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Monday, 17 December 2007 14:27
In the Philippines, about 70% of the total land area is sloping. With increasing population pressure, more and more of this sloping land has been brought under intense cultivation. Just consider: The country had about 17 million hectares of forests in 1934 when the population was less than 15 million. However, when the country's population had more than doubled in 1969, forestlands dwindled to about 10.4 million hectares. The forest lands further decreased to around 8.5 million hectares in 1976 and 7.4 million hectares in 1980, as population rose to 43 and 48 million, respectively.
It is estimated that as of 1990, there were only about 6.2 million hectares of forests left, a volume roughly 21% of the country's total land area of 30 million hectares. The Philippine population, on the other hand, is placed at about 63 million, of which about 17 million constitute the upland dwellers.
To save the remaining forests in the country, the Mindanao Baptist Rural Life Center (MBRLC), a non-governmental organization based in Kinuskusan, Bansalan, Davao del Sur, developed Sustainable Agroforest Land Technology or SALT 3 in 1987.
And out of nearly 15 million hectares of classified forest land in the country, more than 15 million hectares are already categorized as badly denuded and much of the remainder is in various stages of degradation.
SALT-3 is a variant of agroforestry and this manual will guide on how to put it up in your hillyland. And like most MBRLC technologies, SALT 3 has also ten basic steps, which are discussed in this manual.
Step 1: Set Up the Agroforestry Nursery
Ensure sufficient supply of planting materials for your agroforest farm by setting up your own
the production of healthy and vigorous planting stock is necessary. and seedbeds. Here are some timely tips: Sowing the seeds. Establish an accessible nursery (3 meter by 5 meters for nursery and about 5 feet by 10 feet) with the following fixtures: potting shed.Sustainable Agroforest Land Technology (SALT-3): A guide on how to grow crops with trees in the SALT s Monday. harden the seedlings first by gradually exposing them to sunlight and more open conditions. Prune the roots of species that can be outplanted bare root (mahogany. Before transplanting them to the field. Sow the seeds in a sterilized seedbed to avoid damping off. should also be made available. shovel. teak. Basic materials like watering cans for sprinkling seedlings. and spade. transplant shed. Use compost soil or topsoil mixed with dried manure during transplanting. For most forestry seeds. Sterilization may be done by pouring boiling water in the soil media where you will sow the seeds. etc. Transplanting. Do not allow weeds to compete with your transplants. fibrous lateral roots. Most forest tree seeds are hard to germinate so they need scarification. Mulch and shade the plants. Keep the seedbeds moist at all times.). 17 December 2007 14:27 nursery. There are several methods of seed scarification. water soak or hot water treatment. 2/7 . Do this over a period of 6 months in order to develop sturdy. Step 2: Care and Manage Your Seedlings For better growth and field survival. well-developed crown and many fine. The most common problem encountered in seedling establishment is damping off and insect defoliators. the most common methods are mechanical.
Step 5: Compartmentalize and Space Your Trees 3/7 . extra care must be exercised so as not to induce soil erosion when clearing the area. pineapple + cacao + durian) in one strip. leucocephala. Desmodium rensonii. Plant preferred short-term crops (examples: ginger.) following appropriate planting distances. You can use either partial or complete removal of vegetation whichever is more favorable to you. On areas with steep slope and highly erodible soils. In poorer acidic soils. Plant the identified contours with any of the following hedgerow species: Flemingia macrophylla. sweet potato.Sustainable Agroforest Land Technology (SALT-3): A guide on how to grow crops with trees in the SALT s Monday.) on every third strip. melon. etc. Avoid burning.. 17 December 2007 14:27 Step 3: Find the Contour Lines and Establish Your Food Crops on the Lower Portion of the Farm Find the contour lines of the farm's half lower portion by using an A-frame. Flemingia and Indigofera tyesmani are recommended. Multi-storey cropping may also be practiced (e. guava.g. upland rice. mung bean. The earlier you establish your food and cash crops. banana. Gliricidia sepium. lanzones. Leucaena diversifolia. mangosteen. Step 4: Prepare the Site for Your Wood Crops or Trees Locate the woodlot at the upper half of the project so that the agricultural component on the lower portion will benefit from the conserved moisture and nutrients from the wood crops. and L. These can be intercropped with fruit trees (rambutan. Follow the SALT-1 steps in establishing your food crops. the better off you will be in meeting your immediate needs. maize. Plant long-term crops (citrus. etc. coffee. black pepper. durian. etc. cacao.) on every first and second strips.
