KAOLIN, BALL CLAY, OTHER CLAYS AND SHALE

49 Kaolin, Ball Clay, Other Clays and Shale
1. Kaolin (China Clay)

K

aolin, also known as china clay, is a natural clay formed by weathering of felspars. It is relatively pure clay predominantly consisting of kaolinite (Al 2O 3. 2SiO 2. 2H 2O),associated with other clay minerals like dickite, halloysite, nacrite and anauxite. Kaolin is commercially valued for its whiteness and fine particle size which distinguish it from other clays, such as, ball clay and fireclay. Other physical characteristics that influence commercial utility include brightness, glossiness, abrasiveness and viscosity. It often contains small amounts of impurities in the form of rock fragments, hydrous oxides and colloidal materials. Kaolin is produced and consumed in the country in crude & processed forms. The major use of crude china clay in the country is in cement industry and of processed china clay is in ceramic industry. India has extensive deposits of china clay distributed almost in every state and is in a reasonable position to cater to the needs of both domestic and export markets.

4% are classified under chemical, paper filler and cement grades and about 74% or 1,922 million tonnes resources fall under mixed grade, others, unclassified & not-known categories. The details of reserves/resources are given in Table - 1.

EXPLORATION & DEVELOPMENT
Details of exploration carried out by different exploration agencies during 2006-07 and 2007-08 are given in Table-2.

PRODUCTION, STOCKS & PRICES
The production of kaolin at 1.29 million tonnes in 2007-08 decreased by 12% as compared to previous year mainly due to low market demand. There were 87 reporting mines during 2007-08 as against 104 mines in the previous year. Besides, the production of kaolin was also reported as an associated mineral from one mine. Twenty fIve principal producers accounted for about 89% of the total output of kaolin in 2007-08. There were 80 private sector mines reported 92% of the total production and the remaining 8% by 7 public sector mines. During 2007-08, thirty two mines each producing more than 10,000 tonnes annually accounted for 87% of the total production of kaolin (natural) while 13 mines, each in the production range of 5000 to 10000 tonnes annually accounted for 7% and the remaining 9 percent of the production of kaolin (natural) was shared by 42small mines, each producing up to 5000 tonnes annually. The contribution of natural and processed kaolin in 2007-08 was 80% and 20% respectively as against 81% and 19% in the preceding year.

RESOURCES
China clay resources in the country as per UNFC system as on 1.4.2005 have been placed at 2,595.66 million tonnes, of which the reserves are only about 8% of the resources at 222 million tonnes. Out of the total reserves, 46% (about 102 million tonnes) reserves are under proved category whereas 54% (about 120 million tonnes) reserves fall under probable category. The resources are spread over in a number of states of which Kerala holds about 24%, followed by West Bengal (16%), Rajasthan (14%), Orissa (11%) and Karnataka (10%). Out of total resources, about 22% or 579 million tonnes fall under ceramic/pottery grade,

49-1

Table - 1 : Reserves/Resources of China Clay as on 1.4.2005 (By Grades/States)
(In '000 tonnes) Reserves Probable STD121 13142 4618 566 3500 1777 1237 1443 37752 41248 8732 397 6726 2819 9785 67842 64476 21495 1475 17923 34339 14572 1256 606 1352 600 19688 1393 50 364 6465 286 613 13696 1924 333 843 11257 1769 4996 101906 211 11 180069 3240 1998 20487 600 303 776 986 384857 33945 334479 159031 33786 552 44226 27592 954988 19812 429 1259 505 107459 222121 3214 29460 34819 287435 408009 1588599 22005 STD122 STD221 STD222 2373540 34545 511324 163159 34484 1759 243828 36483 1347957 2595661 34545 579166 227635 55979 3234 261751 70822 1362529 Total (A) Feasibility STD211 Pre-feasibility Measured STD331 Indicated STD332 Inferred STD333 Reconnaissance Total STD334 (B) Remaining resources Total resources (A+B)

Grade/State

Proved STD111

All India : Total By Grades Chemical Ceramic/Pottery Mixed grade Filler Cement Others Unclassified Not known

101520

25472 22661 9263 1077 9419 30283 3343

KAOLIN, BALL CLAY, OTHER CLAYS AND SHALE

49-2
2578 131 179 924 7 711 3714 1055 1523 1858 461 4841 1585 60 27685 29 7774 2168 670 443 354 37293 17384 7173 11908 131 2678 79 67190 36 30647 7687 9551 1386 772 39373 42292 8390 2367 241 606 3360 600 148 782 1383 311 303 256 22317 110 16 867 3348 28 1997 2077 17 502 23 25328 300 5 392 104 857 3088 13 2007 220360 43930 11 2520 1890 76 545 11600 36

By States Andhra Pradesh Assam Bihar Chhattisgarh Delhi Goa Gujarat Haryana Jammu & Kashmir Jharkhand Karnataka Kerala Madhya Pradesh Maharashtra Manipur Meghalaya Orissa Puducherry Rajasthan Tamil Nadu Uttar Pradesh West Bengal

4490 914 19 38581 22162 1805 7826 943 418 557 23050 757

179 39 630 936 34 7280 443 20439 17 184 5786 35316 1017 327 3447 331935

61582 160 1296 11378 3723 38917 5485 28122 148753 26017 534582 11741 5523 81199 201907 2940 279266 56570 10018 79418

3 42 19770 1259 340 591

61767 3912 1438 12088 5210 16 43958 12029 28122 159493 249369 621101 11774 6477 2520 88875 238789 2940 329418 56897 25065 412281

73675 4043 1438 14766 5289 16 111148 12065 28122 190140 257056 630652 13161 7248 2520 88875 278162 2940 371710 56897 25065 420671

Figures rounded off.

Nimsar. etc.000 1:2.000 350 15 3 4 - - 5 Up to 10.5 m thick white clay bed seen to occur in Tanka pits. Estimated 24 million tonnes of china clay resources.000 100 - - 5 N/v Bhadka.KAOLIN. of Meterage (sq km) boreholes (m) Junjala-PadeliKhera Narnolia area - - - - - On the basis of borehole data for lignite exploration and examination of dug well cuttings a potential clay zone has been established.5 million tonnes of china clay resources. Basni. of DMG Kerala Kasaragod -do- Paivalike Paivalike village Kommangal Padavu.000 300 - - - Makdum nagar - - - - Four pits dug out and ococurrences of china clay recorded. Estimated 2. 49-3 . Dausa - - - Nagaur DMM West Bengal Birbhum 1:50. etc. Estimated 4 million tonnes of china clay resources. -doRajasthan Bhilwara Kanjivakode area 1:1000 Mulavana village N/v Jitiya.Bhawanipura.1725 5 154. Moonu road Malpacheri area Bishop Thoppu area Veiloor village Kadayattu area Mulavana village - - 10 5 155. White/grey clay pocket was marked in 80 x 3 m area and 22. Akli. Nimsar.5 - - - Nagaur 2007-08 DMG Rajasthan Barmer 1:50. Chidtiriyas.800 tonnes of reserves were estimated.0025 3 81 11 4. Badgaon. OTHER CLAYS AND SHALE Table – 2 : Details of Exploration Activities for Kaolin and other clays during 2006-07 and 2007-08 Year/ Agency/ State/ District 2006-07 GSI Rajasthan Clay Nagaur & Pali Location Mapping Scale Drilling Sampling Remarks Reserves/Resources estimated Area No.5 32 Estimated 0. Nala-river cutting N/v Nimla. Paivalika Orkadi village Erikkulam. N/v Haldina and Nangal Charan N/v Indawar. BALL CLAY.09 million tonnes of china clay resources.045 million tonnes of china clay resources. Madikai village. Nimla. Estimated14 million tonnes of china clay resources. Estimated 0. Agoria.000 1:10. Kolandia N/V Indavar Luniyas - 0.5 93 90 - Kollam 1:1000 0. Observed 2 to 6 m thick clay bed in wells at Lunias. Clay occurrences noted in wells N/v Phalki. etc.000 1:10.5 212 18 - -do -do Thiruvananthapuram - - 3 4 3 80. etc. Estimated 0. Lunias. Bargaon. 1:50. Low grade china clay bed of width varying from 30 m to 60 m recorded for a strike length of 1000 m.3 million tonnes china clay resources.

