You are on page 1of 204

Welcome to a Course On Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing (GD&T) Based on ASME Y14.

5M-1994 with Introduction to Dimension Management / Engineering For

Tyco Electronics, Bangalore (Jan 19-21, 2009)

i2

About iSquare

iSquare
(InterOperability & InterChangeability Solutions) Pune, INDIA

i2

Focus Areas
CAD Data InterOperability : Consistent representation of 3D CAD data in variety of CAD/CAM/CAE applications and platforms. InterChangeability: Predicting Dimensional Variations, its impact and causes at the product and assembly level at early design stage.

i2

Relationships
InterOperability: With International TechneGroup Incorporated, USA having more than 20 years of Experience in CAD Data InterOperability technology, solutions and services.

cadfix@isquare-india.com

i2

Relationships
InterChangeability: With Dimensional Control Systems Inc., USA having more than 15 years of experience in Dimensional Control Techniques, Solutions and Services.

3dcs@isquare-india.com

i2

Our Offerings
CAD Data InterOperability:
Focused & Customized Training Programs on:
CAD/CAM/CAE Data Exchange : Problems and Solutions from CAD, CAE, CAM Perspective. CAD Model Quality Assessment : CAD Model Quality evaluation from downstream application perspective

Software Solutions For:


Effective Data exchange between heterogeneous CAD/CAM systems: Regardless of source, target application, standard and formats !! Solutions Include CADfix, IGES/Works,CAD/IQ. Model Quality Assessment from Downstream application perspective

Quality Services for:


Data Exchange, Data Migration, Lower version to higher or vice-a-versa Vendor Supplier data integration : ensuring effective data exchange with minimal / NO rework at either ends.

i2

Our Offerings
InterChangeability:
Focused & Customized Training Programs on:
Dimensional Management : Understanding and appreciation of computer aided tools for. Takes participants thru evolution, various approaches and real life problems from their application areas.

Software Solutions For:


Dimensional Management / Stack Analysis: Solutions embedded in CATIA V5 as Gold Partner and also Stand Alone solutions for data coming from other CAD platforms !! Solutions Include 1-DCS, DCS-DFC, 3DCS-SA, 3DCS-CAA V5 Designer, 3DCS-CAA V5 Analyst, GDM3D

Quality Services for:


Dimensional Engineering / Management : Base Line tolerance model creation, reporting with suggestions and recommendations. Follow-on consulting Per requirement, includes 1D, 1D with GD&T, Full 3D simulations, Piece part variations, assembly variation prediction against desired objectives.

i2

Training Programs in Dimensional Management / Engineering


Courses from iSquare, Pune in the domain of Dimensional Variation Management Sr#
1

Course Title
Fundamentals and Interpretation of Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing (GD&T) as per ASME Y14.5M:1994 Advanced Geometric Dimensioning & Tolerancing (GD&T): Concepts & Applications as per ASME Y14.5M:1994 Tolerance Stack-up Analysis using Co-ordinate System of Dimensioning and GD&T : A practical Approach to Solve Assembly Build Problems CATIA V5 Based GD&T/Tolerance Stack-up Analysis using DCS (Dimensional Control Systems Inc., USA) Software Solutions.
(Covers exposure to 1DCS,DCS-DFC and 3DCS-CAAV5 Analyst)

Duration
24hrs (3 days) 24hrs (3 days) 24hrs (3 days)

Pre-requisite
None

Basic knowledge of GD&T Basic knowledge of GD&T

32hrs (4 days)

Basic knowledge of GD&T preferred

GD&T and Tolerance Stack-up Analysis for an Automobile: A Practical Approach to Control and Calculate Dimensional Variations Introduction to Dimensioning and Tolerancing Principles for Gages and Fixtures Based on ASME Y14.43:2003 Engineering Limits & Fits with introduction to ANSI B4.2-1978 and ISO-286 Standards Introduction to Digital Product Definition Data Practices (Solid Model Tolerancing) per ASME Y14.41:2003

32hrs (4 days) 24hrs (3 days) 8hrs (1 day) 24hrs (3 days)

Basic knowledge of GD&T Basic knowledge of GD&T

None

Basic knowledge of GD&T

i2

Thats about iSquare

10

i2

How is this course organized?


Total 10 Sessions; 3days Pre-defined objectives at the beginning of each session Classroom exercises at the end of each session Homework Extended hours as necessary Assumption : Understanding of GD&T controls Feel free to interrupt and ask Questions

11

i2

GD&T
Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing

61

i2

History

In practice, the parts are produced with some variation to accommodate process capabilities and interchangeability called tolerances Generally, tolerances are specified in plus/minus Plus/minus system worked quite well and even today used in many applications.

62

i2

Later, the idea of locating round features such as pins/holes etc, with round tolerance zone rather than traditional square tolerance zone introduced which later caught up and adopted by military standards and late became unified ANSI standard

63

i2

Introduction to GD&T
Simple part for own use No need for drawings when designer, inspector and manufacturer are same! Designer often creates an assembly, parts fit together with optimal clearances, He conveys ideal size (nominal dimensions) and shapes to each manufacturer. Volume production?: Impossible to make every part identical Every manufacturing process has unavoidable variations that cause variations in manufactured parts. Designer,with due consideration must analyze how much variation may be allowed in size, form, orientation and location. Then along with nominal dimensions, he must communicate magnitude of such variations or TOLERANCE each characteristics can have and still contribute to functional assembly.

64

i2

How to Communicate such Variation?

Often words are inadequate; eg. A note Make this surface a real flat only has meaning where all concerned parties can do following:

Understand English Understand to which surface the note applies and extent of the surface Agree on what Flat means Agree on exactly how flat is Real Flat!!

To overcome miscommunication, throughout 20th century a specialized language based on graphical representations and math has evolved to improve communication. Such language is currently recognized as Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing (GD&T)

65

i2

So, what is GD&T?


Its a language for communicating Engineering Design Specifications; approved by ANSI, ASME and United States Department of Defense (DoD) GD&T Includes all symbols, definitions, mathematical formulae and application rules critical to embody a viable engineering language. It conveys both: ie. Nominal (or ideal) dimensions and variations (or tolerances allowed for that dimension. It enhances co-ordinate system dimensioning and describes designers intent Designers requirements can be completely specified using GD&T symbols thus eliminating/reducing foot notes on drawings.
66

i2

What GD&T is NOT


Its not a creative design tool; it cant suggest how certain part surfaces should be controlled (methods ) It does not convey parts intended function. Eg. Designer created a bore to function as hydraulic cylinder to withstand 15kg/cm2 pressure; however GD&T cant convey the purpose (intended function) of part. GD&T specifications can address size, form, orientation, location and/or smoothness of bore based upon stress/fit considerations of design by designers experience. Its incapable of specifying manufacturing processes to achieve desired tolerances/variations Its not a replacement to co-ordinate dimensioning system. To summarize, GD&T is a language that designers use to translate design requirements into measurable specifications.
67

i2

Where does GD&T come from? (references)


GD&T vocabulary and grammatical rules are provided in:

ASME Y14.5M-1994 Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing ASME Y14.5.1M-1994 Mathematical Definition of Dimensioning and Tolerancing Principals

To avoid confusion, hereafter we will call first standard as Y14.5 and the later as Math Standard Later, we will see differences between other International Standard (more followed in Europe) ISO GD&T and the US dialect. ASME offers no .800. number for help on technical issues and interpretations. At times interpretation could be dispute, so users are advised to refer to text / reference books and your organizations internal staff.

68

i2

Why do we use GD&T?

Designer specifies distance to holes ideal location Manufacturer measures this distance and marks a x spot and drills a hole. The Inspector then measures the actual distance to that hole. ALL THREE PARTIES MUST BE IN PERFECT AGREEMENT ABOUT THREE THINGS: From where to start the measurement? What direction to go? And where measurement ends?
69

i2

So,
When measurements are precise to two digits, the slightest difference in interpretation (origin / direction /end )can lead to a usable part or expensive paperweight!! Even if everyone agrees to measure to holes center, a egg shaped hole presents a variety of centers and each center is defensible based on different design considerations You may find claims that GD&T affords more tolerance for manufacturing, but by itself, it doesn't. GD&T affords however much or little tolerance the designer specifies. Just as a common claim that using GD&T saves money, but hardly such claims are accompanied with cost or ROI analyses.

70

i2

Yet another example

Drawing of an Automobile Wheel Rotor Has neat and uniform appearance . But leaves many features totally out of control!!

