinsk nuclear testing ground. Foreign Policy to build new relations in the security sphere between NATO and its partner. successfully pursuing its multi-vector foreign policy. and the Kazakh parliament ratified the Lisbon protocol in July 1992 and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons in December 1993. in which religion is separated from state and any attempts to manipulate religious issues in achieving political aims will be resolutely stopped. Scientific and Cultural Organisation. Taking into account the growing economic weight of Asia-Pacific countries. Kazakhstan inherited a major arsenal of weapons of mass destruction. Kazakhstan accounts for 21% of global proven uranium reserves.

It turned out that the legislative basis of the chairmanship did not have clear criteria for assessing a hopeful country’s correspondence to the right to chair the organisation. the country is largely located in Asia. Kazakhstan’s decision on voluntary give-up of the status of nuclear power based on the principles of humanism was an unprecedented and absolutely new step in building civilised interstate relations. Kazakh representatives started working actively in the OSCE structures as early as in 2008. It is worth noting that both for Kazakhstan and the OSCE Kazakhstan’s chairmanship of the organisation in 2010 is a remarkable event. US Senator Richard Lugar speaking at a conference in Washington on 22 February 2003 stated that Kazakhstan’s wise and bold choice to give up nuclear weapons was in striking contrast to events in India. OSCE member states had to face several precedents linked to Kazakhstan’s chairmanship: the first time a CIS country undergoing political transformation has held this post. He noted that if the international community were to look for success stories in this sphere. That is why it was not easy to find a consensus on Kazakhstan’s chairmanship. heading the OSCE contact group for the Mediterranean Partners for Cooperation and the personal representative of the OSCE chairman-in-office on combating intolerance and discrimination against Muslims. 139 138 . Foreign Policy 27 May 1995. It became clear that the decision on Kazakhstan’s chairmanship was to a greater extent linked to the overcoming of Western partners’ bias towards CIS countries and to current NATO-Russia and EU-Russia relations rather than to the organisation’s legislative basis.Kazakhstan today Chapter 3. The delay in passing decision on the chairmanship. Kazakhstan. p 400]. along with Greece and Finland. North Korea and Iran. announced in November 2009. but also the realisation of its responsibility for their further development and readiness to share responsibility for security in the entire space of the OSCE. 3.3. Pakistan. For Kazakhstan it is not just international recognition of its achievements in domestic and foreign policy. the country then becoming deputy chairman of the OSCE Parliamentary Assembly. which is why the world should particularly value the policy adopted by Kazakhstan. This initiative was something unexpected by the OSCE member states. However. Since then Kazakh land has been fully free of nuclear weapons. Kazakhstan first put forward the idea in 2003 and set the initial aim of achieving it in 2009. uncovered institutional problems in the organisation and the discrepancy between the legislative basis and practical aspects of its activities. it was sufficient to turn to Kazakhstan’s example [8. first joining the Office of the Coordinator of OSCE Economic and Environmental Activities. Following this. and the country is predominantly Muslim. joined the OSCE troika of chairmen. Kazakhstan – the Chairman of the OSCE in 2010 At the beginning 2009.

The year 2008 was the most complicated for the OSCE because the recognition of Kosovo’s independence. while the humanitarian aspect with the Council of Europe. it is necessary to change the ideological approach to the entire security system. These organisations adopted specific decisions in these spheres. while the third started causing heated debate at the end of the 20th century. judicial and social spheres and the need to prepare Kazakh officials for work in OSCE structures. The creation of a new European security system in which CIS and EU countries could use a new architecture of security and which will be adequate to new challenges and threats is logically grounded and responsive to the modern stage of global development. As a result. The OSCE’s capability was influenced by US domination. European and former Soviet countries and all member states have equal rights. the OSCE is an unusual organisation that unites North American. The principle of consensus adopted by the OSCE allows Kazakhstan and CIS countries to influence the course of discussion and decision-making on key security issues. 140 Geographically the OSCE. because it turned into a kind of political school of democratic transformations in postSoviet countries. The global economic crisis damaged the entire system of international relations. The work of the OSCE showed a misbalance between functional and geographical factors. economic and humanitarian. which has 56 members of North American. The OSCE managed to establish a dialogue in the era of the bipolar world and after the demise of the USSR it retained its significance. having entered OSCE structures two years ahead of its chairmanship. still cannot play a primary role in solving modern conflicts. helping newly independent countries of the former Soviet Union establish themselves. colour revolutions in post Soviet countries. European and former Soviet countries. At a winter session of the OSCE Parliamentary Assembly. despite being an influential organisation. This idea is shared by French President Nicolas Sarkozy and Russian President Dmitry Medvedev. The OSCE. The political reality is that in the global crisis with the principle of universal security within the OSCE not implemented. Foreign Policy A compromise was the decision to suggest that Kazakhstan would chair the organisation in 2010 instead of the requested 2009. Moreover. Russia’s growing role and the energy crisis. Kazakhstan. whereas the OSCE held more advisory meetings of member states and its documents remained declarations. The then chairman Finland’s invitation to Kazakhstan to take part in the OSCE troika of chairs from 2008 to draft OSCE long-term programmes was unprecedented.Kazakhstan today Chapter 3. From the very beginning the OSCE’s activities evolved in three aspects – military and political. 141 . Speaker of the Kazakh parliament’s Senate Kasymzhomart Tokayev stressed that in the modern world a system of security and cooperation should not be considered European or Asian [9]. This delay was linked to the opportunity to conduct greater reforms in the political. Economic and military dimensions were practically duplicated and overlapped by the activities of the EU and NATO. The first two spheres developed relatively steadily. The organisation now needs to find new forms of cooperation and attach new understanding to the experience accumulated because adequate responses to modern challenges are possibly only if it changes radically. the expansion of the EU and NATO. Kazakhstan joined the troika at a difficult time of its development. received the real possibility of not only acquiring work experience but also drawing the organisation’s attention to Central Asia’s topical problems. What is the uniqueness and potential of the OSCE and what can Kazakhstan propose during its chairmanship? Despite the current complications. including the right to chair the organisation. the war between Georgia and Russia over South Ossetia and the declaration of the independence of Abkhazia and South Ossetia took place outside a platform for dialogue. The OSCE’s short-term task is to strengthen its role in the global system of international relations. worked mainly in the countries of the former Soviet bloc through its Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights.

describing them as clear and irreversible: . Kazakhstan is ready to act as a regional guarantor.Kazakhstan today Chapter 3. Jordan. as a consequence. The aim is to deepen common values in this part of the world. religious and racial tolerance in 2006. Foreign Policy That ensuring security is possible only to the detriment of one’s interests is not acceptable now and this became the main leitmotif of the assembly’s winter session in 2009. presented Kazakhstan’s vision on the development of the OSCE [11]. like the CIS. with its positive experience of interethnic and religious accord.taking into account the situation in Central Asia. Alexander Stubb. . but also raises Kazakhstan’s relations with EU countries to the level of strategic partnership. At an OSCE meeting on cultural. solve regional conflicts. the CICA. Egypt. The Charter for European Security. Thus. The country also plans to take urgent measures to fulfil socioeconomic 143 . amended its constitution to increase the role of political parties. Kazakh Senate Speaker Kasymzhomart Tokayev detailed Kazakhstan’s priorities during its OSCE chairmanship in 2010. The country’s Path to Europe programme does not just aim to expand political and economic cooperation and attract investment and technologies. OSCE’s cooperation partners are: in Asia – South Korea. the SCO and the ASEAN to cooperate. continued reforms in the judicial and local self-government spheres and started building an efficient model of cooperation between the government and civil society.Kazakhstan has strong experience in heading regional organisations.Kazakhstan.Kazakhstan aims to increase Central Asia’s significance in the OSCE. aims to democratise its political system and as an active member of the OSCE intends to strengthen the organisation. and in the Mediterranean – Algeria. At an OSCE Parliamentary Assembly winter session. The Finnish chairman of the OSCE in 2008. ensuring genuine and longterm security. inviting NATO. Morocco and Tunisia. Israel. 142 . strengthening stability in the entire space of the OSCE. which will help overcome a clash of civilisations. In the situation of global changes and fast global processes the priority objective of increasing the efficiency of the OSCE could be solved through the creation of a genuine platform for dialogue that will unite the Euro-Atlantic and Eurasian spaces. In 2008 amendments were made to the Kazakh Laws On Political Parties. held an election to parliament’s Mazhilis. Kazakh President Nursultan Nazarbayev set clear goals for Kazakhstan’s chairmanship: . Kazakhstan aims to make its contribution to ensuring security and stability in Eurasia. the CSTO. gave an impetus to close cooperation with partners and there is now the need to amend this charter and create a common Eurasian security system. The OSCE has the potential to prevent and solve interethnic and religious crises. the SCO and the CICA. fight terrorism and drug trafficking. . It considers the security of OSCE comprehensively and it is capable of creating a single Eurasian security system. taking into account the interests of all member states [10]. Marat Tazhin. This view was also stressed by the Kazakh and Russian delegations and during discussions.as OSCE chairman Kazakhstan intends to boost the role of the organisation as a unique platform for a dialogue between Europe and Asia [12]. counter human trafficking and promote tolerance and freedom of religion. OSCE countries treat all initiatives proposed by Kazakhstan carefully. during its chairmanship Kazakhstan will focus the organisation’s activities on maintaining stability in Central Asia and. help democratic processes. Kazakhstan’s chairmanship of the OSCE opens up new possibilities for establishing constructive cooperation between various regional organisations. On 30 April 2007 in Vienna the former foreign minister. On Elections and On the Media. From 2003 the main priorities of chairmanship were to reform the OSCE. Thailand and Japan. praised Kazakh representatives’ work in the economic and environmental sphere and Kazakhstan’s efforts in reforming the political system. adopted at the Istanbul summit in 1999. In 2007 Kazakhstan adopted political changes. one which is adequate to global challenges and threats.

paid particular attention to the development of good-neighbourly relations and strategic partnerships with CIS countries. The legislative basis for Kazakh-Russian relations is the Treaty on Friendship. human rights and fundamental liberties. Kazakhstan and Russia are extremely intertwined states. pp 300-311]. 3. territorial integrity and the inviolability of the existing borders. The treaty establishes that Kazakhstan and Russia. cultural and humanitarian and military and technical cooperation. Kazakhstan and Russia For numerous. Kazakhstan’s chairmanship of the OSCE confirms the main principle of the organisation – the equality of all its members and their interest in sustainable development. signed on 6 July 1998. Kazakhstan is also ready to share its experience of interethnic and religious accord. trade and economic.4. political. Their common border. signed by Kazakhstan and Russia on 25 May 1992. The logical element of the development of bilateral documents in the political. who paid his first 145 144 . A new blueprint for Russia’s foreign policy. economic. strengthen economic relations between Central Asian countries. Dmitry Medvedev. That over a million ethnic Kazakhs live in Russia and over 4 million ethnic Russian live in Kazakhstan is of particular significance to the development of good-neighbourly relations. Kazakh-Russian relations were boosted by the election of Vladimir Putin as president of Russia. religious and geographical reasons. will build their friendly relations on the principles of mutual respect for state sovereignty. develop transport and transit routes in Central Asia. including economic and other pressure. language. demographic. equality and noninterference in internal affairs. The quick pace of Kazakh-Russian relations was continued by the current Russian president. This is why Kazakhstan and Russian cannot help but be interested in political. and the voluntary observance of obligations is particularly important [13. and assist the rational use of water and energy resources in the region. Cooperation and Mutual Assistance. starting from the base of the historically developed close relations between the two states. adopted at President Putin’s initiative on 28 June 2000. Foreign Policy programmes in Afghanistan. which is the world’s longest land border. ethnic. economic and cultural and humanitarian spheres became the Declaration on Eternal Friendship and Allied Relations. that are at the core of the OSCE’s activities. plays an important role in this. that need a new vision. It is precisely these spheres. The treaty’s provisions on the peaceful settlement of disputes and the non-application of force or the threat of force.Kazakhstan today Chapter 3. This declaration is aimed at the 21st century context.

who said at the presentation of credentials by the Kazakh ambassador to Russia on 27 February 2009. Kazakhstan is running its own space programme. Cooperation with Russia will enable Kazakhstan. During the visit the heads of the two countries signed a joint statement and intergovernmental agreements on cooperation in the space sphere and on the GLONASS satellite navigation system. Kyrgyzstan. bilateral trade reached $20bn (against $4. 146 The effectiveness of bilateral cooperation is shown by a growth in trade between Kazakhstan and Russia that is greater than Russia’s trade with all other countries in the region put together.6bn in 2001) and it grows by an average of 30% per year. Both countries are working on the expansion of the Caspian Pipeline Consortium pipeline (which Kazakhstan owns a 19% stake in) and the Atyrau-Samara oil pipeline.Kazakhstan today Chapter 3. that “Russia highly values its friendship with our strategic ally. This agreement was ratified by the Kazakh parliament Senate in January 2008 and by the Russian State Duma in July 2008. There are over 1. President Medvedev paid his second visit to Kazakhstan on 5-6 July 2008 and took part in the celebrations of the 10th anniversary of the Kazakh capital. [and] from year to year our partnership is reaching a larger scale and is bolstered by major projects” [15]. Belarus. Kazakhstan and Russia are countries that are destined to be eternal friends through their histories. Cooperation between the border regions of the two countries has good prospects. The presidents held talks on bilateral cooperation in the fuel and energy. Describing the state of bilateral relations at the Russian Federal Assembly’s State Duma on 5 April 2005. it is for this reason that Kazakhstan is interested in acquiring a stake in the project. to enter the global market of satellite launching services and create its own technological basis for production. transport and cultural and humanitarian spheres and discussed the problems with ensuring national security and countering modern threats and challenges at the forum.7% of Kazakhstan’s foreign trade. In international relations. this level of intensity of high-level contact is quite extraordinary. while Russia has 24. On 22 September 2008.600 enterprises with the involvement of Russian capital in Kazakhstan [16]. 147 . Foreign Policy foreign visit to Kazakhstan on 22-23 May 2008. p 204] This view is shared by Russian President Medvedev. Dmitry Medvedev paid another visit to Kazakhstan to take part in the fifth Forum of Heads of Border Regions of Kazakhstan and Russia entitled “The Development of Border Interregional Cooperation in the Sphere of High Technology”. Kazakhstan and Russia have agreed to create a joint venture to process gas from Kazakhstan’s Karachaganak gas condensate field at the Orenburg Gas Processing Plant. Kazakhstan has pledged to supply 17 million tonnes of oil for the Burgas-Alexandroupolis pipeline. The sixth forum of interregional cooperation was held in Orenburg in 2009 and it has given a new impetus to interaction between the border regions of the two countries. Kazakh President Nursultan Nazarbayev said: “Despite the well-known formula of eternal friends and eternal interests. As part of the joint projects.” [14. Kazakhstan. Tajikistan and Turkmenistan was held in the settlement of Burabai. Kazakhstan. An informal summit of the heads of state of Armenia. President Medvedev’s fourth visit to Kazakhstan took place on 19-21 December 1998. This meeting discussed breakthrough projects to boost the efficiency of cooperation between the regional organisations of the EAEC and the CSTO that were endorsed at these organisations’ summit in Moscow on 4 February 2009. which is home to the Baikonur space launching site. Russia. Kazakhstan accounts for 15% of Russia’s total trade with CIS countries. The construction of the Caspian gas pipeline from Turkmenistan to Russia via Kazakhstan and a nuclear power station in Aktau and the boosting of freight transits between western Europe and western China are now a priority. and. In 2008. The establishment of three joint ventures for extracting and enriching uranium and designing nuclear power reactors of small and average capacity is of particular importance. Astana.

science and culture. for example the banned Hizb-ut Tahrir Islamic party. Russia and Kazakhstan are recipient countries. Continuing attempts by international terrorist organisations. Talks on defining the legal status of the Caspian Sea are still under way. the EAEC. As a result of regional migration. One of the main priorities in bilateral relations is cooperation in tapping the natural resources in the Caspian Sea. President Nazarbayev told a news conference in Baku on 24 May 2005 that there was the understanding between Kazakhstan. to create combat cells in Kazakhstan and Russia prompts active counteraction to terrorism and extremism. which is a sort of outpost of Russia and the EU. Kazakhstan and Russia have now increased cooperation to develop Kazakhstan’s navy in the Caspian Sea. but also multilaterally within the CIS. migration processes sped up in Central Asia. The scale of the drug threat is proven by the fact that the Kazakh law-enforcement agencies seized 28. Russia agreed to hand over battleships and train crews. Illegal migration also presents a serious problem for Kazakhstan and Russia. including as part of cooperation with Russian intelligence services. also solved territorial and border issues with all of its neighbours – China (1. Kazakhstan was the first Caspian-littoral country to manage to settle all conflicts with Russia.591-km-long state border between the two countries.050 km) and Turkmenistan (400 km). p 94]. by the way. like elsewhere in the former Soviet space. Uzbekistan (2. Foreign Policy Cooperation between Kazakhstan and Russia on the development of roads linking western Europe and western China along the St Petersburg-Kazan-Orenburg-Aktobe-Almaty-Khorgos-China route is of strategic significance. should be preserved”. This necessitates efficient counteraction to real threats and challenges around Kazakhstan. Kyrgyzstan (1.Kazakhstan today Chapter 3. Russian-Kazakh relations are developing not just in the bilateral format. Tajikistan and Uzbekistan are source countries.9 tonnes of drugs (including 1. signed in January 1998.591-km-long border. Kazakhstan’s position on this issue is clear and definitive. In particular. Russia and Azerbaijan regarding the median line of the sea and its delimitation. as well as build navy infrastructure on the Caspian [17. the CSTO.350 km). including ensuring free navigation and coordinated rules for fishery and environmental protection. while Kyrgyzstan. Out of Russia’s 27 regions bordering CIS countries. on the issue of the status and division of the sea floor. the economic and political development of former Soviet countries has been different. After the break-up of the Soviet Union. joint war games will be held regularly between 2009 and 2011. Kazakhstan is interested in turning the Caspian Sea into a sea of friendship and mutually beneficial cooperation [18]. The countries’ interest in military cooperation was shown by the first Kazakh-Russian Interaction-2008 military exercises attended by the Kazakh and Russian ministers of defence in Almaty Oblast 148 on 3-11 July 2008.740 km). The community aims at economic integration with the creation of a free trade zone and a customs union. 12 border Kazakhstan’s seven regions along the 7. because of the sharp deterioration of the socioeconomic situation in all the newly independent states and a rise in interethnic and inter-religious tension. The second exercises were held in Russia’s Chelyabinsk Oblast in September. 149 . Among the advantages of Kazakh-Russian relations is undoubtedly the legal delineation of the 7. above all. As part of agreements signed by the two countries’ Ministries of Defence. Kazakh and Russian intelligence services are actively cooperating in fighting the drug traffic from Afghanistan to Russia and Europe and creating a drug-free belt around Afghanistan. the SCO and the CACO. stipulated a provision that “a consensus should be achieved based on the fair division of the Caspian Sea floor while the common use of the water surface. The Kazakh-Russian statement.693 kg of heroin) in 2008 alone. Since obtaining independence in 1991. In the socio-humanitarian sphere the country plans to conduct joint research on the priority aspects of science and technology and harmonise the national systems of education. as well as porous borders. Kazakhstan has. Kazakhstan and Russia are cooperating most closely within the Eurasian Economic Community (one of the founding members is Kazakhstan).

Kazakhstan and Russia signed documents to set up a single customs zone and a Customs Union. has particular significance for this process. Another synchronisation of watches on the main issues of bilateral relations took place at a meeting of the Russian and Kazakh ministers of foreign affairs in Moscow on 14 March 2009. The energy sphere is a promising aspect of Kazakh-Russian cooperation within the SCO. As a result. Branches of eight Russian universities. Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. operate in Kazakhstan.Kazakhstan today Chapter 3. Ahead of Kazakhstan’s chairmanship of the OSCE in 2010. signed by the two heads of state. The legislative basis of the Customs Union is expected to be finalised in 2010. including the Lomonosov Moscow State University. Kazakhstan. Russia. the fight against terrorism and crossborder crime. Foreign Policy At the summit of the heads of EAEC member states in Dushanbe on 6 October 2007. Attention is mainly focused on solving problems of ensuring security. 151 . Particular attention has been given to Kazakh-Russian cooperation within the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation. 150 The ministers stressed the need to expand cooperation in boosting economic security. the leaders of Belarus. Cultural and humanitarian ties are very intensive between Kazakhstan and Russia. This meeting praised bilateral cooperation in all the spheres and expressed the hope for “close interaction between the brotherly peoples of Kazakhstan and Russia” both bilaterally and on the international stage. Bilateral relations within the SCO include a wide range of interaction in the economic. political and cultural and humanitarian spheres – are developing well. The Plan of the Joint Actions of Kazakhstan and Russia for 2009-2010. which was established in 1996. it was stressed that “Russia will fully support” Kazakhstan in this important mission [19]. peace and stability in the SCO member states and increasing the organisation’s role in international efforts in nuclear non-proliferation. despite the global financial crisis. The member states of the organisation are China. countering international terrorism. military and political and humanitarian spheres. Suffice it to say that the Year of Russia in Kazakhstan and the Year of Kazakhstan in Russia were held in 2004 and 2005 respectively. the CSTO and the EAEC. A monument to Kazakh great poet Abai was opened in Moscow in 2006. relations between Kazakhstan and Russia in all main aspects – the economic. drug trafficking and organised crime and dealing with the consequences of natural disasters within the CIS. Kyrgyzstan.

During the several years that followed one of delicate topics of bilateral relations regarding the delimitation of the state border had been discussed. p 89]. China offered assurances of the non-use of nuclear weapons to Kazakhstan in February 1995. p 126]. At talks the countries also agreed to jointly use and protect water resources of the crossborder Ili and Irtysh rivers. Remarkably. Jiang Zemin stressed that not only did friendship and mutually beneficial cooperation between Kazakhstan and China correspond to the fundamental interests of the two countries’ peoples. whereas it reached $500m in 1997. At the same time. bilateral trade between Kazakhstan and China was $368m in 1992. as a result 152 of insistent actions by Kazakh diplomats on nuclear issues and our country’s status as nuclear-free power. Kazakhstan was one of the first in Central Asia to solve this type of important issue in bilateral relations. Based on this document both sides immediately started solving the problems inherited from Soviet-Chinese relations.8bn in 2007. The subsequent official visit by Kazakh President Nursultan Nazarbayev to China in October 1993 started regular meetings between the two countries at the highest level.5. geographical closeness and common interests in the spheres of security and economic cooperation political meant that interaction between Kazakhstan and China was defined by the Kazakh leadership as priority. Kazakh-Chinese relations rose to a new level of strategic partnership. One of the first agreements that defined the principles of interaction between the two countries was the Joint Declaration on the Foundations of Friendly Relations between the Republic of Kazakhstan and the People’s Republic of China which was signed during President Nazarbayev’s meeting with President Jiang Zemin in Beijing in 1993. telecommunications. As political ties strengthens steadily. border problems were mostly solved and the delimitation and demarcation of all sectors of the Kazakh-Chinese border have now been completed. China has now become one of Kazakhstan’s most promising trade and economic partners. Kazakhstan and China are conducting many strategic projects in several spheres such as energy. As a result of signing several agreements (in Shanghai in 1996. non-interference in one another’s internal affairs and the steady development of bilateral relations is proven by the fact that the positions of Kazakhstan and China on many bilateral and multilateral issues coincide. Bilaterally and multilaterally. so does bilateral trade and economic cooperation. China is Kazakhstan’s second largest trade partner behind Russia [21]. Following the adoption of a joint declaration by the country’s leaders during Chinese President Jiang Zemin’s visit to Kazakhstan in 1996. transport and agriculture. Another important step was the common ground between both countries’ positions on security problems which was reflected in their activities within the SCO. Beijing irreversibly regards the preservation of stability and order on the country’s borders and its domestic stability as a very important aspect of the development of cooperation with Kazakhstan [20. In particular. stability and development in Asia and the whole world [20. Astana and Beijing are putting effort into major projects in the non-extractive 153 . Economic relations are developing extremely rapidly between the two countries. For example. Moscow in 1997 and Almaty in 1998) within the Shanghai-Five organisation. Kazakhstan and China Developing relations with China – both bilaterally and multilaterally – occupies an important place in Kazakhstan’s foreign policy strategy. One of the key moments in cooperation between the two countries was the adoption of the Joint Declaration between the Republic of Kazakhstan and the People’s Republic of China on the Further Development of All-Round Cooperation in the 21st Century during President Nazarbayev’s official visit to China in 1999. $1bn in 1998 and about $13. Foreign Policy 3. As early as on 3 January 1992 the countries established diplomatic relations. but also benefited peace. Ancient historical ties. After Kazakhstan declared its independence both countries showed interest in building stable and good-neighbourly relations at a new level.Kazakhstan today Chapter 3. Mutual interest in the two countries’ adherence to the principle of mutually beneficial cooperation.

In order to boost transit of freight Kazakhstan has initiated the construction of the Western Europe-Western China transport corridor. The heads of the two countries hold regular meetings and our countries’ positions on many international and regional problems are regarded as similar. . the importance of transport links has been growing constantly. the intensification of foreign energy ties with energy supplier-countries is becoming increasingly important for Beijing. and the Atasu-Alashankou oil pipeline was completed and commissioned in 2005. The completion of the Kenkiyak-Kumkol and Kumkol-Atasu pipelines is expected to link the earlier built AtyrauKenkiyak and Atasu-Alashankou pipelines to unite all these Kazakh pipelines into a single system and integrate this with China’s oil pipeline networks.Urumqi-the Baketu border post-Karaganda. the current relations between Kazakhstan and China can be described as consistent and dynamic. Cooperation in the oil and gas sector is developing rapidly between China and Kazakhstan. with the steady growth in trade and freight shipment. In turn. President Nazarbayev stressed in his 2004 state-of-the-nation address that Beijing was one of the chief political and economic partners of Astana and that the continuing strengthening of relations with China served as the clear and important course of Kazakhstan’s foreign policy and that the development of good-neighbourly and friendly relations between Beijing and Astana were Kazakhstan’s foreign policy priorities [24]. This project was carried out by Kazakhstan’s KazMunaiGas national oil and gas company and the CNPC. Foreign Policy sectors of the economy. In 2003. untapped opportunities to cooperate in the transit transport sphere. p 221]. It was also decided to open three passenger routes: . led by President Hu Jintao and Premier Wen Jiabao who came to power in autumn 2002. generation of Chinese leaders. The completion of the project at the end of 2009 has made this oil pipeline an important tool in diversifying routes to transport energy resources to global markets. fourth. Kazakhstan and China have huge. 154 As a result.Kazakhstan today Chapter 3. During the visit he met the country’s leaders and signed a joint statement. . SPEC and TRACECA.Urumqi-the Jimunai border post-Karaganda. as one of the major exporters of mineral resources is of particular interest to China.Urumqi-the Alashankou border post-Karaganda. Hu Jintao reiterated that Chinese policy would adhere to the established course of the entire spectre of bilateral relations between Kazakhstan and China. President Nazarbayev invited President Hu Jintao to pay an official visit to Astana. demonstrated consistency in Chinese policy towards Kazakhstan [23.Urumqi-the Khorgos border post-Karaganda (Kazakhstan). The first phase of the Atyrau-Kenkiyak oil pipeline has already been completed. . Chinese companies’ active involvement in the Kazakh oil and gas sector started with China National Petroleum Corporation’s (CNPC) purchase of a 60% stake in Kazakhstan’s Aktobemunaigas oil and gas company in 1997. gradually increasing the level of products with high value added and high technologies in bilateral trade. China’s economy is growing with unprecedented paces and is encountering acute shortages of hydrocarbons. 155 . An important aspect of bilateral economic trade is the energy sphere. In August 2007 ahead of the 15th anniversary of the establishment of diplomatic relations between Kazakhstan and China. . Kazakhstan is an active member of the UN ESCATO. and it shipped about 6 million of oil to China in 2008 [22]. enterprises in the two countries started the implementation of a major project to build an oil pipeline from Kazakhstan and China. It is worth noting the new. Generally. in early 2008 Kazakhstan and China signed an agreement on opening four cargo routes: .Urumqi-the Alashankou border post-Karaganda. To this end.Urumqi-the Baketu border post-Karaganda. . In this respect Kazakhstan. Over the course of Kazakh-Chinese economic cooperation. As a consequence.Urumqi-the Jimunai border post-Karaganda. the Kazakh government is taking active measures to expand the country’s transit potential. under bilateral intergovernmental agreements in the oil and gas sector signed in 1997.

In particular. they could potentially occupy more significant positions.Kazakhstan today Chapter 3. It was suggested that the Treaty of Eternal Friendship. cultural ties are also developing fruitfully. special border zones and joint investment structures. received direct access to raw materials to develop its nuclear power engineering. the backbone of cooperation between Kazakhstan and China is the development of multilateral and long-term cooperation. in 2005 Astana made yet another proposal to its southern neighbours to deal with issues of regional integration and floated its idea of the creation of a Union of Central Asian States. Astana invited Central Asian countries to build close economic integration and move towards a common market and a common currency in the future. economic and investment locomotive. On 1-2 September 2006 at an informal summit in Astana. which results in the similarity of a whole range of foreign policy and foreign economic problems and tasks. At the same time. transport and food consortia. 157 156 . Foreign Policy In addition to meetings between the heads of state.6. opened up new opportunities for Kazakhstan. both countries making significant contributions to maintaining peace and stability. Kazakhstan’s Cooperation with Central Asian Countries Objectively speaking. the leaders of Kazakhstan. signed in the nuclear energy sphere. Integration projects that emerged in Central Asia between 1990 and 2000 had failed to realise for various reasons. important agreements were signed during Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao’s visit to Kazakhstan. Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan should lay the foundation of this initiative. Uzbekistan. Beijing. one of the obvious reasons was linked to the frequently changing priorities within regional initiatives. At present. prime ministers and ministers hold meetings on a bilateral and multilateral basis. including an agreement on cooperation in the nuclear energy sphere between the Kazatomprom national nuclear company and China National Nuclear Corporation. along with successful political and socioeconomic relations. As a result. China attaches a particular significance and offers all-round support to the Kazakh president’s initiative – the CICA and takes an active part in all meetings of this organisation. Cooperation between Kazakhstan and China is not limited to the bilateral format: the countries also maintain relations within international organisations: the UN. Kazakhstan expressed its desire to become a regional trade. On 31 October 2008. in the gas extracting and transporting sphere between KazMunaiGas and CNPC. in the transport sphere between the Kazakhstan Temir Zholy national railway company and The Ministry of Railways of the People’s Republic of China. which means interdependence in the transport and communications and water and energy spheres. Bilateral agreements. Kazakhstan and China are maintaining a wide consensus and interaction. 3. Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan again discussed regional projects that had already been considered in multilateral forums. which was signed by Kazakhstan. Central Asian countries play one of the key positions in Kazakhstan’s foreign policy strategy. Astana’s key package of proposals was to set up sectoral consortia such as water and energy. in turn. This is conditioned by an obvious factor of geographical proximity. Speaking in favour of boosting Central Asian cooperation. Kazakhstan remained a supporter of and active player in various regional organisations. making it possible to switch from exporting raw materials to taking part in the joint construction of nuclear power plants. the SCO and the CICA. Even though in terms of trade they do not play the roles played by Russia. In the security sphere. China or the USA.

Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan took certain political and economic steps to boost ties. but there has not been any significant movement. visa regime. although there are a number of bilateral economic problems between them. headed by the heads of countries. This factor is becoming increasingly considerable in the expansion of regional cooperation. On 26 April 2007 during Kazakh President Nursultan Nazarbayev’s visit to Kyrgyzstan an agreement on the creation of the Interstate Council. regular meetings – both at the highest and the ministerial levels – have not led to the signing of a comprehensible agreement that would be accepted by everyone. along with Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. in particular. Relations with Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan are complicated by the situation on the borders. In turn. transit issues. Kazakhstan always raises the problem of its property in Kyrgyzstan and debts accumulated by Kyrgyz companies. transit and transport issues. was signed. economic. Kyrgyz President Kurmanbek Bakiyev supported Astana’s integration initiatives which will help regional economic cooperation. Foreign Policy Drafting coordinated approaches to regional water and energy problems is a topical issue. President Bakiyev’s official visit to Kazakhstan on 17-18 April 2008 strengthened these trends and made it possible to specify a number of the above-mentioned joint investment projects.Kazakhstan today Chapter 3. Despite all Central Asian countries agreeing on the creation of an expert group to draft a formula for using water resources that is acceptable to everyone. In addition. Generally. All this causes tension in relations between regional countries and demands constant attention. water and energy and other problems. Uzbekistan is known to have problems with all its neighbours. During the visit the countries also established the Kyrgyz-Kazakh Investment Fund with charter capital of $100m. migration issues. They became subjects of talks and were put on the agenda of summits. It is very likely that Uzbekistan will not be able to switch to a more intensive pattern of relations with its neighbours because of the current structure of its economy and also for political reasons. This was proven by Uzbek President Islam Karimov’s visit to Kazakhstan on 22-23 April 2008 when the Uzbek leader officially refused to back the Kazakh initiative of uniting into a Central Asian union. In particular. these problems can be solved and do not mar the relatively close relations between the countries. An important indicator of the development of bilateral relations is Kazakh companies and the capital’s involvement in the construction of the Kambarata hydropower stations and a number of other economic projects. having received support for the idea of a possible interstate association from Bishkek and Dushanbe. which was particularly welcomed by Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan. but Tashkent did not become a fully-fledged member of this organisation and finally stopped its membership of this organisation in November 2008. Astana is interested in investing in building hydropower facilities in 159 . The council is responsible for a whole range of bilateral relations – political. cultural and security issues. Generally. Kazakh business people and managers of national companies have started actively cooperating with Kyrgyz colleagues to expand mutually beneficial trade and economic ties. proposed to start gradually moving towards this idea on a bilateral basis at the initial stages. Kazakhstan. the main reserves of which are in Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan. Astana. 158 Cooperation between Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan is developing relatively rapidly. from links with Uzbekistan. which should boost bilateral trade and economic relations. in implementing its initiative to create the Union of Central Asian States. the Council of Ministers of Foreign Affairs has been set up to successfully coordinate the activities of the Interstate Council. Tashkent’s position impacts the efficiency of major regional projects. The key issues of Uzbekistan’s relations with its neighbours remain the same. Kazakh-Tajik relations are also developing relatively successfully. In 2007-2009. In 2006 Uzbekistan boosted cooperation with CIS countries and joined the EAEC and the CSTO. water and energy problems and the regulation of labour migration are always topical for Kyrgyzstan. is among the countries that face acute shortages of fresh water. Central Asian countries expected significant political and economic results from involvement in the EAEC. Astana continued the negotiation process with Tashkent.

The most important aspect of the climate in the region is the issue of building and operating hydrotechnical facilities and dams in the upper reaches of major rivers. The intensification of relations with Kazakhstan has both economic and political grounds. The existing problems in the transit and migration spheres can be solved and this was stressed at a meeting of the two countries’ heads of government in Astana on 23 August 2007. while official Tashkent demonstratively rejected the Kazakh initiative. With a 161 . the North-South transport corridor and. President Rakhmon positively reacted to the Kazakh initiative on regional association and signed a memorandum 160 on setting up the Interstate Coordination Council of Tajikistan and Kazakhstan and the Council of the Ministers of Foreign Affairs of the two countries. Kazakhstan treats problems faced by Tajikistan with understanding and expresses is readiness to fulfil projects to build hydropower stations but it also aims to seek out understanding on issues with Uzbekistan. In particular. Astana invited its Central Asian partners to consistently move towards close regional cooperation on a pragmatic basis taking into account the specifics of each country. Intergovernmental consultations prepared work to implement agreements achieved at a meeting of the Turkmen. during his visit to Kazakhstan on 12-13 May 2008. which is. In this context this strategy enjoys support from Bishkek and Dushanbe. The upstream countries – Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan – regard water as their national strategic resource and are trying to shift this issue onto the economic plane. Kazakh President Nursultan Nazarbayev’s official visit to Ashgabat on 11-12 September 2007 made it possible to detail the Caspian gas pipeline project. whereas the downstream countries – Kazakhstan. Kazakh-Turkmen relations have been boosted as a result of mutual economic interests and their interest in expanding the geography of transport routes. Foreign Policy Tajikistan and in its agriculture and metallurgy. the visit resulted in the establishment of the Tajik-Kazakh Investment Fund with charter capital of $100m. Obviously. above all in relation to exporting gas to foreign markets. Russian and Kazakh presidents in Turkmenbashi on 12 May 2007. That Ashgabat has become active also has had an impact on cooperation between Central Asian countries. as part of this corridor. Tajik President Emomali Rakhmon reservedly supported the Kazakh initiative to set up the Union of Central Asian States. The new Turkmen leader’s foreign policy debut traditionally started with an official visit to Russia and later to regional neighbours. This problem has acquired particular acuteness in relations between Tashkent and Dushanbe. including in the energy sphere. An important accord was the possibility of investing Kazakh capital in the Turkmen economy. both countries have shown interest in harmonising their energy policies. relations between Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan became active between 2007 and 2009 – the Kazakh and Turkmen leaders held an unprecedented number of meetings as part of bilateral and multilateral cooperation. As a result. President Nazarbayev’s visit to Tajikistan on 12-13 September 2007 was very important. Kazakh investment companies and funds have received official support from the Tajik government and are ready to invest funds in socioeconomic projects in Tajikistan on a mutually beneficial basis. unconditionally. The Tajik leadership has demonstrated interest in expanding regional cooperation. In a similar way as it took place in Kyrgyzstan. Turkmen President Gurbanguly Berdymukhamedov launched a more intensive dialogue with his neighbours.Kazakhstan today Chapter 3. important for the success of the implementation of these initiatives. the Turkmen president pays particular attention to the development model and experience of Kazakhstan. Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan – are convinced that this approach is artificial and express their concern over the stability of the water flow. the construction of a railway line with the involvement of Russia and Iran. Clearly. In this context. From the point of the fulfilment of Kazakhstan’s policy towards Central Asia. but he particularly welcomed Astana’s financial and economic efforts to boost bilateral and regional cooperation.