Bhilwara. O. Bhuj. New Delhi.) (Contd. Baroda-390 105. P. H. 307/308 Arundeep Complex. Dist. P. P. KP 111/428.) 49-4 . Kerala. N. Box No. Patel Nagar Minerals & Industries Pvt. Sikar. Gujarat.Madhapar. The average daily employment of labour during 2007-08 was 2. Dist. Gujarat and West Bengal in 2007-08. Md. The remaining 8%was shared by Chhattisgarh. Remaining 2% of Kaolin (Processed) is contributed by Orissa and Karnataka (Tables 3 to 7). Gujarat District Kachchh Table .3 (Contd. O. P. Suhura Beevi Thiruvananthapuram. Veli. Piplund. 2. Madhya Pradesh. Maharashtra and Orissa. O. Gujarat. Dist. Kerala. 14 Ricco Indl. BALL CLAY. Dist. Rajasthan. Area. Dist. West Bengal. Kachchh.8). Jharkhand. Rajasthan. P. Ltd. Chaibasa-833 201. West Bengal. O. Sureshchandra Oza F-13. Gujarat. N-75. Rajasthan District Chittorgarh West Bengal Birbhum Gujarat Kachchh Kerala Thiruvananthapuram Rajasthan Bhilwara Gujarat Kachchh Kerala Thiruvananthapuram Modi Levigated Kaolin Co. Rajasthan. The Singhbhoom Minerals Co. 2007-08 Location of mine Name & address of producer State Shri Ram Mine Chem International Madhapur-370 020. Jharkhand. Manoj P. Birbhum. B. Kolkata. S. Dist. Domestic prices of kaoline during 2005-06 to 2007-08 are furnished in Table . Connaught Place.927 in the preceding year. Chittorgarh. International (I) Ltd. Dist. Santhalpur–385 850. Thiruvananthapuram. Speciality Mineral (P) Ltd. Gujarat Smt. Kundra-691 501. West Bengal Kolkata Kerala Kollam Jharkhand Singhbhum (Contd. OTHER CLAYS AND SHALE Gujarat was the leading producing State of kaolin accounting for 38% of the total production in 2007-08. Jaipur Kerala Thiruvananthapuram Gujarat Patan Kachchh Bharat Minerals 5/1. Shankarlal Gangaram Thakkar P.391 as against 2. Table – 3 : Principal Producers of Kaolin. Kollam. Neem-ka-Thana-332 713. Banaskantha. Mine-head stocks of kaolin at the end of 2007-08 were 300 thousand tonnes as against 332 thousand tonnes in the beginning of the year (Table . Kachchh. O. P. Kerala. O. Dist.KAOLIN.O. Solanki At . English Indian Clays Ltd. Dist. Sherkhan Pathan P.9. About 98% of the total production of kaolin (processed) was contributed by Kerala. followed by Kerala 30%. Dua D. O. Rajasthan P.) Location of mine Name & address of producer State Mohd. P. O. Sawa-312613. Karnataka. The Kerala Ceramics Ltd. West Singhbhum. Bazar-731 132.West Bengal 6% and Andhra Pradesh 2%. Thiruvananthapuram. Rajasthan 16%. Clive Rd. Jharkhand. Dist.

in tonnes. Pappinisseri-670 561. Gujarat. Santalpur-385 350. Nazar 8-A. G. Rajasthan.3 (Contd. H. M. Dist. Silver Point H. Kachchh. Netaji Subhash Chandra Rd. P. V.O. Gujarat Thiruvananthapuram Kerala Thiruvananthapuram Kachchh Jharkhand Singhbhum Gujarat Kachchh Gujarat Mehasana Gujarat Kachchh Patan Kerala Kannur Kasargod Jharkhand Sahebganj (Contd. Thiruvananthapuram. 1. D. value in Rs. Bhilwara. Patan. Amrapali & Company 19/20/21. Dist. Udaipur-313 504. Kowadiyar Manor. Name & address of producer State Rajasthan District Bhilwara Table . Rajasthan.O. Rajasthan District Chittorgarh Deedwania & Sons D-4. J. Dist. O. Minerals (P) Ltd. 114/1. M. Kolkata-700 056. Kolkata. House. D.) Location of mine Wolkem Industries Ltd. Kannur. Rajasthan. Gujarat. P. Baripara Lane. D.3 (Concld. P. Jawahar Nagar. P. Kerala Clays & Ceramics (P) Ltd.KAOLIN. Bhilwara. of Kerala Entp).) Table . A. O. Singhal Marg.4 : Production of Kaolin. Dist. Thakkar P. West Bengal. Kerala. West Bengal. OTHER CLAYS AND SHALE Table . Chittorgarh. Ltd.O. Nagori Garden. (Govt. Dist. Enterprises Pvt.) Location of mine Name & address of producer State J. Gujarat. Rajmahal Quartz Sand & Kaolin Co. Narayana Chambers. Ashram Road. Kerala Lake House. K. S. Santalpur. BALL CLAY. Jobanputra P. Dist. P.White Cement Works P. Patan. 2005-06 to 2007-08 (By States) (Qty. Ahmedabad Gujarat. Bhuj-370 001. ’000) 2005-06 State Quantity India Andhra Pradesh Chhattisgarh Gujarat Jharkhand Karnataka Kerala Madhya Pradesh Maharashtra Orissa Rajasthan West Bengal 1335744 29628 1405 417188 118931 12166 474594 16835 380 4431 178936 81250 Value 2053626 2042 166 80233 61527 12435 1865307 1578 48 1949 22851 35490 Quantity 1460363 109852 2729 526064 88654 12647 429208 14854 372 2874 186943 86166 Value 1622193 8850 360 97702 64938 9709 1376845 1384 22 1599 24227 36527 Quantity 1291724 21541 1706 485837 91013 3750 390642 10250 2506 206325 78154 Value 1547852 2611 233 97751 78434 5055 1297892 923 1314 25423 38216 2006-07 2007-08 (p) 49-5 . Gotan-342 902. Dist. Kerala. O.

