Blood Vessels I.

Structure of Blood Vessels Walls

A. Three layers 1. Tunica intera a. Inner most layer b. Endothelium i. Simple squamous c. Some larger vessels have subendothelium i. Loose connective tissue ii. Basement membrane 2. Tunica media

a. Middle layer b. Circularly arranged smooth muscle c. Chemical and nervous control of degree of contraction i. Sympathetic NS d. Change in diameter i. Vasoconstriction ii. Vasodilation 3. Tunica externa a. Made of collagen fibers b. Function i. Protection ii. Reinforcement iii. Anchor to surrounding tissue c. Accessory tissues i. Nerve fibers ii. Lymphatic vessels iii. Elastic network iv. Tiny blood vessels within layer-vasa vasorum

II. Arterial System A. Classification based on size and function 1. Elastic (conducting) arteries a. Characteristics i. Thick-walled ii. Near heart iii. Largest diameter

iv. More elastic v. Large lumen b. Properties i. Dampen BP changes associated with heart contraction ii. Passive accommodation results in smooth flow of blood c. 1.0 - 2.5 cm 2. Muscular arteries-distributing arteries a. Distal to elastic arteries b. Deliver blood to specific organs c. Thick media layer i. More smooth muscle d. 0.3 - 1.0 cm 3. Arterioles a. Determine flow into capillary beds b. Mostly smooth muscle c. 10 µm - 0.3 cm 4. Capillaries a. Smallest blood vessels i. 8 - 10 µm b. Tunica interna only c. Exchange of materials

B. Types of capillary 1. Continuous a. Uninterrupted endothelial cells b. Incomplete tight junctions

i. Intercellular clefts 2. Fenestrated a. Endothelial cells have oval pores i. Fenestrations b. Pores permit greater permeability 3. Sinusoidal a. Modified, leaky capillaries b. Large molecules can pass through

C. Capillary beds

1. Capillaries act as networks-capillary beds

Thinner walls and less muscle than arteries . Veins a. Types of vessels 1. Venules a. Vascular shunt i. Microcirculation a. Venous System A. Formed from venules b. Terminal arteriole 2. Post-capillary venule III. Thin externa 2. Little muscle ii. True capillaries D. Parts of a capillary bed a. 8 . Thoroughfare channel a. True capillaries branch off i. Pre-capillary sphincter controls blood flow into capillary 3. Connects arteriole with venule b. Characteristics vary with size i. Arteriole to venule 3. Capillaries rejoin 4. Sequence of blood movement through capillary bed 1. Metateriole a.2.100 µm b.

Blood flow-volume flowing through a given structure per unit time (ml/min) 2. Blood pressure-force per unit area (mm Hg) 3. the larger the diameter. Resistance-opposition to flow. Veins act as reservoirs a. Terms 1. Capacitance vessels 1. pressure and resistance . Large lumens b. diameter is the greatest source of resistance B. Low blood pressure allows walls to thin 2. Externa is thickest wall layer B. Blood vessel diameter-flow is inversely related to diameter. Total blood vessels length-longer the vessels. Venous valves a. Blood viscosity-thickness related to formed elements ii. Little muscle in media i. Sources of resistance i.c. Folds of interna IV. Relationship between flow. Prevent backflow b. generally encountered in the systemic circuitperipheral resistance (PR) a. the less resistance (1/r4) b. In healthy humans. the greater the resistance iii. Physiology of Circulation A. Mostly elastin d.

Heart pumping generates blood flow 2. Highest in aorta ii. From higher to lower pressure i. Systemic Blood Pressure A. Pressure results when flow opposed by resistance 3. Blood flows along a pressure gradient a. Lowest in right atrium B.Blood Flow (F) = ∆P/PR (Difference in blood pressure between two points/peripheral resistance V. Arterial blood pressure . Background 1.