71

i2

From Rotor Drawing;


What if it were important that the n 139.7 bore to be perpendicular to mounting face? What if it was critical that n 139.7 bore and OD n279.4 be on the same axis? Nothing on the drawing addresses it! Next slide shows the part that can be built and still meet specifications however the part may not function in an assembly and therefore lead to assembly rejection

72

i2

The no-sense Wheel Rotor dimensionally in


spec!
68.94 178.08 20.60

279.24

139.59

78.79

152.55

68.78 20.80

Manufactured part that conforms to the drawing without GD&T


73

i2

Shortcomings of Co-ordinate System of Dimensioning


Coordinate Dimension Usage
Application
Overall Size of component Chamfers and Radii Locating Part Features Controlling angular relationships Defining the Form of part feature

Correct / Incorrect Use

Co-ordinate tolerancing is a dimensioning system where a part features are defined by means of rectangular dimensions with given tolerances. Such system has three shortcomings:
74

Square or Rectangular Tolerance Zones Fixed Size Tolerance Zones Ambiguous instructions for Inspection

i2

Wheel Rotor in Control with GD&T

Mounting face being important for the function of the rotor; has been made flat within 0.1. Later Mounting face assigned as Datum A (foundation for drawing..) Another critical face of Rotor has been made parallel to Datum A within 0.16 The Dia 139 bore has been made Perpendicular to mounting face; therefore directly controlled to our foundation (ie. Datum A) and labeled as Datum B

75

Together Datum A and B form a sturdy reference from which dia. 10 bolt holes and other round features can be derived/ located

i2

Contd
Datum features A and B provide a very uniform and well aligned framework from which a variety of relationships and fits can be precisely controlled. Thus, GD&T provides unique, unambiguous meaning for each control. GD&T then, is simply means of controlling surfaces more precisely and unambiguously. This is fundamental reason for using GD&T. Clear communication assures that manufactured parts will function and that those functional parts will not be rejected later due to misunderstanding / miscommunication. So, fewer arguments Less Scrap.
76

i2

Hence, GD&T
Adds clarity over co-ordinate system of dimensioning Eliminates notes on the drawings Depicts designers intent and inspection criteria Most significant difference between GD&T and co-ordinate dimensioning is location of round features. The co-ordinate system had square tolerance zone that rejected some good parts!!

77

i2

Hidden costs that GD&T reduces (Quick

ROI)

Designers / Manufacturers / Inspectors wasting time to interpret drawings and questioning the designers Rework of manufactured parts due to misunderstanding Inspection deriving meaningless data from parts while failing to check critical relationships. Handling and documentation of functional parts that are rejected! Sorting, reworking, filing, shimming of parts often additional operation. Assemblies failing to operate, failure analysis, Quality problems, Customer complaints, loss of market share, product recall, loss of customer loyalty. Meetings, corrective actions, debates, drawing changes and interdepartmental vendettas resulted from failure! ALL THE ADD UP TO AN ENORMOUS, YET UNACCOUNTED COST. BOTTOM LINE? USE GD&T BECAUSE ITS RIGHT THING TO DO. ITS ALL PEOPLE ALL OVER THE WORLD UNDERSTAND AND IT SAVES MONEY

78

i2

So, When do we use GD&T?


In absence of GD&T specifications, a parts ability to satisfy design requirements depends largely upon four laws Workmanship Skills / Pride. Every industry has unwritten customary standards of product
quality and most workers strive to achieve them. But these standards are minimal requirements. Further workmanship customs of precision aerospace machinists are rarely shared by ironworkers. Common Sense. Experienced manufactures develop fairly reliable sense as what the part is suppose to do. Even without inadequate specifications, he will try to make bore straight and smooth if he suspects its a hydraulic cylinder.

Probability. Todays modern precision machine tools have accuracy / repeatability say upto
0.0002mm, therefore, it is assumed that part dimensions should never vary more than that. Further there is no way to predict what process may be used, how many and in what sequence to produce a part. Title Block, or contractual standards. Sometimes, these provide clarification. But often they are very old and inadequate for modern high-precision tools. An example of a title block note is All surfaces to be flat within 0.005

All above laws carries obvious risk. Where designer deems the high risk, GD&T Specifications should be spelled out rigorously .

79

i2

How Does GD&T Work? - Overview


In previous slides, we alluded to goal of GD&T: To guide all parties towards reckoning part dimensions the same, including the origin, direction and destination for each measurement. GD&T achieves this goal through four simple steps:
1.

Identify part surfaces to serve as origins and provide specific rules explaining how these surfaces establish the starting point and direction for measurement. Convey the nominal (ideal) distances and orientations from origin to other surfaces Establish boundaries and / or tolerance zone for specific attributes of each surface along with specific rules for conformance. Allow dynamic interaction between tolerances (simulating actual assembly possibilities) where appropriate to maximize tolerances.

2.

3.

4.

80

i2

Expressing Size Limits

83

i2

Size Limits (Level 1 Control)


For every feature of size, the designer shall specify the largest and the smallest the feature can be. Previously we discussed the exact requirements these size limits impose on the feature. The standards provide three options for specifying size limits on the drawings.

Symbols for Limits and fits For example, n12.45LC5 or 30f7 (ANSI B4.1 (inch) or ANSI B4.2 (metric)) Limit dimensioning

12.34 12.30

or

12.45 12.49

Plus and Minus Tolerancing

24.54+0.35 0.25

or

11.65 0.45

84

i2

Millimeter values
When a dimension is less than one mm, zero must precede the decimal point ex. 0.4 NOT .4 When a dimension is a whole number, neither a decimal point nor zero is used ex. 45 NOT 45.00 When a dimension is a whole number and decimal, zero does not follow decimal number ex. 47.5 A dimension does not use a comma or space ex 3450 NOT 3,450 or 3 450 A tolerance for dimension can have more numbers of decimal places than dimension itself. ex. 47`0.34 ` When unilateral dimension is used, no sign be used with zero; ex. 450
+0.76

or

340 0.45

When a bilateral tolerance is used, both; the plus and minus tolerance must have identical number of decimal places ex.

45+0.76 0.45

NOT

34+0.55 0.4

85

i2

Millimeter values
54.15
When a limit dimension is used, the decimal places must match. ex:

54.00

NOT

53.15 53

Basic dimension can have any number of decimal places in Feature Control Frame. ex. 50 or 50.35 NOT 50.00

86

i2

Few Examples

20.2 means 20.2000 160 means 160.0000 Interpreting 80.5 - 80.2 : -If part measures 80.199 part is rejected - If part measures 80.499 part is accepted

All dimensional limits are absolute. A dimension is considered to be followed by zeros after the last significant digit.

87

i2

Exercise 1

88

i2

Part Features

89

i2

Part Features
Up till now, we used term Surfaces and Features loosely and almost interchangeably. To speak GD&T, we should begin to use terms as defined in Y14.5 Feature is the general term applied to physical portion of a part such as surfaces, pin, tab, hole or a slot. Usually, part feature is a single surface (or a pair of opposed parallel plane surfaces) having uniform shape. You can establish datums from, and apply GD&T controls to features only. There are two general types of features. Those that have built-in dimension of size and those that dont.

90

i2

Non Size Features


A nonsize feature is a surface having no unique intrinsic size (diameter or width) dimension to measure. It includes following: A nominally flat planer surface An irregular or warped planer surface, such as face of windshield or airfoil. A radius a portion of cylindrical surface encompassing less than 180deg of arc length. A spherical radius a portion of a spherical surface encompassing less than 180deg of arc length. A revolute a surface such as cone, generated by revolving a line about an axis.

91

i2

Features of Size

A feature of size is one cylindrical or spherical surface or a set of two opposed elements or opposed parallel surfaces, associated with size dimension. Holes are internal features of size. Pins are external features of size. Features of size are subject to principals of material condition modifiers
(to be discussed later)

Opposed parallel surfaces means the surfaces are designed to be parallel to each other. To qualify as opposed, it must be possible to construct a perpendicular line intersecting both surfaces. Only then, we can make a meaningful measurements of size between them. From now on, we will call this type of feature a width-type feature

92

i2

Bounded Features (Partial Size Features)


12`0.2 `

This type of feature is neither a sphere, cylinder, nor width type feature, yet has two opposed elements.
5`0.15 `

12`0.2 `

The D hole for example is called irregular feature of size by some text books. Y14.5s own coverage for this type of feature is limited. Although feature has obvious MMC and LMC boundaries, its arguable whether feature is associated with size dimension For now, well consider this type feature as bounded feature of non size
4.95

11`0.15 `

5`0.1 ` 20`0.2 ` 5`0.1 ` 5`0.1 ` 95

5`0.1 ` 20.2 5.1

4.9

=??

5.05

i2

Material Condition
Material condition is yet another way of thinking about the size of an object considering objects nature.
For example, nature of a pizza is base with topping. If you have exxxtraa topping, its material condition increases and pizza gets bigger and thicker.

The Nature of a cannon is that its void, as erosion decreases its material condition, cannon gets bigger. If a mating feature of size is as small as it can be, will it fit tighter or sloppier? We cant answer until we know whether were talking of internal or external feature (hole / pin), but when you know feature of size has less material, it will fit loosely regardless of its type. In laymans term, Material Condition is features size in the context of its intended function.
96

i2

MMC & LMC


Maximum Material Condition (MMC m) is the condition in which a feature of size contains maximum amount of material within the stated limits of size.
One can think of MMC as the condition where the most part material is present at the surface of feature, or where part weighs the most (everything else being same). This translates to smallest allowable hole or the largest allowable pin, relative to specified size limits.

Least Material Condition (LMC l) is the condition in which feature of size contains minimum amount of material within stated limits of size.
One can think of LMC as the condition where the least part material is present at the surface of feature, or where part weighs the least (everything else being same). This translates to largest allowable hole or the smallest allowable pin, relative to specified size limits.