of mines Natural Processed Qty 1291724 105584 1186140 21541 11780 2901 4960 1900 1706 1706 485837 332348 8270 106062 39157 91013 370 19101 71542 2007-08 (p) Total Value 1547852 180987 1366865 2611 1093 435 992 91 233 233 97751 57278 8684 10606 21183 78434 26 34666 43742 State/ District No. Value in Rs. OTHER CLAYS AND SHALE 49-6 - Visakhapatnam 2 29320 Chhattisgarh 3 2729 Rajnandgaon 3 2729 Gujarat 32 495930 Kachchh 17 255399 Mahesana 2 Patan 5 225825 Sabarkantha 8 14706 Jharkhand 9(1) 60390 Ranchi 1 3062 Sahebganj 3(1) 9091 Singhbhum (West) 5 48237 (Contd. BALL CLAY. 2006-07 and 2007-08 (By Sectors/States/Districts/Grades) (Qty. in tonnes.) . ‘000) 2006-07 Natural Qty 204952 1325 203627 8850 652 5684 1082 1432 360 360 64142 39899 22583 1660 19808 214 465 19129 14445 13819 29003 16127 28264 45130 88654 3062 22910 62682 23904 27018 38610 225825 6230 6542 6230 6542 22583 28678 64938 214 29468 35256 255399 39899 30134 33560 526064 97702 30 17 2 5 6 8(1) 1 2(1) 5 2729 360 2 2729 360 2 1706 1706 460347 332348 106062 21937 59763 370 2880 56513 29320 1432 2 1900 5410 1082 3 4960 66846 5684 1 2901 435 992 91 233 233 70470 57278 10606 2586 21935 26 403 21506 8276 652 2 11780 1093 109852 8850 8 21541 2611 25490 8270 17220 31250 16221 15029 227479 1278098 1408674 1481725 80(1) 966256 179674 219884 45783 139143 51689 140468 7 61024 8233 44560 273262 1417241 1460363 1622193 87(1) 1027280 187908 264444 1359944 172754 1187191 27281 8684 18597 56499 34263 22236 Value Qty Value Qty Value Qty Value Qty Value Processed Total No. of mines India 104(3) 1187101 Public sector 7 5906 Private sector 97(3) 1181195 Andhra Pradesh 12 109852 Adilabad 3 8276 Cuddapah 3 66846 East Godavari 4 5410 KAOLIN.Table – 5 : Production of Kaolin.

of mines Natural Processed Total Value 5055 5040 15 1297893 35188 1930 138378 1122397 923 923 1314 186 1128 25423 6040 104 13840 5439 38215 38215 2007-08 (p) State/ District No.Table . OTHER CLAYS AND SHALE 49-7 - Katni 2 10400 Satna 4(1) 1407 Maharashtra 1 372 Nagpur 1 372 Orissa 3 1017 Bargarh 1 500 Mayurbhanj 2 517 Rajasthan 11 186943 Bhilwara 3 29695 Bundi 1 639 Chittorgarh 2 126249 Jaipur 2 30360 Sikar - West Bengal 5 80504 Birbhum 5 80504 Figures in parentheses indicate the number of associated mines * Mines reporting for Bauxite & Ochre # Mines reporting for Dolomite.5 : (Concld. BALL CLAY. .) 2006-07 Natural Value 1023 961 62 54835 3392 51443 1384 305 938 141 22 22 271 90 181 24227 3083 64 15767 5313 30030 30030 5662 5662 6527 6527 126249 30360 86166 86166 639 29695 186943 24227 3083 64 15767 5313 36557 36557 1857 1328 2374 1509 500 90 1 2 14 5 1 5 2 1# 4 4 1857 1328 2874 1599 3 372 22 372 22 1066 1032 34 206325 56994 1041 117210 31080 68983 68983 1407 141 2* 10400 938 1 10250 3047 305 923 198 186 12 25423 6040 104 13840 5439 27844 27844 14854 1384 3 10250 923 160963 119322 379267 1241765 8 123805 26297 15142 85552 27676 88944 2 73344 11959 2831 7055 2831 7055 1 965 19434 156073 1440 1440 9171 9171 19434 39081 19434 39081 2 17021 198370 1322010 429208 1376844 13 197149 38256 193493 1040 1144 1662 1206 1 150 15 1259637 35188 1930 126419 7096100 1116 1116 10371 10371 2550 676 2550 676 5385 6866 8435 7827 1 3600 5040 8975 8686 12647 9709 2 150 15 3600 5040 3750 3600 150 390642 17021 965 92778 279878 10250 10250 2506 1032 1474 206325 56994 1041 117210 31080 78154 78154 Qty Value Qty Value Qty Value Qty Value Qty Processed Total No. of mines Qty Karnataka - 3 3672 Hassan 1 3050 Kolar 1 Shimoga 1 622 Kerala - 19 230838 Kannur 2 Kasargod 2 Kollam 2 12534 Thiruvananthapuram 13 218304 Madhya Pradesh 6(2) 14854 Jabalpur 1 3047 KAOLIN.

0 2007-08 100.7 6. of mines Production Group 2006-07 All Groups Up to 500 501-1000 1001-2000 2001-3000 3001-4000 4001-5000 5001-10000 10001-15000 15001 & above 27(1) 1 3 7 2 1 4 5(1) 2 2 2007-08 21(1) 5 1 1 3 6(1) 3 2 Production for the group 2006-07 273262 402 2250 10238 4740 3737 16964 35981 22845 176105 2007-08 264444 3980 1440 2220 11055 36414 33828 175507 Percentage in total production 2006-07 100. BALL CLAY.5 0.0 2007-08 1.2 8.8 3.9 81.7 13.7 2. 2006-07 & 2007-08(p) (By Frequency Groups) (In tonnes) No. OTHER CLAYS AND SHALE Table – 6 : Production of Kaolin (Natural).4 2007-08 100.8 0.5 1.2 0.5 0.0 4.KAOLIN.0 0.0 4.8 7.0 2007-08 0.0 0.0 Figures in parentheses indicate the number of associated mines.5 2.2 0.1 14.8 3.0 Figures in parentheses indicate the number of associated mines.2 1. of mines Production Group 2006-07 All Groups Up to 500 501-1000 1001-2000 2001-3000 3001-4000 4001-5000 5001-10000 10001-15000 15001 & above 85(2) 10(1) 8 8 10 5(1) 5 12 5 22 2007-08 69 8 1 6 8 8 11 11 16 Production for the group 2006-07 1187101 2696 5779 12445 25085 15848 22575 83051 57568 962054 2007-08 1027280 1835 720 7554 20297 28616 79047 138768 750443 Percentage in total production 2006-07 100.0 Cumulative percentage 2006-07 0.0 27.7 1.8 14.8 4.8 13.4 7.0 20.8 33.2 0.4 6.0 100.6 100.8 5. Table – 7 : Production of Kaolin (Processed). 2006-07 & 2007-08(p) (By Frequency Groups) (In tonnes) No.9 5.8 66.2 0.0 2.2 0.3 1.8 7.9 5.7 1.0 0.1 19.2 13.7 1.9 7.4 Cumulative percentage 2006-07 0. 49-8 .5 27.1 2.0 3.0 1.3 1.6 100.2 7.8 12.0 2.5 73.0 100.2 13.2 35.0 7.4 64.1 1.