Systolic pressure: 120 mm Hg 3. Volume of blood forced into the arteries near heart 2. Changes associated with diastole . Blood moves toward periphery because peripheral pressure is lower than aortic pressure i. Factors affecting arterial pressure a. Kinetic energy b. Changes associated with systole a. Compliance ii. Stretching of arteries near heart i. Aorta is stretched by blood leaving left ventricle i.1. Distensibility b.

Blood is forced toward the heart iv. Difference between systolic and diastolic pressure 5. Respiratory pump i. 20 mm HG (60 from aorta to arterioles) 2. 40 mm Hg entering 2. Functional modification a. Need additional functional modifications 3. Pulse pressure a. Pressure is maintained by reducing volume i. Thoracic veins expand . Backflow is prevented by valves iii. Venous return a. Venous pressure is too low to promote adequate return b. Chest cavity pressure decreases v. Diastolic pressure: 70 . Gradient from venules to vena cava i. Capillary blood pressure 1. Relatively steady throughout cardiac cycle b. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) a.80 mm Hg 4.a. Aorta recoils c. Abdominal (ventral body cavity) pressure increases squeeze local veins ii. Characteristics a. 20 mm Hg exiting D. Semilunar valve closes b. Diastolic pressure + 1/3 pulse pressure C. Venous blood pressure 1.

Blood enters right atrium b. Reduce effect of vagus nerve i. Muscular pump (more important) i. Cardiac output 2. Blood moves in direction of heart VI. Blood volume B. Increase sympathetic activity a. HR increases 2. Peripheral resistance 3. Increases stroke volume . Cardiac output is directly related to blood volume CO = Stroke volume X HR D. Factors influences blood pressure 1. Backflow is prevented by valves iii. Reduces ESV ii. Reduce parasympathetic control a. Increases contractility of heart i. Contraction of skeletal muscle surrounding veins compress vein ii. Blood pressure is directly related to CO. BV and PR C. Regulation of Blood Pressure A. Blood pressure = Cardiac output X Peripheral resistance 1. Factors that enhance CO 1.

Neural control of blood pressure 1. Nervous control of peripheral resistance a. Alter blood distribution b. Alter blood vessel diameter 3. Short-term mechanisms 2. Vasomotor center . Increase activity of respiratory and muscular pumps a. Increases venous return i. Increases heart rate 3. Increases EDV ii. Increases stroke volume E.b. Releases Epi into blood stream from adrenal medulla i.

Regulation of blood vessel diameter b. Release NE v. Vasomotor fibers i. Tonic vasoconstriction 4. Innervate smooth muscle of blood vessels iii. Vasoconstrictor c. Baroreceptors . Primarily arterioles iv. Sympathetic efferents ii.a. Vasomotor tone i.

aortic arch and walls of all large vessels c. When BP rises. Arteriole dilation reduces peripheral resistance e. Detect changes in arterial blood pressure i. Baroreceptors also send efferent signals to cardiac centers in the medulla . Venodilation shifts blood to venous reservoirs i. Causes dilation of arteries and veins d. Pressure sensitive mechanoreceptors ii. Venous return decreases ii.a. receptors are stretched b. Inhibits vasomotor center ii. Located in carotid sinuses. Stretching increases signaling to vasomotor center i. Cardiac output declines f.

HR and contractile force decrease g. Aortic reflex maintains supply to systemic circuit 5. Located in carotid and aortic arch and carotid sinus c. Carotid sinus reflex protects blood supply to brain ii. Stimulate parasympathetic NS iii. Inhibit sympathetic NS ii. Respond to changes in O2 and CO2 concentrations and pH b. Primarily involved in control of respiratory rate and depth (see Respiration Lecture) . Respond to acute changes in blood pressure i.i. Chemoreceptors a.

EPI increase cardiac output by increasing cardiac muscle contractility b. Atrial peptide hormone . Adrenal medulla hormones i. NE and EPI (nicotine is a monoamine agonist) ii. Levels of O2 and CO2 (see Respiration Lecture) 3. Blood-borne chemicals a. Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) i. NE is a vasoconstrictor iii. Short-term 2. Chemical control of blood pressure 1.F.

