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Getting Started

Version 2

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508-647-7000 508-647-7001 The MathWorks, Inc. 3 Apple Hill Drive Natick, MA 01760-2098

For contact information about worldwide offices, see the MathWorks Web site. Getting Started with the Communications Blockset COPYRIGHT 2001 by The MathWorks, Inc.

The software described in this document is furnished under a license agreement. The software may be used or copied only under the terms of the license agreement. No part of this manual may be photocopied or reproduced in any form without prior written consent from The MathWorks, Inc. FEDERAL ACQUISITION: This provision applies to all acquisitions of the Program and Documentation by or for the federal government of the United States. By accepting delivery of the Program, the government hereby agrees that this software qualifies as "commercial" computer software within the meaning of FAR Part 12.212, DFARS Part 227.7202-1, DFARS Part 227.7202-3, DFARS Part 252.227-7013, and DFARS Part 252.227-7014. The terms and conditions of The MathWorks, Inc. Software License Agreement shall pertain to the governments use and disclosure of the Program and Documentation, and shall supersede any conflicting contractual terms or conditions. If this license fails to meet the governments minimum needs or is inconsistent in any respect with federal procurement law, the government agrees to return the Program and Documentation, unused, to MathWorks. MATLAB, Simulink, Stateflow, Handle Graphics, and Real-Time Workshop are registered trademarks, and Target Language Compiler is a trademark of The MathWorks, Inc. Other product or brand names are trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective holders.

Online only

Contents

Introduction

1

What Is the Communications Blockset? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-2 Related Products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-3 Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-4 Using This Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-5 Who Should Read This Guide? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-5 How to Use This Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-5 Typographical Conventions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-6

Building Models

2

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-2 New Simulink Users . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-2 Building Models of Communication Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-2 Running a Simulink Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-4 Overview of the Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-4 Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-6 Running a Simulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-6 Error Rate Calculation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-7 Error Rate Display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-8 Setting Block Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-8 Displaying a Plot of Phase Noise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-9 More Demos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-10 Building a Simple Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-11 The Basic Steps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-11

Opening Libraries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Moving Blocks into the Model Window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Connecting Blocks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Setting Block Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Setting Simulation Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Running the Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Adding Noise to the Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Saving the Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Finding Blocks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Discrete Signals and Sample Times . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Continuous Signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Frames and Frame-Based Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Building a Channel Noise Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Selecting Blocks for the Channel Noise Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . Drawing a Branch Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Resizing a Block . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Labeling a Block . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Components of the Channel Noise Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Running the Channel Noise Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . How Long to Run a Simulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Choosing Seeds for Random Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Reducing the Error Rate Using a Hamming Code . . . . . . . Building the Hamming Code Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hamming Encoder and Decoder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Setting Parameters in the Hamming Code Model . . . . . . . . . . Running the Hamming Code Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Displaying Frame Sizes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Displaying the Errors in a Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Observing the Errors in the Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Modeling a Channel with Modulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Binary Phase Shift Keying . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Selecting Blocks for the BPSK Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Building the BPSK Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Setting Parameters in the BPSK Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Running the BPSK Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2-11 2-13 2-15 2-16 2-17 2-19 2-20 2-22 2-22 2-23 2-23 2-23 2-24 2-25 2-27 2-27 2-27 2-28 2-29 2-29 2-29 2-31 2-31 2-32 2-33 2-34 2-34 2-35 2-38 2-40 2-40 2-41 2-41 2-41 2-42

ii

Contents

Selecting Blocks for the Cyclic Code Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Setting Parameters in the Cyclic Code Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . Running the Cyclic Code Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Setting the Symbol Period . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Displaying Frame Sizes and Frame Periods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Building a Frequency-Shift Keying Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Selecting Blocks for the FSK Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Setting Parameters in the FSK Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Running the FSK Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Delays in the Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Finding the Delay in the Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Multirate Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Using Sample Time Colors to Check Sample Times . . . . . . . . Building a Convolutional Code Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Selecting Blocks for the Convolutional Code Model . . . . . . . . . Building the Convolutional Code Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Setting Parameters in the Convolutional Code Model . . . . . . . Running the Convolutional Code Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2-43 2-44 2-45 2-45 2-45 2-47 2-48 2-50 2-51 2-53 2-54 2-56 2-56 2-58 2-58 2-60 2-60 2-61

3

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-2 Sending Data to the MATLAB Workspace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Configuring the Signal To Workspace Block . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Viewing the Output in the Workspace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sending Error Data to the Workspace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Working with Error Data in the Workspace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3-3 3-3 3-4 3-4 3-6

Running Simulations from the Command Line . . . . . . . . . . . 3-7 Running a Single Simulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-7 Running Multiple Simulations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-8 Setting Parameters in the Phase Noise Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-9 Plotting the Results of Multiple Simulations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-10

iii

Importing Data from the MATLAB Workspace . . . . . . . . . . Simulating a Signal by Importing Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Simulating Noise with Imported Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Creating Error Patterns in the Workspace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Setting Sample Times and Samples per Frame . . . . . . . . . . . . Simulating Bursts of Errors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Using an Interleaver Block to Reduce the Error Rate . . . . . . . Running the Interleaver Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Learning More . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Online Help . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Demos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The MathWorks Online . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3-12 3-12 3-13 3-14 3-15 3-16 3-17 3-19 3-21 3-21 3-21 3-21

iv

1

Introduction

What Is the Communications Blockset? . . . . . . . . 1-2 Related Products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-3 Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-4

Using This Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-5 Who Should Read This Guide? . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-5 How to Use This Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-5 Typographical Conventions . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-6

Introduction

The Communications Blockset is a collection of Simulink blocks for designing and simulating communications systems. With the Communications Blockset, you can design models in the form of block diagrams, using simple click-and-drag mouse operations. You can run simulations on a model at the push of a button, and change parameters while the simulation is running. The Communications Blockset contains ready-to-use blocks to model various processes within communications systems, including: Signal generation Source coding Error-correction Interleaving Modulation/demodulation Transmission along a channel Synchronization In addition, you can create specialized blocks, to implement your own algorithms. All of the power of MATLAB is available to you when you use the Communications Blockset. You can run simulations from the command line and invoke MATLAB expressions and M-files.

1-2

Related Products

Related Products

In addition to MATLAB, there are several other MathWorks products that are closely related to the Communications Blockset.

Note The toolboxes listed below include functions that extend MATLABs capabilities. The blocksets include blocks that extend Simulinks capabilities.

Product

Description

Simulink block libraries for the design and simulation of the IS-95A wireless communications standard MATLAB functions for modeling the physical layer of communications systems Simulink block libraries for the design, simulation, and prototyping of digital signal processing systems Tool that generates customizable C code from Simulink models and automatically builds programs that can run in real time in a variety of environments Tool for algorithm development, signal and linear system analysis, and time-series data modeling Interactive, graphical environment for modeling, simulating, and prototyping dynamic systems Tool for graphical modeling and simulation of complex control logic

Real-Time Workshop

Stateflow

1-3

Introduction

Installation

To build and run the models in this manual, the Communications Blockset and the products it requires (see below) must be installed: MATLAB Simulink Signal Processing Toolbox Communications Toolbox DSP Blockset You can find instructions for installing these products in the MATLAB Installation Guide for your platform. To determine what products are installed on your system, type ver at the MATLAB prompt. This displays information about which version of MATLAB you are running, including a list of all toolboxes and blocksets installed on your system. When you first start MATLAB, type commstartup at the MATLAB prompt. This sets simulation parameters that optimize the models you build with the Communications Blockset. You must type commstartup at each new MATLAB session. See the section Setting Simulation Parameters on page 2-17 to learn more about simulation parameters. The Communications Blockset provides demonstration files that show how to use the blockset to model communications systems. To launch these demos, type

demo

1-4

Who Should Read This Guide?

If you are a new user, this guide, Getting Started with the Communications Blockset is written for you. Its purpose is to quickly get you started using the Communications Blockset. It shows you how to:

Run a Simulink model Build and run models of communication systems Display the results of a simulation Change simulation parameters Run simulations from the MATLAB command line Transfer data between a model and the MATLAB workspace

If you are an experienced user, Using the Communications Blockset provides more detailed and comprehensive information about the blockset. In particular, the Reference chapter provides a detailed description of the operation and parameters of each of the blocks in the blockset.

This guide describes specific models of communication systems that you can build with the Communications Blockset. These examples will show you how to use the blockset and familiarize you with some of its features. The best way to learn about the blockset is to build these models for yourself as you read the guide. This guide contains two main chapters, in addition to this introduction: Chapter 2, Building Models introduces you to Simulink and explains how to build models with the Communications Blockset. Chapter 3, Using MATLAB with the Communications Blockset describes how to use MATLAB to expand the capabilities of the Communications Blockset.

1-5

Introduction

Typographical Conventions

This manual uses some or all of these conventions.

Item Convention Used Monospace font Example

Example code

A = 5

Function names/syntax

Monospace font

The cos function finds the cosine of each array element. Syntax line example is

MLGetVar ML_var_name

Keys Literal strings (in syntax descriptions in reference chapters) Mathematical expressions

f = freqspace(n,'whole')

letter

Monospace bold for literals

Italics for variables Standard text font for functions, operators, and constants

Monospace font

A = 5

MATLAB output

Menu titles, menu items, dialog boxes, and controls New terms Omitted input arguments

[c,ia,ib] = union(...)

letter Italics (...) ellipsis denotes all of the input/output arguments from preceding syntaxes.

Monospace italics

sysc = d2c(sysd,'method')

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2

Building Models

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-2 Running a Simulink Model Building a Simple Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-4

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-11

Building a Channel Noise Model . . . . . . . . . . . 2-24 Reducing the Error Rate Using a Hamming Code . . . 2-31 Modeling a Channel with Modulation . . . . . . . . 2-40 . . . . . 2-43

Reducing the Error Rate with a Cyclic Code Building a Frequency-Shift Keying Model Building a Convolutional Code Model

. . . . . . 2-47

. . . . . . . . 2-58

Building Models

Introduction

This chapter introduces you to Simulink and the Communications Blockset. The chapter begins by showing you how to run an existing Simulink model, and how to build a simple model. It then explains how to build typical models of communications systems using the Communications Blockset. These models show you how to use the blockset and illustrate some of its important features. We encourage you to build and run these models for yourself, as this is the best way to learn about the Communications Blockset.