97

i2

Basic Dimensions
Basic Dimension is a numerical value used to describe (1) the theoretically exact size, true profile, orientation or (2) a location of feature or a gage information (datum targets). When a basic dimension is used to define part features, it provides nominal location from which permissible variations are established by Geometric Tolerances. Basic dimensions are usually denoted by numerical value enclosed in a rectangle or by addition a general note such as un-toleranced dimensions are basic Basic dimensions must be accompanied by geometric tolerance to specify how much tolerance the part feature may have
99

i2

Basic Dimension Example


Basic dimensions Can be used to define theoretically exact location, orientation or true profile of part features or gage information. That define part features must be accompanied by a geometric tolerance. That define gage information do not have a tolerance shown on the drawing. Are theoretically exact (but gage makers tolerance do apply)

100

i2

Exercise 2

102

i2

GD&T Symbols

103

i2

GD&T Symbols
(An attempt to explain Wheel Rotor Drawing w/o GD&T Symbols)

Tedious to Explain requirements, instead use symbols. They are better. Any one can read write symbols Symbols mean exactly same thing to everyone. Symbols are compact and reduce clutter Quicker to draw and CAD softwares can draw them automatically. They can be easily spotted visually. Compare this with GD&Ted Drawing and find all positional callouts !!

104

i2

Form and Proportions of GD&T Symbols

h = size of letter

105

i2

Feature Control Frames (FCF)

106

i2

Feature Control Frame (FCF)

Each geometric control for a feature is conveyed on a drawing by a rectangular box called feature control frame. A typical FCF is divided in compartments expressing following sequentially left to right.
Geometric Characteristic Symbol Tolerance Modifying Symbol Geometric Tolerance Value Primary Datum Secondary Datum Datum Material Condition Modifiers Tertiary Datum

1st

2nd

3rd

4th

5th

Compartments

1st Compartment contains geometric characteristic symbol from 14 available symbols.


107

i2

General Characteristics (Type wise) and corresponding ASME sections


Geometric Category Tolerance Type Description Straightness Flatness For Individual Features For Individual or Related Features Form Circularity Cylindricity Line Profile Profile Surface Profile Angularity Orientation Perpendicularity Parallelism For Related Features Position Location Concentricity Symmetry Circular Runout Runout 110 Total Runout Symbol u c e g k d a b f j r i h t ASME Section 6.4.1 6.4.2 6.4.3 6.4.4 6.5.2(b) 6.5.2(a) 6.6.2 6.6.4 6.6.3 5.2 5.11.3 5.13 6.7.1.2.1 6.7.1.2.2

i2

Modifying / Modifier Symbols

111

i2

Feature Control Frame Placement


Place the frame below or attached to a leader-directed callout or dimension pertaining to the feature.

113

i2

Feature Control Frame Placement


Run a leader from the frame to the feature.

114

i2

Feature Control Frame Placement

Attach either side or either end of frame to an extension line from the feature, provided it is a plane surface.

115

i2

Feature Control Frame Placement

Attach either side or either end of the frame to an extension of the dimension line pertaining to a feature of size.

116

i2

Reading Feature Control Frame


It is easy to translate FCF into English and read a loud from left to right. Previous tables (slide# 110,111) show equivalent English words to the left of each symbol. Then we just add the following English language preface for each compartment: 1st Compartment: The 2nd Compartment: of this feature shall be within 3rd Compartment: to primary datum 4th Compartment: and to secondary datum 5th Compartment: and to tertiary datum

With this, feature control frame shown above is reads as: The Position of this feature shall be within cylindrical tolerance zone of diameter 1 at maximum material condition to primary datum A and to secondary datum B at maximum material condition and to tertiary datum C at maximum material condition Isnt it Easy?
117

i2

Summarizing FCFs

FCF is specified to each feature or group of features FCF provides instructions form, orientation and position of features; thus providing setup for mfg and inspection. FCF contain information for proper part orientation in relation to specified Datums

118

i2

Four Fundamental Levels of Control for FOS

128

i2

Features of Size : Four fundamental Levels of Control

Four different levels of GD&T control can apply to a feature of size. Each higher level control adds a degree of constraint demanded by features functional requirement; however as we move up the level ladder, the lower level control remain in effect. Thus a single feature may subject to many tolerance simultaneously! Level 1: Controls size and (for cylinders and spheres) circularity at each cross section only Level 2: Adds overall Form Control Level 3: Adds Orientation Control Level 4: Adds Location Control

129

i2

Level 1 : Size Control

130

i2

Math Standard : establishing size limit boundaries

Start The

with geometric element: Spine

Spine for a cylindrical feature (such as pin / hole) is a simple non-self-intersecting curve in space.
Spine Take

could be straight or wavy

a imaginary steel ball whose diameter = small size limit of the cylindrical feature.
Sweep This

balls center along the spine.

generates a wormlike 3D boundary for the features smallest size


Similarly,

Generating a Size Limit Boundary

we take another spine and sweep another ball whose diameter = large size limit of the cylindrical feature
This

generates second 3D boundary, this time for the features largest size.
132

i2

Math Standard : establishing size limit boundaries

This shows a cylindrical feature of size conforms to its size limits when its surface can contain the small boundary and be contained within larger boundary.

Conformance to limits of size for a cylindrical feature

Under Level 1 Control, the curvatures and relative locations of each spine may be adjusted as necessary to achieve the hierarchy of containments as above; except that the small size boundary shall be entirely contained within large size limit boundary

133

i2

Level 2 : Form Control

140

i2

Level 2 Control: Overall Feature Form

As shown in figure left, features of size should achieve clearance fit in an assembly

Designer calculates the size tolerances based on assumption that each feature, internal and external is Straight. In this example, the designer knows that n20.5 max pin will fit in a n20.6 min hole if both are straight.

141

i2

Level 2 Control:

Overall Feature Form (contd )

20.5

If pin is banana shaped and hole is lazy S shaped, they usually wont go together, because Level 1s size limit boundaries can be curved, they cant assure assemblability. Level 2 adds control of overall geometric shape or form of a feature of size by establishing a perfectly formed boundary beyond which features surface(s) shall not encroach. 20.6

142

i2

Perfect Form at MMC Only (Rule #1)


Y14.5 established a default rule for perfect form based upon assumption that most features of size must achieve a clearance fit. Y14.5s Rule #1 decrees that, unless otherwise specified or overridden by another rule, a features MMC size limit spine shall be perfectly formed (straight or flat depending upon type). This invokes a boundary of perfect form at MMC (also called an envelope) Rule #1 does not require the LMC boundary to have a perfect form. This Rule #1 is also referred as Taylors Envelope Principle

145

i2

Perfect Form at MMC Only (Rule #1)


The figure left shows how Rule #1 establishes a n. .501 boundary of perfect form at MMC (envelope) for pin. Similarly, Rule #1 mandates a n. .502 boundary of perfect form at MMC (envelope) for the hole. The figure also shows how matability is assured for any pin that can fit inside its n. .501 envelope and any hole that can contain its n..502 envelope. This simple hierarchy of fits is called as the envelope principle.

20.5

19.5 20.5

21.4 20.6 20.6

146

i2

Rule #1 Example (External FOS)

Part shall be always contained within MMC Envelope

Every Cross-sectional measurement must be within limits of Size

147

i2

Rule #1 Example (Internal FOS)

Boundary of Perfect form MMC Envelope


Hole shall be always outside the MMC perfect form Envelope

Every crosssectional measurement must be within limits of size

148

i2

Perfect Form at neither MMC nor LMC

Figure above is a drawing for electrical bus bar. Note that cross sectional dimensions have relatively close tolerances, not because bar fits closely inside anything, but rather needed to assure a minimum current carrying capacity without wasting expensive copper. Neither the MMC nor the LMC boundary needed perfectly straight.

However, if bus bar is custom rolled, or machined from a plate, it wont automatically be exempted from Rule #1. In such a case, Rule #1 shall be explicitly nullified by adding a note as shown.

152

i2

Rule #1 Arguments
Many experts argue that Rule #1 is actually the exception that fewer than half of all features of size need any boundary of perfect form. Which means, for majority of features of size, Rule #1s perfect form at MMC requirement accomplishes nothing except to drive up costs!! The Solution is that Y14.5 prescribes the perfect form not required note and engineers simply fail to add it more often. Interestingly, ISO defaults to perfect form not required (sometimes called as independency principal) and requires special symbol to invoke the envelope of perfect form at MMC. This is one of the major differences between ISO and Y14.5

Every engineer should consider for every feature of size whether a boundary of perfect form is a necessity or a waste?

153

i2

Why Rule #1?


Ensures assembleability through InterChangeability Automatically separates bad parts that encroach envelope of perfect form at MMC For welded parts, rule #1 applies after welding operation is performed (since one or more parts when welded become single part)

154

i2

Rule #2
Rule #2 states that in absence of modifier (such as m or l) in tolerance or datum compartment, the tolerance applies on RFS (Regardless of Feature Size) basis. In short, modifier s is no longer used.