Opencast manual mining is followed in most kaolin mines. Clay and overburden are quarried in benches. The most common practice is to dig trial pits for locating clay pockets or beds which are gradually enlarged into pits of various dimensions. Almost all the china clay user industries except cement. PROCESSING & MARKETING China clay deposits worked in India are mostly of pocket-type. Crude china clay is normally processed outside the leasehold area. 2007-08 (p) (By States) (In tonnes) State India Andhra Pradesh Chhattisgarh Gujarat Jharkhand Karnataka Kerala Madhya Pradesh Maharashtra Orissa Rajasthan West Bengal At the beginning of the year 331595 58689 2138 3124 28456 8568 41999 17342 30 2362 103221 37538 At the end of the year 299612 47714 2126 42569 19503 5582 28370 34605 1654 99404 18085 Table . OTHER CLAYS AND SHALE Table . per tonne) Grade Grey clay/white clay +65% recovery Pink clay +65% recovery Inferior grade clay Chinaclay (bluefil waste) China clay powder Natural dried kaolin Kaolex paper coating grade Foot ware grade Detergent grade Agri clay Grade I Grade II Grade III China clay White clay Market Ex-mine Sulaikha (Andhra Pradesh) Ex-mine Sulaikha ((Andhra Pradesh) Ex-mine Sulaikha ((Andhra Pradesh) Ex-mine Kundara (Kerala) Ex-mine Kundara (Kerala) Ex-mine Kundara (Kerala) Ex-mine Kundara (Kerala) Ex-mine Kundara (Kerala) Ex-mine Kundara (Kerala) Ex-mine Kundara (Kerala) Ex-mine Neem-Ka-Thana (Rajasthan) Ex-mine Neem-Ka-Thana (Rajasthan) Ex-mine Neem-Ka-Thana (Rajasthan) Ex-mine Santalpur (Gujarat) Ex-mine Santalpur (Gujarat) 2005-06 450-475 200-250 150-200 135 1500 5000 6500 6500 5000 500 2800-3100 2500-2750 1000-1500 250 250 2006-07 450-500 250-300 200-250 135 2000 5500 6700 6700 5600 500 2850-3600 2500-2800 1000-2000 250 250 2007-08 (p) 475-525 300-350 200-250 135 2000 5500 6700 6700 5600 500 3900-4400 3050-3500 1000-2000 250 250 MINING. 2005-06 to 2007-08 (Domestic Markets) (In Rs. bulldozers and excavators are used to remove the overburden which is then transported through trucks/tractors/trailers.8 : Mine-head Stocks of Kaolin.9 : Prices of Kaolin. In few mines. China clay is often soft and easily extracted with no blasting required. insecticide and refractory units consume processed china clay.KAOLIN. The natural china clay is being processed in the 49-9 . BALL CLAY.

000 tpy kaolin capacity of various grades-air floated. green and dry strength. Grading is based primarily on white colouration and grit content. For filler and extender applications. Gujarat. iron and alumina contents. In addition. It is in the process of increasing capacity of calcined clay to 60. cosmetics. contents of alumina. brightness and viscosity (Table . The various trade names under which the levigated kaolin is marketed are Hibrite.2002 (Second Revision). West Bengal and Rajasthan. it must meet very rigid specifications. Birbhum district. as extender in fibre glass. spray drying and calcination are in practice.G. J h a r k h a n d . The recovery percentage of processed china clay from raw china clay ranges from as low as 14% to as high as 56%. Large number of levigation plants are installed in the country mostly in Kerala. hydrous and hydrous calcined. textile industries. bleaching (chemical decolourisation). Gujarat. etc. BIS has revised the specifications for china clay for ceramic industry to IS:2840 . plastic. Kannur district. A small quantity of crude kaolin is also marketed.K. Wo l k e m I n d i a L t d i s understood to have acquired a kaolin deposit with an initial 20.000 tpy. Gujarat.KAOLIN. B. Nadapa. Kerala. Reaffirmed 2002) for paint.000 tpy clay processing facility. synthetic zeolite. 49-10 . Mokdumnagar China Clay Processing Plant of West Bengal Projects Ltd Mohammad Bazar. Kerala Clays and Ceramic Products Ltd Payangadi. Spray dried. Reaffirmed 1999) for paper coating and filler for paper. processed china clay finds use i n o t h e r i n d u s t r i e s i n t h e c o u n t r y. particle size. catalyst. They are IS:505-1995 (Third Revision. water filter candles. Spray dried.000 tpy in the future. Jharkhand. China clay for ceramic and refractory applications is analysed for grit. such as. USES AND SPECIFICATIONS China clay (kaolin) is used in a number of industries in both crude and processed forms.000 tpy of calcined clays. plasticity. paper coatings. Kerala. fixed colour. There is a need to use more sophisticated processing techniques like ultra froth-flotation. colour. Besides ceramics. Ashapura is on the verge of establishing new production unit in Kerala with a 200. Bhuj district.C. ultramarine. EICL has capacity to produce 150. Reaffirmed 2000) for cosmetics and IS:7589-1974 (Reaffirmed 1998) for explosive & pyrotechnic industry. Veli. depending upon the quality of china clay in different states. soaps & detergents and explosives & pyrotechnic industries. Other uses of china clay are in ink.C. West Bengal and Hindalco's Beneficiation Plant at Bagru Plateau in Lohardaga d i s t r i c t . The capacity is to further expand to 40. OTHER CLAYS AND SHALE country mostly by the conventional method of levigation/washing. Crude china clay also finds use in insecticide and refractory industries.000 tpy paper coating and filler grades of processed china clay.G. Lumps. Processed kaolin is being marketed under various trade names mostly in levigated and spray dried forms.K. Amrapalli China Clay Washing Plant. besides 20. etc. The major use for crude china clay in India is in cement industry whereas ceramic industry accounts for a major share of processed form of china clay. s u c h a s sealants. IS:1463-1983 (Third Revision. 20 Microns Ltd Mamuara. The Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) has prescribed specifications for china clay to be used in different industries. rubber. Cerefel . lumps. cryo-filter. particle size. BALL CLAY. Bhuj district. IS:681979 (First Revision. rubber. Thiruvananthapuram. K. hi-tech processes.10). Improved processing techniques could further the prospects of Indian kaolin in the international markets. brightness.C. pharmaceuticals and textiles. paint and as a filler for paper. high-intensity magnetic separator. The important plants amongst them are English India Clays Ltd (EICL). Mozeley hydrocyclone separator. such as. iron and titanium are some important factors which control the specifications of china clay for different end uses. The whiteness.

1 1.5 35-45 0.5 1. Larger than 10 microns in diameter (% by mass.5 - 0. 6 7.007 0.) Loss on drying (% max.001 1.5 25-40±10 1.) Fe2O3 Matter soluble in HCl CuO MnO Heavy metals (as Pb) As 2O3 pH value of aqueous extract Oil absorption (ml/100 gm) Water soluble matter (%. max.) Grit (% by mass. 5.0-7. min.) Smaller than 10 microns in diameter (% by mass. 4.5 - 2.0 5 ppm 2 ppm 7.5-2. 49-11 . * As agreed. 9.0 60.5-2. II) 0.8 5.) Water Plasticity (%) Shrinkage linear a) Dry shrinking b) Fired shrinking Relative/Bulk density Colour reflectance to blue light (%) Chemical (% by mass.5 (Gr. max.90(BD) @ 0. * 0. No.0 2.0 2.5 ( Gr.5-7.013 10 ppm 4.9 80-85 0.0 0. textile Grade II 505 (1995) Paint Grades I & II Cosmetics Explosives 1.KAOLIN.0 - - 10.5 14. rubber.65-0. @ To pass test for iron and carbonate as well.5 15 - 1.) Loss on ignition (% max. 14.5 6-8.5-7.5 50 (min) 0.5 6.5-2.0 - 3.75 1.5-1 4.0 10-14 - 2.0 75.0 14-15. 505 (1995) 68 (1979) 1463 (1983) 7589 (1974) 2.0 14-15. Characteristics Paper coating Grade I Filler in paper. 8.5 0. BALL CLAY. 12.I) 2.) 2. max.0 1.0 0.5 2.5 13. Fineness (by 45 micron 53 micron 63 micron 90 micron weight % material retained on:) sieve sieve sieve sieve 0.5 14. 11. Bureau of Indian Standard Specification No. max.0 15.6 0.9 * 0. OTHER CLAYS AND SHALE Table – 10 : Specifications of China Clay Required in Different Industries Sl.