Step 8: Do Tree Stand Improvement Apart from regular ring-weeding and liberation cutting. see to it that non-legume short-term crops are replaced by leguminous ones and vice versa in every cropping. Soil is filled into the spaces and tamped firmly all around. Long-term ones like black pepper and rattan can be incorporated at the start of the second year.Sustainable Agroforest Land Technology (SALT-3): A guide on how to grow crops with trees in the SALT s Monday. Step 6: Outplant Your Trees This may be done at the start or up to the middle of the rainy season so that seedlings can get established prior to the dry season. For effective soil management. you can maximize the use of land space by following the high density strategy of establishing small-scale woodlots. Mulch the seedlings to insure higher linability. apply animal manure. yam bean. Be sure not to break the earth-ball when setting the seedlings into the planting hole. 17 December 2007 14:27 For a 3-fold objective of soil rehabilitation. The upper part of the earth-ball should be level or slightly deeper than the edge of the hole. firewood production and timber growing. cassava) can be intercropped in the forestry component during the first two years. For fast recovery of the seedlings. (Refer to Table 1 for further details about spacing).and medium-term and cash crops (ginger. Follow the contour when outplanting. Step 7: Intercrop Your Tree Crops Short. Remove 4/7 . improve the stand of your trees. sweet potato.
an upland farmer who follows the system has a farm that is well-protected and ameliorated soil due to integration and diversification scheme. Prune unnecessary branches. establishing a 2-hectare SALT 3 farm costs about P6. processed and marketed. equally distribute your nutrient additions. you will make your trees stunted. From the MBRLC experience. Trim the hedgerows once they start to shade the agricultural crops. fuelwood and roundwood from thinnings commence during the second year. and also conserve soil moisture. 5/7 . But don't over-prune. Thin out regularly your forestry area until the timber crop spacing requirement is complied with. Replant the missing hills if you feel the replanted trees can still catch up. All households and useful products must be gathered. Step 9: Harvest Your Agroforest Products Regularly Timely harvesting of crops saves waste (see Table 2 ).Sustainable Agroforest Land Technology (SALT-3): A guide on how to grow crops with trees in the SALT s Monday. otherwise. replanting is laborious and expensive and should be done only to maintain required spacing or density. trim the hedgerows regularly. This is also recommended only when mortality is more than 30%. In some instances. Practice crop rotation in your food crop production. 17 December 2007 14:27 the malformed trees. Step 10: Maintain Your SALT-3 Farm For one.00 Cost and return analysis conducted on the 5th year of operation showed that the technology can generate cash net profit of P1.97%.000. In the forestry components . Spread trimmings evenly throughout the field to check weeds.00 per month. minor forest crops can be planted under the trees.500. thus resulting in a sustainable farming system. However. Prune only the branches within the 505 of its total height from the ground to the top.forage from tree prunings. But on top of this economic benefit. Its return on investment (ROI) is 7.
indicus and S. 17 December 2007 14:27 Table 1. 1 x 1 1/4 macrophylla) Acacia auriculiformis Acacia mangium Sesbania formosa Leucaena diversifolia 1/16 1/16 1/18 1/4 2x2 2x2 1x1 1x1 4-6 m Bambusa spp. charcoal fodde -do-do- 6/7 .Sustainable Agroforest Land Technology (SALT-3): A guide on how to grow crops with trees in the SALT s Monday. saman) 1/4 Pterocarpus indicus Sweitenia macrophylla 1/8 1/8 Sesbania sesban (as intercrop of P. Harvesting Plan of Trees in SALT 3 Year 1 2 3-5 Species Leucaena diversifolia Sesbania sesban Samanea saman Harvesting Method Selective All-out Selective Uses Fuelwood. (as boundary) on border Table 2. Spacing (Initial and Final) of Trees in SALT 3 Component on top-down sequence Hectare Initial Samanea saman Final 1/4 Spacing (in meters) 1x1 8x8 2x2 2x2 Duration 8x8 8x8 4x4 4x4 1x1 2x2 2x2 1x1 1x1 4-6 m Calamus merilli (as intercrop of S.
2000. How to Series No. etc. 17 December 2007 14:27 6-14 Bamboo and rattan Selective Furniture. Sweitenia macrophylla Selective Acacia mangium All-out Acacia auriculiformis All-out Pterocarpus indicus Selective 15-25 Rattan Pterocarpus indicus Sweitenia macrophylla Samanea saman All-out All-out All-out Fuelwood and light construction -do-doTimber and furniture All-out Timber and furniture -do-do-do- Source: Mindanao Baptist Rural Life Center Editorial Staff.Sustainable Agroforest Land Technology (SALT-3): A guide on how to grow crops with trees in the SALT s Monday. 7. 15 p. 7/7 . light construction. Davao del Sur.