If you are new to Simulink, the first two sections will get you started with building and running models: Running a Simulink Model on page 2-4 shows how to run a demo model that is included in the Communications Blockset. Building a Simple Model on page 2-11 explains how to build a Simulink model and how to use Simulink block libraries. The section also explains sample times, frames, and sample-based versus frame-based processing.

If you are already familiar with Simulink, you can skip to these later sections, which describe some typical models of communication systems: Building a Channel Noise Model on page 2-24 describes a model that simulates a channel with noise and calculates the bit error rate of data passing through the channel. Reducing the Error Rate Using a Hamming Code on page 2-31 describes how to add a Hamming code to the channel noise model to improve the error rate. The section also explains how to view errors in a scope. Modeling a Channel with Modulation on page 2-40 describes a model of a channel with binary phase shift keying (BPSK) modulation and additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN). Reducing the Error Rate with a Cyclic Code on page 2-43 shows how to add a binary cyclic code to the BPSK model to improve the error rate. The section also shows how to use a Probe block to determine frame sizes and frame periods of signals.

2-2

Introduction

Building a Frequency-Shift Keying Model on page 2-47 describes a model of frequency shift keying. The section explains delays created by blocks in the model and how to compensate for them. Building a Convolutional Code Model on page 2-58 describes a model of convolutional coding.

2-3

Building Models

This section describes a model of a communication system that comes with the Communications Blockset. To open the model, first start MATLAB. In the MATLAB Command Window, type phasenoise_sim at the prompt. This opens the model in a new window, as shown below.

The model simulates the effect of phase noise on quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) of a signal. During a simulation, the model generates a random signal and modulates it using QAM. The model then adds noise to the signal to simulate a channel. After demodulating the signal, the model calculates the symbol error rate and displays a scatter plot of the signal. Notice that the model in Figure 2-1 looks like a block diagram. The blocks generate and process data during a simulation. For example, the Random Integer Generator block, labeled Random int, is a source. The block generates a signal consisting of a sequence of random integers between zero and 255. This

2-4

signal then moves in the direction of the arrows to other blocks in the model. The following sequence of blocks processes the signal: The Rectangular QAM Modulator Baseband block, to the right of the Random Integer Generator block, modulates the signal using 256-ary QAM. The modulated signal is made up of complex numbers because the model uses a baseband representation of the signal. The AWGN Channel block simulates a channel with noise, by adding additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) to the modulated signal. The Phase Noise block adds random noise to the angle of the complex signal. The Rectangular QAM Demodulator Baseband block, to the right of the Phase Noise block, demodulates the signal. In addition, the model uses the following blocks to calculate the errors introduced by noise and display the results: The Discrete Time Eye and Scatter Diagrams block, labeled AWGN plus Phase Noise, displays a scatter plot of the signal with added noise. The Error Rate Calculation block compares the received signal with the transmitted signal and calculates the number of symbols that differ between the two signals. The Display block, at the far right of the model window, displays the symbol error rate (SER), the total number of errors, and the total number of symbols processed during the simulation. Except for the Phase Noise block, which is specially designed for this demo, these are all standard blocks that are included in the Communications Blockset and Simulink. You can find more detailed information about any standard block by right-clicking on the block and selecting Help from the context menu. The rest of this section takes you through some key elements of working with this model, including: Running a simulation Error rate calculation Error rate display Setting block parameters Displaying a plot of phase noise

2-5

Building Models

Quadrature amplitude modulation is a method for converting a digital signal to a complex signal. This example uses baseband QAM, which modulates the signal to a sequence of complex numbers that lie on a rectangular lattice in the complex plane. The lattice is called the constellation of the signal. The constellation for 256-ary QAM is shown in the figure below.

Running a Simulation

To run a simulation, select the Simulation menu from the top of the model window and then select Start (or, on Microsoft Windows, click the Start button on the toolbar). The simulation will stop automatically at the Stop time, which is specified in the Simulation parameters dialog box see the section Setting Simulation Parameters on page 2-17. You can stop the simulation at any time

2-6

by selecting Stop from the Simulation menu at the top of the model window (or, on Microsoft Windows, by clicking the Stop button on the toolbar). When you run the model, a new window appears displaying a scatter plot of the modulated signal with added noise, as shown below.

The points in the scatter plot do not lie exactly on the constellation shown in Figure 2-2, due to the added noise. The radial pattern of points is due to the addition of phase noise, which alters the angle of the complex modulated signal.

The Error Rate Calculation block calculates the error rate of the channel. The block has two input ports, one labeled Tx for the transmitted signal, and the

2-7

Building Models

other labeled Rx for the received signal. The block compares the two signals and checks for errors. The output of the block is a vector with three entries: The symbol error rate (SER) The total number of errors The total number of comparisons made

The Display block, labeled Error Rate Display, displays the errors introduced by the channel noise. When you run the model, three small boxes appear in the block, as shown in Figure 2-4, displaying the vector output from the Error Rate Calculation block.

The upper box displays the symbol error rate. The middle box displays the total errors received. The lower box displays the total number of comparisons made. The notation 1e+004 is shorthand for 104.

You can control the way a Simulink block functions by setting its parameters. To view or change a blocks parameters, double-click on the block. This opens a dialog box called the blocks mask. For example, the mask for the Phase Noise block is shown below.

2-8

To change the amount of phase noise, click in the Phase noise field and type a new value. Then click OK. Alternatively, you can enter a variable name, such as phasenoise, in the field. You can then set a value for that variable at the MATLAB prompt in the Command Window, for example by typing phasenoise=2. Setting parameters at the command line is convenient if you need to run multiple simulations with different parameter values see the section Running Multiple Simulations on page 3-8. You can also change the amount of noise in the AWGN Channel block. Double-click on the block to bring up its mask, and change the value in the Es/ No parameter field. This changes the signal to noise ratio, in decibels. Decreasing the value of Es/No increases the noise level. You can experiment with the model by changing these or other parameters and then running a simulation. For example: Change Phase noise to 0 in the mask for the Phase Noise block. Change Es/No to 100 in the mask for the AWGN Channel block. This essentially removes all noise from the model. When you now run a simulation, the scatter plot appears as in Figure 2-2.

Double-click on the block labeled Display Figure at the bottom left of the model window. This displays a plot showing the results of multiple simulations.

2-9

Building Models

Each curve is a plot of bit error rate as a function of signal to noise ratio for a fixed amount of phase noise. You can create plots like this by running multiple simulations with different values for the Phase noise and Es/No parameters. The section Running Multiple Simulations on page 3-8 describes how to do this with a MATLAB script, using variables for the parameters.

More Demos

You can find more demos for the Communications Blockset by typing demo at the MATLAB prompt. This displays the MATLAB Demo Window. Double-click on Blocksets in the left-hand pane, and then select Communications. Select a demo in the right-hand pane, and then click Run.

2-10

In the previous section, you ran a model that was already built. This section explains how to build a simple Simulink model. It gives an example of a model that displays a sine wave in a scope. For more detailed information on building models, see Using Simulink.

This section describes the basic steps in building a model. It explains how to: Open libraries Move blocks into a model window Connect the blocks Set block parameters Set simulation parameters Run the model Add noise to the model Save the model Find blocks Building a model usually involves several iterations, as you decide which blocks to include and what parameter settings to make. In the example in this section, you will refine the model by adding noise. The section also explains: Discrete signals and sample times Continuous signals Frames and frame-based processing

Opening Libraries

The blocks that you need to build the model are contained in libraries. In addition to the main Simulink libraries, each of the blocksets has its own libraries, which contain blocks specifically designed for the blocksets intended applications. The most useful libraries for communications applications are contained in the Communications Blockset and the DSP Blockset.

2-11

Building Models

To view all of the libraries for the products you have installed, type simulink at the MATLAB prompt (or, on Microsoft Windows, click the Simulink icon on the MATLAB toolbar). If you are using Microsoft Windows, this displays the Simulink Library Browser, as shown below.

The left-hand pane displays the installed products. The right-hand pane displays the main Simulink libraries. Click the + sign next to DSP Blockset in the left-hand pane. This displays a list of the DSP Blockset libraries underneath DSP Blockset in the left-hand pane, as shown in Figure 2-8. Next, click on DSP Sources in the left-hand pane. This displays the blocks in the DSP Sources library. On a UNIX platform, typing simulink at the MATLAB prompt displays the Simulink Library window shown below.

2-12

To open a Simulink library, double-click its icon. To open libraries for other blocksets and toolboxes, double-click the Blocksets & Toolboxes icon. This opens a new window that displays the icons for the libraries. Double-click the icon of the library you wish to open.

To create a model, start by opening a new model window. You can do this by selecting New from the File menu in the Library Browser or in the MATLAB window, and then selecting Model. This opens an empty model window, as shown at the right of Figure 2-9 below.

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Building Models

Next, move the Sine Wave and Vector Scope blocks from the Library Browser into the model window as follows:

1 Click the + sign next to DSP Blockset in the left pane of the Library

Browser. This displays the DSP Blockset libraries in the left pane.

2 Select DSP Sources in the left pane. This displays a list of the individual

blocks in the right pane of the Library Browser. Scroll down the list until you come to the Sine Wave block.

3 Click the Sine Wave block and drag it into the model window. To drag a

block, position the mouse pointer over the block icon, then press and hold down the mouse button. Move the pointer into the model window, then release the mouse button.

