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THE DRUM DRYER

A STeMPJE analysis of the drum dryer used in the potato flake


line manufactured by Tummers Methodic




Assignment for the course 0E310 Product policy
Study: Technology and Society
Faculty: Technology Management

Instructor: Marc de Vries

Company: Tummers Methodic


Marcel Bogers (s471944)


August 2002

Preface

Product policy is a very interesting subject in the scope of the study program of
Technology and Society at the Eindhoven University of Technology. The course
0E310 Product policy is set up to give student more insight into the policy a
company needs to develop in order to make a success of a product. The students
are taught that product polity is not merely to think a bit about a product and to
introduce it. The course shows there are several ways to look at products and
their policies. And within the different kind of product a wide range of different
factors are relevant. A specific kind of analysis is given, namely the STeMPJE
analysis. The six different factors, Scientific, Technological, Market, Politic,
Juridical, and Esthetical, give the basis for the name of this multifactor analysis.

In the scope of this course this assignment is written. It gives a STeMPJE
analysis of a drum dryer of the manufacturing company Tummers Methodic from
Hoogerheide, The Netherlands. I have written this report with great pleasure and
I have learn very much of it, about both the STeMPJE analysis as well as the
potato flake line. I want to thank Tummers Methodic, especially everyone who
helped me writing this assignment, for letting me write this report about its
product. In particular, I want to thank Fons Tummers (president-director at
Tummers Methodic) for lending me his `Potato Bible. And also, I want to thank
my father, Frank Bogers (account-manager at Tummers Methodic), for all the
information he provided me of, and for the recommendations and improvements.

I also want to use this preface to ask the reader to be very careful with this
information, because a part of it is confidential.

Then, I want to wish Tummers Methodic all the luck they need to maintain a
successful product policy.

Eindhoven, The Netherlands
August 12
th
2002


Marcel Bogers
Table of contents

Preface ..................................................................................................... 2
Table of contents........................................................................................ 3
Introduction............................................................................................... 4
1. The drum dryer as a part of a potato flake line........................................... 5
2. STeMPJE analysis of the drum dryer.......................................................... 7
2.1 Scientific factors ................................................................................ 7
2.2 Technological factors .......................................................................... 7
2.3 Market factors ................................................................................... 8
2.4 Political and juridical factors .............................................................. 10
Safety regulation ................................................................................ 10
Patent policy ...................................................................................... 10
2.5 Esthetical factors ............................................................................. 10
Conclusions and recommendations ............................................................. 11
Bibliography ............................................................................................ 12
Appendices.............................................................................................. 13
Appendix A: Sample of potato flakes........................................................ 14
Appendix B: Overview of flake line........................................................... 15
Appendix C: Drum surfaces, drum capacities, and steam capacities ............. 16
Appendix D: Separate drum.................................................................... 17
Appendix E: Waste conveyor, preflaker .................................................... 18
Appendix F: Effect of drum speed and solids content of potatoes on potato
flake production rate ............................................................ 19
Appendix G: Effect of drum speed on potato flake sheet density.................. 20
Appendix H: Steam measurements.......................................................... 21
Appendix I: CE-logo............................................................................... 22
Appendix J: Risk analysis of a belt conveyor (example) .............................. 23
Appendix K: Picture of moving satelite role scraper.................................... 24
Appendix L: Lay-out of a potato flake line................................................. 26


Introduction

This assignment is part of the course 0E310 Product policy. This course is part of
the curriculum of the study Technology and Society at the Faculty of Technology
Management at the Eindhoven University of Technology. One third of the grade
of the course consists of this assignment.

In this assignment a product has to be chosen, for which a multifactor analysis
has to be made. The product in this assignment is a drum dryer, which is a part
of a potato flake line. In chapter 1 an overview is given of an entire potato flake
line. Special attention will be given to the drum dryer, which is almost at the end
of a flake line. Although the drum dryer is the main subject of this assignment,
some knowledge of an entire flake line is necessary to understand the
characteristics of the drum dryer. In chapter 2 a multifactor analysis is given of
the drum dryer. The conclusions will give an overview of the relevant factors,
and then some recommendations are given.