These efforts are not prompted by the ambitions of the leader. Kazakhstan is actively developing cooperation with the USA in practically all spheres at the moment. This fact explains why one of Kazakhstan’s priority foreign policy directions is the development of relations with the USA.7. America was one of the first countries to officially recognise our country’s independence (on 25 October 1991) and establish diplomatic relations with Kazakhstan. transport and so on). the Treaty between the United States of America and the Republic of Kazakhstan Concerning the Reciprocal Encouragement and Protection of Investment and the joint declaration on the adoption of a treaty on the avoidance of double taxation were signed [25. 3. Kazakhstan has announced its desire to develop closer cooperation and intends to strengthen positive trends both politically (the establishment of interstate countries.Kazakhstan today Chapter 3. This strategy is based on the objective necessity to ensure stability and security in the region and create favourable foreign economic and foreign political medium. bilateral and multilateral dialogue) and economically (investment in energy. The solution of border. Kazakhstan’s support for the US counterterrorist operations in Afghanistan and Iraq was appreciated by the Americans. The 11 September 2001 events triggered a new stage in KazakhUS relations. during President Nazarbayev’s visit to the USA. The regional countries’ relations with leading external players and relations between Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan remain key aspects of the climate in the region. In February 1994. Foreign Policy pragmatic approach there is room to expand cooperation to include neighbouring Uzbekistan. p 79]. In particular. President Nursultan Nazarbayev has paid six official visits to the USA. Kazakhstan and the USA signed the Charter on Democratic Partnership during another visit by the Kazakh president to the USA. Kazakhstan condemned the terrorist attacks in Washington and New York and backed the US anti-terrorist operation in Afghanistan [26]. Regional ties which had remained stagnant for a long time became active. In December 163 162 . passport and visa control and trade and economic problems is still an issue for Central Asian countries. The mutually acceptable distribution of water resources is a longrunning problem and transit and transport and migration problems also always top the agenda of bilateral and multilateral meetings. but the state of bilateral and multilateral relations between the regional countries. whereas cooperation with Uzbekistan is complicated with a range of political and economic problems. This step has confirmed Kazakhstan’s adherence to peaceful development and significantly increased the level of mutual trust between the two countries. Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan have always been relatively intensive both bilaterally and multilaterally. taking part in few targeted international projects quite pragmatically. All this shows that relations between Central Asian countries have now changed significantly. Since Kazakhstan’s independence. the Agreement on Trade Relations. Turkmenistan has been avoiding multilateral relations. Kazakhstan and the USA The United States of America is one of the global actors that can exert significant influence on the development of political and economic processes. Relations between Kazakhstan. Meanwhile. Another important event in the development of bilateral relations was that Kazakhstan voluntarily gave up of nuclear weapons. in May 1992. which have resulted in a number of bilateral agreements which laid the foundation for the development of the further fruitful cooperation between the two countries.

during an official visit to Astana by the former US vice-president. Carlos Pasqual and noted the effectiveness of bilateral cooperation in the implementation of the first phase of the Houston initiative which aimed to bring the two countries’ business circles together. Eni Faleomavaega. jointly producing and selling goods on global markets [27]. she supported the country’s efforts in economic development and said that America considered Kazakhstan as a driver of economic growth in Central Asia. Samuel Bodman. the former secretary of commerce. The US contribution is expected to stand at $24. The programme will be jointly funded by the US and Kazakh governments in future. One of the most important events to have influenced the development of Kazakh-US relations was a visit by the former US secretary of state. The programme’s budget now totals $40m over four years and includes the following components: finance and investment. Condoleezza Rice. and the director of the CIA. At this meeting the Kazakh leader proposed the implementation of the Houston initiative which envisaged exchanging experience and establishing cooperation between the two countries in the sphere of entrepreneurship. as the level of trust between the USA and Kazakhstan has since increased. In particular. 164 At meetings with Kazakh officials. at a meeting in Washington President Nazarbayev and US President George Bush adopted a joint statement on Kazakh-US relations which reiterated mutual adherence to strengthening the long-term strategic partnership between Kazakhstan and the USA. conduct various joint projects and to develop the middle class in Kazakhstan.Kazakhstan today Chapter 3. Kanat Saudabayev. Carlos Gutierrez. Mr Tokayev met the former coordinator for US assistance to Europe and Eurasia. the former secretary of energy. The meeting paid particular attention to one of President Nazarbayev’s state-of-the-nation addresses and noted the significance of the further development of the strategic partnership between Kazakhstan and America. the Pacific and the Global Environment. and the then US ambassador to Kazakhstan. Foreign Policy 2001. Mr Tokayev said that the Houston initiative was a partnership between Kazakhstan and the USA that would bring the two countries’ private sectors closer and improve the competitiveness of Kazakhstan’s businesses. President Nazarbayev met President George Bush. the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) allocated $300m to Kazakh financial institutions as technical assistance. In September 2006 President Nursultan Nazarbayev paid his sixth official visit to Washington where he met US high-raking officials. in turn. The implementation of the Houston initiative represents the main aspect of Kazakh-US economic cooperation because it expands government support to the development of small and medium-sized businesses in Kazakhstan. At the first stage of the implementation of this initiative. As a result. boosting entrepreneurship and competitiveness. which. its leadership in regional integration processes and its desire to joint the World Trade Organisation (WTO).5m. On 30 January 2004. This visit resulted in the adoption of a joint Kazakh-US statement in which Washington showed its support for Kazakhstan’s strategy to join the world’s 50 most competitive countries. to Astana in October 2005. The second phase of the Houston initiative provided funds for social programmes in Kazakhstan. The visit was very effective for Kazakhstan. on 3 October 2002 the Houston initiative was launched and this was announced by the then Kazakh minister of foreign affairs. 165 . the chairman of the committee’s Subcommittee for Asia. improving the investment climate and global integration. Larry Napper. In May 2006. the development of human capital. VicePresident Dick Cheney. Kasymzhomart Tokayev. increases the socioeconomic indicators of the country and improves the general level of the wellbeing of the population. Dick Cheney a memorandum on mutual understanding between the two governments was signed as part of the Kazakh-US economic development programme. In particular.5m and that of Kazakhstan at $15. the US House Committee on Foreign Affairs discussed the prospects for the development of Kazakh-US cooperation with the then Kazakh ambassador to the USA. Michael Hayden. In March 2007.

as well as the supplies of modern samples of military and technical equipment and vehicles. Japan and other AsiaPacific powers. This document covers spheres of bilateral cooperation such as countering international terrorism. He said he was optimistic about bilateral cooperation [28].3bn in the same period of 2006 and $681. in addition to the Russian 166 and Chinese routes.9bn in the first ten months of 2008 (exports totalled $471. developing military infrastructure in the Caspian Sea and the Navy. For example. Foreign Policy noted that Kazakhstan had become a reliable partner in fighting terrorism and stressed its role in satisfying global energy needs as a country with huge energy resources. a memorandum of understanding was signed by the Kazakh Ministry of Defence and the US Department of Defence regarding a five-year plan of cooperation for 2008-2012. establishing a military institute of foreign languages and so on. undoubtedly.1m in the first ten months of 2004. developing peacekeeping forces. About 400 US companies are operating in Kazakhstan [28]. The signing of the second five-year plan of military cooperation is a sign of the expansion of military and political cooperation between the two countries aimed at the implementation of the national plans for the transformation of Kazakhstan’s armed forces. Between 30 January and 1 February 2008 scheduled bilateral consultations were held in Astana between the defence structures of Kazakhstan and the USA led by Kazakh Deputy Minister of Defence Lt-Gen Bolat Sembinov and Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defence Mitchell Shivers.2m and imports $1. After the signing President Nazarbayev stressed that this project had opened a third route to transport oil from Kazakhstan. Prime Minister Karim Masimov. Kazakhstan’s involvement in alternative regional projects relating to the export of energy resources to global markets opens up the possibility of entering new promising markets that have been prompted by heightened interest in Kazakh hydrocarbons from other major regional players such as India. Condoleezza Rice. The USA is now backing the diversification of routes to export energy resources from Kazakhstan. There is a steady growth trend in bilateral trade: it stood at $1. The United States is Kazakhstan’s major investor. The share of US direct investment in the Kazakh economy accounts for about 23. Generally. show the importance of the US factor in Kazakhstan’s future economic development. and the former minister of foreign affairs. the improvement of the country’s peacekeeping potential and the development of the national system of military education and training. the stabilisation of the situation in Iraq and the solution of the Caucasian conflict. In light of Kazakhstan’s increasing role as regional economic leader. The parties focused on the normalisation of the situation in Afghanistan. In 2003. and that increasing the country’s oil output had become a very urgent matter. strengthening Kazakhstan’s air defence forces. in February 2008. This shows that bilateral trade has increased by over three times [29]. America supported the construction of the Western Kazakhstan-Western China oil pipeline and the connection of Kazakhstan to the Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan (BTC) oil pipeline. Marat Tazhin.Kazakhstan today Chapter 3. the former US secretary of state. the two countries signed a five-year plan of military cooperation.445m) against $1. Cooperation in this sphere meets the interests of both Kazakhstan and the USA. paid her second visit to Astana and held meetings with President Nazarbayev. Kazakh-US relations are now developing rapidly. An agreement on Kazakhstan’s joining the BTC took place at a meeting between Kazakh President Nursultan Nazarbayev and Azerbaijani President Ilkham Aliyev on 16 June 2006.5% of total foreign direct investment. the USA is increasingly interested in expanding cooperation 167 . During these meetings she discussed the state and prospects for bilateral relations and a wide range of international and regional issues. Kazakhstan and the USA now have very strong cooperation based on a firm legislative and contractual basis and interact in the sphere of ensuring security. US investment in Kazakhstan has exceeded $15bn over the years of independence. In October 2008. These figures. As a result.

Kazakhstan today Chapter 3. It is worth noting that the Partnership and Cooperation Agreement became the primary bilateral document. is an important geostrategic partner in Central Asia for the USA. The significant milestones of bilateral interaction in that time were the signing of agreements and the exchange of plenipotentiary delegations between Kazakhstan and the EU*. in April 1992. The logical result of cooperation between Kazakhstan and the EU in this period was the signing of the Partnership and Cooperation Agreement in Brussels on 23 January 1995 during a scheduled meeting of the EU Foreign Affairs Council. 3. In November 1994 the European Commission opened its representation in Almaty and earlier. transit and trade. which remains the most politically and socioeconomically stable country in the region. aimed at developing political. Key aspects of bilateral cooperation are joint projects in the spheres of energy. Prospects for and the need to develop these relations for Kazakhstan are determined by the EU’s international role in the modern world. which became the foundation for the TACIS technical assistance programme for the CIS in Kazakhstan in solving the economic. Foreign Policy with Kazakhstan in practically all spheres of relations. At the same time. In January 2009. the Kazakh government and the European Commission signed a memorandum on funding. This agreement was signed by President Nursultan Nazarbayev and the General Secretary of the EU Council. at a meeting with US Ambassador to Kazakhstan Richard Hoagland.8. the EU is an important trade and economic partner for Kazakhstan and a major investor in its economy. economic and cultural links between Kazakhstan and the * Kazakhstan and the EU established diplomatic relations on 2 February 1993. Alain Juppé [31]. The initial phase (1992-1995) was characterised as the period of the establishment of official political contacts and the formation of the contractual and legislative and institutional basis for interstate relations between the sides. As part of the technical assistance. 168 169 . In addition. Kazakhstan. In December 1993 Kazakhstan opened its representation to the EU in Brussels. the TEMPUS programme was launched in Kazakhstan in 1994 to provide assistance in the education and scientific research spheres. A number of Kazakh higher educational and scientific establishments took an active part in this programme. Kazakhstan and the EU Cooperation with the European Union is one the major aspects of Kazakhstan’s foreign policy. Speaker of the Kazakh parliament’s Mazhilis Ural Mukhamedzhanov expressed the hope to preserve the continuity of the US foreign policy towards Central Asian countries after the election of Barack Obama as America’s president [30]. Western European countries’ rich experience in legislative and scientific and technical development is also of particular interest to Kazakhstan. economic partnership and ensuring regional stability and fighting international terrorism. In December 1994 the Kazakh government signed the Final Act of the European Energy Charter. which aims to encourage industrial cooperation between the EU and other countries through offering legal guarantees in the spheres of investment. political and social problems of the transitional period. The treaty also covers energy efficiency and nuclear security issues. The chronology of Kazakhstan’s relations with the EU involves singling out several stages of bilateral cooperation.

Other joint institutional bodies. An inter-parliamentary dialogue between members of the Kazakh parliament and the European parliament is developing successfully. In addition to the adoption of national indicative programmes and assistance programmes. modifying and harmonising EU and Kazakh legislation. for example. Kazakhstan received financial and technical assistance to * Kazakhstan and the EU are also cooperating under other programmes: Copernicus. an EU delegation on issues of justice and internal affairs paid a visit to Kazakhstan. led by the then first deputy chairman of the Central Asia and Mongolia Delegation. On 17-18 June 1998. Ioannis Koukiadis. the Kazakh government set up a joint Kazakhstan-European Union cooperation committee. initiatives to create bilateral cooperation structures were developed in practice. For Kazakhstan this document was of extraordinary significance: it guaranteed the inadmissibility of discrimination in the energy market and assisted Kazakhstan’s integration into the global energy community with the observation of national trade and economic interests. signed three years earlier. With the aim of bringing closer. This committee has so far held eight sittings and its activities help productive exchange of information and views on a wide range of issues of cooperation in the political. EU politicians proposed the creation of an advisory centre for strategic and legal issues in Kazakhstan. TRACECA 170 (investment projects and assistance in developing a transport corridor between Europe and Central Asia). The same year the basic agreement on the European Energy Charter. the Cooperation Council and the Parliamentary Cooperation Committee. It should be noted that this committee has become an important political link in developing and maintaining a constructive partnership between Kazakhstan and the EU in the years that followed. Eurocustoms (cooperation in the customs sphere) and the Eurostat (cooperation in the statistics sphere) [32]*. were also set up at a high level. a European Commission delegation visited Astana to discuss the political and organisational aspects of the implementation of the TACIS programme in Kazakhstan. visited Kazakhstan and discussed issues of cooperation between the parties with the heads of the Kazakh parliament and government and took part in the first sitting of the Kazakhstan. For example. Particular attention is being paid to programmes of EU technical assistance in the environmental protection and healthcare spheres. The agreement created the foundation for a constructive political dialogue and an open trade and investment regime between the parties and envisaged cooperation in 27 directions: from transport to education and from energy to fighting crime.Kazakhstan today Chapter 3. came into force. which completed the official political formation of relations [33]. the EU drafted interstate and regional programmes for partner countries such as INOGATE (assistance to Caspian-littoral countries in attracting investment in new pipelines). on 29 April 1996. The years that followed (1996-2000) were marked by the expansion and revitalisation of relations based on earlier achieved accords. the Central Asia Drug Action Programme (CADAP) and the Border Management Programme for Central Asia (BOMCA) 171 . economic and social spheres between parliamentarians. The main stress in this period was put on cooperation in the oil and gas and energy spheres and the transport and telecommunications sector and mutual trade and investment were strengthened. At the same time. In particular. That cooperation in this sphere should be expanded is necessitated by Kazakhstan’s possible involvement in the Galileo satellite navigation system and the European framework programme for boosting competitiveness and developing innovations. The first step in this direction was the successful launch of the Cluster 2 satellite using a Russian booster from the Baikonur space launching site in March 2000. In May 1997. Foreign Policy EU. A landmark event in this period was the enforcement of the Partnership and Cooperation Agreement between the Republic of Kazakhstan and the European Union (1 July 1999). New aspects of mutually beneficial cooperation became: the development of partner relations with European Space Agency enterprises for the creation and launch of a joint satellite and other projects in the hi-tech sphere. On 23 May 2000 a group of members of the European parliament.European Union Parliamentary Cooperation Committee.

Wintershall (Germany) and Statoil (Norway) are involved in oil and gas extraction in the Caspian and Central Asian region. issues of environmental protection and regional cooperation. When considering the structure of Kazakh exports of mineral resources. supporting the sustainable development of the energy sphere. According to statistics. Kazakh-EU cooperation in the oil sector is under way as part of the Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan and Odessa-Brody-Plock oil pipeline projects. Germany. foreign labour exports and the inviolability of earlier signed contracts. the Netherlands and France. European investment was attracted mainly through the transfer of major industrial enterprises to foreign firms’ management and the creation of joint and subsidiary enterprises. there were 1. As a result. Joint efforts are being put into drafting new projects to assist Kazakhstan in solving the problems facing the country’s domestic development. This initiative covers the following aspects of cooperation: harmonising energy markets based on the principles of the EU internal energy market taking into account peculiarities of partner countries. Shell (the Netherlands). Kazakhstan’s former Minister of Energy and Mineral Resources Baktykozha Izmukhambetov and the EU’s former Commissioner for Energy Andris Piebalgs led their respective delegations. 173 . During these visits. it should be stressed that the EU accounts for the bulk of them. including energy security through exports/imports of energy resources. held talks with the Kazakh government in Astana. relations between Kazakhstan and the EU have entered a new level of cooperation. British Petroleum and Lasmo (UK). the United Kingdom. * On 30 November 2006 as part of the Baku initiative EU. During an official visit to Kazakhstan on 15-16 March 2004 the EU’s then External Relations Commissioner Chris Patten noted that cooperation in the energy sphere was a strategic aspect of the EU’s policy in Central Asia.Kazakhstan today Chapter 3. including boosting energy efficiency of renewable sources of energy and managing demand. European capital was mainly invested in the country’s extractive sector [35]. Ireland. Cooperation in the investment sphere occupies a particular place in Kazakh-EU relations. Kazakh President Nursultan Nazarbayev’s official visits to EU bodies in Brussels in June 2000 and November 2002 gave a significant impetus to the development and creation of favourable conditions for strengthening bilateral cooperation between Kazakhstan and the EU. During the talks accords were reached on the avoidance of double taxation. the Kazakh leader met the then president of the European Commission Romano Prodi.355 enterprises with the involvement of capital from EU countries in Kazakhstan as of January 2003. EU countries’ energy policies are based on using the existing oil pipelines that ship hydrocarbons to European oil refineries and becoming actively involved in extraction in the Caspian Sea shelf. TotalFinaElf and Schlumberger (France). diversifying supplies. strengthening border and customs services and Kazakhstan’s membership of the WTO were discussed. The visits resulted in the signing of an agreement on amending the Kazakh-EU agreement on trade in textile products and the ratification of an agreement between the Kazakh government and the European Atomic Energy Community on cooperation in the sphere of controlled fusion. and the former secretary-general of the Council of the European Union and senior representative for the common foreign and security policy. accompanied by the EU’s increasing interest in cooperation with Central Asian countries. ENI and Agip (Italy). Repsol (Spain). Since 2002. In addition. a conceptual note. transit and demand for energy. In addition. Cooperation is dynamically developing in the oil and gas and energy spheres. attracting investment in energy projects of common and regional interest. He stressed that the EU considered Kazakhstan as an important economic partner and was ready to develop mutually beneficial cooperation. in November 2004 the Baku initiative resulted in a dialogue was launched between the EU and Black and Caspian-littoral countries to expand partnership in the energy sphere*. Foreign Policy solve problems in the Aral Sea region and clear up the consequences of nuclear tests in the Semipalatinsk testing ground. The EU member states accounted for 40% 172 of the total foreign direct investment in Kazakhstan in 2002. Javier Solana [34]. This period is regarded as the period of the active implementation of the fundamental provisions of the Partnership and Cooperation Agreement. and conclusions. In February 2002 the then head of the department for relations with Central Asia and the Caucasus of the European Commission’s Directorate General for External Relations. Black and Caspian-littoral countries and their neighbours held the second ministerial energy conference in Astana and adopted a package of important documents: a roadmap on specific projects. The latest global events have signified interaction in new spheres. and leading countries were Belgium. Italy. Cornelius Wittebrood.

France and the United Kingdom [35]. Germany. Since 2006 Kazakhstan and the EU have been intensifying the political component of cooperation. the UK. Denmark and Italy) stood at $8. This cooperation resulted in the signing of a Kazakh-EU agreement on using nuclear energy for peaceful purposes on 5 December 2006. and the former European Commissioner for External Relations and European Neighbourhood Policy. In 2006 trade continued to grow and reached $22. Anne Anderson. Konstantin Zhigalov and the then permanent representative of Ireland that chaired the EU.9bn and imports $7. In October 2006 the former minister of foreign affairs of Kazakhstan. Kasymzhomart Tokayev. This topic developed further during Benita Ferrero-Waldner’s visit to Kazakhstan on 18-20 October 2006.4bn. He met the former secretary-general of the Council of the European Union and senior representative for the common foreign and security policy.53bn and imports of $6. In December 2006 Kazakhstan and the EU signed a memorandum on cooperation in the energy sphere. which adapted the agreement to the expanded EU. and metals. and the former speaker of the Kazakh parliament’s upper chamber. including exports of $3. paid his first official visit to EU bodies in Brussels.7bn. while imports from the EU (the UK. Germany. A promising aspect in strengthening the Kazakh-EU energy dialogue is development cooperation in the nuclear energy sphere and the uranium industry. Benita Ferrero-Waldner. During these meetings the parties discussed a wide range of issues surrounding interaction between Kazakhstan and the EU. hydrocarbons and minerals account for the bulk of Kazakh exports. the Senate.5bn and imports $8bn) and in 2008 reached $34. Kasymzhomart Tokayev. Kazakhstan’s imports include electrotechnical equipment. ground. In order to revitalise energy projects the EU’s former Commissioner for Energy Andris Piebalgs paid an official visit to Kazakhstan in May 2006. During the years of cooperation EU countries have invested over $73.Kazakhstan today Chapter 3. signed a Kazakh-EU intergovernmental agreement on trade in textile products. with exports of $16. Foreign Policy Since 2006 Kazakh-EU energy cooperation has strengthened significantly. who announced the proposal to increase the level of cooperation with Kazakhstan by involving the country in European Neighbourhood Policy and holding regular consultations in the format of the EU Troika-Kazakhstan at the ministerial level. mutually beneficial shipment of energy resources and the development of environmentally friendly technologies. Kazakh textile exports to EU countries (Belgium.7bn. Taking into the account that the EU acquired ten new members on 1 May 2004 and another two – Bulgaria and Romania – on 1 January 174 2007. Italy. In 2007 trade increased to $27. Another important sphere for cooperation that developed qualitatively during this period is cooperation in the sphere of trade in textile products. She met Kazakh President Nursultan Nazarbayev.5bn (exports of $19.26bn.3% of Kazakhstan’s total foreign trade. the structure of trade between Kazakhstan and the EU has not undergone significant changes. France and the Netherlands) were $29. Kazakhstan and the EU signed a protocol to the Partnership and Cooperation Protocol.4m in 2004. Italy. air and water transport means and their spare parts. chemical and metal products.4bn in the Kazakh economy.3bn and imports $1. In the first quarter 2009. the former minister of foreign affairs. Let us note that following the expansion (the EU-25) in May 2004 Kazakhstan’s trade with the EU countries jumped significantly to $15. Germany. In April 2004 Kazakhstan’s then permanent representative in the European Communities. Generally.6m [35]. trade between Kazakhstan and the EU totalled $4.1bn) [35]. EU countries accounted for 36.3bn. Nurtai Abykayev. The main investors are the Netherlands. the implementation of which includes the regular exchange of information on energy issues. This document envisages improving cooperation in nuclear security and nuclear fusion through ensuring the sustainable structure of the development of trade in nuclear materials between the two sides. Javier Solana. comprising exports of $11bn and imports $4.3bn in 2005. This document envisages two roadmaps on cooperation in strengthening energy security and industry. under which Kazakhstan received the opportunity to export over 150 textile items to the EU. includ175 .1bn (exports of $26.

including as part of meetings of Turkic states. Dynamically developing bilateral relations between Kazakhstan and Turkey have found reflection in joint activities to implement the Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan project. Being aware that the Partnership and Cooperation Agreement. has helped the consistent development of both diplomatic relations between the two countries and trade and economic relations. President Nazarbayev also met the former secretary-general of the Council of the European Union and senior representative for the common foreign and security policy. A package of important interstate agreements. An important point in political cooperation is the involvement of Kazakh and EU leaders in meetings in the format of the EU TroikaCentral Asian countries. business and intellectual potential. During a meeting in Astana in March 2007 they discussed a draft EU Strategy for Central Asia in 2007-2013. In the global system of energy balance. 176 3. Foreign Policy ing the issues of diversification of energy supplies to EU countries. As a result. Official visits that followed by Turkish President Turgut Ozal to Kazakhstan in 1993 and President Nursultan Nazarbayev to Turkey in 1994 expanded economic ties and political cooperation. in the past 18 years mutual cooperation between Kazakhstan and the EU has reached positive results almost in all spheres of interaction. the region’s energy security. with the intention of close interaction. and the expansion of political and trade and economic cooperation. Kazakhstan sees them as promising economic. signed by Astana and Ankara. One of the first countries to establish official relations with Kazakhstan in March 1992 was the Republic of Turkey. interaction within the Galileo space navigation programme. which has allowed them to create major financial and economic centres that have a considerable impact on the geopolitical alignment of forces in the modern world. Kazakhstan established diplomatic relations with Middle Eastern countries between 1992 and 1999. This oil pipeline ships Caspian oil to global markets. which was adopted at the EU summit on 22 June 2007 under the title The European Union and Central Asia: Strategy for a New Partnership. and they exchanged views on a broad spectre of issues of Kazakh-EU political cooperation. which is why Astana and Ankara attach particular significance to it. President Nazarbayev’s visit to Brussels on 4-6 December 2006 became a significant step in cooperation between Kazakhstan and the EU. regional countries occupy a special place. political and cultural partners because all the necessary conditions have developed for mutual understanding and cooperation between Kazakhstan and the countries in the region. A new impetus to interaction between Kazakhstan and Turkey was given by their leaders’ declaration of the development of strategic partnership between Astana and Ankara.9. Kazakhstan and Middle Eastern Countries Middle Eastern countries now have a powerful political. José Manuel Barroso [36].Kazakhstan today Chapter 3. signed by Kazakhstan and the EU. Javier Solana. the constant nature of relations between the two states is a shining example of successful cooperation in which the issue of 177 . the parties agreed to raise their bilateral relations to the level of strategic partnership. was expected to expire in 2009. Kazakhstan positively assesses the prospects for future cooperation and hopes for expanding a dialogue with the EU. In turn. In the meeting the EU stressed its desire to increase the level of its presence in the Central Asian region through assisting in the political and economic development of Central Asian countries. Since acquiring independence Kazakhstan has been trying to establish friendly relations with Middle Eastern countries. As a result. the EU also positively assessed President Nazarbayev’s initiative to draft the special Path to Europe programme in the context of Kazakh-European relations. including the preparations ahead of Kazakhstan’s chairmanship of the OSCE in 2010. The president visited the European Commission’s headquarters and met the president of the European Commission. This initiative was announced during President Nazarbayev’s visit to Turkey in May 2003 and was confirmed during his meeting with Turkey’s former President Ahmet Necdet Sezer at the NATO summit in Istanbul in June 2004 [37]. The talks resulted in the signing of a memorandum on mutual understanding in the energy sphere.

Foreign Policy strengthening bilateral mutually beneficial contacts receives increased attention and Kazakhstan and Turkey intend to continue cooperation in international and regional organisations in the future. including Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Defence and Aviation and Inspector General of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Crown Prince Sultan 179 . The geopolitical location and economic potential of the Islamic Republic of Iran make it a major partner for Kazakhstan. Later priority aspects of bilateral cooperation were defined during President Nazarbayev’s visit to Iran in May 1996. 178 The two countries are also developing cooperation at regional levels. Astana and Tehran also intend to use the potential of sea routes in the Caspian Sea and ship freight between major ports in Kazakhstan and Iran. at Saudi King Fahd Bin Abdul Aziz’s invitation President Nazarbayev paid his second visit to the kingdom in March 2004. Important political events in the history of Kazakh-Egyptian relations include President Nazarbayev’s visit to Egypt in February 1993 and March 2007 and Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak’s visit to Kazakhstan in November 2006. October 1999 and October 2007 and during the then Iranian President Mohammad Khatami’s participation in the Economic Cooperation Organisation summit in Almaty in May 1998 and his visit to Kazakhstan in April 2002 [37]. The foundation of long-term cooperation between the two countries was laid during President Nazarbayev’s visit to Tehran in November 1992 and Iran’s former President Ali Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani’s visit to Kazakhstan in October 1993. The two Caspian-littoral states attach particular attention to defining the legal state of the Caspian Sea. The planned construction of a railway link and roads along the Caspian Sea to join Iran’s transport networks will intensify economic processes not only between Kazakhstan and Iran. The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia occupies a key position in the political and economic life of the Middle East.Kazakhstan today Chapter 3. Kazakhstan and Iran now are putting joint efforts into the creation of the North-South transport corridor to reduce distance and optimise routes to supply goods from Europe to Asia. In turn. and the formation of a regional system of collective security conditions the desire of Kazakhstan and Egypt to establish close mutually beneficial relations. as well as joint work within international organisations like the OIC and the League of Arab States. and official relations were established in January 1992. The countries established diplomatic relations in March 1992. Cooperation between Astana and Cairo on strengthening security measures in the region is reflected in the countries’ interaction to implement the Kazakh initiative of convening the CICA and the Congress of Leaders of World and Traditional Religions. Kazakhstan is currently actively cooperating with Iran as part of a project to ship oil on tankers from the port of Aktau to the Iranian port of Neka. but also throughout the entire region [38. the Arab Republic of Egypt tries to act as a mediator in solving complex regional problems. including interethnic conflicts and interstate contradictions. Iran’s involvement in the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation since July 2005 (as an observer) helps expand the range of issues for discussion and consultation and exchange views on topical problems of international politics. Enjoying its strong reputation in developing countries in Asia. The establishment of partner relations between Astana and Tehran is characterised by the similarity of the two countries’ positions on many international and regional issues. Kazakh-Saudi relations were established on 30 April 1994 and President Nazarbayev paid his first official visit to the country in the autumn of that year. An interstate dialogue in this direction is being held as part of summits of heads of Caspian-littoral states. and it is the world’s largest exporter of energy resources as well as the home to Islamic holy shrines. high-ranking Saudi officials visited Kazakhstan. where it would be swapped for Iranian oil in the Gulf for sale to Asia-Pacific countries. p 183]. Strengthening friendly relations between the countries. The similarity of Kazakhstan’s and Egypt’s positions on a broad scope of issues of regional security.

President Nazarbayev paid an official visit to Palestine twice – in 1995 and 2000. In particular. In addition. After signing a joint statement in July 1993. the countries’ leaders aim to create the best conditions for establishing active business contacts in the sphere of trade and finance. Bilateral relations between Kazakhstan and Saudi Arabia in the trade and economic sphere have great potential. Significant investment potential allows the UAE to fund the construction of various facilities and projects in Kazakhstan. a package of important interstate agreements was signed. Kazakhstan is dynamically and fruitfully developing relations with the United Arab Emirates. the two countries officially established diplomatic relations. Justice Minister Abdullah Al-Asheikh and Supreme Judicial Council Chairman Saleh Bin Abdullah Bin Humeid. Kazakhstan and Qatar are now trying to give a new impetus to interstate relations. During Kazakh President Nursultan Nazarbayev’s visit to Qatar in 1998 and 2007 and Emir of Qatar Hamad Bin Khalifa Al Thani’s reciprocal visit to Astana in 1999 the two leaders discussed strengthening bilateral agreements and opportunities to develop economic and cultural and humanitarian cooperation. Kazakhstan has spoken in favour of conducting a policy of balance of interests in the region. After the establishment of diplomatic relations in September 1992. Doha attaches great significance to developing relations with Astana and encourages Qatar’s private sector to cooperate with Kazakh partners. 181 . Relations. the former head of the Palestinian National Authority Yasser Arafat visited Kazakhstan in 1991 and 1999. including the situation in the Middle East. Proceeding from this Kazakhstan favours boosting interstate cooperation and increasing contracts between the two countries’ entrepreneurs. are developing both in the trade and economic and cultural and humanitarian spheres. tourism and sport spheres. The states are now aiming to create the necessary conditions for a regular exchange of views on topical international problems. Saudi Arabia has impressive investment opportunities and shows interest in fulfilling major infrastructure projects in Kazakhstan.Kazakhstan today Chapter 3. Relations between Kazakhstan and the State of Qatar also help strengthen Kazakhstan’s investment cooperation with Gulf countries. petrochemistry. Kazakhstan has established political contacts with Israel and in parallel with the Palestinian National Authority. 2000. In turn. which envisages large-scale bilateral cooperation in the economic sphere. education. It is worth stressing that for Kazakhstan the UAE is a promising partner in the Arab world. primarily. Moreover. It is important to note that Israel is interested in cooperation with Kazakhstan as this will enable it to establish and expand relations with other Muslim countries. Relations in the Middle East are characterised by the complicated relations between Israel and the Arab world. agricultural. including the Aktau City project in the Caspian Sea region and the Abu Dhabi Plaza project in Astana. During talks the Kazakh and Palestinian leaders discussed issues of bilateral cooperation. expanding cooperation in the oil and gas. Foreign Policy Bin Abdul Aziz. in industry. Taking into account the continuing Arab-Israeli conflict. In its relations with the Middle Eastern countries Kazakhstan aims to develop a constant dialogue and regular consultations on a broad spectre of global and regional issues. 2005 and 2006 and UAE President Sheikh Khalifa Bin Zayed Al Nahyan’s visits to Kazakhstan in 2002 and 2008. This circumstance proves Kazakhstan’s balanced policy on the problem of the Middle Eastern settlement. 180 As a result of a number of official and working visits by Kazakh President Nursultan Nazarbayev to UAE in 1998. the states signed the Plan of Joint Action: Kazakhstan – UAE. Kazakhstan’s position on the Middle Eastern settlement is based on support for UN resolutions adopted on this issue. healthcare. Calling for the maximum use of negotiation potential to solve the existing Israeli-Palestinian problems. established between Kazakhstan and Israel in April 1992. It should also be noted that boosting cooperation with Muslim countries meets Kazakhstan’s long-term interests and is one of the country’s foreign policy priorities. 2004. transport and telecommunications and construction. Kazakhstan started to build the basis for bilateral cooperation.

Kazakhstan is trying to fully open up the potential of trade and economic cooperation with Middle Eastern countries by creating a favourable investment climate for funding the non-extractive sector of its economy. The declaration on the principles of relations between Kazakhstan and India. Kazakhstan is taking active measures to develop political and economic cooperation with South Asian states [40. At the same time. Kazakhstan and South Asian Countries The South Asian region with its beneficial geostrategic position. considering it as an inseparable part of the Muslim community [39]. Since the establishment of diplomatic relations between Kazakhstan and India during President Nazarbayev’s visit to Delhi in February 1992. the countries showed interest in boosting friendly relations. 3. The implementation of major investment projects in the energy. This is precisely why Arab countries welcome Kazakhstan’s involvement in the Organisation of the Islamic Conference and the Islamic Development Bank and offer all-round support to Kazakhstan’s foreign policy initiatives to convene the CICA. In addition. Moreover. focusing on problems of global stability and security. tourism. Foreign Policy Muslim countries regard Kazakhstan as a reliable partner and leader in the Central Asian region. political weight and human resources represents great interest to Kazakhstan. India aims to expand regional and global cooperation. Kazakhstan and India pointed to the similarity of their positions on key aspects of regional and global politics and the absence of fundamental contradictions on the main problems of international relations. infrastructure. food. p 136]. In pursuit of its foreign policy India is trying to normalise relations both with its regional neighbours and distant states. Kazakhstan’s chairmanship of the OSCE in 2010 and of the OIC in 2011 invites positive reaction from Middle Eastern countries.Kazakhstan today Chapter 3. metal and other sectors will make it possible to elevate Kazakhstan’s relations with Middle Eastern countries to a new level. banking. We should note that the significant factors that influence the nature of relations in South Asian countries are the differences in the national interests of each of them. including with Central Asian countries. Appropriately reacting to challenges coming from the region. the Congress of World and Traditional Religions and the Muslim World-the West dialogue. The geographical proximity of the Indian subcontinent to Central Asian countries and the rich history of relations between the peoples of the two regions that have managed to establish close links in trade and cultural exchange necessitate stable and mutually beneficial interstate relations. For its part. In foreign relations Delhi is guided by the principles of multi-polar world system. Proceeding from this point.10. signed during the visit. Kazakhstan is trying to conduct a balanced foreign policy towards South Asian countries. laid the foundation for bilateral 183 182 . Kazakhstan pays heightened attention to issues of ensuring security and stability in South Asia because political contradictions between regional leaders – India and Pakistan – need all-round discussion and solution.

trade and economic. textiles working group and the subcommittee for scientific and technical cooperation. cultural exchange and the creation of the Kazakh-Indian intergovernmental commission for trade and economic. The following Indian visits to Kazakhstan were of significant importance for the negotiation process between Astana and Delhi: the former Prime Minister Pamulaparthi Venkata Narasimha Rao’s visit in May 1993 and the former Vice-President Kocheril Raman Narayanan’s visit in September 1996. as well as helping sign the Almaty act in 2002 and endorse the CICA Catalogue of Confidence-Building Measures in 2004. during which agreements on technical cooperation. the fight against international terrorism. Aiming to be involved in processes taking place in Central Asia and wanting to boost relations with Russia and China. attempted to normalise relations between Delhi and Islamabad. In particular. one of the most active supporters of the development of the CICA. This shows Delhi’s desire to achieve the maximum effect in drafting new approaches to regional security issues. financial and other spheres. The Kashmir problem remains an important aspect of KazakhIndian talks. A new boost to the development of Kazakh-Indian relations was given by India’s Vice-President Mohammad Hamid Ansari in April 2008 and President Nazarbayev’s fourth visit to Delhi in January 2009. the SCO Energy Club and the SCO-Afghanistan contact group will help 185 . on holding days of Kazakh culture in India and of Indian in Kazakhstan helped increased the potential of bilateral cooperation. The signing of the Convention between the Government of the Republic of India and the Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan for the Avoidance of Double Taxation. the Agreement on Encouragement and Mutual Protection of Investments and the memorandums on mutual understanding. oil and gas. received observer status in the SCO during the summit in Astana in July 2005. Foreign Policy cooperation in the political. India’s desire to take part in SCO initiatives such as the Regional Antiterrorist Structure (RATS). The Kazakh side has spoken in favour of a peaceful solution to India-Pakistan contradictions based on taking account of the opinions of all parties concerned and international law [42. making use of the advantages of this forum. The existence of such an unusual platform for dialogue such as the CICA makes it possible for conflicting parties to sit at the negotiations table and discuss problems. scientific and technical. the then Indian Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee paid an official visit to Kazakhstan. The countries’ intentions to boost economic cooperation were confirmed during President Nazarbayev’s second visit to India in December 1996. military and technical cooperation. This is precisely why Kazakhstan and India activated their activities in other regional structures. At present Kazakhstan and India are combining their efforts to develop political and economic ties both at interstate and regional levels. which resulted in the signing of the Kazakh-Indian Joint Declaration. which is why one of the key issues of the interstate political dialogue remains to be efforts to advance Kazakhstan’s initiative to convene the CICA. industrial and cultural cooperation were signed [41]. India. played a positive role during drafting the declaration of principles for cooperation between CICA member states in 1999. From the very beginning interaction between Kazakhstan and India aimed to strengthen regional security and expand economic contacts. India took active part in the CICA summits in 2002 and 2006. In July 2002. during the intensification of the conflict between India and Pakistan in 2002 Kazakhstan and Russia. as a result of which bilateral relations have reached the strategic level of partnership. A telling example of the strengthening of relations between Astana and Delhi was President Nazarbayev’s third visit to India in February 2002. p 28]. 184 The Indian government. with Kazakhstan’s support. Within the intergovernmental commission there are joint working groups on information technologies.Kazakhstan today Chapter 3.

which resulted in the signing of a bilateral agreement on cooperation between the two capitals. the agreements on the establishment of diplomatic and consular relations. with the arrival of new leadership in Pakistan the situation changed to the better and the decline in diplomatic cooperation was overcome. which are characterised by special geopolitical location and wide economic opportunities. In the late 1990s political activity slowed down in relations between Kazakhstan and Pakistan. The Islamic Republic of Pakistan exerts considerable influence on the processes that are taking place in South Asia. Since the very beginning of its independence Kazakhstan has been aiming to develop and boost political dialogue with South Asian countries. by the Agreement on the Avoidance of Double Taxation. Kazakhstan and India count on a long-term economic and political partnership that will make it possible to establish transport and telecommunications links. who attended the CICA summit in Almaty in 2006. However. In August 1995. This circumstance shows Kazakhstan’s balanced 186 approach to India-Pakistan contradictions and its desire to establish a permanent and comprehensive dialogue between them in order to bring about a peaceful solution to the Kashmiri problem. Officials from Pakistan are taking an active part in promoting the idea of the CICA from the very beginning of its establishment. In addition. ensure bilateral cooperation in the energy and information technology spheres. enables Astana to tap the potential of interstate cooperation and favourable prospects for Kazakhstan’s access to the global transport and communications networks that stem from it. helping it intensify its interstate economic cooperation.Kazakhstan today Chapter 3. It is worth noting that the former president of Pakistan. in particular. accords on joint actions to fight the illegal turnover of drugs and psychotropic substances. Pakistan’s then Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto visited Kazakhstan and its President Farooq Leghari paid an official visit to Kazakhstan in October 1996. Kazakhstan and Pakistan established diplomatic relations in February 1992 during President Nazarbayev’s state visit to Pakistan. Because of this. as well as allowing them to tap the potential of mutually beneficial cooperation between the two Asian countries. Pakistan aims to become a full member of this organisation. During the visit the following basic documents of bilateral relations between the two countries were signed: the declaration on the principles of relations between Kazakhstan and Pakistan. visited Kazakhstan on an official visit. not only will Kazakhstan’s future cooperation with South Asian states have a positive impact on the socioeconomic development of these countries. 187 . In November 2000 Pervez Musharraf. Kazakhstan’s cooperation with South Asian countries. terrorism and other crimes. Foreign Policy expand cooperation between member states of the organisation in the priority aspects of its activities. After these visits the parties defined some promising aspects of bilateral relations. the then head of the executive branch of power in Pakistan. Thus. but will also help ensure regional stability and security. Pervez Musharraf. on trade and economic cooperation. raised issues regarding the expansion of cooperation in the trade sphere and on transport and energy projects. including in the banking sphere. Pakistan was granted observer status in the SCO and this helps the country’s involvement in the process of solving issues of regional security. placing particular emphasis on the economic potential of this cooperation. As a result. especially with Central Asian countries. was helped by President Nazarbayev’s visit to Pakistan in December 2003. strengthening their legislative basis by a number of important documents. on cooperation in the spheres of culture. The further expansion of cooperation. sport and tourism and the protocol on the creation of a joint intergovernmental commission. during which Astana and Islamabad confirmed intentions to develop bilateral relations further without discriminating the interests of other countries.

the sides signed a joint statement on strengthening strategic partnership in the sphere of the peaceful use of nuclear energy and over 20 cooperation agreements in the nuclear sphere. In June 2008 the Kazakh president paid another official visit to Japan. Michio Watanabe. During his visit a joint declaration on the further development of friendship. security and culture. capable of exerting substantial influence on the development of regional and global processes. Foreign Policy 3. The funding from this 189 . In 2004 Japan’s former Minister of Foreign Affairs Yoriko Kawaguchi announced a new initiative towards Central Asian countries – the Central Asia plus Japan dialogue. This region now occupies an increasingly important place in modern Kazakhstan’s foreign policy because Asia-Pacific countries have high economic and industrial growth rates. The Joint Statement was signed during the visit. Kazakhstan and Japan. In December 2002. which makes the region a promising market. As a result of the visit. During the visit President Nazarbayev met Emperor Akihito. power engineering and trade companies and financial institutions. government members and business people. Partnership and Cooperation. An historical event that had a serious impact on Kazakh-Japanese relations was the first visit to Kazakhstan by Japan’s then Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi in August 2006.Kazakhstan today Chapter 3. Trade and Industry Akira Amari. The foundation for bilateral relations was laid by President Nursultan Nazarbayev’s visit to Japan in April 1994. At the same time. visited Kazakhstan. Asia-Pacific’s leading and most economically developed country is Japan. Currently. as well as other Central Asian countries. The main items of Kazakh exports to Japan are still titanium and chemical products. Kazakhstan and Asia-Pacific Countries The Asia-Pacific vector of Kazakhstan’s foreign policy is one of the most promising directions of cooperation for the future. Kazakhstan’s former Minister of Foreign Affairs Kasymzhomart Tokayev visited Japan to meet government officials. The visit’s main objective was to raise economic cooperation between the two countries to a new level. The then Japanese Prime Minister Ryutaru Hashimoto’s 1997 Silk Road Diplomacy strategy helped expand Japan’s cooperation with Kazakhstan. In August 2004. The regional countries’ rapidly developing economies constantly need to increase energy imports. Expanding both bilateral and multilateral relations with Asia-Pacific countries will help Kazakhstan’s multi-vector foreign policy. At meetings with Kazakh officials the former Japanese prime minister showed interest in cooperating in the nuclear energy sphere. the leading Asia-Pacific countries are claiming increasingly better reputations and are turning into new centres of the global economy and politics. Japan also conducts projects in Kazakhstan as part of its Official Development Assistance (ODA) Programme. On the global stage. In December 1999 President Nazarbayev paid his second visit to Japan and signed the Joint Declaration on Friendship.11. the first meeting of ministers of foreign affairs of the countries involved was held in Astana. led by Minister of Economy. 188 This forum helped expand Japan’s cooperation with Central Asian countries at a multilateral level. partnership and cooperation between the two countries was signed. In April 2007 a delegation the heads of Japan’s major corporations. Japanese companies are involved in major international oil projects in Kazakhstan and conduct geological exploration to find deposits of rare metals. Japanese companies run energy-saving projects in Kazakhstan using new technologies. The dialogue’s main priorities were the boosting of cooperation with regional countries in the spheres of economy. while Japan supplies equipment. devices and cars to Kazakhstan. high economic development rates increase the living standards of the population and general consumer demand. The dialogue between Kazakhstan and Japan started in May 1992 with the visit by the then Japanese minister of foreign affairs. economic cooperation between Kazakhstan and Japan is flourishing. and notes of the recognition of treaties and agreements signed by the USSR and Japan were exchanged.

including 48 joint ventures and 62 representative offices. the countries signed the Joint Statement. Foreign Policy programme in Kazakhstan has exceeded $1bn since it was launched [43]. During his official visit to Seoul on 15-18 May 1995. trade. information technologies. This statement pointed to the need to expand bilateral relations in the spirit of friendship and cooperation and raise practical interaction in the spheres of trade. in which a particular role is played by Kazakhstan’s Korean diaspora. machine-building and so on. according to the National Bank of Kazakhstan). One of the main promising aspects is interaction with South Korea in the context of regional integration and cooperation in ASEAN. Astana and Seoul agreed to expand cooperation through active systematic exchange in the spheres of education. Apart from frequent political and economic contacts between Kazakhstan and South Korea. South Korea is one of the leading investors in the Kazakh economy. The contractual and legislative basis for cooperation between Kazakhstan and South Korea consists of over 60 documents. 191 . Kazakhstan’s diplomatic relations with South Korea were established on 28 January 1992. energy. However. Kazakhstan now needs investment for a number of key sectors that are not as attractive – agriculture. culture. participation in ASEAN is one of the main ways of involving Kazakhstan in Asia-Pacific integration structures. sport and local self-government [45]. In the foreign policy sphere bilateral ties between Astana and Seoul are important in the context of establishing and furthering Kazakhstan’s cooperation with Asia-Pacific countries. Present relations with South Korea. taking account of its economic and political potential. The chief role in establishing interaction between the countries was played by high level meetings. In essence. mineral resources. which numbers over 100. The main spheres of investment are construction. information technologies and telecommunications. pp 332-333]. one can suggest that active cooperation between the two countries in the hi-tech sphere will ensure the necessary resources for our country’s economic modernisation. one can talk about serious prospects for cooperation in the humanitarian and cultural spheres. bear the nature of a strategic partnership for Kazakhstan. finance. energy and mineral resources and other spheres. tourism. During the first state visit by South Korean President Roh Moohyun to Kazakhstan on 19 and 20 September 2004. Kazakhstan and the Republic of Korea. as well as its presence in the Kazakh economy. Kazakh President Nursultan Nazarbayev visited South Korea on an official visit twice – in 1995 and 2003. signed during the Kazakh president’s second visit to South Korea in November 2003. in the activities of the CICA. Kazakhstan’s wise minority policy is one of the main assurances of the consistent development of KazakhSouth Korean relations. The declaration said that both countries admitted that guarantees of the rights of ethnic minorities was the main element of stability in the international community and that they would respect and protect the rights and interests of citizens who had roots in Kazakhstan and Korea to ensure their cultural traditions and religion in line with the norms of international law [44. President Nazarbayev signed one of the main documents for bilateral relations – a declaration on the main principles of interaction and cooperation between Kazakhstan and South Korea. the production of buses.000 people. but this is largely hindered by Kazakhstan’s geographical remoteness. as an influential global player. No less important is South Korea’s participation. science and technology to a higher level [46]. Over 300 enterprises with the involvement of South Korean capital are operating in Kazakhstan. Taking into account the tremendous interest that South Korean companies have in Kazakhstan.Kazakhstan today Chapter 3. stressed the countries’ readiness to put efforts to support peace and stability in Asia and fight international terrorism. organised crime and drugs. Its total investment in Kazakhstan has reached about $3bn (as of 30 September 2008. cooperation in the spheres of education. includ190 ing agreements on cultural and scientific and technical cooperation. equipment for the oil and gas and chemical sectors and white goods. The Joint Declaration.

finance and construction.2m in 2007. Indonesia’s foreign policy directions are traditionally aimed at firmly protecting national interests. 192 Kazakhstan and Malaysia. fighting terrorism and solving regional conflicts. The similarity of Indonesia’s and Kazakhstan’s positions on foreign policy issues is a favourable basis for the development of mutually beneficial bilateral relations. In September 2003 Malaysia’s former supreme ruler. visited Kazakhstan in connection with a Malaysian astronaut’s flight to the International Space Station from the Baikonur cosmodrome. the CICA and the OIC. Malaysia’s former Prime Minister Mohathir Mohammad first visited Kazakhstan in July 1996. strengthening the UN’s central role and the supremacy of international law. This visit elevated bilateral relations to a new level: as a result the countries signed a number of agreements which were important in practical terms for the development of bilateral cooperation: the intergovernmental agreement on the avoidance of double taxation and the prevention of tax evasion and a package of business agreements in the sphere of information technologies. The Kazakh president paid his first official visit to Malaysia in May 1996. In particular. were signed. As a result. Malaysia is of particular interest to Kazakhstan. The country is the world’s largest producer of electronic chips and household air conditioners. during the former Indonesian President Mohammed Suharto’s official visit to Kazakhstan. In 2006 bilateral trade totalled $24. Foreign Policy Positions adopted by Kazakhstan and South Korea on key global problems. p 270]. Jakarta’s main foreign policy objective is to create favourable conditions for strengthening the country’s territorial integrity and speeding up economic development [47. pp 8-17]. Industry contributes 46% to the Malaysian economy. visited Kazakhstan. Out of all the Asia-Pacific countries. documents that laid the foundation for bilateral relations were signed. In return. led by Minister of Science. Tuanku Syed Sirajuddin.7 – more than in the whole of 2006. 90% of whom are Muslim. Indonesia advocates drafting new parameters of the global order based on multi-polarity.3m and $34. while services account for 41%. making Indonesia the world’s largest Muslim country. Kazakhstan’s trade with Indonesia is relatively small. Kazakhstan and Indonesia. President Nursultan Nazarbayev’s reciprocal visit to Indonesia resulted in the signing of the agreement on settlements between the National Bank of Kazakhstan and the Central Bank of Indonesia and the agreement on cooperation between the two countries’ commerce and trade chambers. and the countries established their diplomatic missions in 1996. oil and gas processing and textiles. A major Asia-Pacific country and the world’s largest island state is Indonesia. Technology and Innovation Jamaluddin Jarjis. constructive involvement in solving global problems and ensuring peace. but it shows an upward trend. agreements on air links and on cooperation between the countries’ central banks. are generally similar. Kazakhstan and Indonesia are closely cooperating within the UN. In October 2007. the countries signed the Joint Declaration and the Agreement on Economic and Technical Cooperation [48. a Malaysian delegation. including in the sphere of strengthening the regime of the non-proliferation of weapons of mass destructions. on encouragement and protection of investment and economic and scientific and technical cooperation. It has a population of 240 million people. especially its experience in economic development. Kazakhstan and Malaysia are successfully cooperating in the sphere of space technologies and conquering space. Malaysia has achieved astonishing results in the spheres of car production. while President Nazarbayev went on a state visit to Malaysia in June 2006. as well as the Joint Declaration. Malaysia has achieved extraordinary successes in the production of electrical and electronics equipment. 193 . This visit resulted in basic intergovernmental agreements on trade and economic cooperation. whereas in the first half of 2008 this figure reached $25. In 1995.Kazakhstan today Chapter 3. Diplomatic relations between Kazakhstan and Malaysia were established on 16 March 1992. stability and security globally and regionally.