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4 Select DSP Sinks in the left pane of the Library Browser. 5 Click the Vector Scope block in the right pane and drag it into the model

window. Position the Vector Scope block to the right of the Sine Wave block. Once a block is in the model window, you can move it to another position by clicking and dragging it while pressing the mouse button.

Connecting Blocks

The small arrowhead pointing outward from the right side of the Sine Wave block is an output port, which denotes the flow of data out of the block. The Vector Scope block has a small arrowhead pointing inward, which is an input port. To connect the two blocks, click the output port of the Sine Wave block and move the mouse toward the input port of the Vector Scope block, while pressing the mouse button, as shown below.

When the pointer is on the input port of the Vector Scope block, release the mouse button. You should see a solid arrow appear, as in the figure below.

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If you do not see a solid arrowhead, you have not made a good connection, and data will not flow between the blocks. In this case, click the arrowhead again, drag it all the way to the Vector Scopes input port, and release the mouse button.

To set parameters for the Sine Wave block, double-click on the block to bring up its mask, as shown below.

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Change the default parameters as follows: Set Amplitude to 5. Set Frequency to 30. Set Samples per frame to 100. See the section Frames and Frame-Based Processing on page 2-23 for information about frames. Click OK.

Besides individual block parameters, the model also has overall simulation parameters. To view these, select the Simulation menu at the top of the model window and then select Simulation parameters. This opens a dialog box, as shown below, in which you can change the models parameters.

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One important parameter is Stop time, which determines the time at which the simulation ends. The default is 10.0 seconds. This is simulation time, not actual clock time. The actual run-time for a simulation depends on such factors as the models complexity and your computers clock speed. Click the field next to Stop time and change the setting to inf. This causes the simulation to run indefinitely, until you stop it by selecting Stop from the Simulation menu.

Note if you want to generate code using Real Time Workshop, select Fixed-step in the Type list under Solver options.

To conserve memory, click the Workspace I/O tab in the Simulation Parameters dialog box. Under Save to workspace, uncheck the boxes next to Time and Output. It is usually not necessary to save this data. Changing Simulation parameters settings only affects the parameters of the current model. The next section describes how to make these settings the defaults for any models you create in a MATLAB session.

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You can make all of the simulation parameter settings described in the previous section the defaults by typing commstartup at the MATLAB prompt. This changes the default settings for any models you create during the current MATLAB session, but does not change the settings for models that already exist. You must type commstartup at each new MATLAB session to establish these default settings.

Run the model by selecting Start from the Simulation menu. When you do so, a scope window appears, displaying a sine wave as shown in the figure below.

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When you are finished observing the simulation, select Stop from the Simulation menu.

You can add noise to the model using the AWGN Channel block, from the Channels library of the Communications Blockset. The block adds white Gaussian noise to the sine wave. Move the block from the Simulink Library Browser into the model window, as described in the section Moving Blocks into the Model Window on page 2-13. You can add the block to the model as follows:

1 Extend the line between the Sine Wave block and the Vector Scope block by

dragging the Vector Scope block to the right, to make room for the AWGN Channel block.

2 Click the AWGN block and drag it onto the line. This automatically connects

the Sine Wave block and the Vector Scope block to the AWGN Channel block.

Double-click on the AWGN Channel block to bring up its mask, as shown below.

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Click on the down arrow in the Mode field and select Signal to noise (SNR). Now, when you run the model, the scope clearly show the added noise.

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When you are finished observing the simulation, stop the model by selecting Stop from the Simulation menu.

To save your model for future use, select Save from the File menu. The first time you save the model, this displays the Save As dialog box. Type a name for the model, such as sine, in the File name field. Then click Save. This saves the model in the Work subdirectory of the MATLAB root directory. To load the model in a future MATLAB session, type the name of the model (without the extension mdl) at the MATLAB prompt.

Finding Blocks

You can search for a block in the Simulink Library Browser by typing a keyword in the field next to Find, at the top of the Browser window, and

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clicking Find. This displays the next block that contains the keyword. To repeat the search, click Find again.

The Sine Wave block in the DSP Blockset generates a discrete signal. This means that it updates the signal at integral multiples of a fixed time interval, called the sample time. You can set the length of this time interval in the Sample time parameter in the blocks mask. In this example, the Sample time has the default value of 1/1000. All of the sources in the Communications Blockset and the DSP Blockset generate discrete signals exclusively. These sources are primarily designed for modeling digital communication systems. To learn more about sample times, see the sections Displaying Frame Sizes and Frame Periods on page 2-45.

Continuous Signals

The Simulink libraries also contain blocks that generate continuous signals. This means that they update the signal at variable time intervals, whose length is determined by the numerical solver the simulation uses. For example, the Sine Wave block in the Simulink Sources library can generate a continuos sine wave.

Note Many blocks in the Communications Blockset accept only discrete signals. To find out whether a block accepts continuous signals, consult the reference page for the block.

A frame is a sequence of samples combined into a single vector. In the model in Figure 2-13, the Samples per frame parameter is set to 100, so each frame contains 100 samples. The scope in Figure 2-13 displays one frame of data. In frame-based processing, which this example uses, all of the samples in a frame are processed simultaneously. In sample-based processing, samples are processed one at a time. The advantage of frame-based processing is that it can greatly increase the speed of a simulation. If you see double lines between blocks, the model uses frame-based processing.

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This section shows how to build a simple model of a communication system. The model, shown in the figure below, contains the most basic elements of a communication system a source for the signal, a channel with noise, and means of detecting errors caused by noise.

The model generates a random binary signal, and then switches the symbols 0 and 1 in the signal according to a specified probability, to simulate a channel with noise. The model then calculates the error rate and displays the result. We encourage you to build the model for yourself, as this is the best way to learn how to use the Communications Blockset. To open a completed version of the model, click here in the MATLAB Help browser. Then save it in your Work directory as my_channelnoise to preserve the original model intact. The section explains how to: Select blocks for the model Draw a branch line Resize a block Label a block The section also explains: The components of the model How to run the model How long to run a simulation Choose seeds for random sources

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To build the model, you need the following blocks from the Communications Blockset: Bernoulli Random Binary Generator block, from the Comm Sources library Binary Symmetric Channel block, from the Channels library Error Rate Calculation block, from the Comm Sinks library In addition you need a Display block, from the Simulink Sinks library. Drag these blocks from the Simulink Library Browser into a new model window. Before connecting the blocks, double-click on the Error Rate Calculation block to bring up its mask, as shown below.

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Set Output data to Port and click OK. This creates a new output port on the block. Next, connect the blocks as in Figure 2-17. To learn how to do this, see the section Connecting Blocks on page 2-15. The next section explains how to draw the upper branch line.

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The upper line in Figure 2-17 from the Bernoulli Random Binary Generator block to the Error Rate Calculation block is called a branch line. You can use branch lines to carry the same signal to more than one block. To draw the branch line:

1 Right-click on the line between the Bernoulli Random Generator block and

2 Move the mouse pointer to the input port of the Error Rate Calculation

3 Release the mouse button.

You can create more space between the branch line and the Binary Symmetric Channel block by clicking on horizontal section of the line and dragging it up in the model window.

Resizing a Block

In order to see all three boxes in the Display block, as in Figure 2-4, you must enlarge the block slightly. To do so, select the Display block and place the mouse pointer on one of the lower corners of the Display block, so that a diagonal arrow appears on the corner. Click on the arrow and drag it downward, until the height of the Display block is about one inch. The three windows will not appear until you run the model.

Labeling a Block

You can change the label that appears below a block to make the label more informative. For example, you can change the default label of the Display block to Error Rate Display. To do so, first select the label with the mouse, which causes a box to appear around the text. Then type changes to the text in the box.

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The Source

The source for the signal in this model is the Bernoulli Random Binary Generator block, which generates a random binary sequence. Double-click on the block to display its mask and make the following changes to the default parameters in the mask: Set Probability of a zero to .5. Set Initial seed to an arbitrary prime number greater than 30, such as 89. Changing the Initial seed parameter alters the random sequence of bits the block generates. See the section Choosing Seeds for Random Sources on page 2-29 to learn more about seeds. The default settings for Probability of zero and Initial seed are vectors of size two. These settings generate a random sequence of binary vectors of size two.

The Channel

The Binary Symmetric Channel block simulates a channel with noise. The block introduces random errors to the signal by changing a 0 to a 1, or vice versa, with a probability determined by the Error probability parameter in the blocks mask. Make the following changes to the default parameters in the blocks mask: Set Error probability to .01. Set Initial seed to a prime number greater than 30, such as 113, which is different from the Initial seed of the Bernoulli Random Binary Generator. This ensures that the random errors the Binary Symmetric Channel block generates are statistically independent from the source signal. See the section Choosing Seeds for Random Sources on page 2-29. Uncheck the box next to Output error vector. This removes the lower output port from the block. By default the Binary Symmetric Channel block has two output ports. The upper port outputs the signal. The lower port outputs a vector consisting of the errors the block generates. Since the error vector is not used in this model, you do not need the lower output port.

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The Error Rate Calculation block and Display block calculate and display the error rate caused by channel noise. See the sections Error Rate Calculation and Error Rate Display on page 2-8. Set Output data to Port in the blocks mask to create an output port.

Before running the model, select Simulation parameters from the Simulation menu, and set the Stop time to inf. When you run a simulation, the Display block displays the number of errors introduced by the channel noise see the section Error Rate Display on page 2-8. The error rate should be approximately .01, since this is the probability of error in the channel. When you are finished observing the simulation, stop the model by selecting Stop from the Simulation menu. If you want, you can save the model for later use by selecting Save from the File menu, and then typing a name for the model, such as channelnoise, in the File name field. Then click Save.

As a general rule, you should run a simulation of channel noise until you observe at least 100 errors, in order to get accurate results. While a simulation is running, you can view the number of errors in the middle window of the Display block. You can also set the Error Rate Calculation block to automatically stop a simulation after a specified number of errors occur. For example, to stop a simulation after 100 errors, make the following changes in the mask for the Error Rate Calculation block: Check the box next to Stop simulation. Set Target number of errors to 100. For more information on simulation times, consult Jeruchim, M.C., Balaban, P. and Shanmugan, K.S. Simulation of Communication Systems. Plenum Press, N.Y.