15 0.15
0.25

15 0.15
0.25

155

i2

Boundaries:
Virtual Condition (Fixed Size) Inner & Outer (Variable Size) Worst Case IB/OB (Fixed Size)

156

i2

Virtual Condition Boundary for Overall Form


There are cases, where perfect form boundary is needed, but at different size than MMC or LMC. Figure on left shows a slender pin that will mate with very flexible socket in a mating connector. Pin being slender, its difficult to manufacture pins satisfying Rule #1s boundary of perfect form at MMC and LMC. Moreover, since mating connector has flared lead in, such near perfect straightness isnt functionally necessary.

MMC virtual condition of a cylindrical feature

157

i2

Virtual Condition Boundary for Overall Form


(Contd )
Another example shows a flat washer to be stamped out of a sheet. Note that thickness has close tolerance because excessive variation may cause motor shaft misalignment. Here again, for the tolerance and aspect ratio, Rule #1 would be unnecessarily restrictive, nevertheless, envelope is needed to prevent badly warped washers jamming in an automated assembly equipment

MMC virtual condition of a width-type feature

158

i2

So, Virtual Condition Boundary is

Virtual Condition is NOT a Control Its a condition of a feature established by collective efforts of Size, Geometric Tolerances and Modifiers Virtual Condition Boundaries can be established for Internal and External Features of size.

161

i2

VCB of Location for Internal FOS controlled at MMC

163

i2

VCB of Location for Internal FOS controlled at MMC

Hole Size 29.85 (MMC) 29.95 30 30.1 30.15 30.25 (LMC)

Position Tol 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1

Bonus Tol 0 0.1 0.15 0.25 0.3 0.4

Total Tol 0.1 0.2 0.25 0.35 0.4 0.5

VCB 29.75 29.75 29.75 29.75 29.75 29.75

VCB = Hole Size Total Tolerance OR VCB = MMC Size limit Geo Tol

164

i2

VCB of Location for External FOS controlled at MMC

165

i2

VCB of Location for External FOS controlled at MMC

Pin Size 29.55 (MMC) 29.5 29.4 29.35 29.3 (LMC)

Position Tol 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1

Bonus Tol 0 0..05 0.15 0.2 0.25

Total Tol 0.1 0.15 0.25 0.3 0.35

VCB 29.65 29.65 29.65 29.65 29.65

VCB = Pin Size + Total Tolerance OR VCB = MMC Size limit + Geo Tol

166

i2

VCB of Orientation (controlled at MMC)

Tolerance Zone = n0.3 at MMC VCB = MMC + GTol VCB = 12.6 + 0.3 = n12.9 In this case VCB is same as Outer Boundary (worst case)

Tolerance Zone = n0.3 at MMC VCB = MMC - GTol VCB = 13.2 - 0.3 = n12.9 In this case VCB is same as Inner Boundary (worst case)

In either case, controlled feature never encroaches respective VCBs. VCBs lie in air space.
168

i2

LMC Virtual Condition Example


Figure at left shows a part where straightness of datum feature A is necessary to protect wall thickness. Here, the straightness tolerance modified to LMC supplants the boundary of perfect form at LMC. The tolerance establishes a virtual condition boundary embedded in a part material beyond which feature surface shall not encroach. LMC virtual condition of a cylindrical feature For OD For datum feature (external) A, the diameter of such virtual boundary equals to LMC size limit minus the straightness tolerance value: n19.7n0.3=n19.4 Note the difficulty of verifying conformance where the virtual condition boundary is embedded in part material and cant be simulated with hard gages.

170

i2

VCB of Orientation (controlled at LMC)

Tolerance Zone = n0.3 at LMC VCB = LMC - GTol VCB = 12.3 - 0.3 = n12.0 In this case VCB is same as Inner Boundary (worst case)

Tolerance Zone = n0.3 at LMC VCB = LMC + GTol VCB = 13.6 + 0.3 = n13.9 In this case VCB is same as Outer Boundary (worst case)

171

In either case, controlled feature never encroaches respective VCBs. VCBs are embedded in material.

i2

Inner & Outer Boundaries


As per Y14.5, Inner Boundary is defined as:

A Worst case Boundary (ie locus) generated by the smallest feature (MMC for Internal Feature and LMC for External feature) minus the stated Geometric Tolerance Value and any additional Geometric Tolerance (if applicable) from the features departure from its specified material condition.

Outer Boundary is defined as:

A Worst case Boundary (ie locus) generated by the largest feature (LMC for Internal Feature and MMC for External feature) plus the stated Geometric Tolerance Value and any additional Geometric Tolerance (if applicable) from the features departure from its specified material condition.

Worst Case Boundary is defined as:

It is a general term to refer to the extreme boundary of a FOS that is the worst case for assembly. Depending upon dimensioning method, the WCB can be Inner or Outer or Virtual Condition Boundary.

172

i2

Inner & Outer Boundaries Example

OB = n20.15

OB = (n20.15+0.3) = n20.45 n

OB = n20.15

IB = (20 - 0.14)=19.86
173

i2

RFS Case : Inner and Outer Boundaries


When Geometric tolerances are applied on RFS Basis, i.e. there is no modifier such as m or l in tolerance portion of FCF, the OBs and IBs are calculated as:

IB = n13.2 - 0.3 = n12.9 OB = n12.6 + 0.3 = n12.9 WCOB = MMC + GTol = n12.9 WCIB = MMC - GTol = n12.9 For External FOS: WCOB = MMC + Geometric Tolerance WCIB = LMC Geometric Tolerance For Internal FOS: WCIB = MMC Geometric Tolerance WCOB = LMC + Geometric Tolerance
174

i2

Summarizing Boundary Calculations

Type of Control

FOS Type Internal

Formula to calculate WCB IB = MMC OB = MMC IB = MMC - GTol OB = MMC + GTol IB = VCB = MMC GTol OB = LMC + GTol + Bonus OB = VCB = MMC + GTol IB = LMC GTol - Bonus IB = MMC GTol Bonus OB = VCB = LMC + GTol OB = MMC + GTol + Bonus IB = VCB = LMC - GTol

FOS with no GD&T FOS with GD&T at RFS FOS with GD&T at MMC

External Internal External Internal External Internal

FOS with GD&T at LMC External

GTol = Geometric Tolerance


175

i2

Actual Mating Envelope/Size Bonus Tolerance Actual Minimum Material Envelope/Size

176

i2

Actual Mating Envelope


The Actual Mating envelope is a surface, or a pair of parallel plane surfaces, of perfect form which correspond to a part feature of size as follows: For External Feature: A similar perfect feature counterpart of smallest size, which can be circumscribed about the feature so that it just contacts the feature surface(s). For examples a smallest cylinder of perfect form or two parallel planes of perfect form at minimum separation that just contacts the surface(s). For Internal Feature: A Similar perfect feature counterpart of largest size, which can be inscribed within the feature so that it just contacts the feature surface(s). For example a largest cylinder of perfect form or two parallel planes of perfect form at maximum separation that just contact(s) the surface(s). In certain cases, the orientation, or the orientation and location of an actual mating envelope shall be restrained to one or two datums (see next figure)

177

i2

Bonus Tolerance
Bonus Tolerance is an additional tolerance for geometric control. Whenever a geometric tolerance is applied to FOS and it contains an MMC (m) or LMC (l) modifier in the tolerance portion of FCF, a bonus tolerance is permissible When MMC modifier is used in tolerance portion of FCF, it means the stated tolerance is applies when toleranced FOS is at its maximum material condition. When the actual mating size of feature departs from MMC (towards LMC), an increase in the stated tolerance = amount of departure is permitted. Thus this increase or extra tolerance is called as Bonus Tolerance

181

i2

Bonus Tolerance Examples

Wide gage (2 plates) Bonus tolerance is an additional tolerance for a geometric control. Bonus tolerance is only permissible when an MMC (or LMC) modifier is shown in the tolerance portion of a feature control frame. Bonus tolerance comes from the FOS tolerance Bonus tolerance is the amount the actual mating size departs from MMC (or LMC)
182
Plate Thickness 3.8(mmc) 3.7 3.6 3.5 (lmc)

Specified Straightness Tol 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4

Bonus Tol 0 0.1 0.2 0.3

Total Tol 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7

i2

Bonus Tolerance Examples


Bonus tolerance comes from Size (FOS) Tolerance. In this case, Max bonus=0.4

m denotes Bonus tolerance is permissible

Bonus tolerance comes from Size (FOS) Tolerance. In this case, Max bonus=0.2

No Bonus applicable. Tolerance applied to non FOS

m denotes Bonus tolerance is permissible

183

i2

Level 3 : Orientation Control

191

i2

Level 3 Control: Virtual Condition Boundary for Orientation


For two mating features of size, Level 2 control overall perfect form boundary can only assure assemblability in absence of any orientation or location restraint between two features. Ie. Features are free floating to each other.