At high concentrations. Posterior pituitary hormone ii. local vasodilator f. When amount of blood entering kidney tubule is too low. Endothelin-vasoconstrictor ii. Renin catalyzes the conversion of angiotensinogen into angiotensin II iv. Increases BP vi. Prostaglandin-derived growth factor (PDGF)-vasoconstrictor iii. causes vasoconstriction d. Angiotensin II causes vasoconstriction of systemic arterioles v. Mediated by release of renin by JGA of kidney tubule ii. etc. Reduces blood pressure ii. Nitrous oxide (NO)-fast acting. Alcohol i. Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) i. Aldosterone increases absorption of water by kidney tubules e. Reduces blood pressure by antagonizing aldosterone iii. Increase capillary permeability g. Angiotensin II i. renin is released iii. Inflammatory chemicals-vasodilators i.ii. (see Immune Lecture) ii. Increases water excretion from kidney c. Increases blood pressure by increasing water absorption by distal tubule iii. Inhibits ADH release-increases loss of water in urine . Histamine. Endothelium-derived factors i. Angiotensin II also causes release of aldosterone from adrenal cortex vii.

Direct action of the kidney a. Increased BP increases amount of filtrate entering tubules ii. Increases vasodilation (skin) by depressing vasomotor center G. Kidney responds by eliminating water to reduce volume b. EDV d. Blood pressure change parallels change in blood volume a. Long-term mechanisms for blood pressure regulation 2. Kidney controls blood volume by regulating water loss in urine 3. Blood volume decreases and therefore BP b. Stroke volume 4. Filtrate entering is greater than the amount that can be processed iii. Decrease in volume decreases BP i. Kidney responds by absorbing water to increase volume 5. Blood volume affects cardiac output via: a. Renal regulation of blood pressure 1. Alteration to rate of fluid filtration from blood stream to kidney tubules i. Increase in volume increases BP i.iii. Venous pressure b. Venous return c. Indirect renal mechanisms . Fluid leaves body in the form of urine iv.

Pituitary to release ADH iii.i. Kidney: 20% d. Aldosterone also causes Post. Tissue Perfusion A. Renin-angiotensin mechanism (see above) ii. Blood flow is distributed to body tissue in an exacting fashion 1. ADH promotes water reabsorption from by kidney VII. Heart 4% c. Brain: 13% b. At rest a. Abdominal organs: 24% .

. Skin. During exercise: a. Flow is fastest through vessels with smallest cross-sectional area i. Aorta has a cross-sectional area (2. Blood flow through individual organs is intrinsically controlled (i.03 cm/s) C. Remaining tissues either remain same or decrease B. Blood flow velocity 1. autoregulation) .5 cm2) and an average velocity of 40-50 cm/s ii.e.2. Capillaries have a total cross-sectional area of 4500 cm2 and a very slow flow (0. Inversely proportionate to cross-sectional area of blood vessels to be filled a. muscles and heart increase b.

act as autoregulation stimuli 2. Such blood pressure changes stimulate myogenic responses VIII. Metabolic controls-Levels of nutrients. Myogenic controls a. Diameter of arterioles feeding a given organ is controlled by that organ D. Intrinsic control mechanisms 1. Gases and nutrients diffuse from capillary to interstitial fluid . Excessive or inadequate blood pressure can damage or cause the death of an organ b.1. particularly oxygen. Capillary Dynamics A.