Random source blocks, such as the Bernoulli Random Binary Generator block, use a random number generator to produce a random sequence of bits. Channel

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blocks, such as the Binary Symmetric Channel block, also use the random number generator to simulate channel noise. All of these blocks have an Initial seed parameter, which sets the initial value of the random number generator. If your model contains more than one of these blocks, you should observe the following guidelines to ensure that the random sequences are statistically independent of each other: All seeds should be primes greater than 30. Any two blocks with an Initial seed parameter should have different seeds. You can choose seeds having these properties using the Communications Blocksets randseed function. At the MATLAB prompt, type the command

randseed

This returns a random prime number greater than 30. Typing randseed again produces a different prime number. If you add an integer argument, randseed always returns the same prime for that integer. For example, randseed(5) always returns the same answer. You can use randseed directly in a model by setting the Initial seed parameter of a block to randseed. However, if you want to reproduce the results of a simulation, you should add integer arguments to randseed, choosing different arguments for each block in the model that has an Initial seed. For example, in the model shown in Figure 2-17, double-click on the Bernoulli Random Binary Generator block and type randseed(1) in the Initial seed field of the blocks mask. Then double-click on the Binary Symmetric Channel block and type randseed(2) in the Initial seed field of that blocks mask. Repeating a simulation with these settings will always reproduce the same results, since the Initial seed values do not change. For more information about the randseed function, type doc randseed at the MATLAB prompt.

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This section describes how to reduce the error rate in the model of channel noise, shown in Figure 2-17, by adding an error-correcting code. The figure below shows an example that uses a Hamming code.

The section explains how to: Build the model Use the Hamming Encoder and Decoder blocks to implement a Hamming code. Set parameters in the model Run the model Display frame sizes Display the errors in a scope Observe the errors in a scope

You can build this model from the channel noise model shown in Figure 2-17. To open that model, click here in the MATLAB Help browser. Then save it in your Work directory as my_hammcode to preserve the original model intact. See the section Saving the Model on page 2-22. Alternatively, if you built and saved that model, you can open your own version.

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Next, add two blocks from the Communications Blockset to the model: Hamming Encoder block Hamming Decoder block You can find both of these blocks in the Block sublibrary of the Channel Coding library. To insert them into the model:

1 Lengthen the lines leading into and out of the Binary Symmetric Channel

block, by dragging the other blocks in the model away from the Binary Symmetric Channel.

2 Drag the Hamming Encoder block from the Simulink Library Browser into

the model window, and place it on top of the line between the Bernoulli Random Binary Generator block and the Binary Symmetric Channel block. This makes new connections automatically.

3 Drag the Hamming Decoder block into the model window and place it on top

of the line between the Binary Symmetric Channel block and the Error Rate Calculation block. To open a completed version of the model, click here in the MATLAB Help browser.

The Hamming Encoder block encodes the data before it is sent through the channel. The default code is the [7,4] Hamming code, which encodes message words of length four into code words of length seven. As a result, the block converts frames of size four into frames of size seven. The code can correct one error in each transmitted code word. For an [n,k] code, the input to the Hamming Encoder block must consist of vectors of size k. In this example, k=4. The Hamming Decoder block decodes the data after it is sent through the channel. If at most one error is created in a code word by the channel, the block decodes the word correctly. However, if more than one error occurs, the Hamming Decoder block may decode incorrectly. To learn more about the block coding features of the Communications Blockset, see the chapter Block Coding in Using the Communications Blockset.

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Make the following changes to the parameter settings for the channel noise model, as described in the section Components of the Channel Noise Model on page 2-28. To learn how to do this, see the section Setting Block Parameters on page 2-16.

Check the box next to Frame-based outputs in the mask for the Bernoulli Random Binary Generator block. Set Samples per frame to 4. This converts the output of the block into frames of size four, in order to meet the input requirement of the Hamming Encoder Block see the section Frames and Frame-Based Processing on page 2-23. Set Error probability to .01. Set Initial seed to a prime number greater than 30, such as 89. See the section Choosing Seeds for Random Sources on page 2-29.

Set Input vector length to 7 to match the output of the Hamming Encoder block. Set Initial seed to a prime number greater than 30, such as 113, which is different from the Initial seed of the Bernoulli Random Binary Generator block. Uncheck the box next to Output error vector. The block generates a random error independently for each of the seven frame bits.

Check the box next to Stop simulation. Set Target number of errors to 100. The Target number of errors parameter causes the model to terminate after 100 errors have occurred.

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First, set Stop time to inf in the Simulation parameters dialog box. Then run the model. The error rate, displayed in the top window of the Display block, is approximately .001. Note that you may get slightly different results if you change the Initial seed parameters in the model or run a simulation for a different length of time. You expect an error rate of about .001 for the following reason. The probability of two or more errors occurring in a code word of length seven is 1 - (.99)7 - 7(.99)6(.01) = .002 If the code words with two or more errors were decoded randomly, you would expect about half the bits in the decoded message words to be incorrect. This indicates that .001 is a reasonable value for the bit error rate. To obtain a lower error rate for the same probability of error, you can try using a Hamming code with larger parameters. To do this, change the parameters Code word length and Message length in the Hamming Encoder and Decoder block masks. You also have to make the appropriate changes to the parameters of the Bernoulli Random Binary Generator block and the Binary Symmetric Channel block.

You can display the size of data frames in different parts of the model by selecting Signal dimensions from the Format menu at the top of the model window. This is shown in Figure 2-20 below. Note that the line leading out of the Bernoulli Random Binary Generator block is labeled [4x1], indicating that its output consists of column vectors of size four. Since the Hamming Encoder block uses a [7,4] code, it converts frames of size four into frames of size seven, so its output is labeled [7x1].

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You can use a Scope block to display errors in the model. This is a good way to see whether your model is functioning correctly. The example shown in the figure below shows where to insert the Scope block into the model.

To build this model from the Hamming code model shown in Figure 2-19, you need to add the following blocks: Relational Operator block from the Simulink Math library Scope block from the Simulink Sinks library

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Two Unbuffer blocks from the Buffers sublibrary of the DSP Signal Management library Drag these blocks, including two copies of the Unbuffer block, from the Simulink Library Browser into the model window. Before connecting them, you need to configure the Scope block. The next section describes how to do this.

The Scope block displays the channel errors and uncorrected errors. To configure the block:

1 Double-click on the block to open the scope. 2 Click the Properties icon 3 Set Number of axes to 2. 4 Set Time range to 5000. 5 Click the Data history tab. 6 Type 30000 in the Limit data points to last field. 7 Click OK.

on the toolbar.

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1 Right-click on the vertical axis at the left side of the upper scope, as

2 In the context menu, select Axes properties. 3 In the Y-min field type -1. 4 In the Y-max field type 2. 5 Click OK.

Repeat the same steps for the vertical axis of the lower scope. Finally, widen the scope window until it is roughly three times as wide as it is high. You can do this by clicking on the right border of the window and dragging the border to the right, while pressing the mouse button. Connect the blocks as shown in Figure 2-21. To learn how to do this, see the sections Connecting Blocks on page 2-15 and Drawing a Branch Line on page 2-27. Double-click on the Error Rate Calculation block and uncheck the box next to Stop simulation. If you want to label the lines Channel errors and Uncorrected errors, do the following:

1 In the model window, right-click on the line coming out of the upper

Unbuffer block.

2 Select Signal properties from the context menu. 3 In the Signal name field type Channel errors. 4 Click OK.

Repeat the same steps for the line coming out of the lower Unbuffer block, but this time type Uncorrected errors in the Signal name field.

Relational Operator

Set Relational Operator to ~= in the blocks mask. The Relational Operator block compares the transmitted signal, coming from the Bernoulli Random

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Generator block, with the received signal, coming from the Hamming Decoder block. The block outputs a zero when the two signals agree and a one when the disagree. A one represents an error that is not corrected by the Hamming code.

When you run the model, the Scope block displays the error data. At the end of each five thousand time steps, the scope appears as shown in the figure below. The scope then clears the displayed data and displays the next five thousand data points.

The upper scope shows the channel errors generated by the Binary Symmetric Channel block. The lower scope shows errors that are not corrected by channel coding. When the scope is roughly 3/4 filled, click the Stop button on the toolbar at the top of the model window to stop the scope. To zoom in on the scope so that you can see individual errors, first click the middle magnifying glass icon at the top left of the Scope window. Then click on one of the lines in the lower scope. This zooms in horizontally on the line. Continue clicking on one of the lines in the lower scope until the horizontal scale is fine enough to detect individual errors. A typical example of what you might see is shown in the figure below, although you should not expect to see exactly the same picture.

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The wider rectangular pulse in the middle of the upper scope represents two ones. These two errors, which occur in a single code word, are not corrected. This accounts for the uncorrected errors in the lower scope. The narrower rectangular pulse to the right of the upper scope represents a single error, which is corrected. When you are done observing the errors, selecting Stop from the Simulation menu. The section Sending Error Data to the Workspace on page 3-4 explains how to send the error data to the MATLAB workspace for more detailed analysis.

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The Binary Symmetric Channel block, which simulates a channel with noise, is useful for building models of channel coding. For other types of applications, you may want to construct a more realistic model of a channel. For example, you can add modulation and demodulation, and replace the Binary Symmetric Channel block with an AWGN Channel block, which adds white Gaussian noise to the channel. An example that uses binary phase shift keying (BPSK) is shown below.