from 879. Data collected on non-statutory basis. UK (7%) (Table-12. paper . refractories and pesticides industries. Kaolin is mined. * Includes 2 units which processed crude china clay to the tune of 58. TRADE POLICY As per the Foreign Trade Policy (FTP) 2004-2009.400 tonnes. asbestos-products. dry cell battery. chemicals.) Table . and UK accounted for about 58% world production. No foreseeable crunch in meeting the world demand is envisaged. there are no restrictions in exports and imports of china clay (kaolin). Rep. Ceramic industry accounted for 64% consumption followed by cement (29%). cosmetic. followed by China (13%). of Malaysia Mexico Spain Turkey UK USA Vietnam Other countries (e) Table . The world resources of kaolin are very large. chemical.11 : Reported Consumption of Kaolin* (China clay). Pesticide. Figures rounded off. each during 2005-06. electrode and textile). Brazil.400 tonnes in 2007-08. The china clay processed by these plants in turn is consumed by various industries except cement. improved processing technologies are facilitating usage of hitherto unuseable china clay deposits which are today abundantly exploited and are made suitable for various consuming industries. The world production of kaolin at 25. Figures in parentheses denote the number of units in organised sector reporting industrial consumption. dry cell batteries. 1/ Pertains to raw/unprocessed china clay. BALL CLAY.600 tonnes in 2006-07. 1762 7470 800 (e) 1671 (e) (e) 3779 4445 Source : World Mineral Production. 49-12 . refractory. 2003-2007.KAOLIN. 2006-07 and 2007-08. USA. OTHER CLAYS AND SHALE CONSUMPTION The main consuming industry for raw china clay is the china clay processing/refining plants. paint. electrode and glass industries together accounted for about remaining 7%. Alternatively. Four countries. Consumption of china clay decreased to 838. WORLD REVIEW Occurrences of kaolin are widespread in the world. asbestos products. Brazil (10%). namely. the major consumer of raw china clay. processed and traded by most of the countries. electrical.5 million tonnes in 2007 showed slight increase over that in the previous year. for supply of refined/processed china clay to ceramic industry. rubber. China.12 : World Production of Kaolin (By Principal Countries) (In '000 tonnes) Country World : Total Brazil China Czech Republic France Germany Iran Korea. the consumption of china clay by various industries is given in Table-11. However. 2005-06 to 2007-08 (By Industries) (In tonnes) Industry 2005-06 (R) 2006-07 879600 243400 (9) 534800(236) 2200 (5) 2300 (3) 23700(23) 20200(20) 25200(20) 23200(26) 3000(30) 1600(39) 2007-08(p) 838400 245600 (9) 537400 (236) 2200 (5) 2300 (3) 23700 (23) 20200 (20) 25200 (20) 23200 (26) 3000 (30) 1600 (39) All Industries 875700 Cement 1/ Ceramic* Cosmetic Glass Paint Paper Pesticide Refractory Rubber 238400 (9) 535500(236) 2200 (3) 2300 (3) 23700(23) 20200(20) 25200(20) 23600(25) 3000(30) 2005 25500 2410 3120 649 319 750 531 1075 495 877 463 615 1911 7800 780 3705 2006 25400 2455 3270 673 300 (e) 2007 25500 2527 3300 (e) 682 307 750 NA 1054 588 971 475 600 7330 800 (e) 750 803 959 341 962 476 600 (e) Others 1600(39) (abrasive. The share of USA in total world production was about 29%. abrasive. The data on raw china clay consumption by various china clay processing plants are not readily available. electrical.

quality tableware and procelain. Great Longstones and Lower Longstones pits is being carried out and gives a better quality control for selected products. The mines exploit high-quality sedimentary seams of kaolin. some dry mining from the Dorothy.000 tpy. In Huaibei.14). the current capacity is 20.550 tonnes in 2007-08 from 29. RCC has completd expansion to 1 million tpy capacity taking the Brazilian kaolin processing capacity to 3. Asia (9%). calcined product suitable for paper and speciality markets. Ltd is mining clay in underground and stock piled at the surface. Imports Imports of kaolin increased to 43.’000) 299605 65614 58479 27862 21724 21114 17126 12007 8243 6317 5110 56009 Country Qty (t) All Countries UAE 70233 30236 24886 646 1386 2311 857 1016 643 640 7612 Value (Rs. Dry mining now accounts for 45% of the total kaolin mined. China (14%) and Brazil (13%) (Table .2 million tpy.’000) 339547 126216 79308 10011 19159 20161 5235 8873 10140 8921 51523 China Grey clays associated with coal measures in northern China have often low iron titanium. Anhui Province. a privately owned company is the only other producer with a capacity of 2. mainly North America (31%).457 tonnes in 2007-08 from 70. There are two operating mines and 15 underdeveloped deposits (13 controlled by CVRD and two by CPRM) in the Capim River Basin. now controlled by Imerys (A French group). The world demand for kaolin used for coating purposes is around 8 million tonnes per year. In Cornwall.000 tpy and mainly exported for use in paper and paint.233 tonnes in 2006-07. Japan (15%) and others (11%). Imerys. Europe (35%). The Goonvean. They yield a high quality. Bangladesh Egypt Thailand Sri Lanka Angola UK In UK majority of deposits in Cornwall and Devon.806 tonnes in 2006-07. Indonesia (21%).13 : Exports of Kaolin (By Countries) 2006-07 2007-08 Qty (t) 59457 16704 21388 2032 2087 2770 2500 1887 1054 501 287 8247 Value (Rs. Coating kaolin production capacity is now 10 million tonnes per year. BALL CLAY. which has low iron and titanium. the Golden Rock Kaolin Co. high brightness. which gives rise to good-fired whiteness and translucency in tableware (in both oxidative and reductive firing conditions). Brazil.KAOLIN. Almost half the refined kaolin (about 13 million tonnes per annum) produced in the USA. OTHER CLAYS AND SHALE About fifty countries are known to produce kaolin ranging from relatively low cost unprocessed common clays to processed grades of kaolin. USA. mining of kaolin has been done by wet process. The production of refined kaolin is concentrated in countries. traditionally.50. namely. particularly in the vicinity of the Jari and Capim rivers has been conducted over the past many years. UK and China that account for more than half the world kaolin production. Table . FOREIGN TRADE Exports Exports of kaolin decreased to 59. UK and Brazil enters in world trade. Major suppliers were USA (38%). Goonvean has developed a product called Diamond Star for use in high 49-13 Jordan Mauritius Indonesia Italy Other countries .13). as the world's largest kaolin producer now controls Imerys Rio Capim Caulim SA (RCC). Brazil Exploration for kaolin in the Amazon basin. However. Bangladesh (36%) and UAE (28%) were the major importing countries in 2007-08 (Table .