In the example at left, pin fitting into a hole. We added a large flange for each part. The requirement is the both flanges shall bolt together and make full contact. This introduces an orientation restraint between two mating features. When flange faces are bolter together tightly, the pin and the hole must be square to their respective flange faces. Though the pin and the hole might each respect their MMC boundaries of perfect form; nothing prevents from boundaries being badly skewed to each other. (see
fig on next page)

192

i2

Level 3 Control: Virtual Condition Boundary for Orientation


We can address the requirement by taking the envelope principle one step further to Level 3 Control. An orientation tolerance applied to a feature of size, modified to MMC ot LMC, establishes a virtual boundary beyond which surface(s) of features shall not encroach

VCB=(n21.5-0.5)=n21

n21

VCB=(n20.5+0.5)=n21

In addition to Level 2 control of perfect form, this new boundary has perfect orientation in all applicable degrees of freedom (360deg) relative to any datum features we select. The shape and size of the virtual condition for orientation are governed by the same rules as for form at Level 2. Again, a single feature of size can subject to multiple levels of control, thus multiple virtual condition boundaries. In figure above, weve restrained virtual condition boundary perpendicular to flange face and shows how matability is assured for any part having a pin that can fit inside its n21 MMC virtual condition boundary and any part having a hole that can contain its n21 MMC virtual condition boundary.
193

i2

Level 4 : Position Control

194

i2

Level 4 Control: Virtual Condition Boundary for Location


For two mating features of size, Level 3s virtual condition boundary for orientation can only assure assemblability in absence of any location restraint between two features, for example where no other mating features impede optimum location alignment between or pin and hole. In the figure left, we moved the pin and hole close to the edges of flange and added a large boss and bore mating interfaces at the center of the flanges.

When flange faces are tightened together with bots and the boss and bore are fitted together, the pin and the hole must each still be very square to their respective flange faces. However the parts can no longer slide freely to optimize the location alignment between the pins and the hole. This necessitates the additional restraint that the pins and holes must be accurately located relative to its respective boss or bore.

195

i2

Level 4 Control: Virtual Condition Boundary for Location (contd )


A Positional tolerance applied to a feature of size, modified to MMC or LMC, takes the virtual condition one step ahead: Level 4. n20.7 VCB n35 VCB In addition to perfect form and perfect orientation, the new boundary shall have perfect location in all applicable degrees of freedom relative to any datum features we select. The shape and size of virtual boundary for location is governed by the same rules as for form at Level 2 and for orientation at Level 3 with one addition.

50

For spherical feature, the tolerance is preceded by the Sn symbol and specifies a virtual condition boundary that is sphere. A single feature of size may be subjected to multiple levels of control thus multiple virtual condition boundaries one for each form, orientation, location tolerance applied

196

i2

Level 4 Control: Virtual Condition Boundary for Location (contd )


In the example above, we identified two datums for each part and added dimensions and tolerances for our understanding of assembly. The center boss has MMC size limit of n34.5 and perpendicularity tolerance of n0.5 at MMC. Since its external feature of size, its virtual condition is n34.5+n0.5=n35. The bore has an MMC limit of n35.5 and perpendicularity tolerance of n0.5 at MMC. Since its internal feature of size, its virtual condition is n35.5-n0.5=n35 Note that for each perpendicularity tolerance, the datum feature is the flange face Each virtual condition boundary for orientation is restrained perfectly perpendicular to its referenced datum, derived from flange face.

197

i2

Level 4 Control: Virtual Condition Boundary for Location (contd )


Next, The pin and hole combination requires MMC virtual condition boundaries with location restraint added. Note that each location tolerance, the primary datum feature is the respective flange face and secondary datum feature is center boss or bore. Each virtual condition boundary for location is restrained perfectly perpendicular to its referenced primary datum, derived from flange face. Each boundary is additionally restrained perfectly located relative to its referenced secondary datum, derived from boss or bore. This restraint of both orientation and location on each part is crucial for perfect alignment between boundaries on both parts, thus assemblability. The pin has MMC size limit of n20.4 and a positional tolerance of n0.3 at MMC. Since its external feature of size, its virtual condition is n20.4+n0.3=n20.7 The hole has an MMC size limit of n21 and a positional tolerance of n0.3 at MMC. Since its internal feature of size, its virtual condition is n21-n0.3=n20.7 Any pin contained within its n20.7 boundary can assemble with any hole containing its n20.7 boundary. Try this without GD&T!!

198

i2

Derived Elements

210

i2

Derived Elements
Many Geometric Elements can be derived from any feature. A Geometric tolerance RFS applied to a feature of size controls one of the following:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Derived median line(from a cylindrical feature) Derived median plane (from a width type of feature) Feature center Point (from a spherical feature) Feature Axis (from a cylindrical feature) Feature center plane (from a width type feature)

A Level2 (straightness or Flatness) tolerance nullifies Rule #1s boundary of perfect form at MMC. Instead, a separate tolerance controls overall feature form by constraining a derived median line or derived median plane (according to type of feature)

211

i2

Derived Elements (Contd)


As shown in figure left, in absence of material condition modifier means that straightness tolerance applies RFS by default. This specifies a tolerance zone bounded by a cylinder having a diameter equal to the tolerance value, within which the derived median line shall be contained.

Tolerance zone for straightness control at RFS

213

i2

Derived Elements (Contd)

Tolerance zone for Straightness control at RFS In above figure, the Straightness tolerance applies RFS by default.This specifies a tolerance zone bounded by two parallel planes, separated by a distance equal to tolerance value, within which the entire derived median plane shall be contained. Both size limits are still in force, but neither the spine for the MMC size boundary nor the spine for LMC size boundary need to be perfectly formed. As you will note, its a difficult deriving a median plane, But where its necessary to control overall form within a tolerance that remains constant, regardless of feature size, there is no simpler options.
214

i2

When to Use MMC / LMC / RFS ?

215

i2

Use MMC for clearance fits


Use MMC for any feature of size that assembles with another feature of size on a mating part and foremost concern is that the two mating features clear (not interfere with) each other. Use MMC on any datum reference were the datum feature of size itself makes a clearance fit, and the features controlled to it likewise make clearance fits. Because clearance fits are so common and permits functional gaging, many designers have wisely adopted MMC as a default (previously Y14.5 made it the default, now its RFS). Where a screw thread must be controlled with GD&T or referred as datum, try to use MMC

217

i2

Use LMC for Minimum stock protection


Use LMC where you must guarantee a minimum shell of material all over a surface of any feature of size, for example:

For a cast, forged or rough machined feature to assure stock for cleanup in a subsequent cleanup operation. For a non mating bore, fluid passes etc to protect minimum wall thickness for strength. For a non mating boss around a hole, to protect minimum wall thickness for strength For a gaging features of a functional gage to assure the gage wont clear a non conforming part ..

We dont often see LMC applied to datum features, but consider an assembly where datum features of size pilot two mating parts that must be well centered to each other. LMC applied to both datum features guarantee a minimal offset between the two parts regardless of how the loose the fit. This is a valuable technique for protecting other mating interfaces in the assembly. LMC is an excellent choice for datum references on functional gages.

218

i2

Use RFS for Centering


RFS is obsessed with a features center to the point of ignorance of features actual size. In fact, RFS does not allow dynamic interaction between size and location or between size and orientation of feature. However, this apparent limitation of RFS actually makes it an excellent choice for self centering mating interfaces where the mating features always fit together snugly and center on each other regardless of their actual mating size. For example:

Press fits Tapers such as Morse Tapers and countersinks for flat headed screws. Elastic parts, or elastic intermediate parts such as O rings An adjustable interface where an adjusting screw, shim, sleeve etc will be used on assembly to center a mating part.

Certain geometric characteristics, such as run out and concentricity where MMC or LMC are so inappropriate that the rule prohibit material condition modifiers. For these type of tolerances, RFS always applies. RFS principal now apply by default in absence of any material condition modifier. RFS is a poor choice for in clearance fit mating interfaces because it does not allow dynamic tolerance interaction. That means smaller tolerance, usable parts are rejected and higher scarp and costs

219

i2

Exercise 3

220

i2

Form Tolerances
Straightness Flatness Circularity Cylindricity

221

i2

Straightness Tolerance for Line (Surface) Elements

When straightness tolerance FCF is specified as shown in figure above, the tolerance controls only line elements of that feature. The FCF may only appear in a view where the controlled surfaces is represented by a straight line. Tolerance specifies a tolerance zone plane containing a tolerance zone bounded by two parallel lines separated by distance equal to tolerance value. As the tolerance zone plane sweeps the entire feature surface, the surfaces intersection with plane shall anywhere be contained within the tolerance zone (between two lines). Within the plane, the location and orientation of tolerance zone may adjust continuously to part surface while sweeping.

223

i2

Straightness Control Applied to Line (Surface) Element


When straightness control is applied to surface elements,

The tolerance zone applies to surface element The tolerance zone is two parallel lines Rule#1 applies The Outer/Inner Boundary is not affected No tolerance modifiers may be specified The straightness tolerance value specified must be less than the size tolerance. No Datum reference required in FCF The control must be directed to surface elements The straightness control must be applied in the view where the controlled elements are shown as a line

224

i2

Straightness Tolerance Applied to a Cylindrical FOS


A straightness tolerance control frame placed according to option a or d specified in slide #108 replaces Rule #1s requirement of perfect form at MMC with a separate tolerance controlling the overall straightness of the cylindrical feature. Where the tolerance is modified to MMC or LMC, it establishes a Level 2 virtual condition boundary as described earlier. Unmodified, the tolerance applies RFS and establishes a central tolerance zone as described earlier within which the features derived median line shall be contained.