This section explains binary phase shift keying. It also explains how to: Select blocks for the model Build the model Set parameters in the model Run the model

Binary phase shift keying (BPSK) is a method for modulating a binary signal onto a complex waveform, by shifting the phase of the complex signal. In digital baseband BPSK, the symbols 0 and 1 are modulated to the complex numbers exp(jt) and -exp(jt), respectively, where t is a fixed angle. In the simplest case, when t = 0, these numbers are just 1 and -1. To learn more about the digital modulation features of the Communications Blockset, see the chapter Digital Modulation in Using the Communications Blockset.

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You can build the BPSK model from the channel noise model shown in Figure 2-17. To open the channel noise model, click here in the MATLAB Help browser. Then save it in your Work directory as my_bpsk to preserve the original model intact. You need to add the following blocks to the model: BPSK Modulator Baseband block from PM in the Digital Baseband Modulation sublibrary of the Modulation library AWGN Channel block from the Channels library BPSK Demodulator Baseband from PM in the Digital Baseband Modulation sublibrary of the Modulation library

Starting with the model in Figure 2-17, first delete the Binary Symmetric Channel block. You can delete a block or line by right-clicking on it and selecting Clear from the context menu. Next, drag the three blocks listed above from the Simulink Library Browser into the model window. In the mask for the Error Rate Calculation block, make sure that Output data is set to Port. Then connect the blocks as in Figure 2-24. You may need to rearrange the blocks already in the model to make room for the new blocks. To open a completed version of this model, click here in the MATLAB Help Browser.

The BPSK Modulator Baseband block modulates the symbols 0 and 1 to the complex numbers exp(jt) and -exp(jt), respectively. You can set t in the Phase offset parameter in the masks for the BPSK Modulator Baseband block and the BPSK Demodulator Baseband block. The default value is 0.

Make the following changes to the default parameter settings in the masks for the blocks.

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Set Probability of a zero to 0.5. Set Initial seed to a prime greater than 30.

AWGN Channel

Set Initial seed to a prime greater than 30, such as 113, which is different from the Initial seed in the Bernoulli Random Binary Generator block. Set Es/No to -1.

Set Output data to Port. Check the box next to Stop simulation. Set Target number of errors to 100.

Set Stop time to inf in the Simulation parameters dialog box. Then run the model. The Display block shows an error rate of approximately 0.1.

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You can improve the error rate in the BPSK model, shown in Figure 2-24, by adding channel coding. An example that uses a binary cyclic code is shown in the figure below.

This section explains how to: Select blocks for the model Set parameters in the model Run the model Set the symbol period Display frame sizes and frame periods

You can build this model from the BPSK model shown in Figure 2-24. To open that model, click here in the MATLAB Help browser. Then save it in your Work directory as my_cyclic to preserve the original model intact. You need the following two blocks from the Block sublibrary of the Channel Coding library in the Communications Blockset: Binary Cyclic Encoder block Binary Cyclic Decoder block Drag these blocks into the model window and connect them as in Figure 2-25.

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The Binary Cyclic Encoder block implements a binary cyclic code. The block has two parameters: Codeword length Message length With the default settings, the code has rate 4/7. The codeword length N must have the form 2M - 1, where M is an integer greater than or equal to three. The input to the block must have the same size as the setting for Message length. The Binary Cyclic Decoder block decodes the signal after it passes through the channel. The block should have the same parameter settings as the Binary Cyclic Encoder block.

Make the following changes to the parameter settings for the BPSK model, described in the section Setting Parameters in the BPSK Model on page 2-41.

Check the box next to Frame-based outputs. Set Samples per frame to 4 to match the input requirement of the Binary Cyclic Encoder Block.

Set Codeword length to 15 in both the Binary Cyclic Encoder and Decoder blocks.

AWGN Channel

Set Symbol period to 4/15. This setting is necessary so that the AWGN channel block will produce the same amount of noise per symbol as in the BPSK model without coding. This enables you to evaluate the improvement in bit error rate due to channel coding. For more information on setting Symbol period, see the section Setting the Symbol Period on page 2-45. Set Es/No to -1.

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When you run the model, the bit error rate is approximately .02, which is about one fifth the error rate in the BPSK model, shown in Figure 2-24, which does not have channel coding.

The Symbol period parameter in the AWGN Channel block determines the amount of time it takes the block to process an individual symbol. The Symbol period parameter and the Es/No parameter determine the amount of channel noise per symbol. It is important to set this parameter correctly to compare the error rate in this model with the error rate in the BPSK model, shown in Figure 2-24, which does not have channel coding. You can calculate the correct symbol period using two attributes of the signal: its frame size and frame period. The frame size of the signal is the number of samples per frame. In this example, the frame size is seven, because the Binary Cyclic Encoder block outputs frames of size seven, corresponding to code words. See the section Displaying Frame Sizes on page 2-34. The frame period is the amount of time it takes to process a frame of data. In this example, the frame period is four, because the Bernoulli Random Binary Generator block has a Sample time of 1 and a Samples per frame of 4. You can determine the symbol period by the following formula.

frame period symbol period = ----------------------------------frame size In this example, the symbol period is 4/15.

You can display the frame size or frame period of a signal using a Probe block. This is useful to set the Symbol period or other parameters. Drag the following blocks from the Simulink Signals & Systems library into the model window: Probe block Two copies of the Terminator block

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The Probe block displays information about the model. Initially, all numbers displayed on the block icon are zero. Double-click the Probe block to display its mask. Uncheck the boxes next to Probe complex signal and Probe signal dimensions. Leave the boxes next to Probe width and Probe sample time checked. This reduces the number of output ports in the block to two. Connect the blocks as shown in Figure 2-26 below. Finally, select Update diagram from the Edit menu. The diagram should now appear as shown below.

The number after W in the Probe block icon tells you the signal width, which in this case is just the frame size of 15. The first number after Tf tells you the frame period, which is 4. When the signal is sample-based, the second value in the Probe block is the sample time, rather than the frame period. To learn more about sample times and frame periods, see the sections Multirate Models on page 2-56 and Using Sample Time Colors to Check Sample Times on page 2-56.

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Frequency-shift keying (FSK) is a standard modulation technique in which a digital signal is modulated onto a sinusoidal carrier whose frequency shifts between different values. The Bell Telephone System first used this technique in their Model 103 modem. The model shown below is an example of passband FSK.

This section explains how to: Select blocks for the model Set parameters in the model Run the model The section also explains: Delays in the model and how to find the delay Multirate models Using sample time colors to check sample times

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To build the model, you need the following blocks.

The M-FSK Modulator Passband block, from FM in the Digital Passband sublibrary of the Modulation library, modulates the binary signal onto a sinusoidal carrier of 10000 Hz. The block modulates a zero by shifting the frequency of the carrier up to 10500 Hz, and a one by shifting the frequency down to 9500 Hz. The M-FSK Demodulator Passband block, from FM in the Digital Passband sublibrary of the Modulation library, demodulates the signal.

Relational Operator

The Relational Operator block, from the Simulink Math library, compares the transmitted signal, from the Bernoulli Random Binary Generator block, with the received signal, from the M-FSK Demodulator Passband block. The block outputs a zero when the two signals agree, and a one when they differ.

Spectrum Scope

The Spectrum Scope block, from the DSP Sinks library, calculates the fast Fourier transform (FFT) of the signal and displays its spectrum. When you run the model, a scope appears as in Figure 2-28.

Scope

The Scope block, from the Simulink Sinks library, displays the transmitted signal, the received signal, and the output of the Relational Operator block. To create three input ports for the block:

1 Double-click on the block to open the scope. 2 Click the Properties icon 3 Set Number of axes to 3. 4 Set Time range to 1. 5 Click OK.

on the toolbar.

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1 Right-click on the vertical axis at the left side of the upper scope, as

2 In the context menu, select Axes properties. 3 In the Y-min field type -1. 4 In the Y-max field type 2. 5 Click OK.

Repeat these steps for the middle and lower axes. When you run the model, you can double-click the Scope block to display the three signals, as in Figure 2-29.

Integer Delay

The Integer Delay Block, from the DSP Blockset Signal Operations library, delays the transmitted signal so that it can be accurately compared with the received signal. Its purpose is explained further in the section Delays in the Model on page 2-53. You also need the following blocks: Bernoulli Random Binary Generator AWGN Channel Error Rate Calculation Display Drag these blocks into the model window and connect them as shown in Figure 2-27. To open a completed version of the model, click here in the MATLAB Help browser. Then save it in your Work directory as my_fsk to preserve the original model intact.

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Make the following changes to the default parameter settings in the masks for the blocks.

Set Probability of a zero to 0.5. Set Initial seed to a prime greater than 30. Set Sample time to 1/1200.

Set M-ary number to 2. This specifies the number of frequencies in the modulated signal. Set Frequency separation to 1000. This specifies the separation between the two frequencies of the modulated signal. Set Symbol period to 1/1200 to match the Sample time in the Bernoulli Random Binary Generator block. Set Baseband samples per symbol to 8. This causes the block to oversample the incoming signal. Oversampling increases the sampling rate by a factor of 8, thereby raising the sampling rate above the Nyquist rate. This enables the Spectrum Scope block to generate a more accurate picture. Set Carrier frequency to 10000. This specifies the frequency of the carrier. Set Output sample time to 1/48000.

Make the same changes to the blocks default parameters as for the M-FSK Modulator Passband block. Set Input sample time to 1/48000 to match the Output sample time of the M-FSK Modulator Passband block.

AWGN Channel

Set Initial seed to a prime greater than 30, which is different from the Initial seed in the Bernoulli Random Binary Generator block. Set Symbol period to 1/1200, to match the Symbol period in the M-FSK Modulator Passband block.

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Spectrum Scope

Check the box next to Buffer input. This converts the input into frames so that the block can calculate the FFT. You can set the size of the frames by the Buffer size parameter. Set Buffer size to 1024. Set Buffer overlap to 256. Set Number of spectral averages to 20. Check the box next to Axis properties. Set Minimum Y-limit to -40. Set Maximum Y-limit to 20. These settings rescale the Y-axis.