Foreign Policy Kazakhstan and Malaysia are actively cooperating within international forums. The region already accounts for two-thirds of the global economic output. This landmark event in the history of the country’s diplomacy and foreign policy took place at the 46th session of the UN General Assembly as a result of the adoption of Resolution 46/224. while the commonness of positions on international political issues is a favourable basis for developing mutually beneficial cooperation between Kazakhstan and Asia-Pacific countries. where a new global centre of politics and economy is emerging. The similarity of the goals and tasks of Kazakhstan. based on a dialogue and mutual understanding in solving topical international problems. The country’s Ministry of Foreign Affairs is broadly building relations with Asia-Pacific countries. 3. As a consequence. After obtaining independence Kazakhstan also defined peaceful development and expanding neighbourly relations as the key principle of its foreign policy. In 2007. Kazakhstan started intensive activities in the international area as a player that was capable of influencing the formation of a fundamentally new system of collective security in Asia. In the modern world Kazakhstan’s interests cannot be limited to neighbouring regions. observing human rights and drafting efficient measures to counter modern challenges and threats to stability and security with other members of the international community [50]. Kazakh-Malaysian trade totalled $67. doctors. Kazakhstan’s position and its government’s specific steps on nuclear disarmament invited respect in the international community. In October 2008 in Astana the seventh Asia Cooperation Dialogue ministerial meeting was attended by Malaysian’s former Minister of Foreign Affairs Abdul Rahim Bakri. Asia-Pacific’s progress in the hi-tech sphere generates interest in Kazakhstan. Kazakhstan and the UN The UN’s main goal is to promote peaceful and sustainable development globally. 195 194 .13m. as a young state that started making the first steps on the international stage. In autumn 1992 at the 47th session of the UN General Assembly the Kazakh delegation took part in the UN forum as a full member for the first time.5m [49]. strengthening the regime of the non-proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. Every year. At this session President Nazarbayev delivered a speech to define the key principles and aspects of Kazakhstan’s foreign policy and the country’s plans to enter the international arena as an independent and sovereign player. The two countries are currently closely cooperating in the sphere of education and enhancing qualifications. Kazakh specialists (lawyers. diplomats and economists) undergo training courses in Malaysian educational establishments as part of the Malaysian programme for technical assistance for developing countries.Kazakhstan today Chapter 3. enabled it to become a full member of the UN on 2 March 1992. As a result. The economic successes of Asia-Pacific and its economic growth rates are impressive. In it the head of state stressed the country’s readiness to share the responsibility for achieving development goals. During this speech the president proposed one of Kazakhstan’s first initiatives to the international community – one that concerned the creation of a special forum – the Conference for Interaction and Confidence-Building Measures in Asia (CICA). This speech could be rightfully described as a historical event in Kazakh foreign policy.12. while in January-September 2008 this was $48. Kazakhstan shows interest in exchanging experience with leading Asian countries in economic and industrial development.

Over 500 197 . In May 2006 the UN Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) held its 63rd session in Almaty. This is primarily linked to the fact that these problems have international. The Almaty conference became the first UN event to discuss problems of landlocked countries. Thus. Kazakhstan signed an agreement on the creation of a joint peacekeeping battalion in Central Asia under the aegis of the UN. Kazakhstan deserved the UN’s recognition as a state that adopted a balanced and constructive approach to solving topical international problems. During the visit Mr Annan praised Kazakhstan as a regional leader in preventing conflicts. An important event in relations between Kazakhstan and the UN was the former UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan’s visit to Astana in October 2002. As a result. along with Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan. it became the first Central Asian country to be elected to ECOSOC. He also noted that Kazakhstan had achieved significant results in switching from administrative-command to market economy and managed to preserve stability in the country. religious extremism. Taking into account international experience. In 1996 Kazakhstan joined the UN system of reserve agreements for possible involvement in peacekeeping operations. As part of its activities in the UN. we should note that there is no country (regardless of its political. In 1999 at the 53rd session of the UN General Assembly Kazakhstan initiated the adoption of a resolution on transit issues in Central Asia which was co-authored by 19 other members of the UN. subunits of which took part in mine clearing in Iraq between 2003 and 2008. in January 2005 Kazakhstan hosted a UN Security Council Counter-Terrorism Committee special meeting to consolidate efforts to fight terrorism threats.Kazakhstan today Chapter 3. During a plenary session of the UN General Assembly Kazakhstan’s candidacy was supported by 187 countries out of 192 and. Kazakhstan pays particular attention to cooperation in ensuring regional security and organising peacekeeping operations. This boosted Kazakhstan’s reputation as a young state that adhered to the principles of stability and peaceful development. This 196 conference resulted in the adopted a UN General Assembly resolution on the Almaty programme of action on cooperation between developing landlocked and transit countries. economic and political might) that is capable of independently countering the serious modern challenges of terrorism. In relations with the UN Kazakhstan also focuses on countering non-traditional threats that bear a crossborder nature. armoured and transport means of Kazbat for peacekeeping operation and showed interest in closer involvement in the UN system of purchases for peacekeeping operations. In December 1995. crossborder nature and need appropriate collective solutions. weapons smuggling. at the 49th session of the UN General Assembly in their speeches heads of state welcomed Kazakhstan’s move to join the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START-1) and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. the non-proliferation of weapons of mass destructions. along with 53 other countries. In connection with this. In 2003 Kazakhstan and the UN also signed a memorandum of understanding regarding contributions to UN preparatory measures and expressed readiness to provide troops. adopting a bold position on nuclear disarmament [51]. Kazakhstan’s election to the UN Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) on 2 November 2006 became an important event in cooperation between Kazakhstan and the UN and this was the recognition of the country’s constructive role in the activities of the UN. In August 2003 Kazakhstan proposed to hold the first UN ministerial conference to discuss problems of landlocked countries. Foreign Policy In particular. from 2007 Kazakhstan represented Asia’s interests in this structure. Kazakhstan’s close involvement in peacekeeping activities was proven by the creation of the Kazakh peacekeeping battalion (Kazbat) in 2003. drugs and so on. The continuation of Kazakhstan’s initiatives on nuclear disarmament was its signing of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) in October 1996. Kazakhstan attaches special significance to international cooperation in the development of transport networks in Central Asia and alternative routes to access global markets.

the progressive development of international law. Regarding the issues surrounding the reformation of the UN Kazakhstan advocates the adaptation of the organisation’s institutions to modern geopolitical and economic realities and rational transformations taking into account the opinions of all states in solving the main international problems. In particular.Kazakhstan today Chapter 3. This position is reflected in Kazakhstan’s strategic course to pursue a multi-vector foreign policy. representatives of UN specialised agencies. pp 281-282 and 288-302]. information technologies and environmental protection. Particular attention is drawn to cooperation with the UN in the spheres of economy. economic. the International Labour Organisation (ILO). the UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR). the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Assessing the results of this meeting. Kazakhstan’s former Minister of Foreign Affairs Marat Tazhin noted that the delegates’ active involvement in discussing the Almaty declaration proved the existence of collective political will and determination of countries to develop regional cooperation to improve the lives of the millions of people in region living in poverty [52]. social development. the observation of human rights and fighting organised crime and drug trafficking. regulating globalisation processes and eliminating poverty and exchanged views on future cooperation in the spheres of transport. humanitarian and other spheres of public life. during the years of close cooperation with the UN Kazakhstan has acquired significant potential in working with the UNDP. environment protection. Kazakhstan’s standing in the UN is based on the country’s interests in the entire set of issues discussed by the UN. energy. Kazakhstan’s membership of the UN helped strengthen its sovereignty and independence and offered favourable external conditions for further transformations and modernisation in the socio-political. This is why Astana now speaks in favour of the UN’s role as a key instrument of collective regulation of international relation and 198 formation of a multi-polar system based on the UN Charter and international law. That is why Kazakhstan’s integration to the UN system became an important step on the path of implementing the young state’s foreign policy objectives. This meeting resulted in the adoption of the Almaty declaration devoted to the 60th anniversary of the commission and nine resolutions aimed at expanding cooperation in the region. international and nongovernmental organisations. UNICEF. the WHO and other organisations as part of attracting the UN’s expertise and technical and financial assistance to Kazakhstan [53. including heads of governments and ministers of member states of ESCAP. the UN Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM). 199 . Kazakhstan’s participation in the work of international organisations is one of the foreign policy priorities of the country. Foreign Policy delegates. Thus. discussed issues of reforming ESCAP. Kazakhstan’s foreign policy position is based on the promotion of a multi-polar world as the best form of ensuring international stability and the balance of forces. trade.

Kazakhstan today Chapter 3. As a consequence. administrative and coordination body is the Executive Committee. the level of economic reforms and internal and external conditions for economic development the movement towards a full-scale free trade zone is not even possible for the CIS countries. intelligence services and other relevant bodies from the CIS countries. Kazakhstan invariably adhered to the idea that activities of subregional associations within the CIS should be open in nature and their aims and actions should comply with the general direction of the development of the CIS. An accord was achieved on the implementation of an international programme of joint measures for fighting crimes within the CIS. Since the signing of the declaration on the establishment of the CIS (in Almaty on 21 December 1991). using special subunits and a joint data base of security bodies. the Interparliamentary Assembly. Kazakhstan and the CIS Kazakhstan attaches priority significance in its foreign policy to cooperation within the Commonwealth of Independent States and the development of integration ties with its participants. For example. Given the actual development of events. which has been in operation since 2001 at Russia’s Federal Security Service (FSB) in Moscow. Kazakhstan’s approach to multilateral cooperation within the CIS is based on the concept of multi-speed integration which means the formation of a small group of countries that are linked by closer cooperation. The CIS bodies’ decisions only have power for those countries that were involved in their adoption. each country is characterised by the gradual formation of a free trade zone which is intrinsic only to itself. the Council of Ministers of Foreign Affairs. cooperation in this sphere is now of the highest demand. In line with a programme for the development of the CIS. Kazakhstan has been actively speaking in favour of strengthening the organisation. which is why the 1999 protocol on amending the agreement on the creation of the free trade zone stipulated that exemptions from the free trade zone that were of a temporary nature might be applied on the basis of bilateral documents. the Council of Ministers of Defence. As part of this blueprint member states carry out joint anti-drug programmes. This means that the process of economic integration between the CIS countries has a complicated and contradictory nature. The well-developed network of CIS charter bodies includes the Council of Heads of States. Factors that directly influence it are the different levels of each state’s economic development and contradictions in particular political and economic interests of the member states. In 1994. At the same time. However. in addition to coordinated actions. which was approved by the Council of Heads of States in June 2000. In recent years the issues of countering new security challenges and threats and cooperation in the law-enforcement sphere have become increasingly relevant. supporting and expanding trade and economic and cultural and humanitarian ties preserved between member states. An extended contractual and legislative basis was created for interaction in this sphere. New organisational structures and mechanisms of interaction were created. 201 . Joint efforts are growing in the sphere of fighting drugs. CIS countries adopted measures to switch to a multilateral free trade regime based on the corresponding agreement on the creation of a free trade zone. The CIS adopted a blueprint for cooperation in countering the illegal turnover of drugs. the Council of Heads of Government. the Council of Commanders of Border Troops and others. The permanent executive. We should note that as a result of the existing differences in economic potential. The commonwealth is characterised by member states’ selective participation in particular spheres of multilateral interaction. CIS countries failed to draft and agree on a multilateral basis to a list of exemptions from the free trade regime provided in the 200 agreement.13. economic cooperation was given priority [54]. developing intense relations within it. This primarily includes the CIS Antiterrorist Centre. Foreign Policy 3. a programme for fighting international terrorism and other manifestations of extremism is being fulfilled. psychotropic substances and precursors (in 2002).

c) boost cooperation in the sphere of education and science. d) join efforts to counter modern challenges and threats. and e) solve humanitarian problems. the Kazakh leader proposed the creation of an interstate council for data on demand and supply in the CIS labour market. 202 Under the Kazakh programme for the reformation of the CIS the member states should focus their efforts on those aspects that can bring about interstate consensus and that objectively are not within the powers of other regional associations or are not used to the full. Since its establishment the organisation has adopted over 1. a high level group on improving the efficiency of the CIS was set up. at the informal summit held in Kazakhstan (at Burabai) in December 2008. However. It is first time a CIS country will occupy the post of the OSCE chair. in mid-November 2008 the CIS summit endorsed a plan of key measures to fulfil a strategy for the CIS’s economic development until 2020 [55]. At the summit of heads of CIS member states in Moscow in July 2006. The summit of heads of CIS states in Moscow in February 2008 focused on problems of humanitarian cooperation – educational. b) strengthen contacts in the transport sphere. the Kazakh president noted that the CIS had failed to become an efficient integration mechanism. Belarus. scientific.600 documents. At the same time. as well as sport and tourism. In as early as 2007 President Nazarbayev’s ideas were implemented. Cooperation is becoming active in the humanities sphere too. Kazakhstan and Russia achieved accords on the legislative basis for the creation of a Customs Union of these three countries [56]. cultural and youth affairs. 203 . President Nazarbayev. the Kazakh leader stressed the need to choose pragmatic and the most important aspects and forms of mutually beneficial cooperation that meet the interests of all peoples inhabiting in the CIS countries. noted the commonwealth’s positive role in easing the consequences of the break-up of the USSR and preventing events from developing into an unpredictable scenario.Kazakhstan today Chapter 3. all the CIS member states supported Kazakhstan’s initiative to chair the OSCE in 2010. the organisation’s chairman. At the summit in Astana in September 2004 Kazakh President Nursultan Nazarbayev proposed to reform the CIS in the context of the escalation of international terrorism. In Chisinau. most of which have remained on paper. informational. A positive decision on Astana’s application was treated as a common achievement: Kazakhstan was considered as a single candidate from CIS countries. the topic was migration policy. Foreign Policy The desire to interact in this sphere is obvious and very strong because the CIS countries are vulnerable to this threat and are actually on the frontline of drug aggression. scientific and cultural space as an important factor of encouraging integration processes in other spheres. In 2007. As part of the process of multi-speed integration. Nursultan Nazarbayev proposed five important directions for the reformation of the commonwealth: a) improve migration policy. The Kazakh formula of “One year – One topic” was adopted for the work of the CIS. there are also shortcomings in the CIS and they considerably complicate its activities and hinder its development. disintegration trends strengthened in the former Soviet space. One of the main objectives in this sphere is the further development of the historically established common educational. With the aim of drafting additional proposal of a conceptual nature relating to the further improvement of mutually beneficial cooperation within the CIS. The CIS countries and bodies are currently searching for new ways to improve its activities. As a result. In the sphere of cooperation in the foreign policy sphere. However. As part of this. The Council of Ministers of Foreign Affairs was ordered to draft proposals to improve and reform the CIS bodies and submit them for the following sitting of the Council of Heads of State. Moreover. In particular. the chief priority of the organisation’s future development is still to expand economic cooperation between member states. This work resulted in the Council of Heads of State adopting a decision on this issue at the summit in Kazan in August 2005. and it is particularly noteworthy that it is a country which is geographically located in the Asian region.

Between 1996 and 1997 the Shanghai Five signed a number of agreements to solve border problems along the former Soviet-Chinese border that had persisted for many years in the past. The involvement of global players. Kazakhstan and the SCO Paying priority importance to the issues of maintaining stability and security in the Eurasian space. At the same time. which was attended for the first time by Uzbekistan. the quintessence of which is mutual benefit. A central place in the Shanghai process was occupied by security issues even when the five participants (China. As a result 205 204 . respect for the interests and opinions of one another. the continued future boosting of the activities of the various institutions and structures of the CIS generally meets the interests of Kazakhstan. mutual consultations and the achievement of mutual understanding through consensus and voluntary implementation of accords achieved. Kazakhstan focuses on strengthening and developing interaction within the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO). Russia and Tajikistan) first met in Shanghai in 1996 to agree to strengthen confidence in the military sphere and mutual reduction in armed forces along borders. Kazakhstan. The joint work to implement these agreements served as the foundation for what has become know as the Shanghai spirit. became a strong factor in favour of the policy pursued.Kazakhstan today Chapter 3. the Kazakh president expressed gratitude to his counterparts “for a firm and consistent position in the issue of supporting Kazakhstan’s candidacy for the post of the OSCE chair”. The Shanghai and Moscow (which followed the following year) summits became prototypes of a structure which within the following six years has been transformed into a fully-fledged organisation of all-round cooperation. it is worth noting that the new structure logically filled those spaces in the processes of maintaining security which had existed in the Central Asian region. Foreign Policy Speaking at the Moscow summit of the CIS in February 2008. equality.14. The transformation of the Shanghai Five into the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation took place at the summit in Shanghai in June 2001. 3. Thus. Kyrgyzstan. From the early ages of its existence the SCO aimed at strengthening mutual trust and good neighbourly relations between member states and assisting their efficient cooperation in the political and trade and economic spheres. like Russia and China.

to encourage efficient cooperation between them in the political. Therefore. trade and economic. These aspects are a good basis for the realisation of the SCO’s antiterrorist potential in the interests of all of its participants. Foreign Policy of this meeting the heads of the six states signed the declaration on the establishment of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation and the Shanghai treaty on fighting terrorism. economic and cultural and humanitarian cooperation. energy. As a result. from the very start the SCO managed to define these phenomena and adopt specific aspects and forms of fighting them. but an open organisation that is ready for wide international cooperation. the Secretariat. the Council of Heads of Government (prime ministers). These aspects were reflected in the decisions adopted at the SCO summit in Astana in July 2005. Nothing less than stability and security is an indispensable condition for the country’s movement along the path of further economic and political transformations. scientific and technical. 206 It was also decided to grant observer status to Pakistan. the SCO has a wider range of tasks and a more clearly defined structure. Kazakhstan precedes from the fact that cooperation between SCO member states in the trade and economic sphere has long-term prospects.Kazakhstan today Chapter 3. and the Regional Antiterrorist Structure (RATS). like other Central Asian countries. fighting the socalled three evils – terrorism. new main working bodies were set up: the Council of Heads of State. which is interested in maintaining stability and security in Central Asia. aimed against someone else. which has its headquarters in Tashkent. as an energy exporter Kazakhstan is interested in alternative routes to supply energy resources to global markets – an important element of the SCO’s economic policy. As part of the fight against new threats and challenges the issue of ensuring energy security is becoming increasingly significant for Kazakhstan. separatism and extremism and a charter on member states’ permanent representatives in the RATS. as an energy power. the Council of Ministers of Foreign Affairs. Since international terrorism has become active. The SCO is not a military bloc or closed alliance. environmental protection and other spheres. For Kazakhstan. The secretaries of member states’ Security Councils and prosecutor-generals also hold regular meetings. separatism and extremism. build a new democratic. all these points present vital interest. Kazakhstan consistently insisted on the need to strengthen the SCO institutions further. The heads of states defined the main tasks of the SCO at the current stage as supporting peace. Its objects were to strengthen mutual trust. In particular. to put joint efforts to maintain peace. including the possibility of its expansion. Unlike many other international organisations. in contrast to the Shanghai Five. Not only did the final document define those phenomena that pose a threat to all member states. The new organisation’s interests were expanded into political. but also indicated specific directions and forms of fighting them. transport. develop the organisation’s potential in the security sphere and expand its partner relations. extremism and separatism – has become a priority for Kazakhstan. cultural. stability and security in the region and developing trade and economic cooperation. The SCO became the start of the formation of a fundamentally new system of subregional cooperation through close interaction between six states with the possible membership of other countries (if they agreed to follow the principles and obligations laid in the foundation of the SCO). The summit resulted in the Astana Declaration and important antiterrorist documents: a blueprint for cooperation between SCO member states in the fight against terrorism. friendship and good neighbourly relations between member states. security and stability in the region. the declaration on the establishment of the SCO considerably expanded a range of tasks it is supposed to deal with. Iran and India [58]. educational. The practical structure of the organisation that implements these activities is RATS. conferences of heads of ministries and/or departments. In order to organise the practical activities of the SCO. as an organisation that 207 . just and rational political and economic global order [57]. the Council of National Coordinators. Simultaneously.

Japan. ASEAN. During the SCO summit in Bishkek in 2007 the Kazakh President Nursultan Nazarbayev offered to draft common approaches to the use of crossborder rivers and reservoirs [59]. the EAEC and other regional integration structures have also shown interest in close partnership with SCO. the SCO may help solve topical problems in this sphere. pursuing economic policy. strengthening the existing and building new effective SCO structures meets the interests of stability and security in Central Asia. The involvement of Kazakhstan’s representatives in the work of various structures of the SCO is a factor that improves the country’s political image and reputation in the international arena. Interaction within the SCO is of practical interest for Kazakhstan in terms of encouraging regional integration. fighting traditional and new threats and challenges. set up in 2006. Kazakh diplomat Bolat Nurgaliyev has headed the SCO Secretariat since January 2007. It is important to regulate this issue within the SCO by establishing a special coordination body. from the very beginning insisted that the SCO was an important element in ensuring stability and security in Central Asia. as one of the initiators of the Shanghai process. Further boosts to the SCO’s activities will help pursue Kazakhstan’s foreign policy. The organisation was prompted by objective reasons related to problems in this sphere. The CSTO. The SCO-Afghanistan contact group. which is why the international community’s interest in it is increasing. Therefore. Sri Lanka. Water problems may become relevant for joint member states’ efforts in the future. At a meeting in Moscow on 14 January 2009. In this context Kazakhstan suggested the idea of setting up the SCO Energy Club as a first step towards an Asian energy strategy. ensuring energy security and solving the situation in Afghanistan. is an important coordination body for this. Water issues are also acquiring increasing significance in the Central Asian region. EU experts are talking about the possibility of granting the organisation the status of a dialogue partner to the EU. the economy and the cultural and humanitarian sphere. Iran. deputy ministers of foreign affairs from member states agreed that a special working group would continue preparations for this conference [60]. India. Kazakhstan. The SCO’s global reputation is on the rise. creating the conditions necessary for the region’s sustainable development. The organisation may activate its efforts on Afghanistan by increasing the level of states’ representations in this contact group and holding a SCO regional conference on Afghan problems with representatives of Afghanistan. Given the situation in Afghanistan the SCO’s activities in this sphere – both in terms of military security and fighting terrorism and drug trafficking and socioeconomic and political reconstruction in the country – are becoming particularly significant. South Korea and other countries have also shown interest in a dialogue with the SCO. Belarus. including politics. Mongolia and Pakistan enjoy observer status in the organisation. Eight years on from when the Shanghai Five was transformed into a fully-fledged international organisation we can say that it is in demand as a factor to form a just and efficient architecture of global security. 208 Kazakhstan advocates the expansion of the existing interaction with observer countries and partners of the SCO in various spheres. which may become one of the organisation’s main aspects. One of the acute problems for Kazakhstan is migration which can only be solved by the combined efforts of a number of countries and international organisations. 209 . Foreign Policy pays great attention to new threats and challengers.Kazakhstan today Chapter 3. As a result.

It is assumed that the rest of the EAEC members. China and Europe but also to South Asian countries via Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan. The Eurasian Economic Community (EAEC). which proved the community’s effectiveness in general. Russia and Tajikistan signed its founding agreement as an important step to develop real integration between the five countries and mutual comprehensive cooperation between them to form a Single Economic Space (SES) in the future [62. It is expected that the SCT will be fully formed in 2009. The session considered conceptual co210 operation conditions for the involved countries’ customs services in the single customs area. The adoption of a blueprint for forming the community’s single transport space is also important for boosting integration between EAEC member states. 211 . The construction of the second line of the Volga-Don canal is also very significant. Kazakhstan is seeking to fully use new opportunities to participate in the growing global division of labour and various forms of international cooperation. The presidents of Belarus. in October 2008. many countries are suffering from the global financial crisis. Today.15. such as poorly developed transport systems. obsolete infrastructure and the lack of modern logistics centres. Kazakhstan and the EAEC The economic globalisation is one of the present day’s leading development trends. Quite obviously. increase freight and passenger traffic (taking into account market demand) and develop their transit potential. It should be noted that the members of the customs alliance have already agreed on the single customs tariff for 4. It is now important that countries implement a coordinated economic policy. The union will become an important factor for developing mutual trade among the EAEC countries and for establishing the Single Economic Space in the future. is the most advanced integration body in the CIS. Foreign Policy 3. none of them are able to resolve this serious problem on their own. Uzbekistan joined this pact but later. At present. The community constantly focuses on resolving problems of poverty. energy and water usage. discussed specific matters related to indirect taxation and decided to speed up the formation of the Single Customs Tariff (SCT). the country withdrew from the organisation. it is becoming important for EAEC countries to conduct a coordinated policy to improve interaction between their transport systems. develop new corridors and modernise infrastructure. In 2008. Thus. Kazakhstan and Russia. are preventing community members from boosting cooperation between them. and using the community’s transit potential. The implementation of this document will help member states coordinate customs and tariff policy in the transport sphere. Trade between the member countries grew from $29bn in 2001 to $104bn in 2007. This project will give the community’s members better access to the Black and Mediterranean Seas and further to the open ocean. Kyrgyzstan. As a result. will join the union when their economies are ready.000 goods. p 142]. This corridor is important because it will open transit routes not only to Russia. The Customs Union Commission (a supranational body forming the key directions of the countries’ customs policies) held its first session on 4 February 2009. On 28 August 2006. regional integration is becoming increasingly significant as an economic development tool. Kazakhstan. including the creation of a new common market of goods and services with other countries [61]. a Customs Union is being established within the EAEC by Belarus. In this regard. Kazakh President Nursultan Nazarbayev has repeatedly stressed the urgency of enabling these routes [63]. It is no secret that a number of serious problems. in overcoming the consequences of the global economic crisis and improving the national economy and its competitiveness. Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan.Kazakhstan today Chapter 3. which was set up on 10 October 2000. migration. Therefore. the Western Europe-Western China transport route is a promising project. for financial institutions to cooperate and to implement joint projects. it exceeded $130bn.

may find many provisions of this statement strange. The EAEC governments need to take urgent measures in this area and develop coordinated approaches to stabilise the situation in their domestic labour markets and create additional jobs. which will make it possible to receive real returns from cooperation. which would help boost the competitive advantages of the member states. Migration is now becoming increasingly important. Customs procedures for interstate power supplies have been simplified. It should also be stressed that the EAEC countries are paying significant attention to cooperation in the social sector. Kazakh President Nursultan Nazarbayev has repeatedly stressed the need for the community members to adopt a coordinated policy in this sphere. This will allow the countries to reach a compromise on the problem. And it took quite difficult decisions and a number of interstate agreements to make each of these “simple steps”. Its basic goals are to develop the community’s social aspects and create conditions for the member countries’ citizens to move freely across the countries and choose places of permanent or temporary residence. The programme will help the countries use the latest high-efficiency technologies to produce competitive bio products for medicine. which will significantly help develop human resources in the member countries. This country is also interested in the efficient use of water and energy resources. Significant attention is also being paid to the expansion of ties in the healthcare sector. agriculture and environmental protection. Uzbekistan’s withdrawal from the EAEC has aggravated this problem. who remember the USSR. Today. the member states have achieved a reasonable amount. which was proposed by Kazakhstan. and modernise and diversify their national economies. Joint innovative projects are also one of the most key areas of integration within the EAEC. In this context. to be employed. the Ten Simple Steps towards Ordinary People programme [64. Cooperation between EAEC countries in the water sector also remains a current issue as mechanisms for mutual water and fuel supplies are inefficient. pp 15-16]. 213 . However. In 2008. The global financial crisis. the EAEC is continuing to implement these projects. Some of the community’s regions still suffer from energy shortages. this problem needs a comprehensive solution by migration departments. a slowdown in industry and a freeze in the construction sector have had a negative impact on the labour market and the state of migrants in EAEC countries. The EAEC Interstate Council decided at a session on 4 February 2009 to create a centre for new technologies. employers. to receive education and subscribe to newspapers and magazines in any EAEC country. The countries need to create joint health resorts and medical clusters. It is necessary to boost cooperation between research institutes and medical centres across the EAEC. The deterioration in the state of the migrant labour market always poses a threat to stability in the region. the community members drafted the Innovative Biotechnologies intergovernmental programme. insurance and other relevant organisations. “Ordinary” people. despite the current situation. Foreign Policy The agenda also includes issues relating to cooperation in the energy sphere. However. The community has adopted a number of programmes to ensure decent living conditions for the 206 million people inhabiting the member countries. improve the power grid and adopt up-to-date energy technologies. It is expected that joint scientific and technical programmes will be implemented at this centre. this project is still under consideration. To this end. so it is becoming more important than ever before for the EAEC to jointly construct additional power generating facilities. Kazakhstan has repeatedly proposed the creation of an International Water and Energy Consortium that would improve cooperation between these countries in the water sector. Therefore.Kazakhstan today Chapter 3. Energy departments are implementing a blueprint which will shape a common energy resources market but there is still a lot of work to be done. is being implemented. But one should bear in mind that 212 we became citizens of different sovereign countries in 1991. Joint construction of hydropower stations is under way in Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan. In particular. it is reasonable for Uzbekistan to take a constructive part in quadrilateral water talks.

must closely cooperate with other Asian regional organisations. Thus. the EAEC is an effective regional bloc and a driving force of integration in the post-Soviet space. the CICA. therefore. Foreign Policy On Kazakhstan’s initiative. 215 214 . economic and political disagreements. Asian countries. It is necessary to start by creating effective mechanisms for the conference’s functioning. developing good neighbourly relations and mutually beneficial cooperation. Asia is an extremely mosaic continent with a big variety of political. the organisation is a pre-emptive step to create a comprehensive security system in Asia. Kazakhstan and the CICA The Central Asian countries’ integration into the global community made it necessary to elaborate on new measures to promote the Asian subcontinent’s sustainable development. To fulfil this task. the Kazakh authorities have always referred to the fact that Kazakhstan. a number of which have quite complicated relations with each other. some CICA members have not only contradictory but also conflicting relations with each other. In promoting the CICA. religious. Kazakhstan is conducting an active foreign policy. In this context. bear the weight of historical problems caused mainly by their colonial past and modern ethnic. the world is following the path of regional cooperation. the Eurasian Economic Club of Scientists was established to unite scientific forces and contribute to the community’s development. the union could become the EAEC’s southern bloc and give a powerful impetus to integration processes within the community and the Single Economic Space in the future. At present. if the idea is successful. Undoubtedly. the Eurasian Economic Community. The creation of a Union of Central Asian States. does not have disagreements with any Asian country and. Central Asian countries have significant potential for further integration in the real sector of economy and to expand cooperation in the cultural and humanitarian spheres. The realisation of our country’s initiatives will become a key factor for strengthening stability and security in the region. On the contrary. designed to pursue a long-term and laborious task. will also promote integration within the EAEC. p. The EAEC countries’ coordinated economic policy. however. which was first proposed by Kazakhstan in February 2005. the formation of the Customs Union and the successful implementation of joint scientific and technical programmes will help the sustainable development of the community’s member states. Initially the conference was designed as an Asian equivalent of the OSCE. The examples of efficient economic cooperation in North America (NAFTA). our country initiated this regional proposal and suggested that its meeting point and headquarters be located in Kazakhstan. 3.Kazakhstan today Chapter 3. ethnic. cultural and civilisation differences. economic. subsequently. Eight more countries and three international organisations became observers. for example. Asia is currently very fragmented geopolitically but the idea of the CICA is designed for the future. Europe (EU) and Southeast Asia (ASEAN) prove integration bodies’ powerful positive influence on the creation of regional security systems. At present.16. ensure stability and security in the region [65. 47] We believe the idea of the Union of the Central Asian States does not contradict other integration associations in the post-Soviet area. which is very relevant considering the present global situation. it is necessary to find a common platform from which to build a functional security system for the whole region. The union’s establishment would be an important move towards this and. as a young state. Kazakh President Nursultan Nazarbayev proposed the convening of a Conference on Interaction and Confidence-Building Measures in Asia (CICA) at the UN on 5 October 1992 and 20 Asian countries supported the idea and joined the process.

These include issues related to confidence-building measures in the military and political. the League of Arab States. The Almaty Act defines the CICA as a forum for a dialogue. In addition. participants announced that they “regard the CICA as a unique Asian forum incorporating countries of diverse cultures and traditions. a number of countries. India.Kazakhstan today Chapter 3. special working group’s regular work. Mutual interests and economic efficiency could become a fundamental basis for creating the Asian security system. The Declaration on Principles Guiding Relations between CICA Member States. 217 . special envoys’ missions and meetings of diplomats and experts have all been directed towards boosting the CICA process since its establishment in 1992. economic. play a special role in ensuring security in Asia. This would promote the organisation’s successful work as a continental body. as well as the fight against new challenges and threats. and other countries with various political and economic systems were not ready. the organisation started drafting a catalogue of confidence-building measures. there is no real global ideological confrontation. At present. But the idea failed due to a number of reasons. The Kazakh leadership’s foreign visits. part of the aforementioned problems will not have a negative impact on the implementation of the CICA. During the second half of the 20th century. the organisation’s basic goals were to expand the areas of common interests among the countries with various foreign policies and resolve problems affecting all Asian countries. decision-making and implementing measures based on a consensus on problems regarding security in Asia. does not have an imperative approach. Foreign Policy Countries like China. The CICA member states intend comprehensively and actively to develop this dialogue. which caused them to remain mainly declarative. signed by the ministers of foreign affairs on 14 September 1999. for which conflicting sides. such as the Organisation of the Islamic Conference. At the first summit. it was unlikely that there would be a different result. At the same time. proposed the creation of a common security system in Asia. The summit participants signed the Almaty Act and issued the Declaration on Eliminating Terrorism and Promoting Dialogue among Civilisations. which makes it one of the most important mechanisms for the promotion of dialogue among civilisations and cultures. Malaysia. primarily. which Astana believed would boost the bloc. which may have made a number of provisions simply declarative. further aggravated by global ideological confrontation. Thus. One of the problems encountered in drafting joint documents was the participants’ diverse visions of resolving issues or the lack of common interests among some countries. Some of those initiatives were excessively comprehensive. the bipolar system of international relations has broken down. Japan. environmental and humanitarian areas. During working meetings. including Japan. Some initiatives failed because of quite severe conditions for their implementation. and some did not have the “cross-cutting” issues capable of involving all participants. Ten years of Kazakhstan’s efforts to implement the idea resulted in the conference’s first summit of heads of state and government in Almaty on 4 June 2002. Kazakhstan suggested that the CICA observers. Indonesia and Thailand. Kazakh President Nursultan Nazarbayev said that “much has already been done as part of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation and this organisation can become an effective tool to ensure security and confidence across the vast Asian continent” [66]. Vietnam. Kazakh officials proposed a number of new provisions. Astana believes that it will be useful and important for the conference to use the resources of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation and the Collective Security Treaty Organisation. Therefore. 216 To resolve this task. The catalogue was meant to give participants a chance to choose and concentrate on a wide range of urgent issues and problems. Iran and Turkey and regional alliances. Others failed because of rivalry between global powers. Participating states are entitled to choose what is more important for them to solve at present. ASEAN and others. consultations. including the former USSR. considering the composition of the conference. become fully-fledged members.

219 . the summit appointed the secretariat’s executive director. the conference was granted observer status in the UN. The catalogue of confidence-building measures was adopted by the foreign ministers of the participating countries on 22 October 2004. is no longer topical and reflect the past epoch. It is remarkable that South Korea was then represented by its Minister of Foreign Affairs and Trade Ban Ki-moon. a crucial issue was to create the conference’s secretariat and its technical and financial coverage. The declaration of the conference’s second summit proclaimed 5 October CICA Day. focus on the common. it is difficult to reach consent over the whole range of security issues. It is no less important that the CICA’s ideology is based on the principle of cooperative security. most current and controversial issues. At the 62nd session of the UN General Assembly on 12 November 2007. the organisation’s ideologues believe. The development of the CICA structures will make the organisation speedy and timely and help draft a catalogue of confidence-building measures and principles of cooperation security function. economical and cultural nature. Naturally. the CICA is overcoming the inertia of traditional approaches. destroying stereotypes and the scepticism of observers and experts. At present. the Asian continent has always been and remains a bundle of contradictions. when the third summit is due. The CICA’s organisational development involves the solution of issues relating to funding. p 20]. Therefore. first of all. In particular. Taking this into account. Almaty hosted a session of the special working group. which joined the conference in 2004 and 2006 respectively. with its headquarters in Almaty and Astana. research and analytical support and the examination of decisions adopted. Foreign Policy taking into account the fact that Eurasia was not only the cradle of some major world civilisations. In Asia. cooperative security implies that participating countries should not defend themselves from third parties but maintain peace and stability and resolve existing conflicts and prevent possible ones.Kazakhstan today Chapter 3. Kazakhstan regards the conference as a ground-breaking forum of its kind for discussion and exchange of views. It is obvious that one should not expect from the Almaty Act more than what the conference members have so far agreed to. the establishment of the secretariat in Kazakhstan was the basic result of the second summit. it is too early to speak about a panacea for conflicts and contradictions in Asia. at the second summit on 17 June 2006 made a significant contribution to the strengthening of the 218 conference as an institution. Therefore. which was characteristic of the two world wars and during the Cold War. In other words. the declaration of principles says that “member countries stress that any bilateral or multilateral military agreements must not be directed against any third party and must not undermine other states’ security interests” [68. In December 2005. This forum’s basic objective is to set up a constructive dialogue on security and confidence-building on the Asian continent. The signing of the agreement on the CICA Secretariat. Astana will continue to chair the conference until 2010. which considered the catalogue of confidence-building measures in three dimensions and new challenges and threats. the basic document is important enough and could become a starting point for future talks. The summit’s final document expressed support for Asia’s candidacy for the post of the UN secretary-general. the CICA participants must. the second summit’s declaration emphasised the conference’s role as a versatile mechanism for “developing common approaches to security and cooperation matters based on a consensus” [70]. We hope that the CICA will become a strong cooperation force in resolving threats to security in Asia like the OSCE in Europe. However. Ban Ki-moon said [69]. where the most formidable problems have intertwined into a complicated web. who was elected UN secretary-general in early 2007. The ideas of collective security with a strict policy of bloc allegiance. In addition. The summit also approved the membership of Thailand and South Korea. With its excessively diverse political. but also served as a bridge between them” [67]. In addition.