Straightness Applied on MMC Basis

225

i2

Straightness Control Applied to a Cylindrical FOS


When straightness control is applied to a FOS,

The tolerance zone applies to the axis or centerplane of the FOS Rule#1 is overridden The Virtual condition or Outer/Inner Boundary of the FOS is affected The MMC Modifiers may be specified in the tolerance portion of the control If tolerance modifiers are specified (MMC), the bonus tolerance applies The straightness tolerance value specified may be greater than the size tolerance. A fixed gage may be used to inspect straightness. No Datum references can be specified in the FCF The control must be associated with a FOS dimension If applied to cylindrical FOS, a diameter symbol n should be specified in the tolerance portion of FCF

226

i2

Flatness Tolerance Applied to a Planer Surface


When a Flatness FCF is placed according to options b or c as in slide #78, the tolerance applies to single nominal flat feature. The flatness FCF may be applied only in a view where the element to be controlled is represented by a straight line. This specifies a tolerance zone bounded by two parallel planes separated by distance equal to the tolerance value, within which the entire feature surface shall be contained. The orientation and location of tolerance zone may adjust to the part surface. A flatness tolerance cannot control whether the surface is fundamentally concave, convex or stepped, just the maximum range between its highest and lowest undulations.

For a width type of feature of size, Rule #1 automatically limits the flatness deviation of each surface. Thus to have any meaning, a separate flatness tolerance applied to either single surface must be less than the total size tolerance. The specified tolerance in the FCF is implied as RFS. MMC/LMC does not apply to flatness control because only surface area is controlled and area have no size
227

i2

Flatness Control Applied to a Planar Surface


When Flatness control is applied to Planar Surface:

No Datum references can be specified in the FCF The control must be applied to a planar surface No tolerance Modifiers can be specified in the FCF The tolerance value specified must be less than any other geometric controls that limit the flatness of the surface. The tolerance value specified must be less than the size tolerance.

Typical Flatness Control Application:


For a Gasket or a Seal To attach a mating part For better contact of datum feature with datum plane.

228

i2

Circularity Tolerance
A circularity tolerance controls a features circularity (roundness) at individual cross section. So, a circularity tolerance may be applied to any type of feature having uniformly circular cross sections, including sphere, cylinders, revolute (cones), tubular shapes, rods, torus shapes. When applied to non-spherical feature, the tolerance specifies a tolerance zone plane containing an annular tolerance zone (ring shaped) bounded by two concentric circles whose radii differ by an amount equal to tolerance value.

230

i2

Circularity Tolerance (contd)


The tolerance zone plane shall be swept along a simple non-self-intersecting tangent continuous curve (spine). At each point on the spine, the tolerance zone plane shall be perpendicular to the spine and tolerance zone centered on the spine. As the tolerance zone sweeps the entire feature surface, the surfaces intersection with the plane shall anywhere be contained within an annular tolerance zone (ie. Between two circles). While sweeping, the tolerance zone may continually adjust in overall size, but shall maintain the specified radial width. This effectively removes diametrical taper from circularity control. Additionally, the spines orientation and curvature may be adjusted within aforesaid constraints. So, in addition this effectively removes straightness from circularity control A circularity tolerance greater than the total size tolerance has no effect. It is preferred that circularity tolerance be less than half the size tolerance to limit multi-lobbed deviations (egg shaped or tri-lobed).

231

i2

Circularity Application
When Circularity is applied to circular elements:

The diameter must be within its size tolerance The circularity control does not override Rule #1 The circularity tolerance must be less than size tolerance The circularity control does not affect the Boundaries of the FOS No Datum references can be specified in the FCF No Tolerance modifiers can be specified in the FCF The control must be applied to diametrical feature

232

i2

Cylindricity Tolerance
A Cylindricity tolerance is a composite control of form that includes circularity, straightness, and taper of a cylindrical feature. A cylindricity tolerance specifies a tolerance zone bounded by two concentric cylinders whose radii differ by an amount equal to the tolerance value. The entire feature surfaces shall be contained within the tolerance zone (between two cylinders). The tolerance zone cylinders may adjust to any diameter, provided their radial separation remains equal to the tolerance value . This effectively removes feature size from cylindricity control. As with the circularity tolerance, a cylindricity tolerance must be less than half the size tolerance to limit multi-lobbed from deviations Since neither circularity nor a cylindricity tolerance can nullify size limits for a feature, there is nothing to be gained by modifying either tolerances to MMC or LMC

233

i2

Cylindricity Tolerance over a Limited Length or Area

Some designs require form control over a limited length or area of the surface, rather than the entire surface. In such cases, as shown above, draw a thick chain line adjacent to the surface, dimensioned for length and location as necessary. Form tolerance applies only within the limits as indicated by chain line.

234

i2

Cylindricity Application
When Cylindricity is applied to cylindrical surfaces:

The diameter must be within its size tolerance The cylindricity control does not override Rule #1 The Cylindricity tolerance must be less than size tolerance The Cylindricity control does not affect the OB of the FOS No Datum references can be specified in the FCF No Tolerance modifiers can be specified in the FCF The control must be applied to cylindrical feature

235

i2

Radius Tolerance

A radius is a portion of a cylindrical surface encompassing less than 180o arc length. A radius tolerance denoted by R, establishes a zone bounded by a minimum radius arc and maximum radius arc, within which the entire surface feature shall be contained. By default, each arc shall be tangent to the adjacent part surfaces.

238

i2

Controlled Radius Tolerance

Where a symbol CR is applied to a radius, the tolerance zone will be as described in previous slide #176. But there are additional requirements for the surface. The surface contour shall be fair curve without any reversals. This means a tangent continuous curve that is everywhere convex or concave.

240

i2

When Do We use a Form Tolerance?


As a general rule, apply a form (only) tolerance to a non datum feature only where there is some risk that the surface will be manufactured with form deviations severe enough to cause problems in subsequent manufacturing operations, inspection, assembly or function of the part. For example, A flatness tolerance might be appropriate for a surface that seals with a gasket. A roller bearing might be controlled with a cylindricity tolerance A conical bearing race might have both a straightness of surface element tolerance and a circularity tolerance

241

i2

Summarizing Form Tolerances

Geometric Control

Correct to apply to ...

Surface?

FOS?

Use of m or l?

Are boundaries affected?

Overrides Rule#1?

Datums referencing?

c e g

Yes Yes Yes Yes

No Yes No No

No May* No No

No May* No No

No May* No No

No No No No

* When applied to FOS

244

i2

Exercise 4

246

i2

Datums

247

i2

What is Datum?
A Datum is a theoretically exact point, axis or plane derived from the true geometric counterpart of a specified datum feature. A datum is an origin from which the location or geometric characteristics of features of a part are established. A datum feature is an actual feature of a part that is used to establish a datum. A datum reference is an alphabetic letter specified in a compartment following a Geometric tolerance in a feature control frame. It specifies a datum to which the tolerance zone or acceptance boundary is basically related. A feature control frame may have zero, one,two or three datum references.
248

i2

Establishing Datum Reference Frames from Part Features

Datum feature begets True geometric counterpart which begets a datum which is building block for Datum Reference Frame, which is the basis of establishing tolerance zone for other features.

We shall refer to this figure often

249

i2

Datum Feature
Recall our session #1, where we said: The first step in GD&T is to identify part surfaces to serve as origins and provide specific rules explaining how these surfaces establish the starting point and direction for measurements Such a part surface is called as datum feature Builders understood the need for a consistent and uniform origin from which to base their measurements. It was a patch of leveled ground once. For precision manufacturing, its a flat surface or a straight and round diameter on a machine part. Although any type of part feature can be a datum feature, selecting one is bit like hiring a CEO who will provide strong moral center and direction for the entire organization. So, what qualifications of CEO should we look for?

250

i2

Datum Feature Selection


The most important quality you want in CEO (datum feature) is leadership. A good datum feature is a surface that most strongly influences the origin and/or location of parts in its assembly. We shall call it a functional datum feature. Rather than a being a slender and small, a good datum feature such as shown below, should have broad shoulders able to take on the weight of the part and provide overall stability. Avoid shaky and unfinished surfaces with high and low spots. Just as you want your CEO highly visible, choose a datum feature that is always accessible for fixturing manufacturing, or at various stages of inspection during stages of manufacturing

251

i2

Functional Hierarchy
Its tough to judge leadership from void Spot it intuitively when you see how a prospect (parts and features) relates to each other In the assembly figure left for a car engine, consisting of three parts : Engine block, Cylinder Head and Rocker Arm cover, we intuitively rank the dependencies as: Engine block makes a foundation, to which we bolt on the cylinder head to which in turn we bolt rocker arm cover.
252

i2

How to Identify Datum Features and Apply Symbols?

256

i2

Identifying Datum Features


Once the CEO (datum feature) has sworn in, he needs to put a badge to denote its authority. So, instead of a star, we use the datum feature symbol as shown below. The symbol consists of a capital letter enclosed in a square compartment, a leader line extending from the frame to datum feature and a terminating triangle. The triangle may be solid filled, making it easier to spot on a drawing.

Each datum feature shall be identified with a different latter of alphabet (except I, O, Q). When alphabets are exhausted, double letters (AA through AZ, BA through BZ etc) are used and compartment is stretched to fit.