Integer Delay

Set Delay to 2. The Integer Delay block delays the transmitted signal by the number of sample periods specified by the Delay parameter. For more information about delays, see the section Delays in the Model on page 2-53.

Set Receive delay to 2. Set Output data to Port.

Set the Stop time parameter to 15 and run the model.

The Spectrum Scope displays the spectrum of the modulated signal, as shown below.

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Note the peaks at 9500 Hz and 10500 Hz, representing the integers one and zero, respectively. The peaks outside the range 9500-10500 Hz are side lobes, which are not relevant to the display.

Double-click the Scope block to open the scope, as shown in Figure 2-29.

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The top window displays the transmitted signal. The middle window displays the received signal. The bottom scope displays a zero where the two signals agree and a one where they differ.

Some blocks have an inherent delay between their input and output, due to the way they process data. For example, the M-FSK Demodulator Passband block has a delay of two symbols between its input and its output. This means that an input symbol at time T corresponds to an output symbol at time T+2. As a result, there is a delay of 2 seconds between the transmitted and received signals in the model. In order to calculate the bit error rate correctly, you need to introduce an additional delay of 2 seconds to the transmitted signal to synchronize it with the received signal. You can do this directly in the mask for the Error Rate Calculation block by setting the Receive delay to 2. For the same reason, you need to synchronize the transmitted and received signals before they enter the Relational Operator block. In this case, you must use an Integer Delay block, which delays a signal by the number of sample periods specified by the Delay parameter. Set the Delay to 2. This is indicated by the exponent -2 on the blocks icon. This synchronizes the transmitted signal

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Building Models

with the received signal so that the Relational Operator block can compare them correctly.

Note If the Error Rate Calculation block in a model gives an error rate close to .5 for a random binary signal, you may not have taken into account delays in the model. The block is probably comparing two unsynchronized signals.

Several blocks in the Communications Blockset Modulation library produce delays. A list of these is given in the section Delays in Digital Modulation in the Using the Communications Blockset. The Viterbi Decoder block, from the Convolutional sublibrary of the Channel Coding library, also produces a delay equal to its Traceback depth parameter see the section Viterbi Decoder on page 2-60.

In constructing this model, you need to know the delay between the transmitted and received signals, in order to set the parameters for the Error Rate Calculation block and Delay block correctly. You can often determine this delay from the parameters of the blocks between the transmitted and received signals. But if you are unable to determine the delay in this way, you can do so with the xcorr function, from the Signal Processing Toolbox, which finds the cross correlation between the signal and shifts of its delayed version. To use the xcorr function, you must modify the model slightly as follows:

1 Set the Es/No parameter of the AWGN Channel block to 100. This

2 Drag a Signal To Workspace block, from the DSP Sources library, into the

model window.

3 Connect the line leading out of the Bernoulli Random Binary Generator

block to the Signal To Workspace block. You can do this by right-clicking on the line and moving the mouse pointer to the input port of the Signal From Workspace block while pressing the mouse button.

4 Double-click on the Signal To Workspace block to open its mask, and change

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5 Drag another Signal To Workspace block, from the DSP Sinks library, into

the model window and connect it to the line leading out of the M-FSK Demodulator Passband block.

6 Double-click on the second Signal To Workspace block into the model

7 Pull down the Simulation menu and select Simulation parameters. Set

Stop time to 1.

When you are done, the model should appear as in the figure below.

Running the model sends the transmitted and received signals to the workspace as vectors called Tx and Rx, respectively. To find the delay between Tx and Rx, type the following commands at the MATLAB prompt.

[m,index]=max(xcorr(Rx,Tx)); L=length(Tx); delay=index-L

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MATLAB should return delay=2, which is the correct value of the delay. The xcorr function calculates the correlations between Tx and Rx when the two vectors are shifted in all possible ways that overlap. The maximum correlation occurs at the shifted distance corresponding to the true delay. You can test whether you have found the correct value for the delay using MATLABs isequal command, which returns a 1 when two vectors are equal, and a 0 when they differ. To do so, at the MATLAB prompt type

isequal(Tx(1:L-delay),Rx(delay+1:L))

MATLAB returns a 1 if the number of symbols Tx and Rx are offset by is delay. If you use this procedure and MATLAB returns a 0 to the isequal command, it may indicate that there is still noise present in the model.

Multirate Models

The FSK model in Figure 2-27 differs from the earlier models in that it contains signals with different sample times. The Bernoulli Random Binary Generator block has a sample time of 1/1200. The M-FSK Modulator Passband block receives this signal and upsamples it at a rate of eight samples per symbol. As a result, the sample time of the blocks output signal is 1/9600. A model that contains signals with different sample times is called a multirate model. The multiple sample times present in this model do not affect the bit error rate of a simulation. But you should be aware that in other models, sample times can affect the results of a simulation. This is usually the case when different signals are combined. See the section Setting Sample Times and Samples per Frame on page 3-15 for an example of this.

You can easily check whether there are different sample times in a model by selecting Sample time colors from the Format menu. Then select Update diagram from the Edit menu. When you do this, blocks and lines in the model are colored according to their sample times. Red blocks and lines indicate the fastest sample time in the model. Green indicates the second fastest sample time. Yellow blocks contain signals with different sample times. If all sample times in the model are the same, all blocks

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and lines are colored red. For more information on sample time colors, see Using Simulink. For frame-based signals, the colors correspond to the frame periods of the signals rather than sample times. If you need to determine the actual sample time of a signal, you can use a Probe block as described in the section Displaying Frame Sizes and Frame Periods on page 2-45.

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Building Models

The model shown below simulates the use of convolutional coding to send a signal through a channel with noise.

This section explains how to: Select blocks for the model Build the model Set block parameters Run the model

You can build the convolutional coding model from the channel noise model shown in Figure 2-17. To open the channel noise model, click here in the MATLAB Help browser. Then save it in your Work directory as my_convcode to preserve the original model intact. You need to add the following blocks to the model.

Convolutional Encoder

The Convolutional Encoder block, from the Convolutional sublibrary of the Channel Coding library, encodes the signal from the Bernoulli Random Binary Generator. The example uses the industry standard rate 1/2 convolutional code, with constraint length seven, defined by the diagram below.

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The encoder structure is described by a pair of binary numbers, having the same length as the codes constraint length, which specify the connections from the delay cells to modulo-2 addition nodes. The binary number for the upper addition node is 1111001. A one indicates that the bit in the corresponding delay cell (reading from left to right) is sent to the addition node, and a zero indicates that the bit is not sent. The binary number for the lower addition node is 1011011. Converting these two binary numbers to octal gives the pair [171,133]. You can enter this pair into the blocks mask by typing poly2trellis(7, [171 133]) in the field for Trellis Structure. To learn more about the convolutional coding features of the Communications Blockset, see the chapter Convolutional Coding in Using the Communications Blockset.

Complex to Real-Imag

The Complex to Real-Imag block, from the Simulink Math library, receives the complex signal and outputs its real part. Since the output BPSK Modulator Baseband block has zero complex part, all of the signal is carried by the real part. You can set this option by selecting Real in the Output parameter field in the mask. It is not necessary to demodulate the signal since the Viterbi Decoder block can accept unquantized inputs.

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Building Models

Viterbi Decoder

The Viterbi Decoder block decodes the convolutionally encoded signal using the Viterbi algorithm. The Decision Type parameter is set to Unquantized so that the block can accept real numbers from the Complex to Real-Imag block. The Traceback depth parameter, which is set to 96, is the number of branches in the trellis that the block uses to construct each traceback path. This produces a delay of 96 between the input and output of the block. See the section Finding the Delay in the Model on page 2-54. For an example of a convolutional coding model that uses soft-decision decoding, see the section Example: Soft-Decision Decoding in the Using the Communications Blockset.

Starting with the channel noise model shown in Figure 2-16, first delete the Binary Symmetric Channel block. You can delete a block or line by right-clicking on it and selecting Clear from the context menu. Then drag the blocks listed above into the model window and connect them as shown in Figure 2-31. To open a completed version of the model, click here in the MATLAB Help browser.

Make the following changes to the default parameter settings in the masks for the blocks.

Set Probability of a zero to 0.5. Set Initial seed to a prime number greater than 30.

AWGN Channel

Set Es/No to -1. Set Symbol period to 1/2. Since the code rate is 1/2, this setting causes the block to produce the same amount of noise per channel symbol as it would

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without channel coding. For more information, see the section Setting the Symbol Period on page 2-45.

Set Receive delay to 96. The Viterbi Decoder block creates a delay of 96, due to its Traceback depth setting. For more information on delays, see the section Finding the Delay in the Model on page 2-54. Check the box next to Stop simulation. Set Target number of errors to 100.

When you run the model, you observe an error rate of approximately .003. You can compare this with the error rate in the cyclic coding model, shown in Figure 2-25, which has the same amount of channel noise model.