1. Hydrostatic and osmotic pressure a. Interstitial fluid is withdrawn by lymphatic tissue 4. Water-soluble solutes pass through clefts and fenestrations 2. In the capillary bed i. Lower at venous end (17 mm Hg) 3. Net osmotic pressure . Hydrostatic pressure 1. Greater at arterial end (35 mm Hg) b.1 to 5 mm Hg c. Capillary hydrostatic pressure (HPc) forces fluid through capillary wall a.Hpif) D. Net effective hydrostatic pressure is equal to HPc (HPc . Interstitial osmotic pressure (OPif) is much lower i. Hydrostatic pressure is the same as capillary blood pressure 2. High concentration of plasma proteins ii. 0. Force exerted by a fluid against a vessel wall a. Hpif is assumed to be zero i. Osmotic pressure 1. Solute concentration in relatively high in capillary blood i. HPc is opposed by interstitial fluid hydrostatic pressure (Hpif) a. Forces oppose C. Capillary colloid osmotic pressure (OPc) iii. Net movement of water from an area of low to high solute concentration a. Forces responsible for the direction and amount of fluid crossing capillary walls 1. 26 mm Hg b. Lipid-soluble diffuse through the plasma membranes of capillary epithelial cells B.

Pulmonary Circulation A. In the lungs.(OPc .OPif) i. Bifurcates into rt. Three in right ii.25 = -8 mm Hg Circulatory System I. Pulmonary arteries a. Approximately 25 mm Hg E. Sequence 1. Lobar arteries branch to form arterioles 4. Two in left 3. and lt. arteries subdivide into lobar arteries i.25 = 10 mm Hg 3.Hpif) . Further branching to form pulmonary capillaries . NFP = (HPc . Pulmonary trunk a. 35 .Hpif) . Gas exchange only B.OPif) i.i. Arterial end a. Venous end a.(OPc . Function 1. NFP = (HPc . pulmonary arteries 2. Net filtration pressure (NFP) 1. Reflects interaction between hydrostatic and osmotic pressure 2. 17 .

Four pulmonary veins drain into left atrium II. R. Brachiocephalic a. ventricle) 1.5. Overview of Systemic Circulation A. Coronary arteries 2. Aortic arch (branches in sequence relative to lt. Venules join to form two pulmonary veins per lung 7. Capillaries drain into venules 6. common carotid . Aorta and Major Arteries of the Systemic Circulation B.

i. R. L. Abdominal aorta (below diaphragm) 1. R. Parietal branches 2. L. R. L. R. common iliac 4. R. subclavian i. internal carotid ii. subclavian a. L. vertebral ii. R. Visceral branches 3. internal carotid b. common iliac III. L. Visceral branches D. R. external carotid 4. common carotid a. L. Thoracic aorta (above the diaphragm) 1. Arteries of Head and Neck . axillary 3. external carotid b. vertebral b. Parietal branches 2. axillary C.

Supply occipital and inferior temporal lobes of brain B. external and internal carotid arteries D. vertebral artery branches off R. R.A. R. R. common carotid bifurcates to form R. R. Basilar artery is part of Circle of Willis (see below) 4. subclavian artery branches off brachiocephalic artery 2. and L. external carotid branches as it runs superiorly 1. vertebral to form Basilar artery a. Brachiocephalic artery is the R. Superior thyroid . vertebral joins with L. R. After R. subclavian artery branches. subclavian artery 3. posterior cerebral arteries a. common carotid artery C. Basilar artery divides to form R. Brachiocephalic artery branches off aortic arch 1.

Circle of Willis . anterior cerebral artery i. R. external carotid splits a. orbits. Supplies skin and muscles of anterior face 4. Internal carotid 1. Enters the skull and services the brain 2.a. Supplies lateral parts of temporal and parietal lobes F. Supplies posterior scalp 5. R. internal carotid divides to form a. Supplies eyes. Facial a. Supplies upper and lower jaw b. R. Opthalmic branches off a. Occipital a. forehead and nose 3. Supplies tongue 3. R. Supplies most of scalp E. Supplies medial surface of brain b. R. Superficial temporal a. Maxillary i. Supplies thyroid and larynx 2. Lingual a. middle cerebral artery i.