Назарбаев Н.gov.: // http: // www. 3 апреля. 2001.government. // www. Заявление Министерства иностранных дел Республики Казахстан в связи с терактами в США 11 сентября 2001 г. The implementation of the idea is capable of becoming a basis for creating a regional security system and speeding up processes of economic. Джанасаев Б. // www. 2003. ru/news 8. Выступление в Государственной Думе Федерального Собрания РФ 5 апреля 2005 г.kz/site/ 22. Конгресс за укрепление партнерства // Казахстанская правда. – Алматы. См.president.stat.kz/ 30. Сообщение для СМИ. перераб.А. Новейшая история Казахстана (1985– 2002 гг.kz. и доп. Дипломатия Республики Казахстан.parlam. 2001..mfa. – Алматы. Проблемы Современного Китая и безопасность в Центральной Азии. 9. Медведева с Президентом РК Н. 2006. – 2005.osce. Сыроежкин К. 6. 24. Токаев К. Выступление на Совещании ОБСЕ по межкультурной. Кремль.com. 1 марта. 25. Российско-казахстанские отношения // http: // www/mid. Выступление на заседании Постоянного Совета ОБСЕ // www. Выступление Председателя Сената Парламента Республики Казахстан на Зимней сессии Парламентской Ассамблеи ОБСЕ.kz 27. Послание Президента РК Н. На пороге XXI века. Назарбаева народу Казахстана «Стратегия вхождения Казахстана в число 50-ти наиболее конкурентоспособных стран мира».): Учеб. Келешек Р. – 2007. – М. Стратегия становления постиндустриального общества и партнерство цивилизаций. – Астана.kz..kz 220 221 . Тажин М.fmprc.kremlin. Токаева о начале реализации Хьюстонской инициативы // http: // ru. 2000. They also welcomed Jordan and the UAE as new members of the CICA and adopted the declaration entitled “the CICA Progress in Implementation of Confidence-Building Measures”. См. 19. межрелигиозной и межэтнической терпимости в 2006 г. With continued interest from the member states the CICA process may become a forum for dialogue between the parties involved with a possibility of becoming an international law-making institution.russian. 2006. См. 1996. References 1. 20 февраля 2009 г. mid. Председатель комитета Мажилиса встретился с послом США 16 января 2009 г. Национальная безопасность: итоги десятилетия. 13 марта 2008 г. 2005.org.А.kz 2.Kazakhstan today Chapter 3. – 2009. 29. // http: // www.cn. Мир о Назарбаеве. 4 февраля 2009 г./ru 17. 18. // www. Назарбаевым. Выступление на 11-м саммите Организации Исламская конференция. Токаев К.centrasia.: Экономика. 14. // www.inform. Назарбаев Н. О рабочем визите Министра иностранных дел Казахстана М. Посольство КНР в РК // http: // www. Заявление Министра иностранных дел К. Российско-казахстанские отношения // http: // www/mid. – Астана. Сотрудничество между Казахстаном и Россией в военной сфере // Перспективы развития стратегического партнерства Казахстана и России. Казахстанская правда. 28 февраля.parlam. 25 мая.Г. Начало встречи Президента РФ Д. cultural and social cooperation between Asian countries. 2006. – Алматы.А. Шеретов С. Назарбаев Н. – Дакар. – Астана. – Москва. – Алматы. Укреплять международные позиции Казахстана // www. Казахстан: история успеха глазами мирового сообщества.А. Казахстанская правда. – 2-е изд. 4. Foreign Policy The CICA ministers of foreign affairs held their third meeting in Almaty on 25 August 2008 and summarised the results of their performance.kz. Выступление Председателя Сената Парламента Республики Казахстан на Зимней сессии Парламентской Ассамблеи ОБСЕ.kz 28.akorda. Назарбаев Н. // www.: www. 26. 11. 21. 2008. Послание Президента Республики Казахстан Н.ru 5. 12.А. Назарбаева народу Казахстана от 6 марта 2004 г. – Вена. пособие.people. 16. – Алматы. Тажин М. Назарбаев Н. 7.Л./ru 3.: http: // ru.cn 23. 13. – Вена.М.government. // www. 15.ru 20. Токаев К. Тажина в Россию // http: // www. 20 февраля 2009 г. 10. – Алматы: Юрист.А.

Европейскими Сообществами и их Государствами-членами. // www. 41.kz 35. 45. М. 2001. 64. 32. 39. 5 октября 1992 г. Перспективы укрепления казахстанско-индийского партнерства. Токаев К.minsk. – № 3. – 2004. – Алматы: Бiлiм. // http // cis.at. 46. Внешняя политика Республики Казахстан. – 2009. Декларация о создании ШОС от 15 июня 2001 г. По материалам официального сайта Министерства иностранных дел Республики Казахстан // http: // portal. Токаев К.org 58. Под стягом независимости: очерки о внешней политике Казахстана. 1999.kz 222 223 . 49. 52. 18 октября. Назарбаев Н.org 59.kz 51.kz 36. Дипломатия Республики Казахстан. Индонезия в орбите внешнеполитических интересов Казахстана // Analytic.А.mfa.akorda.kz.by/ 55. Рахматулина Г. 4 июня 2002 г. Ключи от кризиса // Российская газета. // htpp: // www.mfa. Выступление Президента Республики Казахстан Н. 1999. // http: // www. kazenergy.mfa.com 40.akorda. В Алматы завершилась 63-я сессия ЭСКАТО. Foreign Policy 31. – 2007.sectsco. 37.by/ 56. 33. – 1998. Агентство по статистике РК. Назарбаева на Пятом Форуме руководителей регионов Казахстана и России 22 сентября 2008 г.sectsco.К. Дипломатия Республики Казахстан. – № 2. 2001. // www. kz 42. Совместное Заявление Республики Казахстан и Республики Корея по случаю официального визита в Республику Корея Президента Республики Казахстан 12–14 ноября 2003 г. 2004. – 2002.sectsco.А. 65.К. По материалам официального сайта Министерства иностранных дел Республики Казахстан // http: // portal.kz.kz 67. – Европейский Союз. // htpp: // www.centrasia.Kazakhstan today Chapter 3.mfa. – Астана: Елорда. Подписано Совместное заявление Республики Корея и Республики Казахстан // Казинформ. Материалы саммита глав государств Шанхайской организации сотрудничества от 5 июля 2005 г. 34. 32. Официальный сайт Агентства РК по статистике // http: // www.org 60. ред. – С. Соглашение о партнерстве и сотрудничестве между Республикой Казахстан. // http: // cis. Хроника (1991—1999). – 120 с. Перспективы формирования Союза центральноазиатских государств // Казахстан-Спектр.org 53. Выступление Президента Республики Казахстан Н. – Астана: Елорда. Динамика развития интеграционных процессов в государствах СНГ и перспективы формирования Единого экономического пространства / Под. – 2003.Г.) // Официальный сайт Президента РК // www. 2006.А. 2 февраля. Назарбаева на Первом саммите СВМДА // www. Токаев К.ca-news. Ермекбаев Н. 39. 62.К. – Алматы: КИСИ при Президенте РК. Рахматулина Г. 14 ноября. 2001. Бишкекская декларация от 16 августа 2007 г. Программа действий по развитию Содружества Независимых Государств от 21 июня 2000 г. – С. 23 мая 2007 г. 43. – Алматы.mfa. – 2005. 54. – Алматы: КИСИ при Президенте РК. Дипломатия Республики Казахстан.stat. 1997. Заявление «О десяти простых шагах навстречу простым людям» // Бюллетень развития интеграции. Дипломатический курьер.ru 57.К. Токаев К. Пятеро президентов на встрече в Боровом приняли сенсационные решения // htpp: // www.К. 47. Декларация СВМДА об устранении терроризма и содействии диалогу между цивилизациями. 50. Выступление Президента Республики Казахстан Н.minsk. // Казинформ. Министерство иностранных дел РК // www. Проекты и программы европейского технического содействия в СНГ// http://ncu. // htpp: // www. 20 сентября. Представительство Европейской комиссии в Казахстане. Под стягом независимости: очерки о внешней политике Казахстана. – №1 (02).kz 38. – № 4. План основных мероприятий по реализации стратегии экономического развития СНГ до 2020 г.mfa. Официальный сайт Министерства иностранных дел РК // http://www. В Москве дипломаты стран ШОС обсудили подготовку к созыву специальной конференции по Афганистану // http: // www. 63.С.un. – Астана: Елорда. – Алматы: Бiлiм. Ближний Восток становится ближе // http: // www. Мирному сотрудничеству альтернативы нет // Казахстанская правда. Токаев К. Ашимбаева. – 2008. 1997. 66. – Алматы.org 61. Назарбаева на 47-й сессии Генеральной Ассамблеи ООН (Нью-Йорк.kz 44. 48.

and accelerated unemployment and inflation. регулирующих отношения между государствами – членами СВМДА // СВМДА: вопросы и ответы (справочник). KAZAKHSTAN’S ECONOMY 4. – Алматы: ЦВПА. the building of a market infrastructure.1. From 1992 to 1997. – Алматы. 2001. 70. Фомин О. CHAPTER 4. – 2006. Декларация принципов. introducing the national currency and developing the financial system. The first stages of the economic reform aimed at overcoming the crisis and ensuring stable development of the necessary institutes of the new economic system. and the attraction of foreign investment. including economic liberalisation. 224 225 . the most important.Kazakhstan today Chapter 4. as well as the tax and budget systems. 69. 1 июля. Декларация второго саммита СВМДА // Пятнадцатилетний юбилей СВМДА: взгляд сквозь призму лет. backbone reforms were effected. 2007. Kazakhstan’s Economy 68. Надежды Азии – в балансе новой стратегии // Экспресс К. Strategy for Economic Reform The grave socioeconomic crisis of the late 1980s and early 1990s broke down the USSR and economic ties. privatisation. It was time to take decisive steps to overcome the existing misbalance and reform the economy.

The diversification of industries and exports required the creation of special development institutions. GDP per capita exceeded $6. The Kazakhstan 2030 Development Strategy announced by President Nazarbayev in October 1997 was the most important factor in determining a logical route for the nation’s progress.Kazakhstan today Chapter 4. industrial. Kazyna Capital Management Fund. Damu Small Business Development Fund. including exports 6. The Kazyna Sustainable 226 Development Fund and the Samruk Kazakhstan Holding for State Asset Management were set up to ensure the systemic and coordinated functioning of Kazakh national companies and government development institutions. GDP. the Investment Fund of Kazakhstan. and the development of a two-tier banking system.9 in 1997 (an almost fivefold increase).445. gross agricultural produce. industrial production.6 times and imports 4. investment. the dynamics of the key macroeconomic indicators was stable. Kazakhstan’s Economy These reforms and anti-crisis programmes fostered the expansion of the market economy and formed the basis for macroeconomic stabilisation and the transfer to a new stage of development. the National Innovation Fund. the State Export Credit and Investment Insurance Corporation. The objective of these programmes is to consolidate the efforts of businesses and the government to create new production and upgrade existing production so as to ensure diversification and enhance the export potential of the non-primary sector in the medium term (before 2015). KEGOC (Kazakhstan Electricity Grid Operating Company). accumulate finance for future generations (savings function). As the economy stabilised. and to assist the government in advancing companies. and Kazakhstan Investment Promotion Centre. create the conditions and stimuli for businesses to enter the global market. to introduce the best corporate governance practices. the rate of economic growth averaged 10%.800 compared to $1. make effective use of environmental assets. the introduction of a savings pension system. form export niches. medium and large businesses in Kazakhstan. The current stage of Kazakhstan’s economic development is determined by the Industrial and Innovation Development Strategy for 2003-2015 prepared in 2002. and ease the economy’s exposure to unfavourable external factors (stabilising function).2 times. and the 30 Corporate Leaders Programme prepared in 2007 to further modernise the economy. The key activities of Kazyna are the development and implementation of the strategy to improve the competitiveness and export opportunities of small. Today. foreign trade. Trade in the same period grew 5. the National Fund’s reserve exceeds $25bn. These included the improvement of tax laws. This comprehensive programme aims at economic diversification and the transfer (in the long term) to a service and technological economy. By 2007. The strategic approach to the use of the country’s natural resources resulted in the creation of the National Fund in August 2000. and advance the nation’s infrastructure. and encourage the advancement of knowledge-intensive high-tech processing production. Samruk Holding consolidated the government stakes in Kazpochta (the national mail operator). midterm strategic plans and programmes were prepared in order to attain the priorities set by the Strategy. Later on. Kazakhtelecom (the national telecommunica227 . Its purposes are to ensure stable socioeconomic development. and other economic indicators were steadily rising. the formation of a stock market. From 1998 to 2006. the Corporation for Export Development and Promotion. a new objective was set: to diversify the economy. and innovation projects in the framework of the Diversification of Kazakhstan’s Economy through the Development of Clusters in the Non-Extractive Sectors programme (the Cluster Initiative) launched in 2004. The main principles of the national holding and national management company are to enhance the competitiveness and economic activity of companies. The financial and innovation development institutions under Kazyna’s management include the Development Bank of Kazakhstan.4 times. Kazyna’s development institutions take a proactive part in the implementation of promising investment. At this stage. important macroeconomic measures were taken.

which was set up in 2008 following the merger of the Samruk Kazakhstan Holding for State Asset Management and Kazyna Sustainable Development Fund. The results that were earlier attained through the nation’s economic policy allow one to conclude that the country will successfully pass this crisis stage.Kazakhstan today Chapter 4.6bn was allocated to improve situation in the financial sector. This solid base will help counteract external challenges more effectively. the money will be used to implement projects in the real sector. The main operator of the Anti-Crisis Programme is the Samruk-Kazyna National Welfare Fund. A total of 2. For objective economic and geographic reasons. The strategic approach to the advancement of the socially orientated economy helped Kazakhstan form the conditions for quality economic growth. The second wave of the financial crisis stepped out the global financial system. To strengthen the institutional base of this fundamental strategy. and to maximise the long-term value of the companies. or about 20% of GDP. which fell to 4. Samruk-Kazyna’s main task is to foster the development of Kazakhstan’s economy against the background of the global crisis. and Kazakhstan Temir Zholy (the national rail company). with an adverse effect on the real sector. and BTA Bank) through the purchase of additional issues of their shares. 228 the financial sector faced problems that resulted in cuts in lending for shared construction and to small and medium businesses. strengthening production infrastructure. Kazakhstan pays particular attention to uniform regional development. Their operations have already produced results. economic. The current stage of Kazakhstan’s economic strategy is determined by the need to overcome the effects of the global economic crisis. The main purpose of the holding is to prepare and implement a strategy for the development of the real sector that would meet the country’s interests. is expected to be injected into the economy. Kazmunaigas (the national oil and gas company). it was decided to set up regional development institutions in the form of social and business corporations.5% in 2007. A total of $4bn was allocated to support the financial system. and effective territorial and economic organisation of regions. using the financial and other resources of national development institutions. Compared to commercial corporations. The government took urgent steps to stabilise economic development – $4. Finance is often referred to as the circulatory system of the economy. The shortage of liquidity affected the rates of industrial growth. To this end. To stabilise and revitalise the domestic economy. seven social and business corporations consolidating geographical regions were set up in Kazakhstan. Kazakhstan’s Economy tions operator). their main difference is that they reinvest their profits to attain the social. the government of Kazakhstan approved the Plan of Action to Stabilise the Economy and Financial Sector in 2009-2010 (the Anti-Crisis Programme) financed from the national budget and the National Fund. the stability of the financial environment. Kazakhstan was also exposed to the effects of the global financial crisis of 2007. and the development of competitive sectors. is that it combines the stability of a government economy with the dynamism of a business-orientated company. Alliance Bank. the Territorial Development Strategy until 2015 was prepared in 2006. This resulted in a significant slowdown in the global economy and a respective fall in the global demand for goods and services. which is the first such association in the CIS. As a part of the global economy. Kazakhstan’s government had to take additional measures. 229 . In 2007. The uniqueness of Samruk. On 25 November 2008.2 trillion tenge. Kazkommertsbank. According to the capitalisation terms. and every breakdown in this system adversely affects the activities of the whole complex. or cultural goals of the region in the interests of which the corporation has been set up [1]. In the autumn of 2007. is extremely important to our country. improvements in living standards. which is the key element of the economy. This money was used to additionally capitalise the four leading banks (Halyk Bank of Kazakhstan. Today. and enhancing government support for business activities. Further efforts will aim at deepening diversification.

the Programme states that the government will use its best endeavours to preserve the real incomes of people. the National Fund will contribute $1bn. In particular. To implement this. strategic approaches and decisions are being found based on the country’s own opportunities and resources. the National Fund will spend $1bn. and when the global financial crisis eases the government will gradually withdraw the state holding (on market terms). including sale in the market. all social obligations will be discharged irrespective of the price of oil. also from the national budget. This money will be used to develop processing industries in the agricultural sector. The 30 Corporate Leaders Programme will also be pursued proactively. Another important element of the support of Kazakhstan’s financial system is the creation of the Distressed Asset Fund. also in the framework of the Anti-Crisis Programme. When external sources of financing are closed. An essential task of the Anti-Crisis Programme is the implementation of innovative. The National Fund will spend $1bn on these activities. the government will purchase and complete properties that are at least 20% complete. the interest rate will not be higher than it was before the crisis (not more than 14%). The fund allows foreign investors to participate. as the first tranche. The comprehensive implementation of the Anti-Crisis Programme will help Kazakhstan resist the existing globalisation threats and overcome the crisis. In addition. and salaries to the public sector in 2009-2011. Another factor that will encourage economic activity by the population will be the measures taken by the government to increase local content in large mining projects. The third task for the Anti-Crisis Programme is to support small and medium businesses. Samruk-Kazyna will own up to 25% of their shares. and the national budget a further $3bn. In 2009. Kazakhstan is gaining respective experience. industrial and infrastructure projects. In 2008. In other words. In this case. pensions. This is a very important objective for Kazakhstan because 47% of its population lives in rural areas. the national budget spent 52 billion tenge. in counteracting the global economic crisis. Its main task is to improve the financial condition of commercial banks by purchasing distressed assets and managing them. Kazakhstan’s Economy It should be emphasised that the government does not intend to nationalise the banks. and for the establishment of the Rental Housing Fund. This gives us confidence that the country will progress further. which will help stimulate domestic demand and foster economic growth in the country. to capitalise the Distressed Asset Fund. It should be emphasised that. enhance its diversification and structural reconstruction opportunities. The programme contains measures to revitalise the construction market. being an engine of the economy. moving to a totally new level of development. 230 The Anti-Crisis Programme is also expected to provide funds to develop the agro-industrial sector. Significant attention will be paid to infrastructure projects.Kazakhstan today Chapter 4. and ensure the performance of the Head of State’s order to raise social payments. and another $3bn is expected to be raised in foreign direct investment during 2009. The second most important objective of the Anti-Crisis Programme is to resolve problems in the real estate market. This is an extremely important objective for our country because small and medium businesses. To support small and medium businesses. which will be used to refinance existing loans of small and medium businesses and issue new ones. Local executive bodies (akimats) and social and business corporations will take a proactive part in the implementation of this objective. the fund’s authorised capital will be increased to 122 billion tenge. Money will be provided to refinance mortgages with lower interest rates. for additional mortgage lending. 231 .

Russia. Kazakhstan’s Natural Resources Kazakhstan has a huge resource potential.Kazakhstan today Chapter 4. the country is rich in hydrocarbons. are in stable demand in the global market.8% of the global oil production.8 billion tonnes. Its products. Ukraine. In terms of hydrocarbon resources..3 2015 (forecasted) 100.3% of global reserves. Table 1 Forecasted oil production and exports in Kazakhstan (million tonnes) Description Production Exports 2007 (actual) 67. ferrous and non-ferrous metals. In addition to the oil and gas blocks that are currently under development. Canada. manganese. or 1. Kazakhstan’s Economy 4. Kazakhstan is in the top ten. Oil production in this field will start by 2013.7 62.7 million tonnes. The forecasted oil production and exports are shown in Table 1. Kazakhstan’s iron ore production ranks tenth after China.6 43. Today. launched in 2003. 233 Source: Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources of the Republic of Kazakhstan The development of the giant Kashagan field. whose reserves reach some 700 million tonnes (8th place globally). The recoverable gas reserves. It also has about 8% of the global reserves of iron ore. Forecasted gas production in Kazakhstan (billion cu m) The country’s oil and gas production progresses in accordance with the state Programme for the Development of Kazakhstan’s Sector of the Caspian Sea. holding 3.9 42.1% on 2006) and 70. The recoverable oil reserves are 4. lead and chromites. gas production in Figure 1. and forth in molybdenum. wolfram. The mining and metallurgy sector is among the backbone industries of Kazakhstan and has high export potential. and barytes. The country ranks first in terms of the known reserves of zinc. In terms of its gold reserves. second in silver. Oil and gas condensate production totalled 67.4 2008 (actual) 70.5 Figure 1.6 33. more than 200 new promising blocks will be determined and offered to bidders. The Programme set several stages of the development of oil and gas fields. which will be carried out by a consortium of major oil and gas companies. which plays an important part in its dynamic economic development. reach 3 trillion cu m.2.S. Kazakhstan ranks second in the CIS after Russia.1 53. and about 21% of global uranium reserves. is extremely 232 .7 38. including the new fields in the Caspian shelf.2 million tonnes in 2007 (up 4. Australia. the U. During the third stage (from 2011 to 2015). The second stage (from 2006 to 2010) plans the expedited development of fields. in 2008 (Table 1). stable production is expected to be reached. The advancement of the oil and gas sector is particularly important to Kazakhstan’s economy.8 2010 (forecasted) 80. India.0 90. and fluorite.3 61.2 43.0 73. Brazil. Kazakhstan’s ferrous industry builds on major iron ore deposits. third in copper. 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 годы Source: Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources of the Republic of Kazakhstan 29. The first stage covered 2003-2005 and included exploration and the construction of onshore facilities.0 important to the advancement of Kazakhstan’s oil and gas sector.2 60. and South Africa.9 45. while the potential reserves are estimated at 6-8 trillion cu m. The balance of reserves and production suggests good prospects for the development of the country’s oil and gas sector.

Manganese ore deposits are important to Kazakhstan’s ferrous metallurgy.Kazakhstan today Chapter 4. Russia.300 tonnes in 2007. A peculiarity of Kazakhstan’s manganese ore is high manganese content (up to 25%) and low phosphorus and sulphur content.7 million tonnes. the largest of which are Jezkazgan. Over 20 bauxite deposits were explored in Kazakhstan. and Aidarly. The country boasts over 7% of global reserves. is found in 16 deposits. rare. The largest gold deposits are Vasilkovskoye (360 tonnes of gold in proven reserves) and Bakyrchik (277 tonnes). including 127 primary. In the CIS. and zinc) ones accounting for the main portion (about 60%) of the reserves. and 32 placer deposits. or 9. the annual silver output reaches 700-800 tonnes.S. Uzbekistan. In the recent years. whose products are exported mainly to Russia and Tajikistan. The country’s proven zinc reserves are 25. the U. Copper and polymetallic deposits account for the main portion of the reserves (68%). The main portion of reserves is in Kostanai Oblast (Western Turgai and Central Turgai bauxite areas). and other nonferrous. Silver content in these deposits is 40 to 100 g per tonne. The portion of gold and silver ores in the total silver reserves and production is insignificant. The leading silver production companies are Kazakhmys and Kazzinc.7 million tonnes.1% of global reserves. Aluminium production in Kazakhstan totalled 1. and China. with polymetallic ores as a prevailing type. Approximately 25% of the country’s silver reserves are concentrated in cupriferous sandstone deposits (Jezkazgan and others). 40 complex. 235 . with the polymetallic (copper. The country has significant potential to develop its aluminium industry. and as a result its treatment is cheaper. and Russia. or 5. with silver content reaching 10-20 g per tonne. A total of 199 commercial gold deposits were explored in almost all regions of the country. and virtually 100% load of the byproduct coke industry.5% of global reserves. Vostochny Mine. Kazakhstan’s silver reserves were explored in more than 100 deposits. it fully meets the utilities sector’s demand for fuel. 1. Kazakhstan’s lead reserves are concentrated in more than 50 deposits. Australia. In the CIS. the U. Kazakhstan’s proven copper reserves are estimated at 37 million tonnes. Its proven gold reserves reach 1. Today. Canada. the country ranks eighth and accounts for 4% of global reserves. making it seventh after South Africa. Coal Department of Mittal Steel Temirtau. Kazakhstan is third after Russia and Ukraine.514. Kazakhstan is one of the top ten largest coal producers globally. it ranks third in terms of reserves and first in terms of coal production per capita.500 tonnes in 2006. 234 Kazakhstan is a large gold-bearing area.400 tonnes in 2008. In addition. Kazakhstan ranks sixth after Russia. and the country ranks fourth after Chile. Over 90 copper deposits were explored in Kazakhstan. Coal production is key to the economy of Kazakhstan. gold production exceeded 20 tonnes a year. This sector accounts for 11. lead.5% of global reserves.. In terms of proven coal reserves. and 1. the U.713. or 10. and the Borly Coal Department of Kazakhmys). and Indonesia.S. lead. The country is extremely rich in copper. Maikuben-West. Power-station and coking coal. Kazakhstan is fourth after Australia. Non-ferrous metallurgy is also essential for the industrial development of Kazakhstan. Aktogai. and the U.7% of the total industrial production.S. Australia. Kazakhstan’s proven lead reserves reach 11. The mined bauxites are sent for processing to the Pavlodar Alumina Plant. Ten bauxite deposits are being developed.S.700 tonnes (4% of global reserves).550. the country’s coal industry accounts for 78% of electric power generated in Kazakhstan. Indonesia. zinc. Kazakhstan’s Economy which account for more than 80% of global production. and precious metals. There are more than 50 deposits containing zinc. Eurasian Energy Corporation. which is the most valuable for industry. The leading coal producers in Kazakhstan are the companies from Pavlodar and Karaganda Oblasts (Bogatyr Access Komir.

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Kazakhstan is one of the world leaders in terms of proven uranium reserves, accounting for 21% of global figure. About 65% of these are suitable for treatment using the most progressive, environmentally friendly and cost effective method of in-situ leaching. In accordance with the Blueprint for the Development of the Uranium and Nuclear Power Industries of the Republic of Kazakhstan in 2002-2030, uranium production will reach 15,000 tonnes a year by 2010, making Kazakhstan the global leader. Thus, Kazakhstan has significant natural reserves and noteworthy potential for the advancement of its primary sector and increasing its influence on the global markets in raw materials.

4.3. The Investment Climate in Kazakhstan Having become independent, Kazakhstan faced a need to locate resources that would ensure a shift from a centrally planned economy to a market economy. Socioeconomic, political and financial factors, or, in other words, a favourable investment climate, were to be created to raise the attractiveness of the investment market and reduce investment risks. This was achieved rather speedily. Steady flows of foreign investment into the mining sector contributed to the country’s economic growth. Today, investors are attracted by a country’s investment potential, low investment risks, stable legal framework and key macroeconomic characteristics (rich natural resources, workforce, fixed assets, infrastructure, etc.), consumer demand, and other factors. Kazakhstan has the majority of the above features, which is why investment is growing at a significant pace. To form a favourable investment climate, the legal framework was improved. The Laws On State Support to Direct Investment and On Investment were adopted to speed up the advancement of priority sectors. These statutes provide guarantees for direct investment, insurance against political risks, measures of state support, privileges and preferences. In other words, they create a favourable investment climate that corresponds to the strategic development goals of the country. Kazakhstan’s investment system opens all industries to investors. The government is particularly proactive in attracting investment. In the process of economic reform, not only were conditions conducive to the attraction of foreign investment offered. Large domestic sources of potential investment were set up including the system of commercial banks, the savings pension system, the stock market, and the Regional Financial Centre of Almaty. The adopted statutes and organisational measures strengthened the country’s investment attractiveness and stimulated the inflow of foreign investment. As a result, Kazakhstan was the first CIS country to receive an international investment grade.
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In order to ensure effective communication with investors the Foreign Investors Council under the President of Kazakhstan was formed. This advisory body ensures direct dialogue with investors working in Kazakhstan and expeditiously resolves issues related to the investment activities and investment climate. The foreign members of the Council include the top managers of international economic and financial institutions, and foreign companies and corporations who are interested in long-term cooperation with Kazakhstan and who are working in the sectors that are a priority for the country’s industrial and innovative development. The Council’s tasks include making proposals to the Head of State on the improvement of the investment climate and implementation of major investment projects. To fulfil its objectives, the Council has set up five joint working groups – taxation, legislative issues, ongoing operations of foreign investors, improvement of the investment image of Kazakhstan, and the oil and gas sector. The working groups tackle various aspects of investment to make relevant recommendations to the members of the Council and government structures. The state’s proactive participation in building the favourable investment climate results in annual increases in foreign investment. During the first nine months of 2008, foreign direct investment in Kazakhstan totalled $12.8bn, vs. $10.6bn in the same period of 2007, and $7.5bn in 2006. The experts estimate that, to date, Kazakhstan has received 80% of all direct investment in Central Asia. The World Bank included our country in the top twenty countries deemed attractive to investors. Investment in fixed assets grows year by year. Because of the worsened external environment, measures were taken to activate internal sources, strengthen the state expenditure in the investment process, and stimulate domestic investment programmes. In 2007, the National Investors Council under the President of Kazakhstan was set up by a Decree by the Head of State, to work on the measures of state support to large business projects. This advisory
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body works to speed up economic diversification and modernisation, and implement breakthrough projects with the participation of domestic investors, taking into consideration the development trends in national and foreign markets. Samruk-Kazyna plays a leading part in consolidating domestic investment potential. The objectives of this fund include fostering investment activities in Kazakhstan, and the promotion of Kazakh investors abroad. Currently, every region of Kazakhstan implements or plans investment projects that are of socioeconomic importance to not only the region itself, but to the country as a whole. As a result of the government’s proactive policy to raise investment potential, the percentage of the non-government sector in total investment continues to grow. As the market economy evolves, Kazakhstan’s private sector is solidifying its positions in investment and the portion of own funds is gradually increasing. From 1993 to July 2008, over $76bn was attracted in foreign direct investment. Two thirds of investment in Kazakhstan goes to the primary sector (mining and exploration), followed by real estate (over 10%), transport and communications (over 10%), and the processing industry (less than 9%). The fact that this structure has been preserved over a long time helped align interregional disproportions, and increase capitalisation of the previously underinvested industries and regions. However, in the long term, this can result in industry lagging behind. For this reason, the government is trying to diversify investment flows and attract more money into the processing industry, and into industrial and agrarian regions. Taking into consideration the pace of economic modernisation and the need to make full use of the nation’s investment potential, the state will also put effort into maintaining a favourable investment climate and improving the country’s investment image.

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4.4. Small and Medium Businesses Kazakhstan pays particular attention to the development of small and medium businesses. The government guarantees freedom of business and ensures its protection and support to it. Small business is an important element, whose condition and level of development influences the sustainable economic growth of the country. The country has a legal framework for business development. State support to business aims at eliminating administrative barriers and ensuring that business activities can be conducted with ease. A host of statutes were adopted to govern the government policy to build a strong market economy. In order to create favourable conditions for the advancement of business (through the stimulation of domestic demand, and support to domestic enterprises), government purchases focus on local suppliers. The legal framework related to competition also strives to protect the rights of market players and consumers from monopolies, anticompetitive actions of government bodies, and unfair competition. The state Competition Protection Agency works to create favourable conditions for fair competition in Kazakhstan’s commodity markets to ensure their effective functioning, the development of a uniform economic space, free flow of goods, and the freedom of economic activities in the country. The business sector takes an active part in drafting and adopting statues, and improving the legal framework related to the development of business in Kazakhstan. This is done through the participation in the work of expert councils established by central and local executive bodies. Statistics says that the country has a little more than 1,000,000 small businesses, which altogether employ 1.7 million people. The government understands the need to develop this sector and encourages small and medium businesses by all means. It places production and public service orders, helps promote goods in the markets of other regions, and helps promote investment and innovative projects.
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The new Tax Code that took effect on 1 January 2009 provides tax preferences for all businesses that invest in the economy. It also lessens the overall tax burden on the non-primary sector and simplifies tax administration, primarily for small and medium businesses. The resulting budget losses will be compensated by higher outputs in the primary sector. This will help raise the role and status of small and medium businesses. Social and business corporations are tasked with creating the conditions to strengthen cooperation between large regional enterprises and small and medium businesses who can offer certain goods or services as outsourcers. In this way, small and medium businesses clusters will be created. Additionally, social and business corporations will help promote the products of small and medium businesses in interregional and international markets. Their participation in projects ensures access for small and medium businesses to financial, land, and technological resources, as well as to external markets, provides collateral guarantees from social and business corporations, and offers an opportunity to expand operations by founding joint ventures and grouping with manufactures of similar or related products. To encourage and support small and medium businesses in the process of diversification, state holdings have set up a committee for the outsourcing of non-strategic, non-core assets and operations of joint-stock companies with a government stake and of state enterprises, and for their transfer into a competitive environment. An essential element in the development of small and medium businesses are microcredits to the population that help attract nongovernment funds in the sector. In 1997, the government adopted a resolution to set up the Small Business Development Fund, which was reorganised in 2008 as the Damu Business Development Fund under Samruk-Kazyna. This fund develops and promotes long-term lending schemes with the use of government funds allocated for businesses. The Business Development Fund provided loans to 199 microcredit institutions. Its contribution to the support of microcredit institutions active nationally is 44%. As a result of the microcredits,
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Kazakhstan today Chapter 4. These ratings should provide an objective estimate and reveal the barriers that hinder the advancement of small and medium businesses. Therefore. work is being carried out to forecast and discover new promising fields. important objectives at present include strengthening the country’s energy security. The ratified Energy Charter Treaty is key to the enhancement of the country’s export potential. it is important to strengthen the government’s role in oil and gas transport. Projects are under consideration to expand existing transport systems and build new routes to export Kazakh hydrocarbons. Hydrocarbon production is growing at a significant pace. 243 242 .6 million tonnes of hydrocarbons were produced. Some administrative barriers have been already removed. The oil and gas sector accounts for up to 25% of the country’s budget. primarily Russia. Because of the favourable prospects for the construction of pipelines. and speed up their exploration. Hydrocarbons exported by Kazakhstan transit through many countries.5. ensuring reliable and safe transit for hydrocarbons. Kazakhstan’s Economy in particular to socially vulnerable people. Proposals have also been made for the long term that require discussion and amendment of the respective statutes. The oil and gas sector has to solidify the country’s role as an influential and responsible player in global oil and energy markets. The country is now implementing a system to rate the freedom of business by region. 4. in planning hydrocarbon export routes Kazakhstan pursues a multi-vector policy which allows the most effective use of pipeline systems. development and commissioning. This document sets forth the principles of unimpeded and non-discriminatory transit of energy resources – an issue which is extremely to Kazakhstan as an intercontinental state. and the strategic importance of the oil and gas sector to Kazakhstan’s economy. 70. workplaces are being created and preserved. Kazakhstan is one of the top twenty largest producers of hydrocarbons. Increased production of oil and gas requires the speedy development of transport infrastructure. and developing international cooperation over pipelines. In order to further develop the oil and gas sector. Oil and Gas Production and Transport The top priority for Kazakhstan’s economic policy today is to solidify its positions in the regional energy space. In 2008. up 90% on 2000. Over 80% of hydrocarbons are exported to world markets. For this reason. This also explains the participation of state companies in the capital of major transport companies.

it will be increased to 20 million tonnes. the Kenkiyak-Kumkol oil pipeline will be built. with a further expansion to 750-1. Kazakhstan needs to expand the CPC’s capacity up to 67 million tonnes a year (including 50 million tonnes for Kazakh oil). Kazmunaigas and the Russian Transneft are considering raising Atyrau-Samara’s capacity to 20 million tonnes a year. Atyrau-Samara exported 15.000 tonnes of oil were pumped to fill the pipeline. As for sea transport. Aktau is the only Kazakh seaport which has offshore oil loading terminals and oil transhipment facilities to ensure transport of Kazakh oil by the Caspian Sea to Azerbaijan (Baku). Karachaganak and Kashagan fields. On 28 June 2006. To fulfil the second phase of the Kazakhstan-China pipeline project.6 million tonnes in 2007. and the Kenkiyak-Atyrau section will be reconstructed. Atyrau-Samara’s capacity can be expanded with the help of batching technology for pumping high-gravity oil from the Tengiz.8 million tonnes in 2008. the first start-up facility was commissioned.200 bpd (35-56 million tonnes a year). A total of 400. The Kazakhstan-China oil pipeline is being constructed in two stages. which includes the YeskeneKuryk pipeline and the Transcaspian system. including 31. Taking into account the forecasted increases in the production of hydrocarbons. Kazakhstan and Russia’s energy authorities arrived at respective understandings in May 2008.1 million tonnes in 2006. the existing pipeline at the Kumkol-Karakoin-Atasu section will be reconstructed and modernised. Kazakhstan’s Economy Pipelines account for the majority of exported oil.510-km CPC pipeline connects the Tengiz oilfield with an oil loading terminal on the Russian coast of the Black Sea near Novorossiysk. and 25.8 million tonnes in 2008. and connections to the Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan system.Kazakhstan today Chapter 4. 25. The Kazakh side is currently negotiating with Transneft to reach a decision on this issue. The latter will include oil unloading terminals on Kazakhstan’s coast of the Caspian Sea. JNOC and INPEX are implementing the Kazakhstan-Turkmenistan-Iran oil pipeline project. Russia (Makhachkala). Investment in Atasu-Alashankou amounted to $806m. KCTS is expected to transport 500. oil carriers for sea transport. Kazakhstan is implementing the Kazakhstan Caspian Transportation System (KCTS) project. Over 131 million tonnes of oil have been transported since 2001 (the year it was commissioned). Because of the planned increases in oil production. 244 The 813-mm Atasu-Alashankou pipeline runs 962 km. Total. Construction was funded from authorised capital and loans raised against guarantees by the China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC).7 million tonnes of oil. the pipeline exported 4. the top priorities of the country’s policy are to further develop oil and gas transport infrastructure. Therefore.6 million tonnes of oil in 2006. in particular in Western Kazakhstan. At present the main routes for Kazakh oil are the Caspian Pipeline Consortium’s (CPC) oil pipeline. Today. Oil transport to Iran is another promising southern route. and the sea transport system through the Aktau port. 16 million tonnes in 2007. and to the Black Sea ports. the most important element in enhancing oil exports is the Aktau port situated on the Caspian Sea. the Aktau port shipped around 9 million tonnes of Kazakh oil. which opens access to the markets of Eastern Europe through the Baltic Pipeline System and the Druzhba System. In 2008. In accordance with an agreement between Kazakhstan and Azerbaijan. and to create new export systems and expand existing ones. and 16. with a plan to expand further to 25 million tonnes a year. Kazmunaigas. Another important export route is the Atyrau-Samara oil pipeline. In 2007.000 bpd (23 million tonnes a year) at the initial stage. This pipeline is the largest route for Kazakh oil exports. oil loading terminals on Azerbaijan’s coast of the Caspian Sea. The first stage included building the Atasu-Alashankou section to transport oil from Western and Central Kazakhstan and Siberia to China. Atyrau-Samara and Kazakhstan-China pipelines. and Iran (Neka). The 1. Currently. Its throughput capacity at the first stage is 10 million tonnes year. which will become 245 .

The Caspian and Transcaspian gas pipeline projects are also important to the advancement of Kazakhstan’s gas transport system. Natural gas. Makat-Northern Caucasus and Okarem-Beineu pipelines. is being constructed to consistently meet the southern regions’ demand for gas. and potential resources 6-8 trillion cu m. CAC transits Central Asian gas and exports Kazakh gas. The first phase of the project was planned for 2007-2009. Gas exports and transit are also important to Kazakhstan. Kazakhstan is pursuing a multi-vector approach and paying particular attention to the creation of new export routes to supply hydrocarbons to global markets.8 to 100 billion cu m a year. The paramount goals of the plan to advance the gas sector are to multiply the socioeconomic effects of the increased production and sound management of domestic gas reserves. is becoming an increasingly significant energy carrier. The Beineu-Shymkent pipeline. which will increase Kazakh gas exports to China and ensure the transit of gas there. In its energy policy. This paper provides for the implementation of projects to raise the throughput capacity of CAC from 54. hence the need for bypass projects. and BGA-TBA imports natural gas from Uzbekistan to Kazakhstan. The participants are currently considering Phase I of the project. This project will increase Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan’s transit potential and increase exports of Central Asian gas to Russia and to global markets.3 trillion cu m (including the recently discovered fields on the Caspian shelf). Safe navigation and environmental requirements impose restrictions on the throughput capacity of the straits. Too many carriers and tankers cross the Bosporus and the Dardanelles when passing from the Black Sea to the Mediterranean. This is the reason why Kazakhstan is considering participating in the construction of the Burgas-Alexandropoulos and Odessa-BrodyPolotsk-Gdansk pipelines. These will become a significant factor in raising the country’s export potential and strengthening its economic security. with a throughput capacity of 30-40 billion cu m a year. Another significant issue is the diversification of export routes. in particular the CAC pipeline. the Caucasus and Europe. which will supply gas from western regions to southern oblasts and further to Kazakhstan’s eastern border. The Transcaspian gas pipeline project is being considered in connection with the construction of the Baku-Tbilisi-Erzurum (BTE) pipeline in Southern Caucasus. the known and estimated reserves of which reach 3. Kazmunaigas is finalising an investment feasibility study of the project. these will limit transport of additional quantities of Kazakh oil. Bukhara-Ural transits Central Asian gas. Soyuz. CAC exports Kazakh and Central Asian gas to Russia. which includes tanker transportation of oil (without the construction of the oil pipeline) from Kazakhstan to the Iranian port of Neka. and to enhance transit opportunities of the gas transport system with a view to satisfying domestic demand and further raising export potential. In the long term. Intergas Central Asia prepared an investment feasibility study on the expansion of CAC. Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan in late 2007. Bukhara-Ural and Bukhara Gas Area-Tashkent-Bishkek-Almaty (BGA-TBA) pipelines. The Caspian pipeline project envisages the construction of a new pipeline. The main gas routes are the Central Asia-Centre (CAC). which is complete and ready to pump 247 . An agreement on the former was made at an international level by Russia. Orenburg-Novopskov. Kazakhstan’s Economy an alternative route for Caspian oil being pumped to the Persian Gulf markets. it is expected that Turkmen gas will be transported to China through Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan to the Kazakhstan-China border (through Shymkent to Khorgos). Orenburg-Novopskov and Soyuz transit Russian gas and export Kazakh 246 gas. The Kazakhstan-China pipeline project is being developed. The most urgent issue for the country’s gas transport sector is the reconstruction and modernisation of the gas pipeline system. The gas sector is another important component of Kazakhstan’s economy. Energy security and the energy deficit of the southern regions are also very serious issues for Kazakhstan.Kazakhstan today Chapter 4. A particular problem today is the overloaded Turkish straits. including along the Caspian Sea shore of Kazakhstan. In particular.