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3

Using MATLAB with the Communications Blockset

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-2 Sending Data to the MATLAB Workspace Configuring the Signal To Workspace Block . Viewing the Output in the Workspace . . . Sending Error Data to the Workspace . . . Working with Error Data in the Workspace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3 3-3 3-4 3-4 3-6 3-7 3-7 3-8 3-9 3-10 3-12 3-12 3-13 3-14 3-15 3-16 3-17 3-19

Running Simulations from the Command Line Running a Single Simulation . . . . . . . . . . Running Multiple Simulations . . . . . . . . . Setting Parameters in the Phase Noise Model . . . Plotting the Results of Multiple Simulations . . . Importing Data from the MATLAB Workspace Simulating a Signal by Importing Data . . . . . Simulating Noise with Imported Data . . . . . . Creating Error Patterns in the Workspace . . . . Setting Sample Times and Samples per Frame . . Simulating Bursts of Errors . . . . . . . . . . Using an Interleaver Block to Reduce the Error Rate Running the Interleaver Model . . . . . . . . . Learning More . . . Online Help . . . . . Demos . . . . . . . The MathWorks Online . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Introduction

This chapter describes how to use MATLAB to expand the capabilities of the Communications Blockset. The chapter explains how to run simulations from the command line, and how to run multiple simulations. It also explains how to send data between a model and the MATLAB workspace. This enables you to analyze the results of simulations, and to import customized data into a model. This chapter covers the following topics: Sending Data to the MATLAB Workspace on page 3-3 shows how to write the results of simulations from a model to the MATLAB workspace, so that you can study them in greater detail. Running Simulations from the Command Line on page 3-7 shows how to run models from the MATLAB command line. This enables you to run multiple simulations with varying parameters. The section also shows how to plot the results of multiple simulations. Importing Data from the MATLAB Workspace on page 3-12 shows how to import data from the workspace into a model. This enables you to run simulations on data that you create in the workspace or import from outside MATLAB. The section also shows how to create specific error patterns, such as burst errors, to test a channel code. The section explains how to use the Interleaver block to reduce the error rate caused by burst errors. Learning More on page 3-21 describes other sources of information about the Communications Blockset.

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To analyze the results of a simulation, you can send the data to the MATLAB workspace. This section explains how to do so using a Signal To Workspace block. This section explains how to: Configure the Signal To Workspace block View the output in the workspace Send error data to the workspace Work with error data in the workspace As an example, you can send the error rate data from the Hamming code model described in the section Reducing the Error Rate Using a Hamming Code on page 2-31. To open that model, click here in the MATLAB Help browser. Then save it in your Work directory under a different name to preserve the original model intact.

To send the error rate data to the workspace, drag a Signal To Workspace block from the DSP Sinks library into the model window and connect it as shown in the figure below.

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Double-click on the Signal To Workspace block to display its mask. In the Variable name field type hammcode_BER. In the Limit data points to last field type 1. Then click OK. With these settings, the model sends only the final value of the bit error rate to the workspace, as a vector called hamming_BER.

After running a simulation, you can view the output of the Signal to Workspace block by typing the following commands at the MATLAB prompt.

format short e hammcode_BER

hammcode_BER = 5.4066e-003 1.0000e+002 1.8496e+004

The command format short e displays the entries of the vector in exponential form. The first entry is the error rate. The second entry is the total number of errors. The third entry is the total number of comparisons made.

To do a more detailed analysis of the error correction performance of a channel code, you can send the actual errors to the workspace. An example of this is shown in the figure below.

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You can build this model from the Hamming code model, shown in Figure 2-19. To open that model, click here in the MATLAB Help browser. Then save it in your Work directory under a different name to preserve the original model intact. To build the model:

1 Double-click on the Binary Symmetric Channel block to open its mask, and

check the box next to Output error vector. This creates an output port for the error data.

2 Drag three Signal To Workspace blocks from the DSP Sinks library into the

3 Double-click on the left Signal To Workspace block and type Tx in the

Variable name field in the blocks mask. In the Frames field, select Log frames separately (3-D array). Then click OK. The block sends the transmitted signal to the workspace as an array called Tx.

4 Double-click on the middle Signal To Workspace block and type errors in

the Variable name field. In the Frames field, select Log frames separately (3-D array). Then click OK. The block sends the error data to the workspace as an array called errors.

5 Double-click on the right Signal To Workspace block and type Rx in the

Variable name field. In the Frames field, select Log frames separately (3-D array). Then click OK. The block sends the received signal to the workspace as an array called Rx. The option Log frames separately (3-D array) preserves each frame as a separate column of the array. The columns in Tx and Rx have size four, corresponding to the length of message words. The columns in errors have size seven, corresponding to the length of code words. The Binary Symmetric Channel block adds a frame of errors to each code word modulo two. The third entry of each array is the number of the frame. After running a simulation, you can display individual frames of data. For example, to display the tenth frame of Tx, at the MATLAB prompt type

Tx(:,:,10)

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Usually, you should not type Tx by itself, as this will display the entire transmitted signal, which is very large. To display the corresponding frame of errors, type

errors(:,:,10)

Tx(:,:,1:5)

You can use MATLAB to analyze the data from a simulation. For example, to identify the differences between the transmitted and received signals, type

diffs=Tx=Rx;

The vector diffs is the xor of the vectors Tx and Rx. A 1 in diffs indicates that Tx and Rx differ at that position. You can determine the indices of frames corresponding to message words that are incorrectly decoded with the following MATLAB script.

not_equal=any(diffs); error_indices=find(not_equal);

A 1 in the vector not_equal indicates that there is at least one difference between the corresponding frame of Tx and Rx. The vector error_indices records the indices where Tx and Rx differ. To view the first incorrectly decoded word, type

Tx(:,:,error_indices(1))

errors(:,:,error_indices(1))

You can analyze this data to determine the error patterns that lead to incorrect decoding.

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This section describes how to run simulations from the command line using the sim command. This is especially useful for running multiple simulations on a model, as described in the next section. The section explains how to: Run a single simulation Run multiple simulations Set parameters in the model Plot the results of multiple simulations

As a example, to run the phase noise demo, described in the section Running a Simulink Model on page 2-4, from the command line, type

sim('phasenoise_sim')

at the MATLAB prompt. This runs the model in the background without opening the model window. While the simulation is running, the MATLAB prompt is unavailable and you cannot type another MATLAB command.

Note To stop the simulation before its Stop time has elapsed, press Ctrl + C on the keyboard.

After the simulation stops, the prompt reappears. You can then view the results of the simulation by typing phasenoise_sim to open the model.

Note If you run a simulation from the command line with the model window open, you cannot access the model window while the simulation is running. If the models Stop time parameter is set to inf, you must press Ctrl + C on the keyboard to stop the simulation.

It is not necessary to open the model window when running a simulation from the command line, as usually you want to send the results of the simulation to

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the MATLAB workspace for example, if you are running multiple simulations on a single model. You can also set simulation parameters from the command line. For example, the command

sim('phasenoise',1000);

runs the model with a Stop time of 1000. This overrides the Stop time setting in the Model parameters dialog box. For more information on running simulations, see Using Simulink.

You can run multiple simulations, with different parameters, from the command line using a MATLAB script. For example, you might want to run the phase noise model with varying amounts of channel noise. To do this, first type phasenoise_sim to open the model. Then save it in your Work directory under a different name to preserve the original model intact. Drag a Signal To Workspace block from the DSP Sinks library into the model window and connect it as shown in the diagram below.

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Select Simulation parameters in the Simulation menu and set Stop time to inf. Make the following changes to the default block parameters in the model:

AWGN Channel

Set Es/No to EbNodB+10*log10(8). The variable EbNodB represents bit energy to noise ratio. The term 10*log10(8) converts EsNodB to Es/No, which is the symbol energy to noise ratio. The term 8 is present because there are eight bits per channel symbol in 256-QAM.

Phase Noise

Set Phase noise (degrees) to 1.

Check the box next to Stop simulation. Type 100 in the Target number of errors field. Set Maximum number of symbols to 10^5.

Signal To Workspace

Set Variable name to phase_BER. Set Limit data points to last to 1. To set values for EbNodB in a vector, type the following command at the MATLAB prompt.

EbNoVec=20:.2:21;

EbNoVec = 20.0000 20.2000 20.4000 20.6000 20.8000 21.0000

You can now run six simulations, with Es/No parameter values given by these vector entries plus 10 log(8). The following script runs the simulations in a loop and stores the results in a matrix called BER_Vec. The simulations may take several minutes to run.

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When the simulations have ended and the prompt reappears, type the following at the MATLAB prompt.

format short e BER_Vec

This displays the results in a matrix. Each row is the output of the Error Calculation Block for a single simulation. Notice that the first column, which gives the error rates for the six simulations, decreases. This is because the noise level decreases as EbNodB increases. The last column gives the number of symbols processed in each simulation.

You can plot the results of both sets of simulations by typing the following commands.

semilogy(EbNoVec,BER_Vec(:,1),'*'); xlabel('Eb/No (dB)');ylabel('BER'); title('Phase Noise Performance of 256-QAM'); legend('1.0 degrees');

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This is a part of the plot shown in the section Displaying a Plot of Phase Noise on page 2-9, corresponding to phase noise of degree 1 and Eb/No values between 20 and 21.

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This section explains how to import data into a model directly from the MATLAB workspace using the Signal From Workspace block, from the DSP sources library. This is useful for simulating different kinds of signals and noise. The section explains how to: Simulate a signal by importing data Simulate noise by importing data Create error patterns in the workspace Set sample times and samples-per-frame Simulate bursts of errors Use an Interleaver block to reduce the Error Rate Run the interleaver model

To import a signal that you create in the workspace, you can use a Signal From Workspace block as a source. An example is the model shown in the figure below. This model is the same as the channel noise model shown in Figure 2-17, except that the Bernoulli Random Binary Generator block has been replaced with a Signal From Workspace block.

To build this model, click here in the MATLAB Help browser to open the channel noise model in Figure 2-17. Then save it in your Work directory under a different name to preserve the original model intact.

1 Replace the Bernoulli Random Binary Generator block with a Signal From

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2 In the Signal from Workspace blocks mask, change the Signal parameter to

Before using the model, you must define the define the vector data in the MATLAB workspace. For example, type data=randint(1,10^4); at the MATLAB prompt. This defines data as a random binary vector of length 104. Next, select Simulation parameters from the Simulation menu and set the Stop time parameter to length(data). When you run a simulation, the model imports the random vector data into the model. You can change the vector data in the MATLAB workspace to simulate a less random signal, or import a signal from outside MATLAB.

You can also use the Signal From Workspace block to simulate channel noise with specific error patterns. This is useful to test the performance of an error correction code. An example of this is shown below.

This example is similar to the Hamming code model shown in Figure 2-19, but instead of using the Binary Symmetric Channel block to simulate noise, the model imports error data from the workspace. To build this model, first click here in the MATLAB Help browser to open the model shown in Figure 2-19. Then save it in your Work directory under a different name to preserve the original model intact.