This multifactor analysis consists of six major factors, which give an overview of
the entire development of a specific product. These factors are: scientific,
technological, market, political, juridical, and esthetical factors. In chapter 2 all
these factors will be discussed individually. This will be done mainly for the drum
dryer. Partly some general characteristics of the drum dryer are important. But
in this assignment the development of the drum dryer manufactured by one
company is specifically regarded. The company is Tummers Methodic from
Hoogerheide in The Netherlands. It is also known as Tummers Machinebouw.

1. The drum dryer as a part of a potato flake line

Potato flakes are dehydrated mashed potatoes made by applying cooked,
mashed potato to the surface of a single-drum dryer fitted with applicator rolls,
drying the deposited layer of potato solids rapidly to the desired final moisture
content, and breaking the sheet of the dehydrated potato solids into a suitable
size for packaging. (Talburt & Smith, 1987; p. 557) In appendix A a sample of
some potato flakes is attached.

The following steps are essential for the production of potato flakes: peeling,
cooking, drying, flaking and packing. First, the potatoes are peeled (and
washed). To achieve a uniform process, e.g. during cooking, the potatoes are
sliced. Sometimes blanching and cooling may be omitted in the process to
achieve the required specifications of the product. The main parts of the input
product to make potato flakes are waste streams of the first processes. The
cooked product will be mashed in the ricer. Then, the product will be pumped to
the drum dryer. From this drum a film of dry product is scraped, and this film is
broken up into easily transportable flakes in a pre-flaker. These flakes are broken
up in even smaller flakes in the flaker. Then the flakes will be packed. In figure
1.1 a picture of the whole potato flake line is shown. And in figure 1.2 the potato
flake process is given schematically. This figure is useful to identify the most
important elements of the production process. However, it cannot be applied
directly to the manufacturing of a flake line by Tummers Methodic. An overview
of the whole flake line from Tummers Methodic can be seen in Appendix B. In
appendix L a technical lay-out of such a flake line with all machinery is given.


Figure 1.1 The whole potato flake line (source: www.tummers.nl)



Figure 1.2 Potato flake process (source: Talburt & Smith, 1987; p. 568)

This assignment handles about one of the most important elements of the potato
flake line, namely the drum dryer. This drum dryer is the essential step between
the feed mash and the dry, and more handily, flakes. The next chapter will go
into the drying process more in-depth.

2. STeMPJE analysis of the drum dryer


2.1 Scientific factors

Not much can be said about the scientific factors. Some static models, about e.g.
mechanics or pressure, are used marginally. And if there are used, is it mainly as
the almost obvious input for technical calculations. On the whole, only
technological knowledge is used. The main base for maintenance and
development are experiences and measurements. No scientific models are
developed.


2.2 Technological factors

As said in the previous section, technological factors are the main basis for the
entire process concerning the drum dryer. Tummers Methodic uses several
technologies and product to manufacture a drum dryer. Very often the design
and manufacturing is based on experience. When the drum dryer is in process as
part of a flake line in a plant, it is being controlled almost mainly by observation
and experience. The supervisors just look at the product which comes from the
drum and when there seems to a problem they make some adjustments. An
example. The film of dry product, which is scraped of from the drum, breaks on
several places. This could mean the knife is dirty or too little additives are used.
Then one, or more, of these factor can be adjusted.

Together with the drying many other processes, like potato peeling and cutting,
are part of the whole flake line. The waste streams of these processes provide a
valuable and low cost raw material to produce high quality potato flakes. If
insufficient waste product arrives from these processes to ensure the full input of
the flake line, whole potatoes may be sliced to compensate for any shortcomings.
In such a way a constant input to the cooking line is achieved.
(www.tummers.nl) This technique is easy to use and to control.