The Karatau Mountains. through a link to the BTE pipeline. which directly affects the policy of laying the underwater pipeline. 4. the host of businesses that explore and develop deposits and provide logistical services to subsoil users.6. limestone and fire clay occur near each other. Georgia and Turkey. and ArcelorMittal Termirtau. for example. their occurrence allows complex usage. Kazatomprom. Today’s strategic objectives call for the most effective use of Kazakhstan’s traditional advantages. coking coal. The volumes of Kazakhstan’s mining production are significant in global terms. correspondingly. A significant economic aspect of Kazakhstan’s mineral resources is that they often lie near the surface and can be extracted using cheap open-pit mining. In Central Kazakhstan. determining its economic potential. These include the legal status of the Caspian Sea. Rudny Altai. non-ferrous and ferrous ores. Kazakhstan’s huge natural resources make its mining sector one of the most important industries. the throughput capacity of which is expected to be 20 billion cu m. will export Kazakh gas to Europe. which include the development of mineral resources. Kazakhaltyn. Its particular features are the great variety of the extracted minerals and. Major mining enterprises were set up and infrastructure developed.Kazakhstan today Chapter 4. and the Mangystau Peninsula are particularly rich in minerals. it should be noted that this project involves some risks. In addition. Kazakhmys. The Karaganda basin mainly consists of underground mines containing high quality coking coal 249 248 . However. During Soviet times. as well as some political. Kazakhstan’s Economy gas. environmental and technological issues. Central Kazakhstan is home to the Karaganda and Ekibastuz coal basins where coking and high-calorie power-plant coal is mined from open pits and underground mines. the Mugodzhar Hills. in some instances. This route will allow the export of natural gas to Europe through Azerbaijan. This combination is advantageous to the development of ferrous and nonferrous metallurgy and related chemical and mechanical engineering production. the Turgai Valley. Open-pit and underground mines and ore processing enterprises have been consolidated and are now the property of various groups. Kazzinc. The leaders in the mining sector are Kazchrome. Kazakhstan worked intensively to expand the raw material base and produce all the types of minerals that were ready for extraction. Mining The mining sector is one of the key industries in Kazakhstan. The Transcaspian pipeline.

ranging from 35% to 50%. 251 . coal and aluminium markets. In 2006. The main coal producer is ArcelorMittal. it is the only producer of chrome. and construction of the relevant infrastructure. uranium. Kazakhstan’s coal is widely used in Northern Kazakhstan. Kazakhstan’s coal industry will progress even further. Kazakhstan produced some 5. ArcelorMittal uses coal for its steel plant. 250 Kazakhstan’s mining sector has very promising economic potential. a state enterprise. It also has significant influence on the regional iron. ferroalloys and steel markets. production reached 6. Kazakhstan’s Economy with an ash content of 10% to 35%. The Ekibastuz coal has high ash content. The country’s main objective today is to create the conditions conducive to the advancement of the industry. China and India and boasting huge resources.Kazakhstan today Chapter 4. which accounts for about 35% of the coal production in Kazakhstan. Situated close to Russia. which is also situated in the region. out of which 3.000 tonnes were produced by Kazatomprom. In Eurasia. The Ekibastuz basin is situated to the northeast of Astana. Kazatomprom. The basin also includes the Bogatyr mine. producing 50 million tonnes of coal a year. manganese. a state nuclear holding company. Syrdarya. As a cheap power-plant fuel. in Pavlodar Oblast. This coal is mainly used by households and to generate power at thermal power plants. which is the largest mine in the world. an international metallurgical company. is the fourth largest producer of uranium in the world. Balkhash. The advancement of the competitive mining industry enhances the taxable base and provides significant profit for the national budget. Kazakhstan has become one of the ‘hottest’ regions on the global investment map. the Maikuben brown coal field (to the south-east of Ekibastuz) and the Priozerny mine (Turgai brown coal basin) have been launched since Independence. This basin is the largest coal producer in Kazakhstan. investment attraction.300 tonnes of uranium. and Ili. Caspian. titanium. Kazakhstan ranks second globally in terms of known uranium reserves. The basin has large gas reserves – methane has been extracted here for a long time. In addition to the reconstruction and re-equipment of mines in the Karaganda basin. Northern Kazakhstan. In the long term. Its coal mines are managed by Bogatyr Access. the neighbouring Western Siberia. In 2007.937 tonnes. and the Urals. which are concentrated in six uranium areas – Shu-Sarysu. which will help make the most effective use of the industry’s competitive edge. The intensive development of the production and exports of raw materials in recent years has seen the national economy attain significant economic growth and strengthen its investment potential. Kazakhstan is also a notable player in the world copper.

diesel engines. the Aktobe Chromic Compound Plant. SDT Group. food industry equipment. Ulba-Ftorkompleks. and other items. Astana and Pavlodar are the important hubs in agricultural engineering. A total of 41 chemical enterprises operate in Kazakhstan. The country’s mechanical engineering enterprises also produce press and forging equipment (Shymkent). Nitrokhim. In the near future. and other items. Orica Kazakhstan. caustic soda. nitrogen and phosphoric fertiliser. and X-ray equipment (Aktobe). This is the reason that the government is offering significant support to the country’s processing industry. iron pyrites. The products offered by Kazakhstan’s chemical sector are plastics. Reactive Phosphorus Compounds. Today. The petrochemical industry is also on the rise. and machinery for the transport and construction sectors. diesel. Pavlodar and Shymkent that produce petrol. Kazazot. The centres of industrial production are Almaty. phosphoric acids). production of construction materials and foodstuffs. agricultural machinery. petroleum bitumen. chemical raw materials. non-ferrous and ferrous metals. The most dynamic sectors were metallurgy and metalworking. a wide range of rubber goods. The most developed mechanical engineering sectors in Kazakhstan are heavy and agricultural engineering. oil. centrifugal pumps (Astana). and the construction materials that are necessary for the advancement of heavy industry. Shymkent and Atyrau. cutting machines (Almaty). Taking into account the needs of the economy. The country has three oil refineries in Atyrau. sodium and potassium salts. tyres for cars and agricultural machinery. chromic compounds. because it creates new technology that often contributes to the progress of other industries. and the country’s natural and geographical potential. which includes phosphate rocks. electric motors. coal. and sulphur dioxides produced by non-ferrous metallurgy. technical and environmental safety of the technologies used. instrument engineering (to a certain extent). and the production of oil distillates. The country’s chemical industry is built on a solid mineral base. Since 1999.Kazakhstan today Chapter 4. bromine. energy and resource saving. sodium sulphate. Kazakhstan’s processing industry has been demonstrating steady growth. sodium tripolyphosphate. This sector is in an exceptional position. These include the host of idle production facilities where new production could be launched. sulphuric and nitric acids. Kazakhstan’s Economy 4. 253 . manufacture of machine tools. Kazakhstan’s processing industry has a number of advantages. Kazakhstan is rich in coal.7. cheap workforce with relatively high qualifications. aviation kerosene. the sector manufactures equipment for the mining. respectively. Foreign investment is being attracted into the mechanical engineering sector to set up the production of medical equipment. The country’s diversified agricultural sector supplies raw materials for light industry and food processing. 252 batteries (Taldykorgan). synthetic detergents. oil. These include Kazphosphate. Processing Industry The advancement of high value-added production is one of the most important conditions for the dynamic development of Kazakhstan. UstKamenogorsk. and Yevrokhim. chemical fibres and yarn. calcium carbide. One particular of the processing sector is that it is fully fed with local raw materials and fuel. and electrical engineering. They extract chemical minerals and produce mineral fertilisers and inorganic (phosphoric and sulphuric) acids. the most developed chemical sectors are the mining-andchemical industry and the heavy chemicals industry. phosphorus compounds (white phosphorus. and other oil products. metallurgical and food industries. loss-reduction. Kaustik. fuel oil. The common development priorities in the sector are technical upgrades. the significant educational and cultural background of the population. and the effective use of mineral resources. barytes. Karaganda. oil processing and coking industry by-products. some chemical enterprises will be consolidated into a nationalised chemical company which will manufacture fertilisers and other products.

open pits and concentrating plants that often form large works. Each of these industries includes mines. panels and other structures for largepanel house construction.Kazakhstan today Chapter 4. the extraction and processing of non-ferrous metals in Kazakhstan have been progressing at a significant pace. Kazakhstan has sufficient resources to manufacture construction materials. The development of non-ferrous metallurgy in Kazakhstan is rather impressive. confectionery. another oil refinery is expected to be built in Western Kazakhstan. During its years of independence. The Shymkent Lead Plant (based on the Karatau Mountains’ deposits) is operating in the south. not far from Aktau. and sheet iron. railing. Other food industries include fish (Northern Caspian). radiators. The prospects of this sector are based on the government support and further investment in all-round oil refining. floor and decorative ceramic tiles. The metallurgical sector and the production of finished metalwork contribute to the enhancement of Kazakhstan’s exports. Copper extraction and smelting are concentrated in Central and Eastern Kazakhstan. rolled roofing. Kazakhstan has built a solid base to further advance these sectors. where large thermal and hydro power plants generate large volumes of cheap electricity. bakery. The largest copper enterprises are the Balkhash 254 and Zhezkazgan Mining and Metallurgy Plants. The lead and zinc. Kazakhstan’s Economy To meet the country’s demand for oil products to a fuller extent. sanitary ware. This facility will refine crude from the Tengiz field in accordance with an agreement with TengizChevroil. which combines two integrated plants and uses iron-ore concentrates delivered from Kostanai Oblast and metal scrap. asbestos-cement pipes. Quality ferrous metallurgy is also being further developed. convectors. This sector started in 1928 when the first major enterprises. The food and light industries also have significant potential and are an important element in comprehensive economic development. Metallurgical goods are also much cheaper than oil and gas in terms of transport costs because they do not require separate infrastructure (such as oil and gas pipelines). Kazakhstan’s non-ferrous sector became a leading export industry because of the country’s rich mineral base. pipes. The country’s metallurgical industry is currently the most consistent competitor in external markets. The most advanced light industries (out of the numerous that exist) are the manufacture of textiles (including cotton. and other construction materials and structures. were built. the Leninogorsk Polymetallic Plant and the Karsakpai Copper Plant. This includes the Aktobe and Aksu ferroalloy plants. The largest ferrous metallurgy enterprise in Kazakhstan is the Karaganda Metallurgical Plant. linoleum. The plant manufactures cast iron. The country manufactures cast iron. and dairy products. aluminium. Kazakhstan’s ferrous metallurgy includes integrated and non-integrated production. To advance Kazakhstan’s petrochemical sector. steel. the National Industrial Petrochemical Technology Park (a special economic zone) was set up in Atyrau Oblast. The aluminium and titanium and manganese industries have developed in Pavlodar and Ust-Kamenogorsk. or polymetallic. asbestos sheeting. wool and 255 . The main industries in the non-ferrous sector are copper. and winemaking. The construction sector manufactures cement. New high-tech brick and linoleum enterprises were launched. Powerful cement plants were built in Shymkent and Semei. canned items. The town of Tekeli is another important polymetallic producer. in the vicinity of which large cement clays occur. Cement manufacturing has become an important industry in Kazakhstan. kaolin for the paper industry. flour. Ever since then. lead and zinc. and titanium and manganese. Some metallurgical products made in Kazakhstan are the cheapest in the world. and ferroalloys. rolled iron. industry occupies the east and south of the country. steel. The most developed food sectors in Kazakhstan are the production of meat. Sugar production is developing in the south where sugar beet is grown. Glass plants and a host of other enterprises will be set up.

Space Industry In recent years. 4. A wide range of services associated with space research and orientated to end users need to be developed. from alerts to the possibility of environmental disasters to the creation of new virus vaccines.8. transport. Today. Petropavlovsk. medicine and biology. 257 256 . More than 130 countries use the results of space activities. Today. Space satellites now provide precise records of natural and land resources. leather and footwear. Shymkent. Observations from space help predict yields. The largest textile centres are Almaty. over 40 countries produce and launch spacecraft demonstrating their scientific and technological potential. The industrial. locate forest fires and epicentres of earthquakes and floods. educational and telecommunications sectors – all of them make use of the space industry’s achievements. Karaganda. space exploration progressed significantly. Kazakhstan’s Economy cloth manufacture). the role of space exploration in human life could not have been imagined. Taraz. energy. knitted fabrics. but also to ensure its effective use and integration with the programmes and plans for the acceleration of the country’s socioeconomic and innovative advancement. The mechanism of public-private partnership will be used to achieve this. health. The country will have significant economic benefits if space research and other astronautic achievements are integrated into its economic activities. geophysics. space operations have become integrated into economic processes. The Baikonur Cosmodrome ensures the operation of the International Space Station. there is no area of human activities that could not make use of the results of space exploration. biotechnology and fundamental sciences have made it possible to use space achievements in almost every field.Kazakhstan today Chapter 4. It is important to not only develop the orbital and earth components of the observation and navigation system. felt. At the very beginning of the space era. Kostanai. and sewing. During the years after the first artificial satellite and Vostok 1 with Yury Gagarin aboard were launched. This tendency has required the government to develop a whole complex of space activities. and Uralsk. Scientific experiments in the area of space technology. agricultural.

development of a scientific and experimental base for space activities and astrophysical research. A promising player in Kazakhstan’s space industry is the Baiterek joint venture. space research and technology. Cooperation between the countries is not limited to Baikonur. The State Programme for Space Activity Development aims at the creation of a fully-fledged space industry. Kazakhstan is in close contact with Russia. the KazSat communica258 tions and broadcasting system with ground control. and an additional 69 billion tenge in the National Space Agency’s projects. Other issues include increasing the environmental security of space activities and enhancing Kazakhstan’s participation in the implementation of ground and space programmes. including designated space systems. In addition. development of a national system for satellite monitoring of Kazakhstan’s territory and crust. and human potential. one of the leading space powers. The companies’ activities include fundamental applied research into the physics of near. a new. to promote international cooperation in the area of space activities. In 2004. and the upgrade of ground space facilities. The National Space Agency works through subsidiaries. which plans to set up Baiterek. which include Kazakhstan Garysh Sapary. Retraining and professional development for space specialists. A similar programme for 2009-2020 is currently under consideration. In order to effectively advance its space activities. ground facilities. research aboard the International Space Station. A total of $6bn is expected to be invested in Kazakhstan’s space industry by 2011. to create conditions for the formation of a market in space technology and services. a knowledge-intensive hi-tech sector fostering the industrial and innovative development of the national economy and solidifying national security and defence. the Republican Centre for Space Communications and Electromagnetic Compatibility of Electronic Equipment. to form and develop the space industry. the National Centre for Space Research and Technology. and creation and implementation of high-performance information and space technology to meet socioeconomic objectives. Baiterek. which was set up in 2007. Kazakhstan’s Economy Space activities in Kazakhstan are performed by the National Space Agency. Russia’s operation of Baikonur is extended until 2050. and to coordinate work related to Baikonur. implementation of intersectoral space programmes and projects. the National Space Agency was working towards sending a Kazakh astronaut to the International Space Station in the autumn of 2009 to fulfil a special scientific programme. and preparation of technical regulations and standards in the area of space activities is also planned. a spacecraft assembly and test complex in Astana. 259 . to increase the efficiency of the space industry. signed on 9 January 2004. This money will be used to set up the Baiterek complex. These papers cover the following issues: the creation of a scientific space system and advanced space power installations. the government adopted the State Programme for Space Activity Development in 2005-2007. environmentally friendly spacecraft complex at Baikonur to provide commercial launch services. Its main objectives are to develop uniform state policy in the area of space activities and ensure its implementation. deep and terrestrial space. According to the agreement between Kazakhstan and Russia on the development of cooperation with regard to the effective use of the Baikonur complex. to exercise government control and coordination of space activities. and the other state enterprises that participate in the management of Baikonur.Kazakhstan today Chapter 4. and an earth remote sensing system with ground control.

as well as vegetables. including 24 million hectares (10. at the foothills and in the river valleys. and control and stabilisation of domestic food markets are of particular importance. introducing up-to-date processes and leasing schemes. This involves providing the sector with better equipment. Kazakhstan’s agrarian sector has the following features: – the horizontal and vertical zoning of soil and vegetation is strongly expressed. cultivate diverse plants (crops. – Kazakhstan is a major exporter of wheat and flour (one of the top ten exporters globally). – the total area of agricultural land is 222. state and industrial programmes to develop and support the agricultural sector and villages were adopted over the last ten years and fuelled with solid finance. Agriculture Agriculture is one of the key industries of Kazakhstan’s economy. respectively). encouraging associations of small agricultural producers. The holding company works to implement the state policy of food security. Annual precipitation is low in all farming areas (150-320 mm). and horizontal and vertical ties and the respective production cycles are created in the agricultural sector.6 million hectares. and mountain areas about 5%. mountain meadows in the east and southeast are used. As a priority sector of the country’s economy. advancing nonagricultural businesses in rural areas. yellow tobacco and rice are grown using irrigation. Additionally. the Kazagro national holding was set up in 2006 to improve the system of state support. cotton). – northern regions specialise in growing crops and animal husbandry. and develop the markets in agricultural produce and rural areas. cotton and leather/wool have a sig260 nificant portion in the country’s agricultural exports (15% and 25%. developing the full production cycle. Kazakhstan’s Economy 4. agriculture has great potential and significant reserves. and Kazagromarketing. oil plants. The forest-steppe and steppe zones account for 10% of all land. southern regions. etc. which is why it is particularly important to develop the production and service infrastructure. camel and cattle breeding are the traditional types of husbandry in Kazakhstan. melons. To strengthen the rural economy. the development of exports and respective infrastructure. and enhance the instruments of financing. oats.9. Sheep. These and other issues can be resolved if the policy of investment in Kazakhstan’s agricultural sector is improved. because the national budget still remains the main source of funds. and 189 million hectares (85%) by pastures. In the north. In summer. cotton. fruit and berries. develop the system of guarantees to creditors. semi-desert and desert about 60%. The desert and semi-desert areas in central and southwest Kazakhstan are widely used as seasonal pastures. Kazakhstan’s diverse nature provides significant opportunities for the development of animal husbandry. the Agrarian Credit Corporation.Kazakhstan today Chapter 4. the climate is favourable for the cultivation of spring wheat. Mal Onimderi Korporatsiyasy. horse. including with the participation of the commercial players in the financial market. expand the market in domestic and foreign capitals. vegetables. Kazagrofinance. provide credits and insurance for agricultural businesses. and a number of industrial plants (sunflower. where irrigation plays a significant part. barley and other crops. – animal husbandry is traditional in Kazakhstan. Kazagrogarant. Measures are also being taken to advance rural businesses and the system of financial services to rural population.). tobacco. Kazakhstan is trying to make its agricultural sector export-orientated.2%) occupied by hayfields. Currently. The holding includes the Food Contract Corporation. and ensuring the institutional 261 .8%) under the plough. crown flax. the agrarian production and service infrastructure is advanced. 5 million hectares (2. In the warm south. Gardens and vineyards bear fruit. sugar beet. the Fund for Financial Support to Agriculture. The strategic objectives for the investment policy are to diversify the sources of finance for the sector.

as well as the adoption of best world practices and their adaptation to domestic conditions. This company consolidates agricultural research institutions. Kazakhstan’s Economy development of credit and consumer partnerships and cooperatives in rural areas. and agricultural economics. This is made possible because of the connections to state authorities and large private agricultural organisations. animal husbandry. the quality of produce and restoration of natural resources are issues of particular importance. Another important issue for animal husbandry is the expansion of the livestock breeding sector. cows. projects are being implemented to set up a network of vegetable warehouses. The association provides advisory and legal assistance to its members so that they can obtain grants and loans from the state or private financial institutions or lease equipment. processing. The priorities of agrarian science are based on the peculiarities of the country’s agricultural sector. greenhouses and poultry farms and build grain and cotton processing factories. the Agricultural Union of Kazakhstan was created in order to consolidate farms. which will include special feedlots for cattle and sheep. as well as research and engineering. on the Black Sea. as a result of government support and private investors. the Poultry Farmers’ Union. in particular in the area of grain farming. its competitive advantages and specialisation. which will include an increase in the specific weight of pedigree stock. taking into account foreign achievements in the promotion of competitive agriculture. Environmental security. and poultry breeding clusters) are being implemented within the framework of the government’s strategic programmes. Enhancements to the infrastructure for large animal farms are planned. farming. horticulture. As Kazakhstan’s agrarian potential evolves. The agricultural sector needs to enhance exports and diversify markets. The demand for modern machinery and mechanical aids is being fuelled by changes in production processes. In 2005. To this end. public associations and agricultural organisations. and quantitative and qualitative characteristics of agricultural equipment. 262 Agricultural businesses are also proactive in enhancing cooperation between each other. development of specialised 263 .Kazakhstan today Chapter 4. the government is providing support to innovative agricultural projects. and on the Chinese border) and the Aktau seaport capacity will be increased. Production and advanced processing of wool and leather will be developed. the Grain Union of Kazakhstan. more attention is being paid to the quality of equipment in the sector. provide agricultural players with access to exhibitions and fairs. food industry. Cluster development projects (with regard to the cotton. Work is being done to further raise competitive production in the sector in order to maintain the country’s food security and exports. and modern meat processing plants. This will allow the country to use the advantages of the sector when global demand for quality food expands. In addition. sheep. Animal husbandry is traditional in Kazakhstan. including the Farmers’ Union. The government policy in the area of animal husbandry ensures stable increases in cattle and poultry population and improvements in their yields and reproduction. In addition. new grain terminals will be built abroad (in Iran. it is planned to develop an insurance system for the crop growing sector. Kazagroinnovatsiya was set up for this purpose. and camels) were the basis of the Kazakh ‘family economy’ for centuries. and set up a network of information and advisory centres in rural areas. and associations of regional households. fishery. These projects will be implemented within the framework of public-private partnership and with the participation of foreign investors. Domestic animals (horses. The consolidation of agrarian research and production potential will raise the effectiveness of new agricultural technologies and ensure their commercialisation. growing specialisation and concentration of production. mechanisation. The association’s members are legal entities and their associations and unions. a network of slaughter facilities. crop growing. forestry. In particular.

marketing and merchandising technologies are being used. essential for the successful development of its economy. The range of goods offered in the market is continuously being expanded and the quality of services is growing. Kazakhstan has a number of large chain stores and some malls franchised by international trading companies. which is why it has so much social and economic importance. The sector has the highest representation of private properties and small and medium businesses. Investment in agriculture increases year by year. and new forms of trade such as e-commerce and mobile commerce are emerging. improvements in personal incomes and living standards. The number of modern trading floors is increasing with the development of the competitive market. The number of animal farms is expected to grow to 500. The size of agricultural businesses’ own funds. Kazagro provides finance to import pedigree livestock. and the implementation of urban development programmes.Kazakhstan today Chapter 4. Prior to 2006. the sector’s share in the nation’s GDP has been between 11% and 12%. The holding company attracts domestic and foreign investment to increase Kazakhstan’s agricultural potential and provides systemic government support to upgrade the sector and make it competitive. The retail segment (cash-and-carry stores. Kazakhstan’s Economy infrastructure. the supply system is becoming vertically integrated. 4. and modernisation of animal farms. increased economic density. trade networks) has been the most dynamic in the recent years. Since 2003. loans and foreign investment grows in addition to budget allocations. the trading 265 264 . individual entrepreneurs and markets dominated the retail market. Yet. large retail chains achieve dominance. up-to-date sales. Kazagro is an active participant in these processes. hypermarkets. Trade Trade is one of the most prominent economic activities in Kazakhstan. The trading sector employs up to 15% of the economically active population. It also provides full-time and part-time employment for women and young people. as the consumer market develops. The trading sector in Kazakhstan is advancing in line with global tendencies: traditional forms of trade are being replaced by modern ones. The contributing factors are the growing trends towards concentration of economic activities. Trade turnover is increasing year on year and the percentage of non-foods is growing continuously. All common forms of retailing are present in Kazakhstan.10. Shopping malls have also become very popular as places for family entertainment. Kazakhstan’s market is rather attractive for retail development. supermarkets.

it is likely that a common commodity exchange will be organised with the Russian Trading System (RTS). the need also arises to systematise the efforts of wholesale purchasers and retail outlets aimed at the improvement of the supply chain at a regional level to make it export-orientated. Modern warehousing. and fosters effective flows of goods with minimum transaction costs. The Special Trading Floor was established to develop the regional stock exchange in Kazakhstan. 266 The growing investment in the material and technical base of sales outlets contributes to the advancement of up-to-date infrastructure that meets the requirements of present-day trade. enhance the range of products. Consumer rights institutions are trying to increase the transparency of service and trade companies. To improve quality. as well as quality requirements that would enhance the prospects of processing companies and the territorial dispersion of markets. and the transformation of the sector into a modern service industry are a positive influence on the development of the sector.Kazakhstan today Chapter 4. improve transport and logistics potential. These schemes have been successful in other countries and include specialised fairs. However. This is also a solution to the problem of the sector’s social orientation. logistics and information services. Previously scattered. this form of trade is not very popular. They fostered the arrangement of domestic exchange of goods and information. Trading in non-foods has demonstrated the most noticeable growth. A new commodity exchange is expected to be set up on the Regional Financial Centre of Almaty’s (RFCA) Special Trading Floor. Kazakhstan’s Economy companies’ percentage in trade turnover is on the increase. as well as storage and batching. and manufacture of equipment are on the rise. The arrangement of trading in fresh products in retail outlets is very important to Kazakhstan because individuals and small businesses get an opportunity to sell their products at fair prices. Business activities in the area of trade are not limited to trading and servicing. intermediaries and buyers with the latest information on supply and demand. In addition. this segment demonstrates better organisation of procurement and supply systems. Kazakhstan needs to develop exchanges that would allow effective prices and terms of supply to be set. exhibitions and workshops where producers and traders can agree on the quality and quantities of supplies. Retail infrastructure also received powerful impetus from the quality development of trade. Today’s retailing is characterised. A consumer culture is also growing. In the future. primarily. Kazakhstan produces a great deal of exchange commodities and its convenient geographic location attracts traders from all over the continent. to meet the market demands. the CIS needs to create a relevant trading system and a pricing policy that would take into account the specifics of production and marketing. The effective development of retailing depends on the level of wholesaling. Nevertheless. Because of changes in the global trade on exchanges. the emergence of new forms of trade. A highly organised system of trade and services is being built in Kazakhstan as a result of improvements in the trading policy of the state and the respective legal framework. with the intention of becoming a link between the Asian and European exchanges. The wholesaling infrastructure is continuously being developed. creates favourable conditions for domestic producers. From the very first days of the market economy in Kazakhstan. on external markets in particular. it is necessary to set up an informational infrastructure and a public system to provide producers. Achieving this objective will help strengthen ties between trading and production systems. There are only five commodity exchanges in Kazakhstan and their sales and turnover are not very high. and news from the sector. as well as in the consumers’ welfare and purchasing power. by the changing balance between store-based and non-store forms of trade. and satisfy the demands of the market. as Kazakhstan needs to develop its food potential and saturate the market with fresh products. The consolidation of retail businesses. 267 . commodity exchanges emerged as a form of trade. The latter has a function of regulating trade flows across consumers and retailers located in various regions of Kazakhstan.

warehouse stores (which will purchase goods from industrial or agricultural producers). Kazakhstan’s Economy The effective development of trade will be fostered by enhancements in logistics. distribution centres. the packaging industry. the Law On Banks and Banking in the Kazakh SSR was adopted to launch banking reforms. Banking From its first days. which includes logistics complexes. In the early 1990s. able to play a proactive part in the concentration and redistribution of capital. in 2002 their number decreased to 38. Mastery contests and festivals are being organised. After the state sectoral banks had been reorganised and the national divisions of the Gosbank of the USSR had been vested with the functions of the central banks of sovereign states. Essential communications will link these areas with the cities. a two-tier banking system was formed in Kazakhstan. The first tier of the new system included the National Bank of the Republic of Kazakhstan and its branches in oblast centres. The latest technologies are spreading rapidly and international companies are entering Kazakhstan’s markets. The hospitality and household and business service industries are also developing impressively. canteens. The number of commercial banks in 1993 exceeded 200. and regional transport terminals. this is an established sector. and A. and those newly established by individuals and legal entities. Significant attention is being paid to the development of this segment. This allowed the move to the country’s own monetary policy. However. The level of service is also growing as competition tightens. 268 4. The service sector is demonstrating similarly high results. Kazakhstan’s banking system has been orientated towards international financial market standards. In these zones. New forms of trade constantly emerge in global trading. the number of financial institutions – commercial banks and organisations offering banking services – soared. transport.Kazakhstan today Chapter 4. In accordance with 269 . The possibility of setting up special economic zones will also be considered. The number of businesses is growing at a significant pace (almost threefold from 2004 to 2008. By November 1993. warehousing.11. The second tier comprised banks that were established from former specialised banks. These facilities will be built on the terms of public-private partnership. E-commerce has serious potential for the advancement of small and medium businesses. almost all formats (restaurants. and following the establishment in 1991 of the first commercial banks. Competition in this sector is the toughest and fosters the development of modern service techniques and organisation of business. To further strengthen the banking system. In the foodservice sector. The transport and logistics sector is one of the priorities for the Kazakhstan-2030 Strategy. Improvements in financial control and supervision helped strengthen the financial stability of second-tier banks and the reliability of the system as a whole. To this end. with the help of investors. At present. the Programme for the Second-Tier Banks’ Adoption of the International Financial Reporting Standards was approved in December 1996. cafes. the number of institutions offering banking transactions increased significantly over the same period. is an innovation that is still underdeveloped in Kazakhstan. warehousing and logistics zones will be built near large cities to ensure the sale of goods. which includes using mobile access to the Internet for shopping. Kazakhstan’s banking system had been generally formed. Kazakhstan’s banking system was formed in line with the best banking principles used worldwide. On the other hand. following tightened requirements for second-tier banks. when the tenge was introduced. From the very beginning.and B-class shared warehouses (managed by warehouse operators) will be developed. In January 1991. fast food restaurants and catering) representing many world cuisines are present. with the number of seats having grown more than fourfold and the value of services almost fourfold). freight-forwarding services. E-commerce. taking into account the territorial dispersion of population and manufacturers in Kazakhstan.

these figures have grown tremendously. 271 . A total of 16 banks. These services apply the most modern bank and service technologies. 37 second-tier banks operate in Kazakhstan. It should be noted however that the regulator’s policy and state measures aimed at ensuring the stability of the banking sector helped prevent a sharp decline in the performance of the banks. 33 representative offices of foreign banks operate 270 in Kazakhstan. This means that if a bank is licensed to accept deposits from individuals it is obliged to join the insurance system.) and this is a positive influence on the country’s economic development. accounting. the dynamics of the banking system slowed because of external influences. Over the last year. This is causing the banks to improve their services and operations. At present. all banks operating in Kazakhstan were obliged to reach international levels in the sufficiency of equity. Kazakhstan’s Economy the programme. Kazakhstan’s leading banks are striving to enhance their foreign economic transactions and their rankings by international rating agencies. In November 1999. the banks’ competitiveness improved. payments. have foreign participants. management of gold and foreign exchange assets. In comparison to the first days of Kazakhstan’s banking sector. management. issues banknotes and coins. and loans about 60%. the Agency for the Regulation and Supervision of the Financial Market and Financial Institutions was set up to better protect the users of financial services. and data input and transfer before the end of 2000. These ratings help them attract capital from global markets. The National Bank implements state monetary policy. liquidity. and their services became cheaper and more accessible to the general public. This confirms interest in Kazakhstan’s market and the advanced level of the national banking system. Sixteen banks joined this system in early 2000. and create an effective and independent system of consolidated supervision. deposits 30%. In 2004. The banking sector is one of the key elements of the country’s economy. On 1 January 2004. Commercial banks in Kazakhstan offer a wide range of services for individuals and legal entities. etc. the competition in the banking market toughens. the deposit insurance system became compulsory. develop a stable infrastructure for the domestic financial market. the Kazakhstan Deposit Insurance Fund was founded. Amendments to the banking laws made in April 2000 concerning the banking secrecy of individuals’ deposits also contributed to the improvements to the deposit protection system. Also. These improvements fostered the attraction of people’s savings to banks. These include traditional banking services as well as innovations such as e-banking and Internet banking. and exercises the central bank’s functions. As a result. The National Bank assigned the Agency the respective functions and powers. the Agency now functions successfully as the national regulator. which became the backbone of the Deposit Insurance System. the population of Kazakhstan are active users of the services of second-tier banks (savings. In conclusion it can be said that Kazakhstan’s banking sector has been following market principles and is able to create the conditions necessary to accumulate the population’s savings and further provide them in the form of loans to the real sector. and trust management of the National Fund of the Republic of Kazakhstan. The banks’ assets equal 80% of the country’s GDP. foreign exchange regulation and control.Kazakhstan today Chapter 4. As the clients’ financial expertise and trust in financial institutions grow. including seven subsidiary banks. Today. They have 380 branches nationwide and 15 representative offices abroad. the volume of banking transactions increased. asset quality.

Orenburg-Tashkent. When this objective is achieved. including 273 . The sectoral strategic programme provides for the gradual development of a network of transport routes and interlinks. and Tianjin on the Pacific coast.600 km of new railways and the electrification of 2. This is the objective of the Transport Development Strategy until 2015 (Transport Strategy) approved in 2005. infrastructure facilities and all types of transport means will be upgraded. long distances between populated localities. from the Chinese ports of Lianyungang. which envisaged the creation of a transport and communications complex complying with government’s economic strategies. All oblast cities and towns have automobile connections to all regional localities and settlements. Five international motor routes. and one with China) connect the country’s rail system with neighbouring states. Qingdao. provides both domestic and international flights.000 km. Transport is extremely important to Kazakhstan. and air) links to China and can deliver goods from Europe and Asia to almost every point in China and Southeast Asia. Using the country’s transport potential will bring significant income to the nation and transport companies and promote the advancement of a competitive transport and logistics sector. to Kazakhstan.700 km of the existing lines. Kazakhstan has high transit potential as a bridge between Europe and Asia. Uzbekistan. cross Kazakhstan. Railways account for the largest portion of freight and passenger traffic in the country.000 km. motor. At present. Despite its landlocked location. the nation’s largest airline. and remoteness from global markets make the transport system vital. Air Astana. goods are being transported along this route through Kazakhstan at a great rate. The total length of the railways in Kazakhstan exceeds 14. Kazakhstan’s rail network has four major longitudinal routes (Turksib. and Southern Siberian (with branch lines)). with a total length of 17.Kazakhstan today Chapter 4. including 14 international hubs. Kyrgyzstan. Fifteen division points (eleven with Russia. Kazakhstan’s transport sector will become integrated with the global transport system and will ensure accessible. Iran. Its vast territory. two with Uzbekistan. Central Siberian. In addition. Kazakhstan has a network of motor roads totalling more than 88. low population density. The Silk Road transited an enormous number of goods and cultural achievements. Kazakhstan has taken measures to strengthen its trade and economic relationships along the famous route. Kazakhstan is home to 22 large airports.000 km. This is why there is a need to develop the transit sections of continental routes. Freight and passenger transit between Europe and Asia is extremely important to the sector. Kazakhstan has transport (rail. the development and effectiveness of these depend largely on state policy. secure and rapid deliveries between the East and the West. and Kungrad-Beineu-Makat-Astrakhan) and three latitudinal routes (Trans-Siberian. Transport Ever since ancient times. air transport is extremely important and there is often no alternative. The construction of the Druzhba-Alashankou cross-border railway passage between Kazakhstan and China and opening of the SaraghsMashhad railway passage between Turkmenistan and Iran has opened new transit routes on the Great Silk Road. Turkmenistan. Trans-Kazakhstan (Petropavlovsk-Karaganda-Shu). The strategy covers all types of transport (except pipelines).500 km. It also has sea links to Iran and intermodal (rail and motor) connections to Turkey. At present. The Transport Strategy provides for the building of 1. Because of the country’s vast territory. Kazakhstan’s Economy 4. one with Kyrgyzstan.12. and to the ports of the Mediterranean and the Persian Gulf. 272 The role of rail transport in Kazakhstan is very important. Leading international companies. people living in the territory of today’s Kazakhstan and Central Asia have made use of the advantages of the proximity of the Great Silk Road running from the southeastern borders of China to the Mediterranean coast of Turkey – a distance of more than 6. and Turkey. The investment policy is aiming at the modernisation of the existing roads and construction of new international and local routes.

ores. the Bukhtarma. The development of oil fields in Western Kazakhstan called for the construction of the Uzen-Makat-Samara pipeline. the most significant transport objective for Kazakhstan is to further improve domestic and interstate links and upgrade the majority of the existing infrastructure. Lufthansa. The length of Kazakhstan’s navigable waterways is more than 6. using the routes that are the most convenient to freight forwarders. Ural. Iran. also operate in Kazakhstan. The Omsk-Pavlodar pipeline was laid in the 1960s when the Pavlodar Refinery was commissioned. KLM. Azerbaijan. with a link to the Atyrau Refinery. and Turkmenistan. The Caspian Sea links Kazakhstan with Russia. a 900-km Guriyev-Orsk oil pipeline was built. Shulba. Southern regions are fed with gas from the 1. coal. Kazakhstan’s Economy British Airways. Turkish Airlines. Pipeline transport is becoming increasingly important in light of the enhancement of the country’s oil and gas potential. and Kapchagai Water Reservoirs. Ust-Kamenogorsk.Kazakhstan today Chapter 4. The first oil pipeline from the Dossor field to the Rakusha port was commissioned in 1915 to pipe the Emba oil to the Caspian Sea. Russian rivers and channels provide connections to the Black and Baltic Seas and further to Western Europe. and Ishim Rivers. and Iran Air. The Aktau Port situated on the Caspian Sea is the only ice-free seaport in Kazakhstan and a strategic international hub. freight traffic on the Caspian Sea has grown significantly. and oil products are being transported by sea. and Lakes Balkhash and Zaisan. The major Central Asia-Centre and Bukhara-Ural gas pipelines cross Kazakhstan with links to the industrial centres in Western and Northern Kazakhstan. and the Uzen-Zhetybai-Shevchenko pipeline. Future pipeline development strategies will try to ensure that new oil pipelines provide stable supplies to the nation’s own refineries and transport Kazakh oil to external markets. Ili.000 km. Because of the extensive development of the oil sector.317 km Mubarek-Tashkent-Shymkent-Taraz-Almaty pipeline. The water routes run along the Irtysh. Syrdarya. Grain. 275 . wood. In the 1930s. Kigach. when oil production increased. ground facilities. 274 To speed up these large-scale efforts that are of international importance Kazakhstan needs significant investment in order to upgrade its railroads. At present. and air traffic control system.

something that is essential for such a big country with high transit potential. and UPS have representative offices in Kazakhstan. will be made available nationwide. which represents Kazakhstan in the global community. At the same time. and technologies will be provided to all people irrespective of their social status. including mailing. which will soon offer a full range of postal.000 people and has more than 3. and technical progress will advance. The postal service is managed by Kazpochta. In order to successfully advance the Internet. The largest providers of telecommunications and postal services in Kazakhstan are Kazakhtelecom and Kazpochta. the national postal operator. Communications Communications are an integral part of Kazakhstan’s economic and social infrastructure. However. In 2006.200 offices nationwide. information and communications services. The economic success of a country is possible only if a modern IT infrastructure exists. FedEx. The postal operator has the largest network of branches and these provide full coverage of the country. it will be impossible to enhance the economy. or location. including those based on the modern CDMA-40 wireless format. the Internet in particular. as well as into a general logistics operator. EMS. including three GSM providers. and is a system that handles all information. Kazpochta was the first operator in the CIS to develop a postal and savings system and is the only structure that has implemented it. Major international logistics operators such as DHL. including districts and rural areas. Some information services are already available electronically. This is an objective necessity – if an up-to-date IT infrastructure is missing. The main objective of this organisation is to provide a basis for the creation of a high-tech society in Kazakhstan. only 14 out of 100 people in Kazakhstan had access to the Internet before 2008 and the 2008 figure was expected to increase to 21. Kazakhstan’s Economy 4. Since 2007. including 14 oblast and four national branches. To achieve this. These include information on real estate. The regional communications community acknowledged the success of Kazpochta and recommended Kazakhstan’s new postal system as a promising model for postal services in the CIS. the Samgau National Science and Technology Holding was set up. equal access to knowledge. Kazpochta is the only major network which has access to almost all of Kazakhstan’s population and has no alternatives. The number of state services provided via web-portals to people and businesses is increasing every day. The main components of this sector are telecommunications and postal services. financial and agency services. Ka276 zpochta offers a wide range of services. courier.Kazakhstan today Chapter 4. telephone and Internet connections. respectively. The country has five cellular operators. financial and other services. Kazakhstan’s postal service is now being intensively transformed into a multifunctional ‘financial supermarket’. In accordance with the Access to Telephony Programme. and data related to the draft law on the national register of registration numbers databases. Kazakhstan’s postal service presently employs approximately 21. The creation of this infrastructure needs to involve domestic engineers and producers. direct mail and mail order services are being developed. The number of Internet users has grown significantly recently. 277 . age. which is a determinant of how telecommunications. The government has prepared and introduced a proactive E-Government Development Programme. the government has adopted the Blueprint for the Formation and Development of Kazakhstan’s Internet Segment (Kaznet) as a Single Information Space for 2008-2012. by 2013. The development of a competitive communications sector ensures the harmonious progress of the economic space.13. information. All regional postal branches are interconnected by satellite channels. negotiations have been underway to transfer these channels to IP VPN ground lines provided by Kazakhtelecom. Oblast branches are connected to the corporate information network by optical fibre lines (Frame Relay). money and commodity flows.