257

i2

Datum Feature Symbol Application

A Datum feature symbol is applied to concerned feature surface outline, extension line, dimension line, or feature control frame (FCF) as follows: (a) Placed on the outline of a feature surface, or on an extension line of feature outline, clearly separated from dimension line, when the datum feature is surface itself.

259

i2

Datum Feature Symbol Application (contd)

(b) Placed on an extension of a dimension line of a feature of size when datum is an axis or center plane. If there is insufficient space for two arrows, one of the arrow may be replaced with datum feature triangle

260

i2

Datum Feature Symbol Application (contd)

( c ) Placed on the outline of a cylindrical feature surface, or the extension of the the feature outline, separated from the size dimension, when the datum is the axis. The triangle may be drawing tangent to the feature

261

i2

Datum Feature Symbol Application (contd)

(d) Placed on a dimension leader line to the feature size dimension, where no geometric tolerance and feature control frames are used.

(e) Placed above or below and attached to the feature control frame when the feature (or a group of features controlled is the datum axis or datum center plane

262

i2

Summarizing Datum Feature Symbol Application ( for FOS datum features)

(a) Datum is axis

(b) Datum is axis

(c) Datum is common axis

(e) Datum is centerplane

263

(d) Datum is center plane

i2

Introduction to True Geometric Counterpart (TGC)

264

i2

Datum Features and their TGCs

Go Slide 300 Go Slide 301


268

Go Slide 302

i2

Datum Reference Frame (DRF)

270

i2

Datum Reference Frame (DRF) (contd)


Usually, it takes two or three datums to build this complete DRF. Since each type if datum has different abilities, it is not vary obvious which one can be combined, nor it is obvious how to build DRF needed for a particular application.
Datum Reference Frame as Per ASME Y14.5

273

i2

Datum Reference Frame (DRF) (contd)

274

i2

Degree of Freedom (DOF)

279

i2

DRF Development Examples

294

i2

DRF Development Example 1


With reference to this drawing, answer following questions How many datum features are there for this part? What are types of datum features and Datums? What are tolerance zone shapes and sizes for various FCFs? How are tolerance zones orientated and/or located to DRF? Are the tolerance zones fixed or flexible ? If flexible , how ) much is maximum permissible bonus tolerance ? Write down your observation on selection of datum features Does the DRF imply any sequence of mfg. operation? How many DOF each datum feature removes from part? How many DOF available at the end?

295

i2

DRF Development Example 2


With reference to this drawing, answer following questions How many datum features are there for this part? What are types of datum features and Datums? What are tolerance zone shapes and sizes for various FCFs? How are tolerance zones orientated and/or located to DRF? Are the tolerance zones fixed or flexible ? If flexible , how much is maximum permissible bonus tolerance ? Write down your observation on selection of datum features Does the DRF imply any sequence of mfg. operation? How many DOF each datum feature removes from part? How many DOF available at the end?
296

i2

DRF Development Example 3


With reference to this drawing, answer following questions How many datum features are there for this part? What are types of datum features and Datums? What are tolerance zone shapes and sizes for various FCFs? How are tolerance zones orientated and/or located to DRF? Are the tolerance zones fixed or flexible ? If flexible , how much is maximum permissible bonus tolerance ? Write down your observation on selection of datum features Does the DRF imply any sequence of mfg. operation? How many DOF each datum feature removes from part? How many DOF available at the end?

297

i2

Comparison of Datum Precedence

299

i2

Comparison of Datum Precedence Case B

To simulate datum feature A, an adjustable gage/fixture is required.

Case b

Once datum feature A is simulated, it decides orientation of part. The axis of two small holes shall be parallel to datum A, and perpendicular to datum feature simulator for B Note that small holes axis is not perpendicular to datum feature B No relative movement allowed between datum feature A and its simulator.

Ref Slide 268

300

i2

Comparison of Datum Precedence Case C

Once datum feature B is simulated, it decides orientation of part.

Case c

The axis of two small holes shall be perpendicular to datum feature B To simulate datum feature A, an adjustable gage/fixture is required. No relative movement allowed between datum feature A and its simulator.

Ref Slide 268

301

i2

Comparison of Datum Precedence Case D

The axis of two small holes shall be perpendicular to datum feature B

Case d

To simulate datum feature A, a fixed gage/fixture of dia 16.0 is required. relative movement allowed between datum feature A and its simulator. Such relative movement could cause the two small holes to shift more wrt to datum axis A

Ref Slide 268

302

i2

TGC Types

303

i2

TGC Types

As we have already seen, each type of datum feature has corresponding TGC. Each TGC has either no size, adjustable size or fixed size depending upon type of datum feature and referenced material condition. Also, TGC is either restrained or unrestrained depending on datum precedence

304

i2

Adjustable Size TGC : Primary Datum (axis) at RFS

Adjustable Chuck to Simulate datum feature A Datum Axis A. Same as axis of chuck Stepped Shaft Example

310

i2

Adjustable Size TGC : Primary Datum (axis) at RFS

Expandable mandrel used to simulate datum feature B

311

i2

Adjustable Size TGC : Primary Datum (centerplane) at RFS

Adjustable Vice to Simulate datum feature C

312

i2

Adjustable Size TGC : Primary Datum (centerplane) at RFS

Expandable plates to Simulate datum feature D

313

i2

Adjustable Size TGC : Secondary Datum (Axis) at RFS + Tertiary


Datum (Centerplane) at RFS Example

Datum axis F Expandable mandrel to simulate datum feature F Expandable width to simulate datum feature G

Surface plate to Simulate datum feature E

Datum centerplane G 315

i2

Adjustable Size TGC : Datum Axis from Co-Axial diameters RFS


Primary Example

317

i2

Fixed Size TGC

For features of size and bounded features referenced as datums at MMC or LMC, the TGCs include MMC and LMC boundaries of perfect form, MMC and LMC virtual boundaries, and MMC and LMC profile boundaries.

Each of these TGCs have fixed size and/or fixed shape.

318

i2

Fixed Size TGC (contd)

Dia 89.31 fixed size opening in gage/fixture to simulate Hm m

324

i2

Fixed Size TGC (contd)

Dia 89.61(=VCB size of H) fixed size opening in gage/fixture to simulate Hm m

325

i2

DRF Displacement Example 1

338

i2

Effect of Datum Shift on hole location ..

Datum shift can result in an additional tolerance for a geometric control Datum shift is only permissible when a modifier is shown in datum compartment of a feature control frame Datum shift results when the AME of the datum feature departs from given material condition (in this case MMC The maximum allowable datum shift is the difference between the gage size (for the datum feature) and LMC size of the datum feature.

339

i2

DRF Displacement Example 2

When a special-case FOS datum is referenced at MMC, datum shift may be possible when the datum feature is at MMC
Datum Shift = Fixed gage size AME of Datum feature 340

i2

DRF Displacement Example 6 : Datum Axis MMC


Secondary, Datum Centerplane MMC Tertiary

A gage pin of dia = VCB of datum feature F = MMCGTol = (58.73 - 0.25) - 0.2 = 58.28

A gage block of width = VCB of datum feature G = MMC-GTol = (18.76 - 0.25) 0.2 = 18.31

345

Both the simulators will be perpendicular to datum E. Center plane of G will align with datum axis F

i2

DRF Displacement Example 7 : Datum Axis from a


Pattern of Holes, MMC Secondary.

A B

4 Pins of dia = VCB of one small hole = 10.5 0.2 = 10.3

1 Pin of dia = VCB of center hole = 18.3 0.15 = 18.15 346

i2

Orientation Tolerance
Perpendicularity Angularity Parallelism

383

i2

Orientation Tolerance (Level3 Control)

Orientation is features angular relationship to a DRF. An Orientation tolerance controls this relationship without meddling in location control. Thus, an orientation tolerance is useful for relating one datum feature to another and for refining the orientation of a feature already controlled with a positional tolerance.

384

i2

How to apply Orientation Tolerance?