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Then delete the Binary Symmetric Channel block from the model. Next, drag the following blocks into the model window: A Signal From Workspace block, from the DSP Sources library A Logical Operator block, from the Simulink Math library. Connect these blocks as shown in Figure 3-5. Make the following changes to the default block parameter settings.

Set Signal to errors. Set Sample time to 4/7. Set Samples per frame to 7, to match the frame size of the signal coming out of the Hamming Encoder block. The Sample time and Samples per frame settings are explained in the section Setting Sample Times and Samples per Frame on page 3-15

Logical Operator

Set Operator to XOR.

To use the model in Figure 3-5, you must first create a binary vector called errors in the workspace to represent errors. A one in the vector represents an error in the channel, while a zero represents no error. When you run a simulation, the Logical Operator block performs the xor operation on the vector errors and the signal. For example, to create a vector of length 7x105 that contains exactly one 1 in each sequence of entries from 7n + 1 to 7(n + 1), type the following at the MATLAB prompt.

errors=[]; for n=1:10^4 p=randperm(7); v=[1 0 0 0 0 0 0]; errors=[errors v(p)]; end

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The function randperm generates a random permutation of the integers one through seven. The vector v(p) applies the permutation to the entries of the vector v, which has exactly one entry 1. The result is that the vector errors contains exactly one entry 1 in each sequence from 7n + 1 to 7(n+1).

When you run a simulation, the bit error rate is zero because the Hamming code can correct one error in each code word. To test the code with an error vector that creates two errors in each code word, just change the vector v to v=[1 1 0 0 0 0 0] in the code above.

It is important to set the Sample time and Samples per frame parameters in the Signal From Workspace block correctly, so that the block has the same frame size and frame period as the Hamming Encoder block. This ensures that errors, coming from the Signal From Workspace block, are synchronized with channel symbols coming from the Hamming Encoder block. To determine the correct sample time, use the following relationship. Frame period Sample time = ---------------------------------------------------Samples per frame The frame size of the signal coming from the Hamming Encoder block is seven. This is set by the Codeword length parameter in the blocks mask. So you should set Samples per frame parameter in the Signal From Workspace block to 7. The frame period of the Hamming Encoder block is four, because the Bernoulli Random Binary Generator block has a Sample time of 1, and a Samples per frame of 4. So you should set the Sample time parameter in the Signal From Workspace to 4/7 so that the frame period of the block is four. If you are not sure what the frame sizes and frame periods of signals in the model are, you can display them using a Probe block, as described in the section Displaying Frame Sizes and Frame Periods on page 2-45. To do this, attach two Probe blocks, one to the line leading out of the Hamming Encoder block and one to the line leading out of the Signal From Workspace block. In the masks for both Probe blocks, uncheck the boxes next to Probe complex signal and

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Probe signal dimensions. Next, attach Terminator blocks to the output ports of the Probe blocks. Then select Update diagram from the Edit menu. The model should appear as in the figure below.

Both Probe blocks should display a frame size of seven and a frame period of four. A quick way to check whether the frame periods of two signals are the same is to select Sample time colors from the Format menu. See the section Using Sample Time Colors to Check Sample Times on page 2-56.

An important problem for communications engineers is dealing with noise that creates bursts of errors. You can simulate this kind of noise with error vectors that contain sequences of ones of a specified length. For example, the following MATLAB code creates an error vector in which three ones occur in a row at random intervals. The distance between two consecutive sequences of ones is a random integer between one and eighty.

errors=zeros(1,10^4); n=1; while n<10^4-80;

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To determine the ratio of the number of ones to the total number of symbols in the vector errors, type

sum(errors)/length(errors)

Your answer should be around 3/43, since after each sequence of three ones, the expected distance to the next sequence of ones is 40. Consequently, you expect to see three ones in 43 terms of the sequence. If you run a simulation with the new errors vector, using the Hamming code model in Figure 3-5, the error rate will be less than 3/43. The code in that model can correct one error per code word. When a sequence of three errors overlaps a code word by one, the code word with one error is corrected. You can compare the bit error rate in the model in Figure 3-5 with the bit error rate in the Hamming code model shown in Figure 2-19, which uses the Binary Symmetric Channel block to simulate independent random errors. First, click here in the MATLAB Help Browser to open the Hamming code model.Then save it in your Work directory under a different name to preserve the original model intact. Double-click on the Binary Symmetric Channel block to open its mask. Change Error probability to sum(errors)/length(errors). This makes the Error probability equal to the percentage of ones in the vector errors, so that you can compare the two models. When you run a simulation on the Hamming code model, you get a lower bit error rate than with the model in Figure 3-5, because the Hamming code is better able to correct independent errors than bursts of errors.

Interleaving is a standard technique to improve the bit error rate when the channel noise creates bursts of errors. With interleaving, each block of symbols is reordered before being sent through the channel. After being received, the signal is put back in its original order. The purpose of interleaving is to distribute errors more evenly, so that code words are less likely to contain more than one error.

3-17

To build the model from the one in Figure 3-5, you need four new blocks: Two copies of the Buffer block from the Buffers sublibrary of the Signal Management library in the DSP Blockset A Random Interleaver block from the Block sublibrary of the Interleaving library in the Communications Blockset A Random Deinterleaver block from the Block sublibrary of the Interleaving library in the Communications Blockset Drag these blocks into the model window and connect them as in Figure 3-7. To open a completed version of the model, click here in the MATLAB Help browser.

The Buffer block on the left side of the model takes the output of the Hamming Encoder block, which consists of frames of size seven, and buffers it into frames of a larger size for the Random Interleaver block to reorder. Set Output buffer size to 84 in the blocks mask. The block outputs frames of size 84.

The Random Interleaver block randomly permutes the symbols in each frame of data. After the errors are added to the frame, the Random Deinterleaver block applies the inverse permutation to put the symbols back in their original

3-18

order. This separates the errors, making it less likely for a code word to contain more than one error. Set Number of elements to 84 in the masks for the Random Interleaver and Random Deinterleaver blocks. This matches the Output buffer size setting in the Buffer block. While the Number of elements parameter can be any positive integer, the model is easier to configure if Number of elements is a multiple of the code word size, which is seven in this example. To learn more about block interleavers, see the section Block Interleavers in Using the Communications Blockset.

The Buffer block on the right side of the model takes the output of the Random Interleaver block and reduces the frame size to seven, so that each frame corresponds to a code word. The Hamming Decoder block then decodes each frame. Set Output buffer size to 7 in the second Buffer blocks mask.

As in the example in Figure 3-5, it is necessary to set the Sample time and Samples per frame parameters of the Signal From Workspace block correctly. In this example, you want the blocks frame size and frame period to match those of the signal coming out of the Random Interleaver block. Since the Random Interleaver block has a frame size of 84, set the Samples per frame parameter of the Signal From Workspace block to 84. The Buffer block combines 12 frames of size seven coming out of the Hamming Encoder block into one frame of size 84. So the Buffer block increases the frame period of the signal by a factor of 12. Since the frame period of the Hamming Encoder block is four, the frame period of the Random Interleaver block is 12x4 = 48. So you should set the Sample time of the Signal From Workspace block to 48/84. See the section Setting Sample Times and Samples per Frame on page 3-15.

When you run the model, you should see a substantial improvement in the bit error rate, as compared to the bit error rate for the model in Figure 3-5. The reason for the improvement is that the when the received message is

3-19

deinterleaved, the errors are distributed randomly about each frame of size 84. As a result, it is less likely that a code word will have more than one error and be decoded incorrectly.

3-20

Learning More

Learning More

You can learn more about the Communications Blockset from the following sources.

Online Help

To find online documentation, select Full Product Family Help from the Help menu in the MATLAB desktop. This launches the Help browser. For a more detailed explanation of any of the topics covered in this book, see the documentation listed under Communications Blockset in the left pane of the Help browser. Besides this book, Getting Started with the Communications Blockset, the online documentation contains the following topics: Release Notes For details on the latest release, including new features Using the Communications Blockset Contains comprehensive information about all the features of the Communications Blockset. Reference Provides a detailed description of the functions and blocks in the Communications Blockset. The Help Navigator, in the left pane of the Help browser, supports string searches. You can specify strings and the online manuals that you want to search. To begin a search, click the Search tab. To view the index for the documentation, for the click the Index tab.

Demos

To see more Communications Blockset examples, type

demo

at the MATLAB prompt. This opens the MATLAB Demo window. Double-click on Blocksets and then select Communications to list the available demos.

To read the documentation for the Communications Blockset on the MathWorks Web site, point your Web browser to

http://www.mathworks.com/access/helpdesk/help/helpdesk.shtml

3-21

3-22

Index

B

binary phase shift keying (BPSK) 2-40 block connecting 2-15 finding 2-22 labeling 2-27 moving into model 2-13 parameters 2-8 resizing 2-27 BPSK modulation model 2-40

I

importing data from the workspace 3-12 interleaver model 3-17

M

mask 2-8 MathWorks Web site 3-21 model building 2-11 saving 2-22

C

channel coding 2-24 channel noise model 2-24 constellation 2-6 continuous signals 2-23 cyclic code model 2-43

O

online help 3-21

Q

quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) 2-6

D

demos 2-10 discrete signals 2-23 drawing a branch line 2-27

S

sample times 2-23 sample-based processing 2-23 samples per frame 2-23 seeds for random sources 2-29 sending data to the workspace 3-3 simulation how long to run 2-29 parameters 2-17 running 2-6 running from the command line 3-7 Simulink libraries 2-11 Simulink Library Browser 2-12

F

frame sizes, displaying 2-34 frame-based processing 2-23 frames 2-23 FSK model 2-47

H

Hamming code model 2-31 Help Navigator 3-21

I-1

Index

T

typographical conventions (table) 1-6

I-2

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