Iran. Ball clay and china clay differ only in the degree of plasticity.’000) 460541 188184 74563 59895 54545 23701 9548 9226 7239 7235 5489 20916 2007-08 Efforts to foray into the potential markets like Egypt.4. More than 63% resources are in Andhra Pradesh. 49-14 . 2. besides increasing the exports to the traditional and neighbouring markets like Bangladesh. RESOURCES The total resources of ball clay as on 1.13663957 16784979 28834436 11927848 3019993 13609068 28556909 2858778 42784 1071322 3972884 112700 1564086 1330782 2279330 36700129 41987027 70543936 46134 67320 107800 4553122 221254 4553122 221254 8526006 STD122 Total A Feasibility STD211 Remaining resources Pre-feasibility STD221 STD222 112700 1610220 1398102 2279330 41361051 46761403 79291196 Indicated STD332 Inferred STD333 Total B Total resources (A+B) 14786626 3062777 14680390 32529793 112700 1610220 1398102 Figures rounded off. All India reserves/resources of ball clay are given in Table-15. It is utilised generally after mixing with non-plastic clay to impart the desired plasticity in pottery. New capacities for processing have to be established and existing capacities have to be augumented in the country to meet the increased requirement of processed kaolin in the future.KAOLIN. enamels and for imparting a dense vitrified body. the reserves are about 32. followed by Rajasthan 36%.29 million tonnes.53 million tonnes and the remaining resources are 46.103560 8108900 152950 146250 249810 3787607 12049457 . UAE. Ball clay is a highly plastic variety of kaolin having high binding power. Jordan and Pakistan need to be prioritised. China clay is less plastic than ball clay.2279330 27647424 29926754 50157280 49670 49670 299480 . Ball Clay Ball clay and china clay are used for similar purposes in ceramic and pottery.2005 (By Grades/States) (In tonnes) Reserves Grade/State Proved STD111 Probable STD121 All India : Total By Grades Ceramic/pottery Others Unclassified By States Andhra Pradesh Gujarat Rajasthan 6677726 2806267 10746533 20230526 .76 million tonnes. Malaysia. Saudi Arabia and Bahrain. tensile strength and shrinkage. Hi-tech processing techniques may have to be adopted for generation of processed kaolin in future. Out of these resources. The future requirement of processed kaolin in the domestic market is expected to grow substantially. Table . OTHER CLAYS AND SHALE Table . ceramic/pottery grade constitutes 89%.14 : Imports of Kaolin (By Countries) 2006-07 Country Qty (t) All Countries USA China Indonesia Brazil UK Czech Republic New Zealand Australia Spain France Other countries 29806 16694 4443 3873 1147 439 147 378 377 842 1466 Value (Rs. BALL CLAY.4.’000) 393054 227172 52566 41548 20623 3820 3854 7639 6155 10391 19286 Qty (t) 43550 16688 6122 8945 5698 1515 1262 380 351 526 443 1620 Value (Rs. Out of the total resources. porcelain and refractory materials. It also helps in the preparation of glaze. Sri Lanka and Nepal as also other prospective markets such as. FUTURE OUTLOOK India has abundant resources of kaolin which can easily meet both the internal and the external demands.2005 in the country are placed at 79. Zimbabwe. Resources in Gujarat are nominal. Kenya.15 : Reserves/Resources of Ball Clay as on 1. The processing of kaolin in the country is done mostly by conventional methods like levigation and washing.

Bikaner-334 004 Rajasthan. Ameerrpet Pancom Business Center Hyderabad–500 016. in tonnes. Domestic prices of ball clay are furnished in Table . The remaining one percent of production was the contribution of Tamil Nadu and Gujarat (Tables . Congress Office Road. Tahlaram & Sons.19). Ltd House No. Jaichandlal Daga Bagree Mohalla Bikaner-334 001. Six principal producers accounted for above 73% of total production.S. The share of public sector mines in the total production was 13 % and the balance 87% production was reported from the private sector. P.M.16 to 18). Rathkhana Colony.. Bikaner-334 001. Mine-head stocks of ball clay at the end of the year 2007-08 were 230 thousand tonnes as against 401 thousand tonnes at the beginning of the year (Table . Eluru. 2005-06 to 2007-08 (By States) (Qty. BALL CLAY. Rajasthan. Highway. Rajasthan Anirudh Mines and Minerals Near Ramdev Park. while Andhra Pradesh was second with 36%. There were 33 reporting mines during 2007-08 as against 31 in the previous year. OTHER CLAYS AND SHALE PRODUCTION. S. Andhra Pradesh Mineral Dev. O. Table – 16 : Principal Producers of Ball clay 2007-08 Location of mine Name & address of producer State Harish Clays.KAOLIN. Rajasthan District Bikaner Andhra Pradesh West Godavari Rajasthan Bikaner Andhra Pradesh West Godavari Rajasthan Bikaner Rajasthan Bikaner Table . Ditt.17 : Production of Ball Clay. Corpn. Andhra Pradesh. Jaipur–302 003.20. Vijayabharti Corporation. STOCKS & PRICES The production of ball clay at 641 thousand tonnes in 2007-08 increased by 2% as compared to that in the previous year owing to market demand. West Godavari. The average daily employment of labour in 2007-08 was 317 as against 276 in the previous year.8-3-945. value in Rs. Rajasthan occupied the leading position contributing 63% of the total production during the year. out side Nathusar Gate. Prem Prakash. ’000) 2005-06 State Quantity India Andhra Pradesh Gujarat Rajasthan Tamil Nadu 406675 196391 4785 198593 6906 Value 49315 18148 718 29413 1036 Quantity 626801 251320 30 368451 7000 Value 138652 63731 4 73335 1582 Quantity 640869 229463 25 402935 8446 Value 145656 70909 3 72835 1909 2006-07 2007-08 (p) 49-15 . Rajasthan.

2007-08 (p) (By States) (In State India Andhra Pradesh Gujarat Rajasthan Tamil Nadu At the beginning of the year 401033 107723 499 290776 2035 At the end of the year 230368 104005 489 125145 729 tonnes) 49-16 .18 : Production of Ball clay.’000) 2006-07 State/District No.19 : Mine-head Stocks of Ball Clay. of mines 33 2 31 11 1 10 2 1 1 19 19 1 1 Quantity Value 2007-08 (p) 626801 104366 522435 251320 18800 232520 30 30 0 368451 368451 7000 7000 138652 5866 132786 63731 2914 60817 4 4 0 73335 73335 1582 1582 640869 84503 556366 229463 17385 212078 25 15 10 402935 402935 8446 8446 145656 4571 141085 70909 2682 68227 3 2 1 72835 72835 1909 1909 Table .KAOLIN. value in Rs. BALL CLAY. OTHER CLAYS AND SHALE Table . in tonnes. 31(1) 2 29(1) 13(1) 1 12(1) 1 1 0 16 16 1 1 Quantity Value No. 2006-07 and 2007-08 (By Sectors/States/Districts) (Qty. of mines India Public sector Private sector Andhra Pradesh East Godavari West Godavari Gujarat Kachchh Patan Rajasthan Bikaner Tamil Nadu Cuddalore * Associated with kaolin.