An orientation tolerance is specified using a feature control frame one of the three orientation characteristic symbols. The symbol used depends on the basic orientation angle as follows: 0o or 180o parallelism symbol 90o or 270o Perpendicularity Symbol Any other angle Angularity Symbol All three symbols work exactly same. The only difference is that where angularity symbol is used, basic angle should be explicitly specified. Where the parallelism or perpendicularity is used, the basic angle is implied by the drawing view that shows parallel or perpendicular relationship. The feature control frame includes the orientation tolerance value followed by one or two datum references.
385

i2

Datums for Orientation Control


Orientation control requires a DRF. A primary datum plane or axis always establishes rotation about two axes of the DRF and usually the only reference needed for orientation control. However in some cases, rotation it may be necessary to restrain rotation about third axis and in such case, secondary datum is needed to orient/locate tolerance zone plane for controlling elements of feature

386

i2

Angularity Tolerance applied to a Width-Type FOS


When an orientation tolerance FCF is placed as per options (a) or (d) in previous table (associated with a diameter or width dimension), the tolerance controls the orientation of the cylindrical or width type of feature. Where tolerance is modified to LMC/MMC, it establishes a level3 virtual condition boundary as described earlier. Alternatively the center method discussed earlier may be applied to an orientation tolerance at MMC/LMC. Unmodified, tolerance zone applies RFS and establishes a central tolerance zone as described earlier within which the features axis or center plane shall be contained When applied to feature of size, orientation tolerance provides no additional form control beyond level2 In the figure at left, the center plane of the slot is held within the central parallel plane tolerance zone

388

i2

Angularity Tolerance applied to a Cylindrical FOS


Y14.5 also allows orientation of axis to be controlled within a parallel plane tolerance zone, however this would not prevent axis from revolving like a compass needle between two parallel planes, such application usually accompanies a larger positional tolerance. In the figure left, a diameter symbol precedes the orientation tolerance value. Here the tolerance zone is bounded by a cylinder having dia. equal to tolerance value. This is more like a positional tolerance except the orientation zone is not basically located from the datums. A positional tolerance also controls orientation for a feature of size to the same degree as an equal orientation tolerance. Thus for a feature of size, an orientation tolerance equal to or greater than its positional tolerance is meaningless. Conversely, when engineer needs to maximize positional tolerance while protecting orientation, a generous positional tolerance can be teamed up with more restrictive orientation tolerance.
389

i2

Parallelism with Tangent Plane Modifier

396

i2

Concentricity Symmetry

457

i2

Concentricity Tolerance
Concentricity is that condition where median points of all diametrically opposed elements of figure of revolution (or correspondingly located elements of two or more radially disposed features) are congruent with the axis (or center point) of a datum feature. Concentricity tolerance is a cylindrical (or spherical) tolerance zone whose axis (or center point) coincides with the axis (or center point) of datum feature(s) The median points of all correspondingly located feature(s) being controlled, regardless of feature size, must lie within the cylindrical (pr spherical) tolerance zone. The specified tolerance and datum references can apply on Irregularities in the form of a actual feature to be inspected may make it RFS basis only. difficult to establish the location of that features median point. For Concentricity tolerance requires the establishment example a nominally cylindrical surface of revolution may be bowed or out and verification of features median points of round in addition to being displaced from its datum axis, in such cases
finding median point may be very time consuming. Therefore unless there is definite need to establish median points, it is recommended to use position or runout tolerance. 458

i2

Difference between Coaxiality and Concentricity Controls

Both parts are acceptable from coaxiality control inspection.

459

i2

Difference between Coaxiality and Concentricity Controls

This is the one part configuration acceptable under concentricity control. While parts as shown in previous slide may get rejected when inspected from concentricity viewpoint, if their median points do not lie in 0.4 central tolerance zone cylinder. Note that there are no material modifiers specified for tolerance value as well as for datum feature reference.

460

i2

Symmetry Tolerance

462

Symmetry control is same as Concentricity control. The difference is that while concentricity is used on surface of revolution, symmetry is used on planar feature of Size

i2

Runout Tolerance
Circular Runout Total Runout

464

i2

Runout Tolerance

Runout is the oldest and simplest concepts used in GD&T Runout is a composite form, location and orientation control of permissible error in the desired part surface during a complete revolution of part around datum axis

465

i2

Runout Tolerance Why we use it?

In precision assemblies runout causes misalignment and/or alignment problems. As shown in figure at left, runout of ring groove diameters relative to pistons diameter may cause rings to squeeze unevenly around the piston or force the piston off center in its bore. A motor shaft that runs out relative to its bearing journals will cause motor to run out of balance shortening its working life. A designer can control such wobble by specifying runout control. There are two levels of runout : Circular Runout Total Runout

466

i2

Datums for Runout Control


A runout tolerance controls surface elements of a round feature relative to a datum axis. Every runout tolerance shall reference a datum axis. In the figure above, since designer wish to control the runout of surface as directly as possible, its important to select the functional feature to establish a datum axis. During inspection for the part shown above, the datum feature might be placed on V block or fixtured in a precision spindle so that the part can be rotated about the axis of datum features TGC. This requires datum feature be long enough and its form be well controlled (by own size limits or separate form tolerance (level2 control)). In addition datum feature should be accessible for fixturing and probing.

469

i2

Circular Runout Tolerance

Circular runout tolerance can also be applied to a face or a face groove that is perpendicular to datum axis.Here, the surface elements are circles of various diameters, each concentric to the datum axis and each evaluated separately from the others.

472

i2

Total Runout Tolerance


Total runout is greater level of control. Its tolerance applies to the FIM while the indicator sweeps over the entire controlled surface. Rather than each circular element being evaluated separately, the total runout FIM encompasses the highest and lowest of all readings obtained at all circles For a nominal cylindrical feature, the indicators body shall be swept parallel to the datum axis, covering the entire length of controlled feature, as the part is rotated 360o about the datum axis. Any taper or hourglass shape in the controlled feature will increase FIM For a nominally flat surface perpendicular to datum axis, the indicators body shall be swept in a line perpendicular to the datum axis, covering entire breadth of controlled feature, Any conicity, wobble in the controlled feature will increase FIM. The control imposed by this type of total runout control is identical to that of an equal perpendicularity tolerance with a RFS datum reference.
473

i2

When do we use a Runout Tolerance?


Runout tolerance is especially suited for parts that revolve about a datum axis in an assembly, and where alignments and dynamic balances are critical. Circular runout tolerance is often ideal for O ring grooves, where cylinder bore is datum. Remember that the datum feature and controlled feature should be accessible for fixturing/inspection as the case is. For example, circular runout tolerance applied to internal groove with internal bore as datum feature makes groove inaccessible for inspection! Following equations pertain to the controls imposed by circularity, cylindricity, concentricity, circular runout and total runout when applied to a revolute or cylindrical feature.

Circularity + Concentricity = Circular Runout Cylindricity + Concentricity = Total Runout

474

i2

Profile Tolerance

491

i2

Profile Control

What is Profile?

A profile is outline of an object in a given plane (2D figure) Profiles are formed by projecting a 3D figure onto a plane or by taking cross sections through the figure. Such profile can contains straight lines, arcs, curves. If the drawing specifies individual tolerances for elements or points of a profile, these elements or points need individual verification

492

i2

Profile Tolerancing
The profile tolerance specifies a uniform boundary along the true profile within which the elements of surface must lie. It is used to control form or combination of size, form, orientation or location. Where used as refinement of size, the profile tolerance must be contained within the size limits. Depending upon design requirements, the tolerance may be divided bilaterally to both sides of true profile or applied unilaterally to both sides of profile. When an equally disposed bilateral tolerance is needed, its necessary to show only FCF with leader directed to surface. For an unequally disposed or unilateral tolerance, phantom lines are drawn parallel to true profile to indicate tolerance zone boundary Phantom line should extend only a sufficient distance to make its application clear.

493

i2

Profile Tolerancing

Where a profile tolerance applies all around the profile of a part, the symbol used to designate all around is placed on the leader from the FCF.

494

i2

Profile Tolerancing

Where segments of profile have different tolerances, the extent of each profile tolerance may be indicated by the use of reference letters to identify the extreme positions or limits of each requirement.

If some segments of profile are controlled by a profile tolerance and other segments by individually toleranced dimensions, the extend of profile tolerance must be indicated.

495

i2

Combining Profile Tolerance with other Controls

In this case, a part with profile of line tolerance where size is controlled by a separate tolerance. Line elements of the surface along the profile must lie within the profile tolerance zone and within a size limiting zone.

503

i2

Profile tolerance for Coplanar Surfaces


Coplanarity is the condition of two or more surfaces having all elements in one plane.
A profile of a surface tolerance may be used where it is necessary to treat two or more surfaces as a single interrupted or noncontinuous surface. In this case, the control provided is similar to that achieved by flatness tolerance applied to a single planar surface. As shown in figure at left, the profile of a surface tolerance establishes a tolerance zone defined by two parallel planes within which considered surfaces must lie. No datums are specified as in case of flatness as the considered surfaces themselves establishes a plane
505

i2

Profile tolerance for Coplanar Surfaces

Where two or more surfaces are involved, it may be desirable to identify specific surface(s) to be used as datum feature(s). Datum feature symbol is applied to these surfaces with appropriate tolerance for their relationship with each other. Datum reference letters are added to the FCF for the features being controlled. The tolerance zone thus established applies to all coplanar surfaces including datum surfaces

506

i2

Profile tolerance for Plane Surfaces

Profile tolerance may be used to control form and orientation of plane surfaces. In this case, profile of surface is used to control a plane surface inclined to a datum feature.

507

i2

GD&T Reference Chart

519

i2

Dimensioning Habits (?)

520

i2

Suggested Readings & References


Credit is given and acknowledgement is made for certain references and definitions derived from the following:
ASME Y14.5M-1994 Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing ASME Y14.5.1M-1994 Mathematical Definition of Dimensioning and Tolerancing Principals Geometrics IIIm - Lowell W. Foster Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing: Applications and Techniques for Use in Design, Manufacturing, and Inspection - James D. Meadows Tolerance Design: A Handbook for Developing Optimal Specifications Clyde M. Creveling CAD/CAM Theory and Practice : Ibrahim Zeid Interpretation of Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing : Daniel Puncochar. Dimensioning & Tolerancing Handbook : Paul Drake Jr. Fundamentals of GD&T : Alex Krulikowski

521

i2