Following the example of the U. Tourism When thinking where to go. Twenty small hotels for 900 beds are already being built in Akmola Oblast alone. Kazakhstan’s tourism sector is an established structure. This favourable geographic location is very beneficial for the development of international tourism. the advancement of which will raise the competitiveness of the country and enhance its economic diversification.000-seat sports complex on the left bank of the Ishim River in Astana. Today. more than 300. from visits to historic places and ecotourism. The creation of a special economic zone in Mangystau Oblast is also being considered. and Turkestan were not only trade centres. The country has many unique natural preserves and national parks. Another promising project is the construction of the Kenderli Resort. In particular. A list of twenty breakthrough projects attractive to tourists was compiled and is being implemented. but scientific. Hotels and caravanserais are being planned along the route. and the Kenderli Resort in Mangystau Oblast. A 1. This is confirmed by annual increases in the number of incoming tourists. Kazakhstan has world-class ski sites that can compete with the best ski resorts in the world. Kazakhstan is developing the First Space Harbour on the Planet project in Baikonur. Ile Alatau. the Burabai complex in the Shchuchinsk and Borovoye recreational area. The State Tourism Development Programme for 2007-2011 was adopted because the tourism cluster is one of the seven priority non-primary sectors. The launch of the Silk Road Pearl tourist train along the route Almaty-Turkestan-Tashkent-Samarkand-Bukhara-Urgench-MaryAshgabat-Almaty is also planned. The ancient cities of Otrar. Altyn Yemel. and security. The largest projects are the construction of the Zhana Ile tourist centre on the Kapchagai Reservoir.Kazakhstan today Chapter 4. Another project envisages the construction of a 4. The Great Silk Road routes are also being worked on as an area of cultural and educational tourism.000 people visit these places every year for educational and religious purposes. and architectural sites. tourists are attracted by natural landscapes. Kazakhstan’s diverse mountainous rivers are ideal for rafting.S. The most popular tourist sites are the Shymbulak ski resort. Kazakhstan has diverse tourism potential and unique opportunities to develop almost all types of tourism. The country’s recreational potential allows the development of a host of promising sub-sectors. cultural heritage. In addition. at the intersection of the largest Asian and European countries. geographic peculiarities. which is continuing to progress. A project has been prepared to develop beach and cruise tourism on the Caspian Sea.000 archaeological and historic sites. advanced infrastructure. This section is a unique complex of historic. This project will include excursions into the history of the space industry.200 km northern line of the Silk Road runs through Kazakhstan. The development of tourism is one of the priorities of the Strategy for Kazakhstan’s Joining the World’s 50 Most Competitive Countries. including observation of rare species of flora and fauna. cultural. Kazakhstan has all the opportunities to become a country with a favourable tourism image. Sauran.. Other major projects include the construction of a chain of cheap tourist-class hotels in the regions. A number of investment incentives and preferential treatments are provided and the visa laws are being improved. and religious hubs. and mutual recognition of tourist visas in Central Asia is being negotiated.14. and more than 9. Kazakhstan’s geographic peculiarities make it evident that the country has significant potential for ecotourism. including building the Aktau City coastal town. Kazakhstan’s Economy 4. from China to Uzbekistan. the Medeo high-altitude skating 279 . archaeological. Tremendous work is being carried out in order to develop the ten most attractive tourist routes in the national natural parks. to adventure travel and other active types of tourism. and the Charyn Canyon in particular. who have made the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) a popular tourist 278 site. over 100 therapeutic facilities. Kazakhstan is situated in the heart of Eurasia.

15.4 12.7 32. Switzerland (15.0 8. Kazakhstan is moving steadily towards integration with the global market.2 47. Asiada-2011 will be a powerful stimulus for the development of tourism.7%).4 9. and economic ties have been established with many developed and developing states.1 61. South Korea. often called the ‘Kazakh Switzerland’. Japan. the UK. This 280 281 .9%).9 45.8 17. Asian. France (7. As for international cooperation.1 8.8 38.5 109.3 32. Cooperation in the framework of this authoritative structure will help Kazakhstan join the global tourism community in the shortest possible time.7 37. Kazakhstan’s Economy rink. effectively form its tourism image.S.8 5. and exchange technologies. Sports facilities which will be built for the Asian Games in Almaty and Astana can then be used as tourist sites. and Australia. American and African countries. foreign trade turnover was almost eight times as high as in 2000. An important measure aimed at the development of international relations in the area of tourism is strengthening ties with the World Tourism Organisation.3 21. The number of its partner countries has grown significantly. The dynamics of Kazakhstan’s foreign trade is shown in Table 2. China (10.3 23. Table 2 Kazakhstan’s Foreign Trade $ billion 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 Trade. Foreign Economic Relations Kazakhstan is a fully fledged participant in international economic relations. the Netherlands (6. Lithuania. total Exports Imports 13. Intergovernmental agreements with Slovenia. Russia (8. Moldova. France. Therefore.9 20. 23 intergovernmental agreements on tourism are in effect now.8 15.9 80.Kazakhstan today Chapter 4.2 8. In 2008. Since 1997 the geography of Kazakhstan’s foreign trade has changed noticeably towards enhanced relationships with foreign countries.8 71. mineral products accounted for 73% of Kazakhstan’s exports which shows that the country is still orientated towards primary production. and Iran (2.6 6.1 27. Agreements with Germany. The largest portion of exports from Kazakhstan is raw materials.9 Source: Statistics Agency of the Republic of Kazakhstan An analysis of Kazakhstan’s foreign trade proves that it is growing steadily.8%). and the Shchuchinsk-Borovoye resort.6%).6 12. The main consumers of Kazakhstan’s products in 2008 were Italy (16.8%). This has had a positive influence on Kazakhstan’s foreign economic activities.5%). 4. the priorities of Kazakhstan’s state policy are the modernisation and diversification of economic development. Kazakhstan’s trade partners include European. In 2008. are being drafted.0 16. and Cuba are being discussed. take part in the largest forums.7% of all exports). and the U.7 6.

Kazakhstan’s Economy was emphasised by President Nazarbayev in his State-of-the-Nation Address Through Crisis to Renovation and Development on 6 March 2009. The most dynamic platform for cooperation is the oil and gas sector. 25 20 15 10 5 0 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 years Source: Statistics Agency of the Republic of Kazakhstan Figure 3. The dynamics of trade between Russia and Kazakhstan is shown on Figure 3. We will continue to finance and implement existing promising investment projects. as well as the Khvalynskoye field (Russia). In future.000 25. This is particularly significant because of the extension of the EU and its readiness to activate political dialogue with Kazakhstan. The Protocol delineates the northern Caspian Sea between Russia and Kazakhstan and sets forth the principles of the joint development of the Kurmangazy (Kazakhstan) and Tsentralnaya (Russia) geological structures.Kazakhstan today Chapter 4. “Our future depends on further economic modernisation and the development of basic infrastructure. The relations between Kazakhstan and the EU are leaning towards becoming stable and long-term. Russia is Kazakhstan’s main energy partner. more than 3. Trade between Kazakhstan and Russia ($ billion) At present. construction. trade and economic ties are being expanded in the area of transport. trade turnover reached about $20bn. 35.000 5. An analysis of the trade between Kazakhstan and the EU shows that it is progressing positively (see Figure 2). Kazakhstan is expected to become the largest supplier of Caspian oil and gas resources to European markets. which was signed in May 2002.” [2] An important element of Kazakhstan’s foreign policy is deepening cooperation with the European Union.000 20.000 30. transport. Trade between Kazakhstan and the EU ($ million) 282 . Kazakhstan is the largest of the EU’s partners in Central Asia and the CIS. and agriculture. Kazakh oil is being transported by the Atyrau-Samara pipeline.000 0 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 9 month 2008 Russia is Kazakhstan’s strategic trade partner and a stable and continuous investor in its economy. finance. In addition. The volume of oil pumped annually exceeds 15 million tonnes. The Protocol to the Agreement on the Delineation of the Northern Part of the Caspian Sea Floor. offered new prospects for oil and gas cooperation between Russia and Kazakhstan.000 businesses involve Russian capital. industrial production. Trade between the countries accounts for 20% of Kazakhstan’s foreign trade. an increase of more than 50% on 2007.000 10. Russian investment flows into priority sectors such as industry.000 15. According to the Statistics Agency. 283 years Source: Statistics Agency of the Republic of Kazakhstan Figure 2. The economic ties of Kazakhstan with Russia and China are also being developed. In 2008. and communications.

and Module 2 in 2016. China is also a significant trade partner for Kazakhstan. In China’s foreign trade with Central Asia and Eastern Europe. The volume of Kazakh gas to be processed at the facility is expected to reach 15 billion cu m a year. The implementation of the Atasu-Alashankou oil pipeline project. but the processing industries as well. including 2. agrarian sector. the Kenkiyak-Kumkol oil pipeline – Phase II of the Kazakhstan-China pipeline – is being constructed. Within the programme for the reconstruction of the gas pipeline system. Not only are the energy and transport sectors promising economically. 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 9 month 2008 years Source: Statistics Agency of the Republic of Kazakhstan Figure 4. light industry. The forthcoming development of the Orenburg Gas Processing Plant. At present. Today. The construction of the Khorgos Centre is essential for both Central Asia and the CIS (primarily Russia) as it will create conditions 284 for the expansion of the post-Soviet countries’ trade and economic ties with China.6 billion cu m to 80 billion cu m a year. The dynamics of trade between Kazakhstan and China is shown in Figure 4. The Kazakh government is negotiating the construction of the Khorgos-Zhetygen rail line. bilateral trade reached $8. The establishment of the Khorgos Cross-Border Cooperation Centre also contributed to the development of cooperation between the countries. Energy is obviously one of the priorities for bilateral cooperation. and innovations are also areas with good prospects for cooperation. efforts were made to agree on gas processing in Russia and on using Russian transport infrastructure for exports. Because of the increased production and sale of Kazakh gas. However.787 km in Kazakhstan. which pumped 5.445 km.Kazakhstan today Chapter 4.74bn. Construction materials. it is planned to gradually increase the CAC throughput capacity from today’s 54. Kazakhstan consistently ranks second to Russia. Trade between Kazakhstan and China ($ billion) The Western Europe-Western China transport corridor is another project with Chinese investment that is significant for the development of Central Asia’s transit potential. is very important. Kazakhstan is third after only Russia and Norway among non-OPEC suppliers in terms of oil exports to the EU market. Module 1 of the plant is expected to be commissioned by 2013. was particularly important. which will process gas from the Karachaganak field. we believe. Its length will be 8. The Balkhash thermal power plant is another priority project with Chinese investment. pharmaceuticals. In the first nine months of 2008. Petersburg-Moscow-Kazan-Orenburg-KyzylordaShymkent-Taraz-Almaty-Khorgos-Lianyungang.1 million tonnes of oil in 2008. that economic cooperation between the two countries has significant potential for enhancement. Trade relations between the countries are very dynamic. 285 . This route is expected to run as follows: St. Russia and Kazakhstan are jointly taking part in the modernisation of the Central Asia-Centre (CAC) gas transport system. The need for this project was emphasised by President Nazarbayev in his State-of-the-Nation Address on 6 February 2008 [2]. Kazakhstan’s Economy The countries are the main shareholders in the Caspian Pipeline Consortium (CPC).

first of all. – Астана.А. to develop our own human capital. Назарбаева народу Казахстана «Стратегия вхождения Казахстана в число 50-ти наиболее конкурентоспособных стран мира. A Strategy for the Next Stage of Development [1]. They are a significant influence on the pace of economic. март 2009 г.А. Назарбаева народу Казахстана «Через кризис к процветанию и обновлению». март 2006 г. we need. Послание Президента РК Н. Human Development in Kazakhstan References 1. Education The development of education and science is one of the strategic priorities of Kazakhstan’s state policy. “…Almost all successful modern states that are proactively integrated with the system of global economic relationships banked on a ‘smart economy’. However. CHAPTER 5.Kazakhstan today Chapter 5.” said President Nazarbayev in his State-of-the-Nation Address New Kazakhstan in the New World. HUMAN DEVELOPMENT IN KAZAKHSTAN 5. Послание Президента РК Н. to create it. – Астана. 2. Казахстан на пороге нового рывка вперед в своем развитии». the government has adopted a number of policies with the objective of making domestic education and science match 286 287 . To this end.1. social and cultural progress and will determine the nation’s competitiveness in the forthcoming years.

The laws On Education. and integrate them with global educational and scientific processes. multi-tier education system (preschool. and 288 − the technical and financial base of educational institutions has improved significantly. On the Rights of the Child in the Republic of Kazakhstan. 289 . − the principles of. Having joined Education for All’s (EFA) Dakar Framework for Action. The country’s educational policy aims at ensuring the quality development of all people. Human Development in Kazakhstan the best international standards and meet the needs of economic and social modernisation. − credit technologies for institutions of higher education have been introduced. Over the years of independence. In accordance with President Nazarbayev’s State-of-the-Nation Address dated 19 March 2004. Kazakhstan’s education system has passed through several stages and the following have been achieved: − a legislative framework for the educational process has been formed. Competitive Economy. − Kazakhstan’s education system has entered the global educational space by joining the UNESCO Education For All initiative and the Bologna Convention. − a mechanism of educational grants and loans has been created. In the recent years. − a system of public and private schools and institutions of higher education has been formed to meet the basic needs for education. and its harmonisation with the strategies for the improvement of the quality of education. adapt them to modern requirements. Kazakhstan’s education system is continuing to be improved. − the mechanism of free and paid for education has been standardised. and On Social and Medical and Pedagogical Correctional Support to Disabled Children have been adopted. which includes the unified national testing for school graduates. the Blueprint for the Education system Development in Kazakhstan until 2015 and the State Education Development Programme for 2005-2010 were approved in 2004. vocational. and Competitive Nation. the programme has set the following goals: − transition to a 12-year school education and setting up of a system of vocational education for high school students. The EFA global movement reflects this process to the fullest extent possible.Kazakhstan today Chapter 5. Towards a Competitive Kazakhstan. global community has begun to pay significant attention to the quality of fundamental education. The implementation of the EFA Framework for Action in Kazakhstan is conducive to the sustainable and comprehensive functioning of the sector. − distance learning is being developed. The programme objectives are to modernise the national multitier education system. the government is taking measures to reform education and science. and approaches to. programmes) has been adopted. which is an integral and paramount condition for improving the quality of life. has been developed and adopted. Kazakhstan is now working to achieve the goals set by the World Educational Forum. To achieve this. education management have been adjusted taking into account the objectives of the market and state development.D. In order to form an effective education model. school. The legislative framework has been changed significantly. higher and postgraduate education) has been developed. − educational institutions have been computerised and all schools and institutions of higher education are now being connected to the Internet. − a differentiated. improve the quality of education. Master’s and Ph. − a three-tier higher and postgraduate education system (Bachelor’s. − development of a new level – post-secondary vocational education. and meet the needs of people in pursuance of the nation’s Strategic Development Plan until 2010. − the National Education Quality System.

and the Russian Regional Development Bank (RRDB). vocational. At present. As a result. The Education and Science Ministry’s Centre for 12-Year Education is now testing teaching and methodical materials in 52 schools nationwide. or music classes) are being set up for gifted children. who has the respective education and qualification. Educational standards. The main criterion of success of the educational reform is reaching a level when every national of Kazakhstan. School education is one of the key factors of socialisation. and prepare them for school. have been set up to streamline the updates of educational materials and raise the quality of education. named after Ybyrai Altynsarin. a person’s involvement in social processes. This socially important resolution has enhanced the accessibility of education and provided an equal start for all children who enter school. the government is focusing on the development of preschool. and that all children of school age study at school. which will have three stages and will accept students from the age of six. Human Development in Kazakhstan − development of a three-tier system of higher education (Bachelor’s. school. authors of textbooks. It provides the fundamental skills and knowledge that are necessary for future professional activities or further education. is planned. the preschool system has seen positive changes since 2000. international experience has been analysed and scholars from universities in the leading countries. To ensure equal access to preschool education for all children.D. Preschool education is important to develop communicative skills and speech in children. and the best teachers have been involved. To achieve this objective. UNICEF. The number of children in preschools has grown over the recent years. that the quality of the educational process meets modern requirements. Kazakhstan’s preschool institutions are held in high esteem by parents and teachers. We should ensure that quality educational services that meet world standards are provided nationwide. the most significant objectives were to determine and implement the measures that would protect children’s rights to preschool education. and is an essential element of the education system as a whole. the network of preschool institutions will be expanded with the help of 290 national and local budgets and private investment. ensure their physical development. Special private institutions (with English. and − creation of the National System for the Education Quality Assessment. An important issue for schools is the transition to the 12-year school programme. This transition will be made in 2010. and have been positively evaluated by international organisations such as UNESCO. as well as for the respective social status. Master’s and Ph. and high school. where children spend two to four hours a day in the institution. and teaching programmes. fine arts. is in demand in any country. The number of preschool institution closures has fallen.” [2] Within the framework of this programme and in accordance with the Law On Education. plans. higher and postgraduate education. The introduction of low-cost preschool models. A tremendous amount of work is being carried out to achieve the objectives associated with the transition to 12-year school education. and aids for the 12-year programme are being developed. ADB. programmes) to be financed through academic loans. and others.Kazakhstan today Chapter 5. According to the Head of State. and many have been reopened (after kindergartens and day nurseries had been returned into municipal ownership). During the educational reform. The priorities for school education are to ensure that free secondary education in state schools is available at all times to all nationals. more than 80% of future students study in preschool groups at schools and kindergartens. School education has three levels – primary. Preschool preparation of children aged five and six has been made compulsory and free of charge. secondary. further reform of education is “[…] one of the most important instruments in ensuring Kazakhstan’s real competitiveness. The National Centre for State Educational Standards and the Kazakh Education Academy. These objectives include shrinking the deficit of available seats in schools and providing additional seats for the first grade students 291 .

subsidising students in particular specialisations – subsidies that are paid back by the graduate proceeding to work for a specific enterprise. and the History of Kazakhstan) and one optional. including those in rural areas. As at the beginning of the school year of 2007-2008. 7.000 people studied at 79 night schools. Disabled children’s’ rights are being governed by the Law On Social and Medical and Pedagogical Correctional Support to Disabled Children. As ordered by the Head of State and in accordance with Governmental Resolution No. and another 102 schools for 69. Since 2007-2008. This organisation will provide textbooks for all levels of education.Kazakhstan today Chapter 5. 24. measures are being taken to educate children with deviant behaviour. As at the beginning of the school year of 2007-2008. The Uchebnik Research and Methodological Centre has been launched. Kazakh has been made a compulsory discipline in Russian schools.769 students) and 460 colleges (499.000 [3]. Ten specialised institutions have been opened to teach more than 800 children falling into this category. the tests now include five disciplines. There are plans to build specialised boarding schools in rural areas for children from nongraded schools. and developing new standards. lyceums and colleges have been equipped with multimedia classes. and external classes. in compliance with Article 23 of the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child. 88 schools for 63. Additionally. The computerisation of schools in 2001 was a significant achievement. The Education and Science Ministry has been paying continuous attention to the introduction of new technology in the vocational system. the vocational system comprised 313 professional schools and lyceums (106. The State Education Development Programme for 2005-2010 and the Strategic Plan envisaged increasing the number 293 . At present.000. in particular in non-graded schools and schools for disabled children. measures are being taken to provide education to disabled children. Unified national testing combines a graduation examination in schools with entrance examinations for colleges and institutions of higher education. In 2007. Mathematics. Vocational (primary and secondary professional) education includes a network of educational institutions that prepare qualified technical and service staff for various professional sectors.000 seats were commissioned under the 100 Schools. correspondence. in 2004 Kazakhstan adopted the unified national testing system which has become a tool of independent external control over students’ expertise. the number of mixed classes at the secondary and tertiary levels will be gradually decreased. In the school year of 2007-2008. 213 dated 13 March 2004. The testing includes four disciplines: three compulsory (Kazakh/Russian.958 day schools operated in Kazakhstan with the number of students exceeding 2. electronic teaching materials on fundamental and special disciplines. Almost all schools. To reduce the deficit of seats. the number of which now exceeds 120. creating conditions that will allow specialised training in high school. 76 schools were built. it was planned that about 300 schools and boarding schools were to be built in the three-year period from 2007 to 2010. The country also has a network of night schools for nationals of any age (both employed and unemployed) offering in-house. strengthening schools’ material and technical base. Human Development in Kazakhstan (aged six). 100 Hospitals presidential programme.000 students are expected to be built in 2009-2010. in 2008. and Russian a compulsory discipline in Kazakh schools. To ensure the comprehensiveness and quality of education in non-graded schools. they are being connected to the Internet. Particular attention is being paid to rural schools. In accordance with the EFA Framework for Action. The government has been supporting the institute of social partnership with employers. and connections to the Internet. family. and ensure their theoretical examination and practical testing.627. Since 2001. professional schools. A total of 75% of schools are expected to be connected to the Internet by 2010.546 students). were provided 292 with up-to-date computers. computers. As a consequence. programmes and textbooks. providing advanced training and professional development to teachers in accordance with modern requirements.

has been implemented within the respective intergovernmental cooperation agreement. Direct partnerships between Kazakh institutions of higher education and foreign research and educational centres are also being strengthened. the Kazakh National Music Academy. Kazakhstan is taking measures to implement the Bologna and Lisbon Declarations. The preferred borrowers are orphans. As a result. increased the number of scholars to 3. and students with parents who are pensioners. the system of higher education in Kazakhstan became multi-level: base higher education (Bachelor’s degree). a joint Kazakh and German project. the Head of State. a significant objective of the higher education system is for Kazakhstan to join the global educational space. the government will allocate 15 billion tenge ($100m) for subsidised educational loans to medical and technical students.500 students. A number of new concepts have been introduced to effectively implement this initiative: scholarships for specialised higher education and Bachelor’s degrees have been awarded for the first time. including the Gumilyov Eurasian University. Classical-type universities have been established from regional institutions of higher education. In 2005. This initiative was intended to help talented young people receive quality education abroad for the benefit of the country. To achieve this objective. Economics and Strategic Research (KIMEP). licences were withdrawn from some institutions of higher education and their divisions that had failed to pass the qualification audit by the Education and Science Ministry.Kazakhstan today Chapter 5. 3 billion tenge ($20m) for educational grants to excellent stu294 dents who then study for free. the first group of Kazakh students went to study in foreign countries. This was done within the framework of the state policy to improve the quality of educational services. and the Bolashak awardees are now selected in strict compliance with the Priority Specialities List approved annually by the Republican Commission for Training Abroad. Teachers’. the Kazakh-American University. in his annual State-of-the-Nation Address. The eligibility criteria for subsidised loans are academic performance and social status. the government resolved to allocate. and the national education system’s achievements are being promoted abroad. starting from 1 March 2009. As a result. In this context. Promoting Professional Education in Kazakhstan. This project was intended to develop the mechanisms of interaction between vocational schools and employers relevant to the current economic conditions. 295 . Kazakhstan’s young people are provided with an opportunity to learn from foreign educational and research centres. the Atyrau Oil and Gas Institute. the Kazakhstan Institute of Management. In accordance with President Nazarbayev’s order. On 5 November 1993.053. In addition. and special higher education. about 800 Bolashak scholarships were awarded. the number of institutions reduced to 167. students with disabled parents. their students numbered 717. A new international university is expected to be opened soon in Astana. students from large or broken families. The non-government education sector has been developed. the Kazakh-British Technical University. a new entrance model has been introduced. In 2007-2008. have been set up. In 1994. and from 96% to 98% in professional schools. From 1994 to 2004. New institutions. The government has been making significant efforts to provide social support to students. the number of grantees has grown by 11. agricultural and technical institutes have progressed. to ensure that Kazakhstan’s institutions of higher education are accredited worldwide. higher research and teaching education (Master’s degree). and the international Kazakh-Turkish Yassawi University (the first institution established by Turkic peoples).000 a year. The enhancement of international cooperation is one of the priorities in reforming the higher education system. Human Development in Kazakhstan of students studying under the scheme from 17% to 24% in colleges. and the Kazakh-German University. President Nazarbayev signed a resolution to found the Bolashak international scholarship. In 1999. The system of higher education has also changed significantly during the years of independence. and to ensure the nostrification of diplomas issued in Kazakhstan and other countries. and new requirements for the quality of education have been adopted.

while the others apply their expertise in practice. KIMEP. The technical and financial base of the country’s education system has also improved significantly. the budget expenses for education were 455. 6. the Priority Specialities List for the Bolashak scholarship was prepared in line with the country’s development priorities and its demand for highly qualified personnel in certain economic sectors. 4. the public investment in education was 6.D. In 2007. Many graduates hold important positions with government bodies. long-term international cooperation.6% of the GDP). State Education Development Programme for 2005-2010. and in 2011 it is expected to grow almost tenfold. and 9. State Programme for Space Activity Development in 20052007. 5. Bolashak is somewhat of a guarantee of a successful career and professional achievements. The reforms that have been carried out in the recent years have made it possible to make a transition from the unified education system to a multiple-option system. for example. The nation’s budget expenses for the development of education are growing each year. These benchmarks are set forth by the nation’s strategic documents such as: 1.4 billion tenge (3. 297 . 2. State E-Government Development Programme for 2005–2007. the Kazakh National Technical 296 University. In recent years. in 2008. State Programme for Rural Areas Development in 20042010. The Master’s degree is a qualitatively new level of business and educational services. State Housing Construction Development Programme for 2005–2007. Students have been provided with an opportunity to select the forms of education (from full-time attendance to distance learning). At present. degrees. annual allocations for education are expected to total up to 816 billion tenge [4]. 3.D. Many graduates take postgraduate courses. Strategy for Industrial and Innovative Development for 20032015. the Master’s degree was introduced as an intermediary stage between the Bachelor’s degree and Ph. Transport Strategy until 2015. In other words. which is. The Master’s courses are being provided by major universities (the al-Farabi Kazakh National University. Postgraduate education has also been developing successfully. By 2012. and jointstock companies and take part in various state and international projects. the International Business Academy. the Master’s degree offers students heightened expertise in an academic discipline or professional field of study. 7. Compared to the Bachelor’s degree. The demand for highly qualified young specialists is growing steadily. in the aggregate. the Bolashak scholars can study in 32 countries. Some of these institutions invite foreign lecturers. Syllabuses have been improved and innovative and authors’ training programmes have been enhanced. In KIMEP. this figure reached 547. making their contribution to the advancement of the country. the Gumilyov Eurasian State University. at 630 leading universities. The scholarship is focused on Master’s and Ph. the Kazakh State Management Academy. 8. an undoubted advantage. State Public Health Reform and Development Programme for 2005-2010. compared to 85. Human Development in Kazakhstan In 2005-2007.4 times higher than in 2000. teachers’ methods. and training materials.8 tenge. Technical and medical specialities are preferred as they are in greatest demand in Kazakhstan. Cultural Development Programme for 2006-2008.Kazakhstan today Chapter 5. and share experiences with the best Western business schools. the MBA programmes combine specialised business and management courses.8 billion tenge (3. and the International Business University and others). public and international organisations. In 2008.3%) in 2000.

the HSTC established the International Expert Council. In 1992-1993. chemistry. plant and animal biochemistry and physiology.2. became a public organisation. The results of this analysis. and the National Nuclear Centre. Many works by Kazakh scholars have been recognised worldwide. Biotechnologies. high-molecular compounds. Kazakhstan faced the challenge of building its own scientific base. The National Academy of Sciences. Advanced Processing of Minerals. The main feature of the structural reforms effected in 2006 was a new decision-making system. The Innovative Development Programme until 2015 was approved in the same year. Human Development in Kazakhstan 5. This law governs social relationships in the area of science and sets forth the rights and obligations of the participants in scientific and technical activities. are regularly reported to HSTC so that it can adjust the nation’s scientific and technical policy. non-ferrous metallurgy and chemistry. and others. In 2007. the Law On Science and Scientific and Technical Policy of the Republic of Kazakhstan was adopted and the Ministry of Science and New Technologies was created. the Law On Innovative Activities took effect. the Science Committee was established within the Education and Science Ministry. previously a state 298 institution. Science Kazakhstan has a powerful scientific and technical potential due to the combination of the Soviet scientific heritage and the achievements made during the years since independence. including in the area of geology. the Republican Special-Purpose Scientific and Technical Programme for the Development of the State System of Scientific and Technical Information in the Republic of Kazakhstan was adopted. The Science Committee is a working body of the HSTC. structures (for standardisation. In 2001. all research 299 . In 1993. human. Social sciences developed successfully. The state innovation policy aims to create a balanced production infrastructure that ensures that competitive. The HSTC was intended to determine the national scientific and technical priorities and report to the Head of State on the development of science and technology in the country once every three years. In July 2006. which was tasked with analysing global scientific trends and the potential for advanced research into particular sciences. a new era of improvements in the area of scientific administration began. This structure became the single administrator authorised to finance research. a number of organisational reforms were effected in the administrative system. The first steps were the creation of the legislative and organisational framework for Kazakh science. catalysis. including non-ferrous metallurgy.Kazakhstan today Chapter 5. Having become independent in 1991. The importance of this system was emphasised by the fact that the Government’s High Scientific and Technical Commission (HSTC). and botany. By 2010. the Law On Science was adopted on the basis of the Blueprint for the Science and Scientific and Technical Policy of the Republic of Kazakhstan. state registration of research and development. and patents) were established to determine the scientific and technical policy of the sovereign Kazakhstan. was headed by the Prime Minister. In 2006. a concept proposed by President Nazarbayev at a lecture at the Eurasian National University on 26 May 2006. In July 2002. which was set up in August 2006. A number of national scientific centres were established. which was developed a year earlier. in the form of proposals and recommendations. scientific schools were established in many areas. Communications. geography. Academic institutes began to withdraw from the National Academy of Sciences to become sectoral organisations or join institutions of higher education. including the Centres for Electronic Engineering. biologically active substances. mining. deposit manuscripts and dissertations. physics. In 1996-1999. scientific personnel evaluation. high-tech products and services dominate production and administration sectors. including fundamental studies and programmes of national importance. mathematics. space research. In Soviet times. In 1992. The Education and Science Ministry was formed to become the executive body in charge of scientific development.

The Fund’s strategic goal is to support world-class research and development applications that could prove effective. and wasteless technologies in particular. 300 The NBC’s main activities are fundamental and applied research. as well as the transfer of foreign ones. Its objectives are to advance research in the field of biotechnology. the French National Centre for Scientific Research (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique). and have successfully passed commercial tests and proved their technical and economic effectiveness. Electronic Engineering. the Seismology Institute. three scientific centres (for geosciences and enrichment metallurgy. The centre’s activities include the creation and advancement of a modern scientific and production cluster in the area of hydrocarbon and mineral exploration. University of Texas and University of California from the U. generation of new materials. and Communications) are working to preserve the potential of the major sectoral scientific institutions that are leaders in their respective disciplines. In July 2007. water and seismic security. selected on a tender basis. the Geography Institute. into resource-saving. as well as scientific and technical. including six research centres (Auburn University. In addition. Five national scientific centres (the National Nuclear Centre and the National Centres for Advanced Processing of Minerals. the Satpayev Institute of Geological Sciences. maintenance of environment. is authorised to finance development work. NBC is the lead organisation that has been coordinating the following applied scientific and technical programmes: Development of Up-to-Date Technologies to Form the Biotechnology Cluster in the Republic of Kazakhstan for 2006-2008. subject to their socioeconomic importance. The primary objective of these centres is to ensure the industrial application of scientific products that have been fully commercialised and patented.S. and Scientific and Technical Backup of the Monitoring and Genetic Mapping of Highly Infectious Anti-Crop and Anti-Animal Agents to Ensure the Biological Security of the Republic of Kazakhstan for 2004-2006 (completed). recovery and advanced processing. risk. environment protection. food and processing sectors. and the update of the respective legislative framework.Kazakhstan today Chapter 5. Nagasaki University from Japan. creation of knowledge-intensive production while ensuring the protection of intellectual property and the commercialisation of domestic technologies. These centres are intended to focus science and technology on the priority areas of fundamental studies and enhance the fundamental science’s contribution to the socioeconomic development. the Akhmedsafin Hydrogeology and Hydrophysics Institute. environmentally friendly. and develop the main areas of research in accordance with the state scientific and technical priorities. and biological and astrophysical research) have been set up within academic research institutes. production. The change of the HSTC’s status and the establishment of the Science Committee and the Science Fund have strengthened the institutional basis for support and innovations. Scientific and Technical Backup of Biological and Chemical Security of the Republic of Kazakhstan for 2006-2008. Thirty scientific institutions. and helped Kazakh scholars better understand global trends and focus on the priorities that are conducive to improving the country’s competitiveness. to meet the demands of agriculture. The Science Fund. healthcare. and initiative projects. Human Development in Kazakhstan activities by sectoral ministries are expected to be financed through the Committee.. Biotechnologies. which was established within the Education and Science Ministry as a joint-stock company with the government having a 100% stake. the creation of a state scientific and technical expert body. and the preparation and professional development of specialists. In August 2005. the Geoscience and Enrichment Metallurgy Centre was established. and the Altai Geology and Environment Institute. Avian Influenza: Study and Development of Control Aids and Measures for 2006-2008. and the Vector State Scientific Virology and Biotechnology Centre from Russia) have taken part in the implementation of these programmes. Its subsidiaries include the Physics and Technology Institute. Other improvements include the introduction of the targeted financing of research. and sustainable development of production and 301 . the Education and Science Ministry’s National Biotechnology Centre (NBC) was created.

Human Development in Kazakhstan natural complexes in accordance with Kazakhstan’s strategic priorities to become one of the top 50 most competitive countries.534 specialists. The establishment of the Samgau National Science and Technology Holding Company is among the most recent administrative decisions. compared to 7% in 2005. including 15 academicians. who were made subsidiaries. the Syzganov National Scientific Surgery Centre. The period of 2007 to 2009 was a preparatory stage for the programme. organise new forms of scientific activities. improve innovative potential. In March 2004. ionosphere. and the methods and technologies of space monitoring and environmental forecasting of the human impact on the country’s natural and economic complexes. These laboratories will serve as the base for centres in 15 regional universities. It is understood that private businesses should be involved in the development of applied products and in the creation of innovative infrastructure. The legislative framework has been adjusted to modify the administration of science and technology. and raise the economic effectiveness of science. which are intended to commercialise small technical projects and will be located in research centres and universities. ionosphere. 135 doctors of science. In future. Its core activities are astrophysical observations and theoretical studies of galactic and extragalactic objects (stars and primary planets). and other major scientific institutions are making their important contribution to the scientific advancement of Kazakhstan. the programme will focus on 1) the integration of science and education. the geomagnetic field. The company will coordinate the development of IT. Public-private partnership is extremely important to the advancement of national science. Additionally. investment in science exceeded 12. development of the fundamentals of remote sensing. Kazakhstan’s government has been working intensively to bring the national patent laws in compliance with the modern international requirements.Kazakhstan today Chapter 5. will make a substantial contribution to the advancement of the production-orientated branches of knowledge. 302 In 2010-2012. enhance financing. and 3) the development of scientific infrastructure to improve domestic science’s contribution to production. the Ionosphere Institute. 2) the preparation of scientific personnel. and cosmic rays) to develop the physical principles for forecasting space weather over Kazakhstan. In the end. which will undertake research in the priority fields of applied technology under the guidance of the laboratories. and reform the financing of R&D and engineering. The centre employs 1. This has been instigated by the fact that Kazakhstan had become attractive to both domestic and foreign applicants. the Astrophysical Research Centre was established by merger of the Space Studies Institute. magnetosphere) based on the monitoring of mesosphere. it is expected that the private sector will finance two thirds of the national R&D costs. In 2005. and the Fesenkov Astrophysical Institute. The National Scientific Centre for Motherhood and Childhood (Astana).4 billion tenge 303 . solidify the material and technical base for scientific research. By 2012. and creation of new technologies in the areas of space materials science and the physics of metals. research into the mechanisms of solar-terrestrial relationships (the study of dynamic processes that determine the interaction of spheres (atmosphere. which will cooperate directly with the best scientific centres worldwide. it is planned that R&D will be financed by private investors through venture funds or on a contractual basis. This programme has begun to reform administration in the field in order to optimise scientific institutions’ activities. ensure that scientific technologies and products are given practical application. the programme plans to set up five state-of-the-art national laboratories. and should play a leading part in technological modernisation. The State Scientific Development Programme for 2007-2012 has become a new impetus for the advancement of science. Amendments to the Tax Code regarding the treatment of R&D costs as deductibles are expected to stimulate private sector demand. strengthen ties between science and production. The budget allocations for science remain a key factor for scientific progress. and 247 candidates of science. Business incubators. In the recent years. the private sector is expected to pay 50% of the national R&D costs.

including 24. A cartographic pasture cadastre model. New technologies have been theorised and developed. This is comparable with the level of expenditure in developed countries.000 tenge. with elements of 304 forecasting.200.500. has been prepared to show the condition and prospects of the main types of Kazakhstan’s mineral resources. This vitamin is necessary for medicine and agriculture. Human Development in Kazakhstan (an increase by 5. Fourteen new types. and new promising metallurgical and enrichment processes have been launched at enterprises in Kazakhstan and the CIS. A methodology for forecasting the yield of cereal crops with the help of remote sensing and ground surveillance has been made available. In the area of physics and mathematics. on the basis of which high-strength composite materials and watersoluble polymers have been obtained. In future. New medications have been created and launched. and has formed a gene pool of forage (3. as well as the closed gaps in the history of Kazakhstan’s literature and fine arts in the early 20th century.700.386.252. which has no comparables. and by 2012 it is expected to total up to 350 billion tenge a year (a 25-fold increase).473 specimens) and vegetable (156 specimens) crops. a series of geologic and economic maps. The agroclimatological zoning of Kazakhstan has been calculated. and the structural and functional organisation and control of the genome of higher organisms.133. and a concept of the biological reproduction of soil fertility have been developed. There are plans to renew and expand the existing chemical and petrochemical enterprises using domestic technologies. The achievements in the field of geoscience are as follows: new fundamentals of metallogenic and ore-formation analysis have been developed. taking into account the bioclimatic potential of the regions.000 for Phase I (2007-2009) and 19. 305 .Kazakhstan today Chapter 5. Biological achievements include successful research into molecular and cell biology. During the years since independence. new advanced geographic information systems and hydrogeological databases have been developed. Kazakh scholars from NBC have created domestic cures for avian influenza and have made tests. the country’s oil and gas map has been issued. of the measles vaccine.8 times on 2000). and physical and dynamic earthquake source models have been created. some of which have been recognised worldwide. and the fundamentals of the computer-aided design of multifunctional newgeneration materials. together with their Russian counterparts. and a series of new synthesised monomers and polymers. Significant achievements have also been made in the area of non-ferrous metallurgy. Kazakh agrarian science has created and tested 193 crop varieties.5% of GDP. the national budget expenditure on science will be at least 2% to 2. The achievements in the field of social sciences include the findings on the formation of the Kazakh ethnic territory and on the history of the Kazakh nationhood and the national liberation movement. A new niacin technology has been patented in 20 foreign countries. Kazakhstan’s science has achieved impressive results. A high-resolution electrostatic energy analyser and a special composite spectrometer for the analysis of fractured surfaces have been developed. The budget allocations for the Science Development Programme for 2007-2012 will total 43. The developments in the area of chemical technology include new high-performance catalysts and catalytic processes for the refining of Kazakh oil. the following developments have been made: an automated air pollution forecasting system for industrial cities. gas and coal processing facilities will be built. the theory of multi-purpose automatic control systems for deterministic and stochastic complex processes. races and breeds of livestock have been developed.000 for Phase II. The condition of the areas adjacent to the Caspian and Aral Seas has been studied and the reasons for environmental crises there have been analysed. Effective and competitive small to medium oil.