1. and L. anterior cerebral arteries 2. and L. R. Arteries of Upper Limb and Thorax . anterior cerebral arteriors IV. posterior communicating arteries connect posterior cerebral arteries with R. and L. Anterior communicating artery connects R.

R. vertebral artery. subclavian courses laterally and gives off branches to neck (do not need to know these vessels) B. Thoracoacromial a. Supplies scapula. Anterior and posterior circumflex arteries . Supplies lateral chest wall and breast 3. subclavian artery passes under clavicle 1.A. Name changes to axillary artery C. Subscapular a. Lateral thoracic a. Axillary artery gives off a number of branches 1. After giving rise to the R. Supplies superior shoulder and pectoral region 2. latissimus dorsi and thorax wall 4. R.

As axillary artery enters arm. Brachial artery gives off a branch 1. Radial artery a. Ulnar artery a. Supplies medial muscles of forearm (Do not need to know arteries of wrist and hand) G. Internal thoracic artery branches off the subclavian artery a. Arteries of the Abdomen . Supplies lateral muscles of forearm 2. Supplies posterior intercostals spaces and deep muscles of back. Costocervical trunk gives rise to the first two posterior intercostals arteries 3. Deep brachial artery a. The thoracic aorta gives rise to the next nine pairs a. name changes to brachial artery E. Arteries of the thorax wall 1.a. As the internal thoracic artery descends it gives off anterior intercostals arterires i. Brachial artery splits to form two arteries 1. vertebral columns and spinal cord V. Brachial artery supplies anterior flexor muscles of arm F. Supplies triceps brachii (posterior arm) 2. Supply deltoid and shoulder joint D. Supplies anterior intercostals spaces 2.

small intestine and pancreas b. Common hepatic a. Celiac trunk divides into three branches 1. As abdominal aorta descends it gives the inferior phrenic arteries 1. Right gastroepiploic branches off gastroduodenal artery ii. Abdominal aorta descends and gives off the celiac trunk D. Supplies stomach c. Supply the diaphragm C. After giving off gastroduodenal artery. Hepatic splits into right and left branches . common hepatic becomes hepatic artery i. Abdominal artery lies below the level of the diaphragm B. Gives off branches to stomach.A.

Supply transverse colon G. Intestinal i. Splenic a.i. L. Supplies liver 2. colon c. Splenic terminates in the spleen c. Supplies stomach and inferior esophagus E. R. Inferior mesenteric gives off branches that supply distal part of the colon a. Supply large intestine b. Supply kidneys on each side of the body H. L. colic . Abdominal aorta descends and gives off the gonadal arteries (Testicular or ovarian) I. Supply appendix. Left gastroepiploic branches of splenic artery i. gastric artery a. Ileocolic i. and middle colic i. Supplies stomach 3. Sends branches to stomach and pancreas b. Supply adrenal glands F. Abdominal aorta descends and gives off the inferior mesenteric artery 1. Abdominal aorta descends and gives off the suprarenal arteries 1. Abdominal aorta descends and gives off the paired renal arteries 1. Abdominal aorta descends and gives off the superior mesenteric artery 1. Superior mesenteric gives off branches that supply mesenteric organs a.

and L. common iliacs VI. Common iliac divides into two branches 1. Aorta terminates giving rise to three arteries 1. Abdominal aorta descends and gives off the lumbar arteries 1.b. Supply posterior abdominal wall K. Superior rectal arteries J. Arteries of Pelvis and Leg A. R. Sigmoidal arteries c. Median sacral 2. Internal iliac .