300 tonnes in 2007-08. Imports Imports of ball clay increased substantially in 2007-08 to 1.20 : Prices of Ball Clay.66.21: Consumption of Ball clay. Imports were mainly from Ukraine 89% and UK 9% (Table . T h e r e m a i n i n g consumption was reported by the refractory and abrasive industries (Table .21).22).700 tonnes in 2006-07 to 332. Data collected on non-statutory basis. About 98% consumption was accounted f o r b y c e r a m i c i n d u s t r y.340 tonnes from 77.23). FOREIGN TRADE Exports Exports of ball clay increased to 12. 2005-06 to 2007-08 (Domestic Markets) (In Rs.546 tonnes in 2007-08 from 10. 2005-06 to 2007-08 (By Industries) (In tonnes) Industry All Industries Abrasive Ceramic Refractory 2005-06 (R) 461600 100 (2) 2006-07 468700 100 (2) 2007-08 (p) 460000 100 (2) 450900 (224) 106000 (21) 458000 (222) 10600 (23) 449300 (222) 10600 (23) Figures rounded off.014 tonnes in the previous year. CONSUMPTION Consumption of ball clay decreased from 468. grade Select grade Grade I Grade II Double dressed 1st grade r. per tonne) Grade Sp. grade C & D grade Super grade Grade A Grade C Market Ex-mine Dwaraka Turamala (Andhra Pradesh) Ex-mine Dwaraka Turamala (Andhra Pradesh) Ex-mine Dwaraka Turamala (Andhra Pradesh) Ex-mine Dwaraka Turamala (Andhra Pradesh) Ex-mine Srikolayatji (Rajasthan) Ex-mine Srikolayatji (Rajasthan) Ex-mine Srikolayatji (Rajasthan) Ex-mine Srikolayatji (Rajasthan) Ex-mine Bikaner (Rajasthan) Ex-mine Bikaner (Rajasthan) Ex-mine Bikaner (Rajasthan) 2005-06 550 150 42 1200 1000 400 100 450 240 65 2006-07 1200-1500 550 150 42 1800 1100 550 195 550 290 90 2007-08 (p) 1200-1600 600 160 42 2000 1200 800 300 550 290 90 SPECIFICATIONS The specifications for plastic clay and washed plastic clay for use in ceramic industry are prescribed vide IS:4589 .572 tonnes in 2006-07. Exports were mainly to Bangladesh (Table.2002 (Third Revision). Table .m.o. BALL CLAY. 49-17 .KAOLIN. OTHER CLAYS AND SHALE Table . Figures in parentheses denote the number of units in the organised sector reporting consumption.

’000) 40459 35042 1481 1130 1097 954 365 171 160 28 28 3 2007-08 Table – 23 : Imports of Ball Clay (By Countries) 2006-07 Country Qty (t) All Countries Ukraine UK USA Japan Thailand Germany China France Belgium Unspecified Other countries 77014 60791 14043 359 140 671 118 751 118 23 Value (Rs.’000) 740262 574462 133625 7479 6259 2472 2382 2124 902 571 9808 178 2007-08 3. Clay (Others) Clay under this category includes aluminous. the major producing State. Entire production of clay(others ) was in private sector. PRODUCTION & STOCKS The production of clay(others) at 803 thousand tonnes in 2007-08 decreased by about 34% compared to that in the preceding year due to less demand.’000) 423548 247660 155493 4489 2550 4427 1995 5054 1569 311 Qty (t) 166340 147285 14216 689 380 357 142 305 76 40 2800 50 Value (Rs.KAOLIN. tile & brick-making clays. accounted for about 45% of the total production during 2007-08 followed by Madhya Pradesh 30%. Andhra Pradesh 19% and Karnataka 6%.’000) 36162 35074 932 108 48 ++ Qty (t) 12456 10968 200 416 400 220 127 16 81 26 2 ++ Value (Rs. OTHER CLAYS AND SHALE Table . About 40% of total production of clay(others) was reported from 9 mines as an associated mineral.22 : Exports of Ball Clay (By Countries) 2006-07 Country Qty (t) All Countries Bangladesh Dijibouti Sri Lanka China UAE Nepal Trinidad Kenya Hong Kong Saudi Arabia Other countries 10572 10320 190 54 8 ++ Value (Rs. There were 13 mines reporting production in 2007-08 as against 18 mines in the previous year. ferruginous. Gujarat. Nominal 49-18 . BALL CLAY.

Andhra Pradesh ** Madras Cements Ltd P. **G. Taluqa: Dhone. Kurnool. BALL CLAY.each reporting more than 67 thousand tonnes annually contributed 54% of the production (Tables .KAOLIN. 2005-06 to 2007-08 (By States) (Qty. two principal producers having four associated mines. N Vijay Post : Veldurthy. Maharshi Karve Road. Bermoti.24 : Principal Producers of Clay (Others).24 to 27). 2007-08 Location of mine Name & address of producer State Sanghi Industries Ltd P. Kumaraswamy Rajanagar. Mine-head stocks of clay(others) was 30 thousand tonnes at the end of 2007-08 as against 24 thousand tonnes at the beginning of the year (Table-28). 121. Kachchh-370 655. ’000) 2005-06 State Quantity India Andhra Pradesh Chhattisgarh Gujarat Karnataka Madhya Pradesh West Bengal 805765 186483 498253 8500 112281 248 Value 36006 16030 13841 595 5525 15 Quantity 1224235 245017 1077 534667 443000 474 Value 105245 34612 135 15696 54778 24 Quantity 802621 150941 160 364389 45000 242035 96 Value 63169 16501 40 10799 4500 31321 8 2006-07 2007-08 (p) 49-19 . ** Producing as an associated mineral. Taluqa : Jaggayyapet. Mumbai – 400 020. OTHER CLAYS AND SHALE amount of production was also reported from West Bengal. Among them. Krishna–521 457. Gujarat District Kachchh Madhya Pradesh Katni Andhra Pradesh Kurnool Andhra Pradesh Krishna Table – 25 : Production of Clay (Others). O. **The ACC Ltd ‘Cement House’. Ta l: Abdasa. in tonnes. About 92% of the production was contributed by four principal producers. Dist. Table . Dist. Domestic prices of clay (others) are furnished in Table -29. O. Dist. The average daily employment of labour was 112 during 2007-08 as against 155 in the previous year. Maharashtra. Andhra Pradesh. Gujarat. value in Rs.

7 2.9 2.7 1.7 2.1 0. in tonnes.9 100.7 100. BALL CLAY. value in 000) 2006-07 State/District No.0 0.1 0. of mines Production Group 2006-07 All Groups Up to 500 501 to 2000 2001 to 5000 5001 to 10000 10001 & above 18(7) 2(2) 5(1) 6(1) 5(3) 2007-08 13(9) 2(1) 2(3) 3(1) 2 4(4) Production for the group 2006-07 1224235 999 7022 27453 1188761 2007-08 802621 356 4993 13411 10876 772985 Percentage in total production 2006-07 100. OTHER CLAYS AND SHALE Table – 26 : Production of Clay (Others).1 0. 2006-07 and 2007-08 (p) (By Sector/States/Districts) (Qty. Table – 27 : Production of Clay (Others).6 1. of mines India Private sector Andhra Pradesh Adilabad Anantapur Godavari (East) Krishna Kurnool Chattisgarh Rajnandgaon Gujarat Kachchh Amreli Bhavnagar Madhya Pradesh Katni Karnataka Chiradurga We s t B a n g a l Bankura 18(7) 18(7) 10(5) 1 (2) 2 (1) 7(2) 2 2 5 2 2 1 (2) (2) 1 1 Quantity 1224235 1224235 245017 4906 4505 79030 126101 30475 1077 1077 534667 468112 62125 4430 443000 443000 474 474 Value 105245 105245 34612 245 317 13469 18915 1666 135 135 15696 13877 1553 266 54778 54778 24 24 No.1 0.1 2007-08 100.3 96.4 3. 2006-07 and 2007-08 (p) (By Frequency Groups) (In tonnes) No.0 0.6 2.3 Cumulative percentage 2006-07 0.2 97. 49-20 .KAOLIN.0 Figures in parentheses indicate the number of associated mines. of mines 13(9) 13(9) 9(6) 1 (2) 1 (2) 7(2) 1 1 2 2 (2) (2) (1) (1) 1 1 Quantity 802621 802621 150941 5569 2310 20100 68710 54252 160 160 364389 364389 242035 242035 45000 45000 96 96 Value 63169 63169 16501 278 221 3417 8384 4201 40 40 10799 10799 31321 31321 4500 4500 8 8 2007-08 (p) Figures in parentheses indicate the number of associated mines.0 2007-08 0.