On 20 August 2007. 150 of these surgeries were carried out. In 2007. significant funds have been allocated to provide free medicines to children under five years of age. Human Development in Kazakhstan 5. Also. focus on disease prevention. The long-term objectives of the programme are to adopt international principles of the organisation of health services. 307 . 13. “The health of the nation is a nationwide objective… The main problem of the public health system today is that it still does not meet the demands of people in modern Kazakhstan. the National Scientific Centre for Maternity and Childhood opened in Astana.and iodine-containing preparations to pregnant women. President Nazarbayev set a task to fundamentally reform public health. The draft Code On Public Health and the Healthcare System has been finalised and submitted to the Mazhilis for consideration. Case follow-ups and treatment are also being provided. In 2007.3. 100 Hospitals presidential programme. the problem of child and maternal mortality is still acute. to promote maternal and child health. and natural increase) have improved. with the focus on primary healthcare (PHC). This paper provides for the creation of an effective healthcare system which would meet the modern demands of the population. to create an optimal healthcare model which would meet the demands of the population. vehicles and personnel. In 2007. and the level of traumatism have reduced. professional development of medical workers. and promotion of and ensuring a healthy lifestyle. 7. the sector. and the state.Kazakhstan today Chapter 5. The material and technical base of healthcare institutions is being strengthened. the incidence of socially 306 important diseases such as TB. construction of eleven medical treatment institutions with general specialisations was begun under the 100 Schools.9 billion tenge was provided to buy equipment for the state PHC and emergency medical services. 28 unique cochlear implantations were made to children who had severe hearing loss. and mental and substance dependence disorders. procurement of medications for the population. Today. In 2005-2007.9 billion tenge was allocated to equip children’s and obstetric institutions. and to reduce the incidence of socially important diseases.” [5] To this end. Telemedicine equipment has been installed in rural hospitals to arrange consultations with the leading healthcare centres and doctors nationwide. to improve the medical and demographic situation. iron. These priorities are being achieved within the framework of the State Programme for Public Health Reform and Development for 2005-2010. In 2005-2007. In 2008. cancer. Although Kazakhstan has overcome the negative trend of population decrease. the salaries of medical personnel were raised by 50-70%. and medicines to chronically ill children and adolescents who are provided with dispensary and outpatient care. and the quality and organisation of medical services. mortality. New medical technologies are being introduced. To ensure early detection of diseases and provide timely and effective medical aid and rehabilitation. The first stage of the programme (2005-2007) has shown that the country had achieved significant improvements in healthcare: the key medical and demographic rates (including the birth rate. infectious pathologies. the rates of maternal and infant mortality have stabilised. Rural healthcare services are also being developed. preventive examination programmes for women of childbearing age (from 15 to 49) have been launched. the following priorities have been set for public health for the forthcoming years: restoration and development of healthcare facilities. to enhance preventive and health-improving measures. to provide equal access to medical services and implement the principle of joint responsibility of the state and population for healthcare. Each state outpatient clinic in rural areas has been provided with the necessary medical equipment. Public Health In his State-of-the-Nation Address for 2008. to enhance the accessibility of health services to the population and encourage the population to take care of their own health. we are not satisfied with the existing infrastructure. X-ray equipment has been purchased for these purposes.

the Blood Service Improvement Programme for 2008-2010 has been adopted with the aim of reducing the risk of AIDS contracted for medical reasons. were recorded as a total for the years starting from 1987. To this end. gradual adoption of international standards in the pharmaceuticals sector.378 people living with HIV. the national budget allocated 5. To this end. the 308 Research Institute of Emergency Medical Services. similar departments were opened in Zhambyl. the Republican Children’s Rehabilitation Centre. the Republican Diagnostic Centre. Kyzylorda and Mangystau Oblasts. which comprises the National Centre for Maternity and Childhood. Because of the adverse situation with AIDS in Central Asia. In particular. an objective was set to develop controls which would prevent poor quality products that contain melamine. To ensure equal access to medicines. Requirements for the Sanitary and Epidemiologic Service are becoming stricter. the construction of a total of 96 healthcare facilities is planned. improvement of the HR and scientific potential. respectively. In 2008.5 billion tenge to implement the strategic plan in 2009. In 2007. Work is in the pipeline to compile a state pharmacopoeia. In addition. with a 100% government stake. and the Kazakh State Medical Academy. In the near future. the Research Institute of Emergency Medical Services.6 billion and 368. the Health Ministry has adopted a strategic plan for the development of the sector during 2009-2011. From 1 July 2009. cardiac surgery departments were opened in West Kazakhstan.2 billion tenge. including rural ones. As at 1 January 2008. 9. It is also taking measures to prevent increases in prices of medications and medical services. New institutional developments include a quality management system for medical services. New mechanisms of administering healthcare institutions will be developed based on the example of this structure. The national budget was expected to provide 299. and the Scientific Cardiac Surgery Centre. which will set forth uniform standards for both domestic and foreign medications. Because of the problems instigated by the global financial crisis. In addition. the Republican Scientific Neurosurgery Centre. there are plans to develop a new model for the provision of medicines to outpatients. In 2009. This structure is playing an important part in controlling the quality of environment. This scheme is expected to guarantee the quality and security of medicines as all supplies will be subject to compulsory certification in state laboratories. in 2009. and 411. Medications will become more accessible because the sole distributor will hold three months stock and ensure uninterrupted supplies to customers. and improvement of the legislative framework in the sector. foodstuffs and water that are necessary to maintain human health. the state accreditation of healthcare institutions will be arranged in 2009 to determine whether they are effective enough to accept public orders. improvement of the quality of medical services.4 billion tenge to implement it. including 223 children. Institutional reforms are also underway. the government is considering how to improve the provision of medications to the population. dioxides or mycotoxins being imported. the construction of four training clinics for institutions of higher medical education was begun in 2008. This initiative will help find solutions to the existing problems and form a healthy nation. North Kazakhstan. Over 50 billion tenge has been allocated to this end. Almaty and Atyrau Oblasts. the procurement and distribution of medications will be carried out through a unified distribution system. 309 .Kazakhstan today Chapter 5. the following work was continued: the reform of the PHC system and the hospital sector. The Governmental Resolution dated 13 May 2008 established the National Medical Holding Company. Human Development in Kazakhstan The Programme for the Development of Cardiologic and Cardiac Surgery Services for 2007-2009 have been developed and approved. eight new blood centres are expected to be built in the oblasts. with the financing reaching 5. in particular through the development of the domestic pharmaceutical production.9 billion in the subsequent years. which will be based on government-fixed prices for medications. The Anti-AIDS Programme for 2006-2010 is ongoing. the Republican Diagnostic Centre. the Scientific Cardiac Surgery Centre. It is also planned to complete the construction of the Republican Scientific Neurosurgery Centre. In 2008.

The Law On the Promotion of Renewable Energy Sources is currently being drafted. A significant number of bylaws have been developed and approved to govern various aspects of state management and financing of environment protection. The positive changes in the healthcare system suggest that it will strengthen further. significant changes have happened in the social development of Kazakhstan. the Presidential Decrees On Subsoil and Subsoil Use (1996) and On Oil (1995) and the Forest. On Specially Protected Natural Areas. Human Development in Kazakhstan The unified distribution system will enhance the effectiveness of the provision of medicines and improve the control of their use in hospitals.02 billion tenge.5% (383 billion tenge) in 2008. use and restoration. and the need to create environmental legislation.and telemedicine in rural areas. Strategic documents for the nation’s advancement have been adopted.3% in 2007 and 2. which will govern and stimulate the generation of power from non-traditional sources (wind.76 billion tenge to be spent on the equipment of local healthcare institutions. biochemical and solar energy). 311 310 . and long-term contracts with domestic producers. Since the Blueprint has been adopted. and On Air Protection in 2002. the Environmental Code was adopted. and On Environment Expert Assessment were adopted in 1997. In January 2007.6 billion tenge on the development of mobile. geothermal. and for the construction and reconstruction of healthcare facilities in rural areas 17. the national budget spent 482 billion tenge and by 2012 the expenditure on public health is expected to exceed 600 billion tenge a year.and telemedicine in rural areas 629. a number of international environmental conventions have been signed. The incentives will include various forms of preferential treatment. 2. This figure included 15.Kazakhstan today Chapter 5. In 2009.66 billion tenge on the provision and expansion of the guaranteed free healthcare services. and the economic mechanisms of environmental management. 5. for the development of mobile.7 million tenge. The Blueprint considered the environmental priorities of the transition period. The government spending on healthcare was about 2. including the environmental issues of privatisation. the targeted current transfers for the equipment of local blood centres and healthcare institutions totalled 17.2% of GDP in 2006. It is also expected to stimulate the development of domestic pharmaceutical production. On Radiation Security in 1998. Environment The fundamentals of the state environment protection policy were set forth by the Environmental Security Blueprint approved by President Nazarbayev on 30 April 1996. The Blueprint for the Transition to Sustainable Development for 2007-2024 has also set forth the long-term priorities and plan of action for environment protection. the national budget allocated over 33 billion tenge in targeted current transfers to implement the State Programme for Public Health Reform and Development for 2005-2010. The year-on-year expenditure provides a vivid picture of the government’s care of public health. This document standardised the environmental principles and requirements effective in Kazakhstan in accordance with international levels. and 1. As for the rational nature management. 15. The Laws On Environment Protection. In 2009. Water and Land Codes (2003) were made effective.4. more government purchase orders. state control and expert bodies. the environmental legislation framework has been developed. which has become a very important instrument in the development of state environmental policy.72 billion tenge. and an environmental management system has been created. In 2008 alone.

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Additionally, the Strategy for the Effective Use of Energy and Renewable Resources is being drafted for the purposes of sustainable development. The Environmental Code is being amended with regard to importing environmentally hazardous technologies, machinery and equipment. To improve the nation’s legislation, the government is trying to bring it in compliance with the legislation of developed countries and to adopt international standards. Kazakhstan has ratified a number of international environmental treaties including the Biodiversity Convention, the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification, the Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer, the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES), and the Convention of the World Meteorological Organisation, among others. In 2009, Kazakhstan acceded to the Kyoto Protocol, which sets forth the procedure for, and limits on, emissions. Institutionally, environment protection is managed by the Environment Protection Ministry, which is the chief coordinator of all nationwide activities in this field. In addition to the ministry, the respective structural divisions of other ministries, departments and governmental bodies, and a host of civil sector organisations work on environmental issues*. Environmental expert assessment, permit-issuing, and inspection work has been fine-tuned. Currently, the most topical environmental problems in Kazakhstan are climate change and ozone layer depletion, the reduction in biodiversity, desertification, water and air pollution, and the accumulation of production and consumption waste. Taking into account the current emissions of ozone depleting substances and the forecasted permitted emissions within the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer signed on 16 September 1987, the first several decades of the 21st century will be a determinant in terms of ozone depletion. The ozone layer over Kazakhstan and the planet as a whole will begin to repair
* In 2008, for example, over 20,000 people took part in environmental hearings nationwide.

over the next thirty years if no more ozone depleting substances are emitted. Biodiversity issues also remain topical. The rare endemic and extinct species in need of protection include over 400 species of plants and 300 species of vertebrates, a significant portion of which is on the verge of extinction. To preserve original ecosystems, with their whole complex of biocommunities, and to save the life cycle of animals and plants, a network of specially protected natural areas, that are considered a benchmark in terms of natural conditions, flora and fauna, has been set up. In 2002, Kazakhstan had 24 specially protected natural areas, including nine conservation areas and seven national parks with a total area of 2,815,800 hectares. Out of this figure, forests accounted for 24.7% (695,400 hectares) and water reservoirs 10.5% (294,400 hectares). Research into the dynamics of natural processes and scientific observations are being undertaken in conservation areas and the nature records are being kept. In addition, Kazakhstan has four zoological gardens, all the property of the state. Their aggregate area is 1,567,000 sq m, including 447,400 sq km occupied by animal housing. The country’s zoos are home to 7,400 animals of 823 species. Desertification is a significant environmental problem. A total of 70% of the country’s area is exposed to desertification and degradation to a greater or lesser extent, which can be explained by its natural peculiarities. Out of 188.9 million hectares of pastures, 26.6 million are extremely degraded. The pastures and hay fields adjacent to rural populated localities are in the worst condition, which manifests itself in the area reduction, spread of poisonous weeds, and shrub invasion. The salinisation of irrigated land is increasing the area of saline deserts in closed basins and their resalinisation. Saline soils account for 31.3% of all irrigated arable land. On the whole, there is a stable trend towards the deterioration of land, including the reduction in humus content, biogenic elements, plant species, and biological productivity.
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Because of the catastrophic reduction of the Aral Sea, the Aral region has been declared an environmental disaster zone. The Programme for the Comprehensive Solution of the Aral Problems for 2004-2006 has resulted in the level in the northern part of the sea reaching 41.4 m on the Baltic system of heights, compared to 39 m before the project. The surface area has increased from 2,606 to 3,156.6 sq km and the volume of water from 17.7 to 25.2 cu km, while its salinity has decreased from 23 to 12 g per litre. In order to further resolve the problems of the Aral region, on 26 September 2006, the government approved the Programme for the Comprehensive Solution of the Aral Problems for 2007-2009. The former Semipalatinsk nuclear test site remains one of the most environmentally distressed areas in the country. The Programme for the Comprehensive Solution of the Problems of the Former Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site for 2005-2007 has proved that the area is still contaminated with radioactive substances and that its water bodies have high content of production-induced radionuclides. The programme above aimed at maintaining the security at nuclear and radiation sites. The activities included non-dissemination of radioactive contamination, the management and disposal of nuclear weapon waste, and the restoration of contaminated areas. Work is in the pipeline to draw reliable radiation maps of the area. To further restore the land at the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site, the Programme for the Comprehensive Solution of the Problems of the Former Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site for 2009-2011 was developed in 2008 on the orders of the Head of State. This programme provides for the return of more than 80% of the site area into economic use. The research within the Environment Protection Programme for 2005-2007 has shown that over more than 100 years of the development of oil and gas fields in Kazakhstan oil production enterprises had significantly worsened the environmental situation in the regions adjacent to the Caspian Sea. Soil contamination, numerous oil storage pits and onshore wells, and the tanker fleet are the main sources of toxicants in the Caspian Sea. The lack of effective wastewater disposal systems at oil and gas
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enterprises is causing the formation of lifeless water reservoirs, with salt water and toxic substances. The radioactive contamination of oil fields, caused by the fact that oilfield water in many areas has high radionuclide content, is also a significant issue. The health of the population living in the areas of oil production is of special concern. Four generations of people have been living in an area of intense air, soil and water pollution by oil products. Research suggests that certain diseases such as blood and haematopoietic organ diseases (two to four times higher than the country’s average) can be associated with oil contamination. Significant changes have been recorded in the life of the fish fauna in the Northern Caspian Sea, which is one of the causes of the threefold reduction in sturgeon production. All these facts require utmost attention by governmental bodies to the environmental problems of the Caspian region. In addition, the responsibility for the stabilisation and improvement of the environment at the Caspian Sea was stipulated by the Framework Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the Caspian Sea (dated 4 November 2003), which was ratified by Kazakhstan on 13 December 2005. Following this, the government prepared and adopted a national plan of action to protect the Caspian Sea environment. Government bodies are also considering the qualitative and quantitative composition of groundwater and surface water that is exposed to environmental burden because of the irretrievable withdrawal of natural water and pollution by poorly treated wastewater. This situation is caused by the fact that the majority of water facilities and networks were commissioned or overhauled more than 20 or 30 years ago. Untreated wastewater flows directly to absorption fields (in Taraz, for example) or waste ponds (Kokshetau, Kyzylorda, Uralsk, Petropavlovsk, and Kostanai). A significant volume of wastewater from industrial enterprises (up to 24% in some towns) flows directly to municipal treatment plants, the majority of which are overloaded. So, wastewater treatment technologies are not compliant with the design data. In Taldykorgan,
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Atyrau, Pavlodar, Ust-Kamenogorsk and Semei, the treatment facilities are overloaded by 1.5 to 2 times. Wastewater ponds are often filled to their maximum, resulting in the continuous threat of the embankments failing. In 2006, the amount of wastewater disposed into surface water exceeded 2.8 billion cu m, up 8% on 2005. The quality of water supplies to the population, in rural areas in particular, also remains a topical issue. In almost every region, there are localities that have a shortage of quality drinking water. In early 2009, the Head of State requested that the government consider the possibilities of using groundwater for these purposes. In the recent years, a tendency towards lesser water intake due to the use of recirculation and recycling systems has appeared. The volume of water taken from natural water bodies and used for irrigation, watering and agricultural water supplies have to some extent decreased. Another concern is the condition of trans-border rivers that flow from neighbouring countries and are already polluted. They are aggravating the environmental situation in trans-border regions. Kazakhstan is taking measures to resolve this issue through intergovernmental committees set up in conjunction with its neighbours. The issue of historical contaminations also remains acute. The Environment Protection Programme for 2005-2007 produced proposals as to how assess the environmental impact of historical contaminations and repair them. These contaminations include waste from past operations of oil and gas, heat and power engineering, mining and processing industries, as well as abandoned oil and injection wells and flowing water wells. In recent times, thorough research has been undertaken to assess the impact of military space and test sites on the environment and public health. This research has proved that the test and simulated launches of launch vehicles cause the contamination of vast areas along their trajectories. Natural sites are being severely damaged by both the components that separate from launch vehicles and the residual propellant. These issues are being resolved by the committees that have
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been set up with Russia at an intergovernmental level to assess the damage caused to Kazakhstan, and with the help of interstate legal mechanisms. Air pollution is another issue of concern. At present, the emission of chemical compounds is about 200 kg per person a year, compared to 163 kg in 2000. In recent years, the nationwide pollutant emissions from stationary sources have stabilised at approximately 3 million tonnes a year. At the same time, emissions by vehicles are growing continuously because of the increase in the number of vehicles used in the country. Air pollution is an issue of particular importance to the cities. In the majority of large cities, the contribution of vehicles to gross emissions is 60% or more, and in Almaty it is 90%. The main causes of air pollution from stationary sources in Kazakhstan are the obsolete technologies at many enterprises; a lack of dust-trapping and gas-cleaning plants; poor performance by existing treatment facilities; breaches in operating practices; and use of poor-quality coal in the power industry. The government has taken measures to make the 43 largest enterprises in the country, which account for 80% of emissions, eliminate the causes of pollution and repair the damage caused. In 2008, a total of 123 billion tenge was spent to this end. As a result, emissions have reduced by 149,000 tonnes throughout the country. The aggravation of the radiation issue is also giving cause for concern. These include the operation of the former Semipalatinsk nuclear test site, the activities of the atomic industry, the production and processing of minerals with high content of radioactive elements, and the natural radioactive anomalies in the populated localities and in groundwater used for drinking water supplies. These facts have been confirmed by the research undertaken within the Environment Protection Programme for 2005-2007. Chemical contamination is another topical issue for Kazakhstan. It involves the spread of chemically active substances used in economic activities, the most dangerous of which are persistent organic pollutants that are not biodegradable and concentrate in living organisms.
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Large-scale natural and man-caused disasters also cause significant damage. The damage caused by them since 2000 has already exceeded several billion tenge. The country lacks pesticide storages and specialised burial sites for unusable pesticides and their packaging. licences have been withdrawn and huge penalties been imposed on enterprises. and more than 500 hectares by the metallurgical plants’ dumps. business development. grazing. Land contamination by industrial and energy waste is one of the most significant environmental problems in Kazakhstan. or any other circumstances. In 2009. race.000 hectares occupied by rock dumps. To resolve this problem. “No one shall be subject to any discrimination for reasons of origin. and hydrotechnical amelioration and other measures are being undertaken.5.500 waste certificates. As for the political rights of women. it provides for the creation of a training network for female politicians. persuasions. Kazakhstan’s gender policy is being developed on the basis of the Blueprint for the State Policy on the Improvement of the Status of Women. land in particular. occupation. the Committee inventoried all waste facilities throughout the country and approved some 7. to provide equal opportunities for economic independence. and on the Nationality of Married Women. The growing storage of waste is producing new technogenic landscapes to the detriment of the environment.Kazakhstan today Chapter 5. In particular. and hunting. In recent years. sex. Kazakhstan has also signed a number of statutes of the International Labour Organisation concerning the rights of women and children.2 of the Constitution reads that. The blueprint is effective for the current period (until 2010) and for the longer term (until 2030).” [6] Kazakhstan has acceded to the most important conventions and declarations adopted by the UN and other international organisations in regard to women’s rights. [7] The Gender Equality Strategy for 2006-2010 is another conceptual instrument that specifies areas of gender policy and is aimed at more effective resolution of the most significant gender issues. and to eliminate gender-based violence. about 6. The domestic waste storage facilities often do not comply with health standards and affect the environment. religious beliefs. this spending is expected to increase by 150 billion tenge. trees are being planted. Its objectives are to achieve a balanced representation of women and men in authority. the most important events were Kazakhstan’s accession to the UN Conventions on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women. priorities and objectives of gender policy in Kazakhstan. To preserve natural resources. including 8. expenditure by the national budget and businesses on environment protection has grown significantly. the policy of gender equality is being pursued in accordance with the Constitution. ethnic origin. 5. language. The issue of storing and processing the increasing volumes of domestic waste is also very important. the Environment Regulation and Control Committee set up the Waste Department in 2008. Forest and steppe fires are the most detrimental. to create conditions conducive to the equal exercise of rights and duties in a family. In some instances. Human Development in Kazakhstan The disposal of pesticide and toxic chemicals packaging is also a serious problem. place of residence. on the Political Rights of Women.000 hectares.000 hectares by mill tailings. social or property status. Article 14. and for the allocation of budget funds for socially important projects that concern the issues of family and women. Biodiversity is also affected by unauthorised logging. [8] 319 318 . collecting of medicinal herbs. Non-ferrous metallurgy’s waste sites occupy approximately 15. This paper sets forth the main principles. The responsibility for environmental violations has been significantly toughened. and career advancement. The industries that produce the highest volumes of waste are ferrous and nonferrous metallurgy and coal mining. This has helped improve the situation with the political rights of women and overcome hidden and open gender discrimination. new recreational areas are being created. In order to understand what action was needed. Gender Policy In Kazakhstan.

and there are also some other scientific centres. As part of the state People’s Health Programme. the Institute of Social and Gender Research is operating under the Kazakh State Female Teachers Institute. The gender programmes have produced visible positive changes in the demographic situation. taking into account the importance of the nation’s health. Similar structures operate at regional levels of state management. parliamentarians. managers at all levels. and for childcare until one year of age was introduced. the Strategy provides for the development of state and private children’s preschool institutions. the birth and childcare allowances have been significantly increased. They have created the Otbasy group and are cooperating with the National Commission. Maternity and infancy protection is at the centre of the government’s attention. NGOs are playing a significant part in improving women’s status in Kazakhstan. the Feminist League. OSCE. A special section of the Strategy concerns gender education and advocacy among the population. The government is creating conditions to implement the gender approach in the budgeting processes at all levels and in the development of state socioeconomic programmes. in particular state officials. it is one of the priorities for the nation’s gender policy. At present. Human Development in Kazakhstan To improve women’s employment opportunities. These mechanisms are being continuously developed and improved and are becoming increasingly effective. Women’s NGOs have set up centres for employment and occupation guidance. The involvement of women in economic activities is another issue on the agenda. and the mass media. In 2008. including social support to women and healthcare. Parliamentarians are also mindful of the issues of family and women.Kazakhstan today Chapter 5. In 2008. The Small Business Development Fund has allocated more than 2 billion tenge to this end over six years. They are also developing a network of crisis centres to combat violence against women. The birth. In particular. the British Council. Kazakhstan began to implement a special Maternity and Infancy Protection Programme. and small business and legal support. the most prominent of which are the Association of Business Women of Kazakhstan. which is a consultative and advisory body to the President. UNIFEM and the National Family and Gender Policy Commission are implementing the Social/ Gender Budgets in Kazakhstan project. Since 2000. about 150 NGOs are active in the country. natural increase and reproduction rates have improved and the maternal and infant mortality rates are tending to decrease. compulsory social insurance for pregnancy and childbirth. Additional measures are being taken to support large families. Kazakhstan has a whole system of institutional mechanisms to protect the rights of women and improve their status. 320 In the area of gender issues. Kazakhstan has created all the conditions for women to take part in the state management on a par with men. the Almaty Women’s Informational Centre. and the Almaty Centre for Gender Research. The Commission is working to eliminate the stereotypes of gender superiority and clarify the necessity of social equality of women and men. the International Organisation for Migration (IOM). the Maslikhat deputies. 321 . The National Scientific Centre for Maternity and Childhood and the Republican Children’s Rehabilitation Centre were launched. Kazakhstan is cooperating with international organisations including UNIFEM. and UNDP. The programme has a number of blocks. USAID. The main such institution is the National Family and Gender Policy Commission. Its priorities for the near future are to lobby the draft laws On Equal Rights and Equal Opportunities for Women and Men and On Domestic Violence. The health of the population is improving. Tens of thousands of women have obtained ‘soft’ loans and opened their own businesses. In addition to these. Significant efforts have been made to strengthen women’s political leadership. the government has been taking measures to support women’s businesses. Currently.

5 7.6 46.4 18.6 5.1 0.6 4.02 33.5 2. repairs of cars and household items 14.9 5.9 14.3 3.8 1st 1st 1st nine quarter half of months 2009 2009 of 2009 37.4 14.5 5.0 9.net 8.0 42.7 19.2 4.2 0.4 13.2 18. forestry.5 1.А. // www.7 12.0 2.5 16.4 12.7 11.1 7.7 9.3 5.4 13.9 0. Казахстан – только вперед! // www.7 8.4 44.8 15. hunting.9 12. 28 февраля 2007 г.8 2. Послание Президента РК Н. Назарбаев Н.9 11.7 2.8 2.0 14. Март 2006 г.6 7.2 0.5 13.7 40.3 42. Агентство по статистике Республики Казахстан // www.А.1 8.0 2.1 0.7 5.4 5.0 2.9 64.cawater-info.3 2.9 11.1 28.2 2.6 0.2 Production of goods Agriculture.6 7.8 10.2 3.9 8.2 3.0 2.7 1.3 53.3 1.3 2.6 0. – Алматы.1 37.7 55.9 5.2 43.6 10.8 6.4 0.9 1.2 2.4 2.8 0.3 2.0 1.1 30.4 1.5 Manufacturing Production and distribution of electricity.3 8.8 2.akorda.9 1.kz 2.9 47.2 0.1 1.9 8.1 52.kz 6. Концепция гендерной политики в Республике Казахстан // www. Kazakhstan in Figures 323 Hotels and restaurants Transport and telecommunications Transport Telecommunications Financial activities Operations with property.3 8.5 2.1 12.7 14.4 5.9 10.2 10.6 5.6 1.8 12.0 13.9 10.9 9.1 28. fishery Agriculture.5 12.4 3.1 0.7 2008 45.9 1.7 1.1 30.5 5.2 12. stat.9 1.0 2.8 1. forestry fishery Industry The extractive sector 1.8 Trade.7 2.0 1.8 11.1 0.0 2. Конституция Республики Казахстан.5 1.8 11.kz 5.1 6. Назарбаев Н. letting and services to consumers Government expenses Education Healthcare and social services 2.2 5.0 20.9 2.9 10. 3.3 12.5 1.2 .6 57.8 1.4 0.9 12.kz 28.5 8.4 2.0 2.7 1.9 55. Стратегия вхождения Казахстана в 50 самых конкурентоспособных государств мира.9 3.3 2.3 2.6 12.9 0.6 0. Февраль 2008 г.9 11.9 14.5 15.4 5.1 2. Назарбаева «Новый Казахстан – в новом мире» – Стратегия очередного этапа развития страны.6 58.0 2.2 2. 7.4 6.3 16.8 16.3 2.1 32.0 17.6 4.3 9.7 52.3 11.3 14.2 21.7 1.1 29.1 0.7 2.2 5.kz 4.3 2.3 15.3 6.7 60.9 1.gender.8 6.0 5.0 8.0 6. Стратегия гендерного равенства в Республике Казахстан на 2006–2016 годы // www.8 7.9 2.9 18. KAZAKHSTAN IN FIGURES Appendices.3 5.8 14.1 0.2 12.3 4. Назарбаев Н.3 3.akorda.5 5.0 2.8 18.akorda.5 9. // www.3 0.4 5.6 1. gas and water Construction Production of services APPENDICES.1 11.7 11.9 50.0 3.1 43.9 1.3 22.7 2.1 34.4 1.2 15.1 0. hunting.akorda.4 54.А.322 References Kazakhstan today The structure of GDP by sector % Sector 1st 1st half 1st nine half 1st nine quarter 1st2007 months of 2007 quarter 1st2008 months of of of 2007 2007 2008 2008 39. 1998.6 5.03 34.5 5. Рост благосостояния граждан – главная цель государственной политики.7 2.

5 105.3 134.0 115.1 117.1 109.7 99.0 124.5 124.3 116.0 102.0 117.1 114.9 -4.1 98.5 111.3 6.3 103.4 114.5 106.4 81.4 104.4 115.9 118.7 -6.3 97. including beverages Production of tobacco products Textile and garment industry Production of leather.0 106.0 108.3 116.0 100.2 108. excluding fuel extraction Extraction of iron ore Extraction of non-ferrous metals Manufacturing Production of foodstuffs.3 107.4 117.7 109.0 101.6 121.9 98.6 110.7 94.8 113.9 2.0 -4.2 103.4 124.1 2.3 Appendices.3 117.6 97.1 87.2 91.9 -4.1 102.1 100.7 109.6 104.3 114.4 191.9 7.0 95.7 115.2 102.3 102.7 109.4 103.3 101.4 105.6 115.2 6.4 105.8 91.324 Sector 1st 1st 1st 1st 1st nine half 1st nine half 1st nine quarter 1st2007 months of 2007 quarter 1st2008 months of 2008 quarter half of months of of 2007 2007 2008 2008 2009 2009 of 2009 1.2 95.0 118.7 110.6 -5.2 104.0 102.1 108.1 97.7 93.6 -5.1 101.1 88.0 107.7 99.6 140.2 106.5 95. publishing Production of coke.4 110. lignite and peat Extraction of crude oil and accompanied gas Extraction of natural (combustion) gas Extractive sector.6 108.2 122.0 100.6 106.1 104.7 107.6 105.7 102.0 114.8 122.6 102.6 105.0 100.1 119.2 103.8 1.4 91. petroleum products and nuclear materials 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009* 102.5 100.8 -5.1 115.4 86.2 108.9 113.2 5.1 108.0 125.1 107.0 5.7 1.9 104.7 128.1 95.9 102.4 102.8 114.7 109.8 110.8 90.6 91.4 116.7 2.0 100.3 99.7 93.6 105.0 100.0 100.5 113.0 93.2 105.5 108.8 102.2 107.2 98.0 7.1 117.2 103.4 108.8 106.1 86.8 92.3 113.3 115.7 -4.3 110.0 1.2 98.0 100.1 103.1 104.6 106.0 5.4 108.3 101.3 104.0 106.5 98.9 127.7 107.6 113.0 102.4 115.1 110.0 102.5 167.3 109.0 6.8 93.6 102.6 104.7 125.8 1.1 91.2 102.3 107.9 6.2 113.9 109.3 115. leather products and shoes Timber industry and production of wooden items Pulp and paper industry.4 115.3 83.9 110.1 -4.8 107.8 115.5 121.2 6.1 97.8 94.7 135.0 108.6 109.7 95.7 89. Kazakhstan in Figures 325 Production of petroleum products 71.7 109.8 -4.7 .0 102.8 1.9 98.0 Other services Total by sectors Indirectly-measured services of financial intermediation Total added value Taxes and customs duties Gross domestic product Kazakhstan today Table continuation Indices of physical volume of industrial output of the Republic of Kazakhstan by sector % 1999 Industry Extractive sector Fuel extraction Extraction of coal.6 82.8 123.7 98.9 286.9 95.5 4.8 110.8 93.5 101.6 131.0 128.5 115.4 103.6 86.1 94.7 119.4 99.1 107.0 100.6 99.5 98.1 121.8 93.3 116.0 100.8 110.1 98.9 130.7 102.7 111.0 -3.0 93.9 133.8 99.3 88.1 117.5 106.6 109.8 1.4 92.8 92.1 100.8 120.4 104.4 93.9 110.5 109.1 173.6 117.7 103.8 102.9 106.0 107.3 104.0 2.9 109.

406 139 55.751 2.105 Cereals.4 114.4 140. including jet fuel of kerosene type.873 1.039 1.0 103.6 Kazakhstan today Production in the Republic of Kazakhstan 1999 Coal.261 508.850 589 2007 67.130 9. ‘000 tonnes Fresh bread.3 92.6 105.7 93. ‘000 tonnes Chromium ore.333 4.9 118.4 96.2 105.5 155.9 103. ‘000 tonnes 58.691 4.0 102.247 392.254 4.7 113.3 135.009 8.880 10.6 100.8 108.1 103.907 51.133 838 741 3.3 96.4 111.907 7.0 164.0 153.4 88.7 105.0 130.3 78.705 3.384 2.1 78.586 528.582 109 2. ‘000 tonnes Copper ore.675 7.5 119.298 71 1.756 565 2006 96.345 314 3.471 7.485 22.241 1.072 70.1 94.003 26.235 3.308 36.471 3.8 111.665 1.7 158.029 1.9 95.7 94.9 141.202 2.7 113.708 3.496 5.375 3.255 63 1.107 538 2003 84.011 7. ‘000 tonnes Kerosene.473 34.776 556 2002 73.3 150.956 2.3 108.1 102.287 347 28.069 2.2 101.3 102. Kazakhstan in Figures 327 Raw steel.973 19.2 86.359 249 3.0 89.5 108.6 105. ‘000 tonnes Marketable concrete.384 111.4 117.9 101. ‘000 tonnes Iron pellets.3 103.3 96.123 518 2004 86.9 110.699 15.2 109.486 279.9 103.1 117.662 6.715 346.1 134.3 98.496 3. including gas condensate.317 11. ‘000 tonnes Motor fuel (petrol. purification and distribution of water * .6 101.6 131.108 3. ‘000 tonnes Natural gas (total output).7 104.1 103.8 130.477 4.830 2.866 5.1 138.preliminary data 91.0 116.928 355 29.887 2.6 128.508 4.520 1.8 160.837 10.067 516 306 26.795 11.8 104.3 113.102 20.607 233 38.4 101.231 65.204 5.9 96.0 93. ‘000 tonnes 2000 74.946 9. ‘000 tonnes Cement.9 118.872 2.2 115.542 16.486 24.886 6.5 91.0 104.082 2.6 70.046 271 37.391 1.109 17.5 96.295 2.6 121.6 179.946 3.582 11.7 107.844 2.8 129. ‘000 tonnes Appendices.3 105.954 2.8 108.6 124.1 110.2 123.841 309 2.9 125.304 2. ‘000’000 cu m Iron ore.382 22.584 5.080 615 2008 98.9 103.091 11.127 536 2005 86.7 104.245 2.658 3.245 4. ‘000 tonnes Crude oil.082 269 315 35.1 106.125 29.378 30.7 105.4 106.3 98.3 104.281 8.566 349 230 43.157 6.802 2. ‘000 tonnes Asbestos.243 .6 92.7 95.369 11.550 4.834 8.300 2.648 1.671 32.8 140.8 104.888 2.3 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009* 76.6 98.8 72.107 34.447 30.799 4.175 934 4.6 80.505 402 4.513 390.2 137.138 8. ‘000 tonnes 4.2 100.0 105.4 102.783 1.4 98.781 490.255 542.129 3.9 142.741 569 2001 79.754 3.4 100.135 40.791 2.633 385 4.460 1. ‘000 tonnes Gasoils (diesel fuel).0 102.383 3.261 4.814 28.872 35.3 103. mixtures of fine grinding.6 92.7 96.486 6.5 107.2 184.7 124.266 231 293 40.889 21.7 96.6 106.610 15.693 245 2.370 291 26.581 4.1 105.875 59.1 117.9 107. coarse flour and gradules and other grain products.773 2.572 31.105 4.6 111.952 32.4 103.2 95.2 101.5 113.5 94.703 2.2 132.141 2.451 16.5 85.9 113.4 95.303 9.4 98.5 107. tonnes Petroleum products.494 34.8 115.326 Table continuation 1999 Chemical industry Production of rubber and plastic products Production of other nonmetal mineral products Metallurgy Ferrous metallurgy Production of non-ferrous metals Production of finished metal products Machine-building Other sectors of industry Production and distribution of electricity. ‘000 tonnes Fuel oil.228 3.617 2.4 103.488 1.4 93.2 132.4 112.8 109. gas and water Production and distribution of electricity Production and distribution of gaseous fuel Supplies of steam and hot water Collection.731 47.888 3.375 655 228.562 23.438 6.372 4.271 14.640 32.4 122.928 294 2.6 103.2 103.1 106.7 119. including jet fuel).181 8.1 97.9 69.6 109.3 130.797 2.6 161.784 4.7 87. ‘000 tonnes Flour of grain and plant crops.7 116.543 480.849 34.7 91.597 19.5 128.8 107.069 5.737 2.283 10. ‘000 tonnes Cast iron.2 108.262 450 Sugar.263 8.3 115.617 61.6 146.

387 1.5 99.0 98.3 77.7 70.2 103.4 94.2 84.6 85.9 103.5 95.057 2.4 92.9 90.4 68.1 88.6 96.5 97. Kazakhstan in Figures Industry Extractive sector Fuel extraction Extraction of coal.4 91.6 97.1 104.8 86.7 85.7 76.2 78.4 99.9 101.838 4. including beverages Production of tobacco products Textile and garment industry Production of leather.0 103.7 87.2 94.4 90.890 394.6 97.331 63.9 84.5 Appendices.1 102.0 81.3 75.4 92.0 97.7 90.2 97.5 95.2 106.9 92.4 87.4 99.218 2.669 83.9 87.January.0 104.511 445.105 3.8 102.2 97.5 103.2 86.7 71. tonnes Refined copper.2 70.235 1.090 364.7 82.0 91.454 294.498 51.441 604 1.6 87.6 95.989 432. ‘000’000 kWh Heating energy.2 77.3 79.9 85.3 96.5 89.0 102.2 100.3 103.5 95.3 92.3 92.1 105.6 97.6 82.2 89.January.9 87.590 2.1 94.651 85.6 97.1 107.5 99.420 1.7 107.7 108.384 58. leather products and shoes Timber industry and production of wooden items Pulp and paper industry.0 80.2 99.3 97.7 101.570 277.673 80.6 106. ‘000 tonnes Zinc-plated rolled products.2 92.4 106.7 85.974 117.7 96.1 95.234 2.7 88.6 91.6 97.0 105.9 93.018 3. petroleum products and nuclear materials Production of petroleum products Chemical industry Production of rubber and plastic products Production of other nonmetal mineral products Metallurgy Ferrous metallurgy 329 .7 84.3 106.0 90.614 1.7 51.2 89.4 89.1 96.723 425.7 79.641 248.040 3.1 88.894 3.6 93.635 55.0 94.464 76.812 158.7 101.0 81.6 62.5 90.6 87.5 108.175 133.398 78.0 69. publishing Production of coke.0 104.5 69.350 71.2 85.8 92.0 97.4 88.217 1.5 74. ‘000 tonnes Raw lead.9 84.073 286.January.0 99.0 88.7 106.158 1.5 105. ‘000 Gcal Natural water.6 104.4 85.9 80.3 93.3 107 77.9 101.8 87.1 86. lignite Extraction of crude oil and accompanied gas Extraction of natural (combustion) gas Extractive sector.8 102.6 86.7 107.788 Kazakhstan today Indices of physical volume of industrial output of the Republic of Kazakhstan by sector in 2009* % year-on-year January.130 1.000 3.5 104.6 89.703 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 1.7 86.556 1.6 90.4 82.4 99.5 91.8 80.016 135.7 95.6 85.6 88.4 88.356 427.JanuaryJanuary February March April May June July August September October November December 98.9 95.3 92.699 87.503 76. tonnes Electricity.5 95.3 72.221 63.0 72.January.4 102.7 106.515 279 364 396 499 709 762 606 580 3.9 79.401 1.7 77.7 108.0 100.722 162.9 80.5 96.4 68.7 105.8 97.9 85.6 107.4 79.325 2.505 1.1 98. ‘000’000 cu m 2.4 107.9 72.4 92.2 83.4 93.0 96.9 83.8 93.8 88.4 99.5 96.178 157.3 92.3 92.8 64.092 1.3 93.890 185. ‘000 tonnes Flat-rolled products.2 102.5 84.7 97.888 4.754 262.6 112.5 106.8 101.8 92.6 95.826 527 1.2 104.468 1.2 103.8 76.0 88.447 1.8 105.8 101.6 86.7 82.9 81.0 105.January.January.2 85.4 93.0 94.5 93.348 94.388 47.920 90.6 91.268 418.8 89.7 81.1 95.1 107.731 357.6 93.8 68.January.3 101.713 98.8 96.2 95.829 2.530 1. excluding fuel extraction Extraction of iron ore Extraction of non-ferrous metals Manufacturing Production of foodstuffs.621 93.2 94.2 88.8 79.670 452.5 96.4 88.446 115.7 85.1 79.4 98.184 158.2 93.0 76.0 84.4 81.0 87.572 361.821 358.1 79.4 88.186 3.3 78.5 98. ‘000 tonnes Raw aluminium: alumina.2 97.1 87.411 67.7 94.7 95.226 365.231 1.723 406.6 100.6 86.2 96.2 86.125 2.3 87.3 88.942 1.0 101.3 92.321 65.7 101.0 107.January.3 92.5 79.5 107.1 94.9 73.866 66.2 87.2 104.201 2.2 87.183 2.8 75.6 96.6 86.3 93.4 96.3 96.2 99.2 104.2 97.3 84.000 1.7 108.8 77. tonnes Raw zinc.8 88.January.091 398.7 108.7 83.3 105.0 82.0 106.6 81.069 2.328 Table continuation 1999 Ferroalloys.4 93.566 316.3 108.3 102.7 86.