Serves posterior thigh b. Femoral artery descends and passes through adductor hiatus and enters popliteal fossa E. Deep femoral artery a. Femoral artery gives off branches as it descends down the thigh 1. uterus and vagina (prostate and ductus deferns) b. Deep femoral artery gives off branches that supply head and neck of femur i. Lateral and medial circumflex arteries D. Popliteal artery divides 1. Divides to serve muscles of gluteal muscles and external genitalia 2. Femoral artery becomes the popliteal artery 1. External iliac B. Gives off peroneal artery i. Major Veins of the Systemic Circulation . Anterior tibial artery a. As external iliac enters thigh it becomes the femoral artery C. Supply pelvis and visceral organs i. rectum.a. Supplies knee region F. Supplies lateral muscles of the leg 2. Posterior tibial artery a. Bladder. Supplies extensor muscles (Do not need to know arteries of ankle or foot) VII.

vertebral vein 3. R. external jugular vein empties into R. and L. subclavian vein *Left side corresponds to right side C. R. R. suprarenal vein . subclavian vein a. R. Superior vena cava runs from union of brachiocephalic veins (L. brachiocephalic vein 1. R.A. atrium D.) to R. Hepatic veins (R. internal jugular vein 2. and R. Veins that drain into R. Inferior vena cava runs from junction of common iliac veins to R.) 2. atrium B. Veins that drain into inferior vena cava 1.

Straight c. R.) 4. gonadal vein 5. Superior sagittal b. Most veins drain into dural (meningial) sinuses a. Lumbar veins VIII. Transverse . and L.3. Renal veins (R. Veins of Head and Neck A. Cavernous d. Drainage of blood from brain 1.

Facial 2.2. Superficial temporal IX. Deep veins of the face drain into inferior jugular veins 1. Most blood from the brain drains into internal jugular veins B. Veins of Upper Limbs and Thorax .

Azygous system drains thoracic tissues 1. Superficial drainage of upper limb . Deep drainage of upper limb 1. it becomes axillary vein 4.A. Accessory hemiazygous vein B. Posterior intercostal veins drain into azygous 2. Azygous veins that drain into azygous vein a. As brachial vein enters shoulder. axillary vein becomes subclavian vein C. Azygous vein drains into superior vena cava a. At level of first rib. Distal veins of the arm drain into ulnar and radial veins 2. Ulnar and radial veins unite to form brachial vein 3. Hemiazygous b.

Commonly used to obtain blood samples X. Multiple hepatic veins carry blood from liver to inferior vena cava 2. Median vein of the forearm lies between ulna and radius a. Veins of Abdomen A. Median cubital vein connects basilic and cephalic veins a. Basilic vein joins with brachial vein 4. Cystic veins drain gall bladder and join the hepatic veins . Cephalic vein joins with axillary vein 3. Hepatic portal system 1. Connects either to basilic or cephalic veins 2.1.

Nutrients are removed C. R: right adrenal gland i. parts of the stomach. R. Splenic a.B.: ovariaries or testes on left side of body i. Drains directly into vena cava b. Visceral veins draining into hepatic portal vein 1. Renal veins a. Drains into left renal vein 4. Drains large intestine and rectum i. Drains into L. Drains directly into vena cava b. Gonadal veins a. Other veins draining into inferior vena cava 1. Lumbar veins a. Hepatic portal vein receives drainage from digestive viscera a. Hepatic portal vein carries blood to liver i. and pancreas i. L: left adrenal gland i. Drains spleen. Suprarenal a. Joins superior mesenteric D. Joins splenic 3. Superior mesenteric 2. R. L. Drain kidneys . and L. ascending lumbar veins 2. Inferior mesenteric a. renal vein 3.: ovariaries or testes on right side of body i.

Above the knee the popliteal becomes the femoral vein C. Drains medial aspects of the leg . External iliac joins with internal iliac to form common iliac E.E. As the femoral vein enters the pelvis it becomes the external iliac D. Veins of Pelvis and Lower Limbs A. Great i. Common iliacs join to form inferior vena cava XI. Anterior and posterior tibial veins joins to form popliteal B. Saphenous veins a.

ii. Longest vein in the body iii. Empties into femoral vein b. Small i. Empties into popliteal vein . Drains deep fascia of calf ii.

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