775 tonnes in 2007-08 from 39. BALL CLAY.31).101 tonnes in 2007-08 from 19.KAOLIN. Bangladesh (18%) and UAE (8%) (Table. Table . per tonne) Grade Market 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 (p) White shale White clay crude Dolomite White clay Ex-mine Dhone (Andhra Pradesh) Ex-mine Bennavolu (Andhra Pradesh) Ex-mine Peapully (Andhra Pradesh) Ex-mine Satna (Madhya Pradesh) 85 48 50 150 85 50 50 150 85 50 50 150 49-21 .676 tonnes in 2006-07.263 tonnes in 2006-07. 2005-06 to 2007-08 (Domestic Markets) (In Rs.29 : Prices of Clay (Others). Ukraine (86%) and China (7%) were the main suppliers (Table .30). Exports were mainly to Malaysia (37%). OTHER CLAYS AND SHALE Table – 28 : Mine-head Stocks of Clay (Others). 2006-07p) (By States) (Qty. in tonnes) State India Andhra Pradesh Karnataka Madhya Pradesh West Bengal Chattisgarh Gujarat At the beginning of the year 23843 19617 337 182 1379 1540 788 At the end of the year 30341 25185 337 1573 1446 1680 120 FOREIGN TRADE Exports Exports of clay (others) increased to 23. Imports Imports of clay (others) decreased to 22.

it is utilised as a source of alumina in cement making. Now. BALL CLAY. Shale Shale which occurs with limestones as parting is rich in alumina content.823 thousand tonnes in 2007-08 decreased nominally than previous year. There were 5 reporting mines in both the years 2006-07 & 2007-08. 4. Rep.’000) 120574 84847 14035 12532 3526 1679 1079 601 547 165 86 1477 2007-08 PRODUCTION & STOCKS Production of shale used in manufacture of cement at 2. with better understanding. The average daily employment of labour in 2007-08 was 33 as against 34 in the previous year. Andhra Pradesh (14%) and remaining 1% by Meghalaya (Tables . The shale was posing a problem in the captive mines of cement companies as the clay content in shale was responsible for reducing the quality of limestone.’000) 82183 11643 7072 2047 6307 2913 2444 4814 4057 783 24428 15675 Qty (t) 23101 8608 4075 1380 1913 822 1734 1149 686 616 2118 Value (Rs.31 : Imports of Clay (Others) (By Countries) 2006-07 Country Qty (t) All Countries Ukraine USA China Germany France Brazil Australia Indonesia Spain UK Other countries 39676 36037 101 2970 78 222 228 5 14 21 Value (Rs. was 3% as against 4% in the Karnataka contributed 28% of the total production of shale followed by Madhya Pradesh (20%).32 to 34).’000) 191800 149306 3737 24924 3135 3264 3438 462 3173 361 Qty (t) 22775 19667 1017 1600 174 58 107 19 38 8 2 85 Value (Rs. OTHER CLAYS AND SHALE Table . About 100% production was reported by captive mines of cement plant in both the years. 49-22 . Himachal Pradesh (18%). About 93% of total production of shale was reported as an associated mineral by 12 limestone mines in 2007-08.of Syria Other countries 19263 5855 2172 362 1464 420 2279 1212 706 44 2774 1975 Value (Rs.KAOLIN.30 : Exports of Clay (Others) (By Countries) 2006-07 Country Qty (t) All Countries Malaysia Bangladesh Saudi Arabia UAE South Africa Nepal Kenya Sri Lanka Korea.’000) 80419 18546 12195 12067 6425 5529 4864 4807 3945 3139 8902 2007-08 Table . The share of public sector previous year. Maharashtra (19%). Mine-head stock at the end of 2007-08 was 37 thousand tonnes as against 30 thousand tonnes in the previous year (Table-35).

Andheri (E) Mumbai–400 093. Darlaghat. Himachal Pradesh. Churchgate. Solan–171 102.O. Mahakali Caves Road. '000) 2005-06 State Quantity India Andhra Pradesh Himachal Pradesh Karnataka Madhya Pradesh Maharashtra Meghalaya 2683852 334796 502780 823260 425728 597288 Value 67817 15271 2933 27461 3832 18320 Quantity 2849877 464698 490450 651711 474720 620286 148012 Value 90779 18348 4873 23462 4272 33459 6365 Quantity 2823089 390540 511950 800439 556864 533332 29964 Value 68717 15895 5262 26906 5051 14315 1288 2006-07 2007-08 (p) 49-23 .Kesoram Industries. * Producing as an associated mineral with limestone. Ahura Centre. 2005-06 to 2007-08 (By States) (Qty. BALL CLAY. (Prop. *Jaypee Rewa Cement Ltd. ‘A’ Wing. P. Rewa (M. Vasdatta Cements. Mumbai–400 020.O. Dist. 121. in tonnes. Dist. Cement House.585 222. *Gujarat Ambuja Cements Ltd. Dist. 1 st floor.KAOLIN. Ltd Post : Sedam .P. OTHER CLAYS AND SHALE Table – 32 : Producers of Shale. Gulbarga Karnataka. Maharshi Karve Road. Karnataka Himachal Pradesh District Gulbarga Bilaspur Maharashtra Andhra Pradesh Chandrapur Kurnool Himachal Pradesh Maharashtra Solan Chandrapur Madhya Pradesh Rewa Karnataka Gulbarga Table – 33 : Production of Shale. P. *Ultratech Cement Ltd. Jaypee Nagar.) . 2007-08 Location of mine Name and address of producer State *The ACC Ltd. Taluqa: Arki.486 450. value in Rs.

2006-07 and 2007-08 (By Sectors/States/Districts) (Qty. value in Rs.KAOLIN.’000) 2006-07 State/District No. BALL CLAY. OTHER CLAYS AND SHALE Table – 34 : Production of Shale. of mines India Public sector Private sector Andhra Pradesh Anantapur Kurnool Nalgonda Rangareddy Himachal Pradesh Bilaspur Solan Karnataka Gulbarga Madhya Pradesh Rewa Maharashtra Chandrapur Ya v a t m a l Meghalaya Khasi Hills East 5(11) 1(0) 4(11) 3(3) 1 (1) 1(2) 1(0) 0(2) (1) (1) (1) (1) (2) (2) 1(3) 1(1) (2) 1(0) 1(0) Quantity 2849877 102000 2747877 464698 3940 153000 205758 102000 490450 135600 354850 6 5 1 7 11 651711 474720 474720 620286 194374 425912 148012 148012 Value 90779 4794 85985 18348 355 3978 9221 4794 4873 2034 2839 23462 23462 4272 4272 33459 11506 21953 6365 6365 No. Table – 35 : Mine-head Stocks of Shale. in tonnes. 2007-08 (p) (By States) (In tonnes) State India Andhra Pradesh Meghalaya At the beginning of the year 30415 30415 At the end of the year 37270 30542 6728 49-24 . of mines 5(12) 1(0) 4(12) 3(3) 1 (1) 1(2) 1 (2) (1) (1) (2) (2) (2) (2) 1(3) 1(1) (2) 1 1 Quantity 2823089 71542 2751547 390540 3370 117701 197927 71542 5 11 9 5 0 166590 345360 800439 800439 556864 556864 533332 124736 408596 29964 29964 Value 68717 3577 65140 15895 304 3766 8248 3577 5262 2499 2763 26906 26906 5051 5051 14315 6627 7688 1288 1288 2007-08 (p) Note : Figures in parentheses indicate the number of associated mines.