3 11.2 88.0 Appendices.9 22.8 4. including accompanied oil gas.102. including oil extracted from bituminous minerals.596.0 92.0 2.1 98.034.318.664.708.233.5 19.5 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009* Crude oil (natural mixture of hydrocarbans).3 12.1 213.5 95.5 50.4 2.3 7.3 88.524. ‘000’000 cu m Natural gas in gaseous state (marketable output).897.8 61.644.664.9 111.737.195.834.382.6 8.969.884.473.January.0 4.5 8.289.2 93.8 34.889.7 292.0 4.8 34.266.5 95.9 26.January.1 404.3 91.6 81. gas and water Production and distribution of electricity Production and distribution of gaseous fuel Supplies of steam and hot water Collection.215.942.749.3 93.9 22.8167 416.8 77.8 2.447. ‘000 tonnes Natural gas in gaseous state. ‘000 tonnes Zinc in zinc concentrate.5 5.615.2 89.3 10.937. chips and stone powders.2 92.0 45.287.3 9. ‘000 tonnes Chromium ore.0 364.6 75.1 3.100 230.0 32.3 8.1 38.7 93.4 418.531.7 104.0 76.8 85.280.906.6 2.133.5 89.9 87.2 386.869. Kazakhstan in Figures 331 .5 88.646.9 9.5 94.5 92.705.8 108.0 58.6 2.4 95.8 8.5 94.8 109.6 23.JanuaryJanuary February March April May June July August September October November December Kazakhstan today 98.6 99.230.3 70.6 40.0 5.7 81.7 106.4 31.671.3 50. ‘000 tonnes Crude oil. ‘000 tonnes 16.6 29.2 7.2 78.566. ‘000 tonnes Salt and pure sodium chloride. tonnes Asbestos.0 2. road metal or crushed stones.884.3 2.0 6.025.4 96.8 96.9 92.1 92.0 90.616.6 108.8 103.238 354.8 54.494.4 2.7 92.total.6 5.1 67. gravels.471.250.680 227.0 90.7 95.4 9.484.0 92.January.2 18.5 85.4 89.0 96.7 94.6 4.9 90.2 96.4 31.0 39.8 98.2 10.6 6.0 13.8 Natural sand.3 5.381.January.9 90.1 90.4 97.7 78.5 32.0 28.4 92.0 3.320 230.8 8.5 92.302.1 104.376.2 90.765.8 104.0 361.068.072.1 59.8 55.5 95.0 95.561.9 5.2 4.8 7.643 305.1 3.6 101.7 92.7 10.479.9 92.0 91.467. ‘000’000 cu m Iron ore.1 96.6 94.4 33.972. ‘000 cu m Granules.9 110.860.0 94.January.338.1 86.125.850 346.003.081.6 504.9 6.0 5.5 347.4 98.January.9 20.074.617.9 24.3 69.875.3 101.451. ‘000 tonnes Gas condensate.5 17.January.965.6 93.972.4 93.3 92.6 98.383.599.377.849.927.8 387. pebbles. ‘000 tonnes Manganese ore.671.8 106.5 314.516. including gas condensate.6 19.1 21.7 94.262.2 26.2 95.5 85.5 91.5 64.3 93.813.2 102.8 31.0 76. ‘000 tonnes Iron pellets.160. ‘000 tonnes Copper-zinc ore.067.7 95.053.7 97.0 12.539.1 22.1 5.5610.3 105. ‘000 tonnes Aluminium ore (bauxites).5 91.8 48.2 41.5 92.815.786.2 96.0 92.2 3. ‘000 tonnes Copper ore.572. ‘000 tonnes 84.8 30.January.224.383.2 4.130.3 91.1 24.5 393.5 102.189.330 Table continuation % year-on-year January.678.883.886.482 231.7 4.2 Production of non-ferrous metals Production of finished metal products Machine-building Other sectors of industry Production and distribution of electricity.486.8 75.5 86.2 51.7 75.2 97.265.3 96.485 348.0 4.7 107.2 17.951.2 515.1 269.0 96.2 79.369.2 6.970.7 85.9 80.1 97.6 91.1 34.3 37.5 98.0 94.0 6.791.1 106.6 93.0 81.3 11.4 88.486 65.January.5 9.5 2. ‘000 tonnes Lead in lead concentrate. ‘000 tonnes * preliminary data for January-December 2009 287. purification and distribution of water * preliminary data Production of key industrial products in the Republic of Kazakhstan 2003 Extractive sector Coal .8 82.0 77.248.8 5.182.

thousand tenge Bottles.847 19.725 614.676.668 132.440.444 10.816 588.333.195 1.218.277 4.817.1 27.8 186.545 52.2 313. mixtures of fine grinding.707 17.965 41.0 4.1 653 38.162 34. tonnes Sugar.9 28. tonnes Paper and cardboard corrugated perforated or unperforated. jars.8 112.6 2.065 30.954 22.825 598.914 71.3 2.3 2.9 26. ‘000 sq m Carpets and carpet products.8 6.1 26.085 1.797.869. kg Raw and semirefined gold or in powder.228 85.627 628.621 640.604 4.270 145. ‘000 litres Beer. washed degreased uncarbonised.0 378.6 60 17.470.079.5 680.352.107.1 29.8 81.8 46.784.826. tonnes Raw sunflower oil.4 11.842 6.687.179 22.737 127.446 1.817. kg Appendices.6 19.9 20.148 2.3 19.999.736 18.544 1.618 38.658 23.960.266 465.3 36.267 54.428.081.379.9 363. forms or similar packaging weighting no more than 10 kg.1 85.906.2 735 97.662 858.291 22.9 1.491.6 401.115. tonnes Fruit and vegetable juices.445 205.4 3.984 54.157.0 654.012 2005 784. tonnes Fabric. excluding bricks made of silicic stone flour or diatomite dirts.925.729.167 678. ‘000 litres Cigars.2 77.2 2. ‘000 cu m Cement.454.1 51.345.880. tonnes Ferroalloys.213.5 2.867.997.079.187 4.1 202.530.104.227 2. forms or similar packaging weighting no more than 10 kg.0 1.040 19.8 70.399.559 66.1 56.861 14.2 2. ‘000 tonnes Phosphorus.971.5 3.412 1.574 2.7 360.566 13.6 101.3 905. lignite or peat.148.427. excluding fertilisers in pellets.8 1.292.658 25.714.530.810 1.815 85.5 294.1 3.0 248.293 201.882 56.825.161.564 806.5 803 133.5 30.024 60.705.832.740 2.6 98.035.708. in roles or sheets.527 6.955.6 5.627.247 48.592.183.9 385.359.586 528.900 3.458.023. excluding fertilisers in pellets.171 2004 724.092.459.517.213.767.8 38.8 133.325.9 2.596 11.235 564. tonnes Cotton fibre.177.374.5 2.375.874 19.284.2 266 79.340 51.057 25.107 168.998.821.932 69.8 80. leads and other glass closing items.092 104.5%.6 238.447. tonnes Tin plate and rolled sheets coated with tin.2 32.6 2. tonnes Concrete construction ready-built frames.732.887.984 4.073 545.698 1.444 22.659.569 124.189 13.126.098 645.0 286.214.642 911. goat or pig skin without hair.094 1.1 66. ‘000 tonnes Fuel oil.549 4.507.865 2007 1.430.405.276 7.9 83.061 10.033 14.9 238. ‘000 tonnes Motor fuel (petrol.581.893 25.269 63.395 4. ‘000 pairs Wooden windows and frames. tonnes Fresh bread.704.5 27.016 258.103 812.338 55.9 228.816 2.854 32.7 2.122.658.846.456 8.2 5.009 79.582 1.476 1.781 490.505.551 61.243.9 88.020 132.401.756 148.772 83.187 4.7 571.961 707.161 508.162.642 1.194 34.102 2006 780.317 2.2 28.471 43.6 343 31.702.931. cigarillas.614.683 722. cigarettes.218 90.969 4.414.364.096.069.278.837.763 20.4 278.843 6.990 854.580 918.180 34. kg Coke and semicoke made of coal.733 3.753. spirits with alcohol content by volume no less than 45. tonnes Milk and cream in solid state.482.866 517.754.0 2.061.2 993.268.849.255.295 74.1 105.873 2.412 179. ‘000 tonnes Pharmaceutical preparations.637.638 140.0 2.964 2.395 38. corcks.631.377 804.800 43.331.037. ‘000 sq m Leather of cattle or horse skin without hair.2 31.748.070 156.731.1 40.820.556 57.708 209.4 81.3 197.181.772 74.113 28.875 717. confectionary products made of chocolate and sugar.724 222.522 68.794.461 201. tonnes Margarine and similar products.2 5.539 45.0 4. tonnes Butter. glass doors and frames and thresholds.473 3.272 8.519 2.887.467.133 265.027 3.548.300.549.6 113.5 99.4 1.598 22.052.476.1 672.491.294.6 35.5 4.069. tonnes Paper or corrugated cardboard boxes and bags.673 225.1 52.980.1 203 23.401.824 991.709 292.952 17.744 8.3 2.984 56.244.2 4. uncombed. tonnes Refined sunflower oil and fractions.3869 28.917 1.0 2.927.466 4.728.035 827.2 2.783 122.468.732 13.755.3 49.2 39.3 2.784 3. ‘000 litres Vodka. ‘000 pieces Ceramic burnt construction bricks.919 4.2 13.7 14.757. tonnes Cheese and cottage cheese.633.9 35.026.3 36.2 2.203.2 803.659 3.509.2 56.613 39.052.6870.297.927 707.5 2.105 57. ‘000 litres Wines.2 99.908 70.806. including jet fuel of kerosene type (tempurature of destillation of 150-300 degrees Centigrade).025.7 3.138 2.660 1.9 234. tonnes Raw steel. ‘000 tonnes Gasoils (diesel fuel).008.039 2.4 323.0 45.838.724 2.590.569 392.564 695.400 10.974. ‘000 litres Ethyl alcohol.759 22.344 204.7 595 702 29.880 110.166 90.610 169.3 373. tonnes Sausages.401 1.042 95.912 2.154 3.1 786.255 542.9 246.202 174.095 17.833. tonnes Flour of grain and plant crops.2 643 35.4 110.468.9 99.156 2.6 4.731.403 16.671 5. tonnes Fish processed and tinned.8 6.3 4.3 480.6 1. including jet fuel). excluding sport and protective shoes.261 681.613.110.189 26. ‘000 tonnes Kerosene.983 38. tonnes Noodles and other pasta products. ‘000 sq m Wooden built-up construction structures.8 25. tonnes Brandies.994.680 2.052 122.3 18.7 39.613 4.146.042 2. tonnes Unprocessed milk and cream. tonnes Chocolate.443 1.6 3.005 2008 1.358 385.371.307 4.771 3.460 655.064 3.702 38.9 23.837.525 Shoes. tonnes Mineral or chemical nitric fertilisers.980.5 18.2 3.375.871. flasks and other glass containers.410 27.261 77.8 44. ‘000 tonnes Mineral or chemical phospohrous fertilisers.623 536.3 122.9 45.226 673. ‘000 tonnes Lime.3 2.041.359.9 376.7 2. ‘000 sq dm Leather of sheep.019 154.083 796.3 27.698.1 30.853 2009* 1. excluding ampouls.2 988.320 69.7 3.583. tonnes Tinned meat.3 61.625 91. ‘000 sq dm 67. retort coal.781 267.791 29.3 115.187 221.234 21.2 1. kg Refined silver.841.6 129.228 4.1 754.195. tonnes Raw and semirefined silver or in powder.332 Production of key industrial products in the Republic of Kazakhstan 2003 Manufacturing industry Meat and meat products.732 5.9 28. Kazakhstan in Figures 333 .2 309.4 34.521 1.018 25.105 1.3 295.056 62.348 43.443 19.598 15.2 27.479.716. tonnes Flat rolled products.345.349.342 235.365.1 33.072 4.136 3.039. ‘000 litres Cotton oil and fractions.504 38.869 2.561 480.302 48.329 26.401. tonnes Silicate and slag bricks. cheroots.178 1.7 Kazakhstan today 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009* Table continuation 2003 809.1 3.301.8 360.5 5.496 77.676 72.508 3.6 410.8135. ‘000’000 pieces Fleece (sheep).

713.6 19.146.7 47.246 365.3 24.248.322 60.952.152.755.602.223.418.9 16.188.9 143.037.5 36.4 54.505.214.115.5 47.234.8 5.761 1.413.3 53.3 1.340.4 18.188.749 1.607.308.334 Table continuation 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009* 10. tonnes 133.2 188.633.497.245 353 9.723 406.2 2006 853.0 24.9 202.2 36.717.239.4 137.9 90.5 105.966 1.543. other pumps.3 115.4 82.620.8 17.347.766 Raw lead.032.455.9 12.847.494.0 9.121.139.832.8 7.0 75.5 70.8 10.773.2 12.154.9 2.4 9.522.9 1.0 1.253 Centrifugal pumps for fluids.3 2007 1.1 5.157 8.4 26.055.910 132.5 11.4 1.4 3.954.618.491.154 535.168.729.973.504.386.302.4 237.383.445 Oil and gas processing equipment.6 80.732.8 630.2 56.0 2008 1.4 45.6 147.4 68.1 146.3 130.225.148 49.758 7.514.718. Kazakhstan in Figures 2005 Total 763.963.9 27.579.649.282.6 131.958.107.7 110.115 5.477.471.348.858.9 34.118 11.755 72.7 94.441.097.3 15.785.8 73.205 Refined gold kg 1.632.356 427.753.870.387.511 445.0 85.419.2 92.1 54.0 29. million tenge 2003 Kazakhstan Akmola Oblast Aktobe Oblast Almaty Oblast Atyrau Oblast East Kazakhstan Oblast Zhambyl Oblast West Kazakhstan Oblast Karaganda Oblast Kostanai Oblast Kyzylorda Oblast Mangistau Oblast Pavlodar Oblast North Kazakhstan Oblast South Kazakhstan Oblast Astana Almaty Kazakhstan Akmola Oblast Aktobe Oblast Almaty Oblast Atyrau Oblast East Kazakhstan Oblast Zhambyl Oblast West Kazakhstan Oblast Karaganda Oblast Kostanai Oblast Kyzylorda Oblast Mangistau Oblast 615.280.5 2.258.627.3 50.8 9.296.043 1. tonnes Refined copper in blocks.4 694.050.6 147.945 6.335.5 1.773 10.0 33.4 22.9 3.628 3.486.7 161.701.795.5 118.724.8 95.572 Raw zinc.290.524.0 212.356.5 920.855.196.559.5 144.4 1.237 Tape recorders and other voice-recording equipment.9 52.3 37.3 108.5 108.822.384.6 145.804.619 345.900 397.9 16.9 4.1 2.0 95.255.866.249.011 8. pieces 103 32 144 1.7 2.7 92.9 98.7 3.462.368.826.219.5 10. thousand tenge Automated washing machines with capacity of no more than 10 kg of dry 20.848.799.095. pieces 2. rolled.3 59.755.7 58.8 80.9 55.857.5 39.0 109.742.722.206 2.954.6 80.135.6 2.713.9 134.185.979.947.917.362.6 84.4 32.817.891.1 84.827 101.202.0 761.4 88.0 21.5 1.311 3.433.0 29.734.077.1 13.3 27.111.133 12.331.4 1.013.632.494.216.752.915.3 278.9 52.669.3 30.4 2009 1.116. 432.811 126.271 Cars.1 80.013 Lorries. excluding sintered.2 24.415 1.8 238.8 43.7 Appendices.9 78.750 148.555.7 13.4 382.016 135.072.230.300.566 316.9 6.339 553.715.647.2 27.169.843.967.432.6 2.9 2004 698.8 391.268 2.640.1 2.181.8 23.616 55.965 87.178 157.7 29.4 6.345.581 71.7 25.374 Television sets.8 66.090 364.411 tonnes 3.312.9 79.091 398.2 1.252. tonnes 294.975 410.518 326.187.285.823.5 8.385.762.4 34.0 16.2 30.9 67.9 Crop farming 400.278.260.829 328.0 36.982.096.720 68.643.7 219.4 10.8 118.9 33.660.155 322.175 washing.434.3 1.3 75.1 13.226 365.9 4.7 93.388.268.523 2.7 87.493.641 105.6 17.974 117.377.218.5 22.2 35.888.0 3.271 4.336 1.8 37.2 3.3 241.774 9.098.049.696.001.4 1.8 27.4 26.832.263.965.821 358.117.0 57.376.112.5 10.167.5 69.2 29.0 50.5 12. extruded or blacksmithed.312.217.8 335 .268 418.0 355.0 30.4 100.591.9 10.085.053 460.7 10.756.4 63.697.6 57.6 25.4 4.4 9.193.421.9 432.5 604.818 Raw alluminium: alumina.0 30.3 5.446 115.018.859 1.128.0 18.173.731 357.5 18.9 2.834 368.608.3 42.3 41.445. fluid lifters.3 25.877 286807 101 1.879.588.700.568 46.376.0 70.007.576.5 45. pieces Kazakhstan today * preliminary data in January-December 2009 Gross output of agricultural products by all entities in current prices.4 7.005.453.906 9.080.467.020.292.9 183.4 48.2 40.140.848. pieces 503.900. pieces 215.1 42.974. pieces 77.465.1 61.011 7.118.1 158.740.576 9.2 7.205.4 7.8 48.3 60.533.737.051.

997.3 3.7 20.392.520.8 2004 2005 15.4 51.583.3 32.9 19.9 36.3 21.109.8 45.851.659.5 42.137.323.293.8 50.662.358.1 7.033.7 59.0 343.0 21.9 10.3 8.5 22.2 18.9 3.6 16.775.909.9 32.1 36.719.7 96.5 6.881.772.9 28.698.262.608.177.771.622.422.8 39.877.894.0 71.1 155.9 364.5 18.912.0 80.542.110.372.6 63.246.0 2.662.0 69.0 11.0 27.362.5 2006 15.2 420.000 45.9 63.2 29.0 46.095.2 2008 21.748. Kazakhstan in Figures 2007 2008 2009 80.2 4.376.748.779.7 14.386.7 14.2 76.556.102.5 12.159.286.249.2 21.662.021.7 Kazakhstan today Indicators of Kazakhstan’s foreign trade million dollars Continents.9 73.3 Source: Foreign trade statistics of the Kazakh Ministry of Finance’s Customs Control Committee Appendices.939.842.2 36.912.2 45.1 60.664.8 53.991.9 24.4 32.857.684.016.508.598.0 14.1 815.469.313.1 2.3 32.6 4.540.876.450.041.9 10.0 54.947.5 52.248.8 15.790.713.8 184.1 153.9 58.931.9 7.287.529.8 72.4 24.8 5.1 109.135.1 323.978.7 87.0 55.3 16.8 238.4 Animal husbandry 307.4 28.539.535.348.631.740.336 Table continuation Pavlodar Oblast North Kazakhstan Oblast South Kazakhstan Oblast Astana Almaty Kazakhstan Akmola Oblast Aktobe Oblast Almaty Oblast Atyrau Oblast East Kazakhstan Oblast Zhambyl Oblast West Kazakhstan Oblast Karaganda Oblast Kostanai Oblast Kyzylorda Oblast Mangistau Oblast Pavlodar Oblast North Kazakhstan Oblast South Kazakhstan Oblast Astana Almaty 259.4 21.2 24.468.5 45.0 73.3 52.246.9 26.2 246.625.419.178.1 16.3 25.511.5 3.1 361.9 158.0 7.927.6 6.7 1.0 14.190.834.1 44.041.277.2 28.581.5 490.8 90.8 3.2 14.723. countries and group of countries Total. of which: CIS Other countries Europe EU countries Non-EU countries Asia America Africa Australia and Oceania 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 16.741.3 12.564.3 37.1 39.781.8 2.484.4 17.389.6 396.9 19.6 1.8 363.8 86.8 11.575.3 61.5 95.436.9 6.7 27.0 1.443.748.8 391.524.799.110.866.200.651.1 24.6 71.6 2.589.4 61.090.513.4 68.3 244.5 38.738.3 337 .0 4.175.704.1 3.077.831.8 30.8 20.511.446.581.2 50.5 25.275.422.4 33.9 36.4 72.363.564.4 915.5 11.641.5 6.301.3 12.065.2 52.153.817.1 16.115.2 35.6 50.8 10.381.9 4.7 110.049.4 1.2 7.6 1.6 45.066.527.8 49.637.189.5 5.7 1.071.919.9 12.482.837.9 66.914.188.7 6.6 32.1 21.219.254.112.607.389.598.200.492.0 5.397.6 42.4 71.7 109.4 15.201.072.5 432.756.6 22.791.280.1 22.207.612.677.2 23.2 5.2 4.6 1.592.363.752.3 157.115.094.6 4.1 3.5 3.6 30.093.5 2.049.7 2.977.9 64.780.1 12.8 184.635.4 22.3 60.836.7 3.237.681.5 17.6 57.256.867.1 14.604.0 11.5 4.0 77.7 22.289.6 31.636.8 25.671.593.763.612.106.1 7.947.0 8.928.7 2009 42.4 45.4 2007 24.2 171.388.6 3.127.7 2.6 623.638.259.2 1.629.849.549.1 49.0 2.2 35.3 8.8 24.504.6 17.0 57.755.963.6 37.1 155.3 59.8 48.162.111.8 44.821.2 65.0 5.7 29.0 700.215.1 6.162.4 293.8 35.497.2 20.535.335.7 13.8 29.070.1 33.954.0 1.9 32.642.7 1.3 2003 11.085.2 3.

7 524.395 265.626 844.781 119.9 83.612 47.648 437.587 72.7 214.590 42.7 1.9 622.495 JanuaryNovember 2009 117.583 297.373 95.4 351.136 63.7 40.436 192 310 0.1 2006 328.9 63.8 0.820 221 327 0.172 33.688 215.291 25.978 163.719 73.09 96.126 1.0 … 265.481 464.9 2.8 482.9 733.949 809.194 51.08 66.224 31.3 542.116 169.9 0. million tenge farms … 87.4 3.1 0.676 25.305 11.670 70.831 27.6 5.5 0.3 0.6 504.709 358.756 55.327.387 107.8 571.7 467.849 59.152.900 32.1 378.3 171.778 39. million tonne-km pipelines naval 2007 350.9 59 68.686 55.655 146 296 0.5 0.429 30.722 148.844 385.234 247.8 461.338 Main indicators of small entrepreneurship Number of entities Year legal entities farms … 76.8 JanuaryNovember 2009 305.5 200.4 2004 283.234.05 88.5 3.031 222.993 302.787 2007 124.5 405.7 77.083 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 Kazakhstan today Main indicators of the development of the transport sphere Freight traffic by all means of transport billion tonne-km 2003 258.3 324.9 585.5 57.04 69.978 108 255 0.148 288 353 0.8 533. Kazakhstan in Figures 339 .033.480 475.3 Total of which: railways other ground river air.4 147.5 557.1 87.07 92.3 1.3 2008 369.457 2008 127.455 14.5 2.288 165.116.434 121.5 4.5 191.1 13.011 156.6 474.9 75.6 828.882 Appendices.033 457.1 163.3 26.366 14.654 2004 100.5 43.326 169.313 farms 30.600 12.638 2005 107.7 … … … … … … 78.8 0.4 229.6 311 294.038 … … individual entrepreneurs legal entities individual entrepreneurs legal entities individual entrepreneurs Number of employees.567 133.460 111.9 70.4 357.265 2006 118.8 61.865 58.1 177.956 185.475 146.2 53.8 345. thousand people Production.824 13.071 428.5 … 340.950 248 329 0.3 Passenger traffic by all means of transport million passenger-km 2003 Total of which: railways coaches and buses taxi trolleybuses trams river air 94.715 473.5 92.5 438.806 10.500 316.06 69.516 46.8 5.218 155.9 47.601.2 0.007 166.438 1.6 2005 296.056 178.339 50.4 90.721 169.841 415.311 72.632 1.7 504.4 56.

2 0.5 8.8 8.2 535.229.3 0.4 597.199.6 559.2 540.209.896.183.7 2.9 7.1 2007 15.336.0 42.9 5.1 7.1 84.1 7.4 2.0 0.6 83.228.0 2004 15.625.985.657.4 5.4 35.624.7 0.9 3.8 7.857.4 000 km 2003 railways roads of which.405.6 2.4 0.6 0.1 4.204.620.6 2.401.261.5 7.8 7.4 83.776.095.229.403.1 93.631.1 5.4 0.5 143.657.0 2.6 6.4 0.1 0.Kazakhstan today Appendices.4 8.4 7.306.2 7.4 3.7 6.421.8 Rolling stocks Main indicators of the labour market 000 pieces 2003 All transport means of which: cars private cars coaches and buses including private coaches and buses lorries private lorries trams trolleybuses river vessels 1.3 311.4 2.901.1 133.6 5.145.3 0.4 0.2 0. in two-way calculation river and naval 14.955.682.490.1 4.0 8.7 0.8 0.7 2008* 3.6 2006* 2.0 84.752.051.4 8.5 0.1 2.1 90.413.9 2.4 0.1 * According to the Kazakh Ministry of Internal Affairs’ data 340 Economic dependents Workforce 3.8 65.8 223.755.3 0.1 91.1 93.9 75.0 2005 15.028.2 52.4 48.469.1 2.1 4.8 3.2 204.0 359.0 7.278.7 8.1 4.181.1 2. in two-way calculation tram.1 1.5 61.1 568.8 2.2 3.762.9 4.7 1.6 7.1 1.3 1.463.4 7.3 0.635.485.7 5.3 281.0 90.657.186.8 583.9 6.687.9 2.383.1 2.631.1 0.548.2 573.471. paved trolleybus.9 134.5 5.4 7.830.4 0.3 2005* 1.3 0.8 8.6 8.4 2.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 7.1 1.532.973.410.0 414.8 82.497.468.0 2006 15.840.0 1.1 4.6 4.464.3 557.6 6.6 2.3 7.425.9 2007* 2.266.9 3.6 4.7 3.5 62.415.1 4.0 8.7 Length of transport lines routes Thousand people Q3 2009 Q2 Q1 year Q4 2008 Q3 Q2 Q1 2007 2006 2005 2004 658.138.416.6 6.4 0.745.7 4.925.1 1.576.237.364.2 3.476.3 246.199.3 0.8 8.9 3.3 6.0 83.9 37.148.688.8 165.9 6.5 3.1 2008 15.3 0. Kazakhstan in Figures 7.6 89.8 2.415.466.9 6.1 2003 Hired employees Indicators Labour force Self-employed Unemployed 672.1 1.493.3 0.5 4.3 The unemployment rate.632.626.131.0 5.4 6.% 8.3 0.9 8.2 224.5 3.2 7.3 5.8 640.868.7 625.6 3.2 2.6 7.711.9 89.1 341 .640.7 35.8 557.862.6 84.3 8.5 2004 1.080.3 3.687.1 0.

195 2.255.806 In foreign currency In the national currency In foreign currency In the national currency 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 1.January.049 2.757 Kazakhstan today Loans to the economy End-period.592.kz 7.005 1. Kazakhstan in Figures 343 .342 846 860 56.323 2. million tenge Currency Total In the national currency Short-term 869.430.099.180 31.159 1.256.345 5.January.158.379 80.January.JanuaryJune December June December June December June December June December June December June September 23.162.453 1.January.970 2.156.207 3.January.163 17.820 184.117 744.691 116.443 471 42.369 4. million tenge Non-fixed deposits Total In the national currency 69.654 72.318 3.332 713 13.336.621 144.943 4.076 2.607 1.258.367 154.577.460.nationalbank.512 2.882 2.January.763 5.091 42.953 3.516 5.766 2.534.990 94.117 18.157 596.306 210.626 111.142 155.271 3.267 301.766 209.034.692 100.029 37.384 121.630 33.025 35.007 1.434.500.936.520.692 89.174 5.342 Deposits opened by the population in Kazakhstan’s banks End-period.629 871 37.208 In foreign currency Duration Long-term 1.088 705.800.136 1.203 29.162 Inbound Outbound Domestic Number of travel agents Appendices.617 59.699.897 Individuals 668.345 921 853 62.January.311 1.122.074 3.049 78.January.477 1.055 1.939.754 3.804 6.121 685 44.226.881 981.044 324 241.072 7.722.January.561 3.January.354 540 566.January.937 261.122 24.922 4.033 94.281 7.443 255.923.681.457.599 Entity Non-banking legal entities 1.122 63.644.652 1.885 106.070 174.225 79.690.447.940 1.269.417.944.690 591.411 183.872 27.090 Indicators of tourism people 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 January.119 193.175 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Source: www.891 655.298.399 4.114 756 39.523 286.143 91.848 Conditional deposits Fixed-term deposits In foreign currency 250.132 34.850 1.727 112.954 506.597 163.382 1.371 41.473 1.213.819 1.910 706 31.486 751 17.024 1.421.998 2.January.337.363 1.

664.5 3.4 163 17.988.530 2.910.829.9 4.744.8 67.1 1.5 7.8 16.4 90 72 62 66 61 67 73 number of concerts held - attendance.127 2.321 1.0 752.3 193 18.464 2.4 713.161.4 673.139.753 2.954.3 102.338 149 3.066. ‘000 tonnes Solid pollutants.7 36 48 41 42 50 53 63 66 1.760.1 13.5 6.7 5.835.6 2.707. thousand people 5.8 729.5 103 3.288.2 815.3 717.071 4.8 4 572.848 4.4 11.3 152.521 129.489.0 188 23.316.3 195 4. million tenge Number of immobile sources of pollution Air pollution from immobile sources.100.7 42.640.029 1.262.042.506 1.034 number of people involved in amateur troupes 78 68 477 900. thousand people mobile cinemas attendance.7 … 16.1 2.3 403 86.0 48.261.482.656.0 2006 56.042 156. thousand people number of events held.373.712 2.366.409 188.515.878 2.642 194 2.292.158.539 3.703 81.201 2. kg Pollutants rendered harmless.3 3.153. ‘000 tonnes Use of toxic waste at enterprises.525.768 84.7 4.7 1.9 3.469.5 6.947. ‘000 tonnes Air pollution from immobile sources.1 123.8 7.866. ‘000 tonnes Recycled pollutants.932.9 2.5 55.667.4 1.total total total total total total total cinemas total attendance.1 53 1.197.4 3.5 201 21.255.073 2.356 2.239.802.5 137.4 1.826.1 10.906 2.220.462 3.3 4.7 3.6 3.682.5 4.805.611 57 37 306 146 216 266 246 301 301 298 49 1.3 9.3 1999 13.3 6.5 1.4 641.4 2.3 147 3.8 185 4.915.968.574 1.2 672.800.009 2.1 228.630.737 90.929.7 29.3 721.5 688.320. ‘000 tonnes Fluid and gaseous pollutants.3 83.8 51 1.4 4 481.2 108.338.154.558.804 159.1 10.564.5 3.3 2003 24. thousand people attendance.1 172 3.5 2000 16.8 2007 58.642.6 2.634.778.016.935 4.849.8 48 1.1 168 24.6 146.4 cultural events 344 Indicators of the development of the cultural sphere Theatres Libraries Museums Zoos Club-type cultural establishments Cinema organisations Concert organisations Recreational parks - Kazakhstan today Appendices.780.4 7.429.0 84.643.0 137.3 9.376.8 196 21.5 143 3.589.357.263.746.2 6.1 3.855.1 96.0 3 211.768.6 … 16.3 170 17.704.223.181.595.313.681.725.420 125.965.1 130. ‘000 tonnes 10.4 5.935 2.855.6 2004 28.529.796 2.4 4.4 263.199.533 2.543.795.824 222.921.050 238.081.321.913 2.1 191 23.7 23.9 4 398.3 2.414.327.5 4.600 203.3 2002 18.852 136 Environmental protection 1998 Current spending on environmental protection.220 3.465 121.577.037.558.8 12.820 2. thousand people attendance.5 4 280.3 5.5 2008 91.6 6.181.860.0 4 235.061 134.7 54. ‘000 tonnes Toxic production waste.936 146.7 187 3.116.234 93 9.992.1 687.8 24.204 2.954.838 104.464.1 6.2 668.0 805.360.498.243.0 6.699.8 2.9 121 3.7 1. Kazakhstan in Figures 345 .100 2.7 2005 43.259 166.555.7 141.9 12.2 4.5 4 428.7 3.308.312 3.550 82 67 73 86 76 77 77 47 1.696.3 1.6 174 18.3 74.971.519 1.5 55 1.318.3 453.037 2.519 62.766.898.619.0 3.9 2001 17. per capita.031.423.725 3.6 2.116.9 2.891 121.023.953.2 281.6 3 279.4 24. thousand people membership.910.5 4 670.7 2.1 7.987 1.582.329.327.9 92.0 1.621.9 1.884.911.0 4 589.0 198 4.534 68 68 44 1.664 4.825.761 number of amateur troupes 78. thousand people 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 57 1.4 5.667 73 47 549 43 1.0 34.576 2.288.6 6.558 3.5 3.8 88 1.945.4 1.8 1.321 120 48 1.9 58.

427 12.314 113.826 11.822 359.626 28.170 5.978 25.181 36.722 1.328 269. Kazakhstan in Figures 347 2009 2.530 134.188 131.242 60.972 9.595 34.495 98.219 54.3 15.9 15.605 2.689 5.668 33.954 15.065 Natural growth people January JanuaryFebruary JanuaryMarch JanuaryApril JanuaryMay JanuaryJune JanuaryJuly JanuaryAugust JanuarySeptember JanuaryOctober JanuaryNovember JanuaryDecember 2007 2008 2009 12.320 239.958 8.636 12.6 15.828 56.529 59.891 204.542 22.380 135.277 9.852 29.592 106.927 334.183 14.200 27.639.758 185.965 39.144 8.838 17.294 70.669 91.730 88.845 94.0 15.169 23.222 6.878 44.360 24.277 36.239 14.421 19.508 33.496 6.235 Number of marriages January JanuaryFebruary JanuaryMarch JanuaryApril JanuaryMay JanuaryJune JanuaryJuly JanuaryAugust JanuarySeptember JanuaryOctober JanuaryNovember JanuaryDecember 2007 2008 2009 8.856 47.556.469 147.2 15.902.7 15.552 31.422.277 26.657 163.565.580 152.150 33.496 4.028 28.550 12.341 131.357 304.560 63.316 43.985 119.031 42.0 15.340 36.108 35.145 200.441 31.604 215.997 125.409.811 96.155 24.033 13.292 71.802 86.346 Main demographic indicators The size of population end-period.121 117.592 5.441 107.783 2.974 117.005 7.377 60.355 143.819 483 946 Immigration 28.747 76.854 133.123 8.214 46.750.454 105.798 135.665 50.815.530 15.843 24.852 External migration people January JanuaryFebruary JanuaryMarch JanuaryApril JanuaryMay JanuaryJune JanuaryJuly JanuaryAugust JanuarySeptember JanuaryOctober JanuaryNovember JanuaryDecember 2007 2008 2009 2007 2008 2009 2007 2008 1.228 69.262 8.981.452 31.495 12.052 173.277 26.007 19.302 2.188 6.300 .3 15.656 188.880.2 15.498 25.171 30.093 121.234 118.752 117.162 11.965.6 15.9 15.725 18.318 87.525 8.676.366 49.949 27.118 56.702 175.454.477 798 23.924 61.1 15.467 72.381 838 12.453 10.498 16.356 158.422 248 8.673 29.717 210.620.314 18.790 900 17.474 37.572 191.778.108 316.268 6.104 4.465 2.931 155.437.940 115.6 15.113 176.921 86.828.240 305.936 29.8 15766.280 Number of divorces January JanuaryFebruary JanuaryMarch JanuaryApril JanuaryMay JanuaryJune JanuaryJuly JanuaryAugust JanuarySeptember JanuaryOctober JanuaryNovember JanuaryDecember 2007 2008 2009 3.878 2.203 40.940 8.356 Net migration 11.762 2.150 2.150 109.0 15.686 19.519 12.454 11.741 241.470.198 36.842 3.265 6.309 47.124 15.9 15.514.922.662 5.6 15.477 25.298 36.771 44.3 15.500.1 15.842 296.746 11.2 Number of births people January JanuaryFebruary JanuaryMarch JanuaryApril JanuaryMay JanuaryJune JanuaryJuly JanuaryAugust JanuarySeptember JanuaryOctober JanuaryNovember JanuaryDecember 2007 2008 2009 29.230 17.868 26.873 18.8 15.987 96.355 3.725 134.483 101.5 15.599 119.804 20.255 270.269 2.9 15.410 103.622 134.291 75.560 148.359 36.025 93.723 50.253 4.982 8.847 146.546 148.750 85.527.797.848.657 21.081 3.6 15.657 42.730 35.575 57.752 157.1 15.111 33.3 15.844 10.077 38.719 20.475 19.818 8.356 43.644 26.543.562 159.696.930 145.289 27.208 47.730.142 4.241 78.046 21.796 61.942.9 15.957 4.598 106.159 33.859 29.014 6.805 15.6 15.966 17.870 105.894 39.833 14.0 15.583 81.492 35.202 21.713.073 30.296 148.599.952 33.658.080 29.874 32.238 Appendices. thousand people January February March April May June July August September October November December Kazakhstan today 2007 2008 2009 15.377 13.523 40.396 31.8 15.619 70.214 241.815 82.596 40.219 8.486 332.677 45.873 8.675 8.967 125.530 95.9 15.744 69.427 10.132 129.086 120.951 77.8 15.581.323 11.612 524 -224 3.785 210.300 Number of deaths people January JanuaryFebruary JanuaryMarch JanuaryApril JanuaryMay JanuaryJune JanuaryJuly JanuaryAugust JanuarySeptember JanuaryOctober JanuaryNovember JanuaryDecember 2007 2008 2009 16.533 10.752 48.4 15.7 15.554 270.505 56.865.431 45.419 53.1 15.484.660 87.914 6.075 5.872 2.699 32.789 Emigration 16.241 25.892 12.

thousand Number of hospital beds for children.4 981 110.579 22.3 125.862 Other countries people January JanuaryFebruary JanuaryMarch JanuaryApril JanuaryMay JanuaryJune JanuaryJuly JanuaryAugust JanuarySeptember JanuaryOctober JanuaryNovember JanuaryDecember 2007 2008 2009 2007 2008 2009 159 279 448 696 856 1.357 24.4 Appendices.079 10.617 4.4 2005 55.418 2.854 6.589 4.2 18.4 1.681 12.747 31.480 908 1.2 1.194 2.758 42.543 34.348 CIS countries people January JanuaryFebruary JanuaryMarch JanuaryApril JanuaryMay JanuaryJune JanuaryJuly JanuaryAugust JanuarySeptember JanuaryOctober JanuaryNovember JanuaryDecember Kazakhstan today 2007 2008 2009 2007 2008 2009 2.458 6.463 Emigration 1.162 5.880 1. thousand people Number of nurses.979 9.875 29.656 13.726 6.6 110.195 2.673 2.752 26.712 5.933 7.063 117.9 131.659 30.403 1.156 10.529 24.358 1.074 768 1.893 2.562 16.6 1.047 13.997 10.890 8.6 2001 51.722 5.086 119 20 2007 59.896 27.185 2.047 13.913 18.5 119.241 7.318 1.200 7.433 11.264 443 1.400 10. Kazakhstan in Figures 349 .930 1.906 10.913 5.2 18.339 19.978 3.247 18.657 19.8 20.011 33.770 7.722 25.158 2.403 11.8 117 1.582 19.089 2.457 5.265 16.920 3.326 Emigration 15.6 2008 58.968 1.463 39.605 13.089 33.982 16.6 19.062 103 257 374 536 700 867 230 420 606 829 1.406 3.722 9.351 2.9 18.982 38.568 8.055 119.8 20.890 1. thousand 50. thousand people Number of hospitals Number of hospital beds.160 1.478 8.822 4.503 26.3 2004 54.138 1.4 2002 53.394 26.479 Immigration 5.003 15.117 28.541 2.735 2.9 2000 49 106.672 24.819 18.955 31.718 6.835 6.042 116.029 114.6 20 2006 57.402 1.474 12.834 21.176 8.601 1.942 Immigration 22.309 22.9 18.041 120.703 10.535 2.885 38.293 40.4 917 108.745 16.697 3.4 2003 54.359 6.6 19.597 29.530 4.968 1.303 13.379 9.6 115 1.4 130 1.614 2.376 Healthcare 1999 Number of all doctors.6 938 106.3 109.807 36.126 8.221 42.874 3.005 111.660 1.214 28.7 113.7 1.

327 1. thousand people 8.343 273.290 8.908 19.370 16.4 2.798 232.334 8.692 Kazakhstan today Number of children in permanent pre-school organisations Coverage of children in permanent pre-school organisations (number of children per 100 places) Number of pedagogical personnel in permanent preschool organisations* * Excluding medical personnel 133.120 1.715.103 1.850 282.1 24. Kazakhstan in Figures 351 .217 140.588 84.854 286.489 156.761 185.089 1.924 279.0 14.2 3.3 25.2 86.500 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 1.534.115.221 8.3 22.7 27.6 2.117.277 Day and evening secondary schools 1998/99 1999/00 2000/01 2001/02 2002/03 2003/04 2004/05 2005/06 2006/07 2007/08 2008/09 2009/10 Number of day secondary schools Number of pupils in day secondary schools. thousand people Number of pedagogical staff in day secondary schools Number of evening secondary schools Number of pupils in evening secondary schools.326 285.1 24.5 27.350 147.859 7.254 37 31 44 48 47 66 75 76 76 79 26.0 24.1 89.8 3.9 2.044.247.046 20.254 8.0 Appendices.3 24.736 279.157 8.401 81.8 94.115.106 1.542 168.544 17.300 262.055 7.053 108.6 24.085.0 3.345 282.824.350 Permanent pre-school organisations 1999 Number of permanent pre-school organisations 1.408 8.102 124.2 26.098 276.089 110.5 99.309 8.0 250.7 2.925 257.0 26.0 102.6 105.400 17.869 1.048 16.627.5 24.811 3.934 286.242 276.4 3.179 1.935.958 7.284 8.9 2.561.0 3.095 1.368 207.6 2.

the KazISS under the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan A. Rakhmatulina – PhD in Economics. head of the economic research department. Timofeyenko – researcher. Sitenko – counselor at the Embassy of the Republic of Kazakhstan in Austria B. Kozyrev – PhD in Philological Sciences. the KazISS under the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan S. chief researcher. Sultanov – Doctor of History.N. Nazarbetova – researcher. Kushkumbayev – Doctor of Political Sciences. the economic research department. the KazISS under the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan 352 353 . the KazISS under the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan M. the foreign policy department. the foreign policy department. the KazISS under the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan A.A. Seilekhanov – Doctor of Political Sciences V. the KazISS under the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan M. senior analyst.S. Borangaliyev – researcher. Agency on Investment Profitability Research Ye. head of a department.Ye.T. Laumulin – Doctor of Political Sciences.M. Izimov – researcher. Human Development in Kazakhstan Information about authors G.Kazakhstan today Chapter 5.Yu.K. the KazISS under the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan K. Rakhimzhanova – PhD in Economics. the socio-political research department.U.A. the Security Council of the Republic of Kazakhstan A. chief researcher. the KazISS under the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan M. the KazISS under the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan S. Nurgaliyev – PhD in History A. director of the KazISS under the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan L. Lukpanova – PhD in History A.Zh. senior researcher.A. Ibragimova – economist R.D. Abisheva – PhD in Political Sciences.K.T.K.A. the socio-political research department. Isayev – adviser to the director of the KazISS under the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan T. Morozov – head of the socio-political research department.G.

twelve candidates of sciences. economists and sociologists work there. Human Development in Kazakhstan Information about the Kazakhstan Institute for Strategic Studies under the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan The Kazakhstan Institute for Strategic Studies under the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan (KazISS) was established on 16 June 1993 by the Decree of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan. Kazakhstan-Spektr and Analytic are included in the list of scientific publications of the Committee for Control in the Sphere of Education and Science of the Kazakh Ministry of Education and Science for publishing primary scientific results of dissertations. India. Not only experts from 354 Kazakhstan and the Central Asian countries. At present. but also scientists from Russia. The main mission of the KazISS is providing the activity of the President of Kazakhstan and governing bodies of the country with scientific and analytical data. Turkey.859 users visit the KazISS website annually. historians. France. the Institute provides all necessary conditions for professional and scientific growth of its staff. KazakhstanSpektr. For more information about the KazISS please call or visit us at the following address: 87 B Dostyk Avenue 050010. Germany. The KazISS has become a high professional scientific-analytical centre. Analytic (in Russian). Pakistan. its experts have published more than 150 books on international relations.kz 355 .kisi. Foreign experts are interested in the KazISS conferences which have been conducted annually since 2003 and are devoted to problems of security and cooperation in Central Asia. China. and Central Asia’s Affairs (in English).Kazakhstan today Chapter 5. The KazISS has a website that offers information in three languages – Kazakh. Students of the leading Kazakh universities and foreign experts undergo practical trainings and internship at the KazISS. During the period of the KazISS activity. theses.D. Almaty Republic of Kazakhstan Tel: +7 (727) 264-34-04 Fax. seminars and round table discussions. for defense of Master’s and Ph. e. and the greater part of them are foreign citizens. Kogam zhane Dauir. Russian and English.: +7 (727) 264-49-95 E-mail: office@kisi. problems of global and regional security. specialists in political sciences. At present.kz http://www. About 184.g. The KazISS annually conducts a great number of international scientific conferences. The Institute is publishing four scientific and analytical magazines: Kogam zhane Dauir (in Kazakh). Japan and other countries attend the KazISS scientific forums. six doctors of sciences.

inform.akorda.astana.K. Almaty 356 . www. Almaty.000 The Kazakhstan Institute for Strategic Studies under the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan 87 B Dostyk Avenue.kz and www. 050010 Printed in the Ye V Volkova IP publishing house. Format: 60х90 1/16.25 Circulation 2.A. Zhumagaliyeva Translation and editing by Tandem Ltd.kz.kz. In the book authors used materials of the www. Offset printing.kz websites and the archives of the KontinenT magazine Signed for publishing: 25.04. Offset paper.Kazakhstan today Scientific publication KAZAKHSTAN TODAY Monograph Designer A. Sadvakasov Page maker A. www.yvision. Paper size 22.2010.