A normal drum is has a diameter of about 2 meter, and it has six applicator rolls.
The mash is fed to the top of the drum at a central point. To give an indication of
the size and the capacity of these drums, a table with some combinations of
diameters and lengths and the surfaces is given in Appendix C. A picture of a
drum separate from the flake line can be seen in Appendix D. Some space
between the applicator rolls is necessary to allow steam to escape, and for
accumulation of mash in the trough between the roll and the drum dryer surface.
Now, in short the exact drying process will be discussed. When the drum passes
the first applicator roll it takes along a film of mash of approximately 0.05 mm.
While it passes the second roll another 0.05 mm is added. At the end, after the
sixth roll, a film of 0.30 mm is the result. Between the rolls the film is
dehydrated a bit, but the real drying process starts after the last roll. The
moisture percentages (usually between 6 and 8 %) can be adjusted with the
speed of and the steam input of the drum. And the dried product drops into a
preflaker, which breaks the flakes in still relatively large pieces. The waste
product falls into a collecting screw conveyor. A picture of a preflaker and a
screw conveyor is shown in Appendix E. If the mash is dried well, the dried
product will come off the drum naturally, and the drum surface is kept quite
clean. Otherwise, the product is scraped off with a knife. The applicator rolls
have a distance to the drum that varies from 6 to 10 or 12 mm. These distances
can be set, dependent on the quality of the potato. But usually the same
distances are used, because the same kinds of potatoes are used. The mash that
doesnt stay at the drum is scraped of the applicator roll and falls onto a lower
one.

It is very important to maintain a sufficient sheet density. But of course the
production rate has to be optimised. Therefore a good combination of drum
speed, steam pressure, mash solids, dryer output, and sheet density is
necessary. Drum speed was directly proportional to product output but was
inversely proportional to sheet density. See Appendix F and G. However, above a
certain drum speed, increase in steam pressure could not reduce the product to
desired moisture content in a single pass on the drum dryer. (Talburt & Smith,
1987; p. 581) The steam capacities are given in Appendix C. In Appendix H the
influence of different combinations of steam and speed can be seen. These are
measurements of drum 3 at Mydibel. The diameter of this drum was 2000 mm
and the length 5200 mm.

To guarantee quality Tummers Methodic takes educated specialist to the
production plant. They also educate people internally.


2.3 Market factors

The potato flake lines have their origin in the United States. The drying principle
was recognized as early as 1845. From that time onwards several studies and
experiments have been done. From the 1950s lines were developed there.
(Talburt & Smith, 1987; pp. 557-559 / www.tummers.nl)

Tummers Methodics policy is very close to the wishes of their (potential)
customers. It has distinguished itself by realizing many complete production
lines. They start with basic project engineering, detailed machine designs,
fabrication of the individual machines, design and building of the control system
and end with the installation, commissioning and after-sales service.
(www.tummers.nl) And it turns out that their customers line this kind of policy.
Tummers Methodic can manufacture an entire production line just out of a single
idea. They can care for everything, from the design to the maintenance. And as
they say themselves: "The Tummers Methodic drum dryer has been well
developed in every detail to enable effective drying of the potato mash. The
perfection in design ensures a long lifetime, a maximum yield and product loss
that is reduced to the bare minimum. (www.tummers.nl) Tummers Methodic is
known for the fine-tuning and the adjustment possibilities of its flake line. It has
a high extent of flexibility en it comes towards the needs of the user. Very
important with this is the design of the correct lay-out considering expansion
possibilities, existing production lines, supply, and waste. (Primeur 2001) So,
with their insight in the market demand they should be able to seize a large
group of satisfied customers.

Potato flakes share their retail market with potato granules. (Talburt & Smith,
1987; p. 562). The production process is a bit different, but it will be left out of
consideration in the scope of this analysis. The flakes and granules have different
characteristics, see table 2.1.

Main characteristics of granules Main characteristics of flakes
Small degree of free starches High degree of free starches
High dumping weight Easy to adjust dumping weight
Small adjustments in seize of diameter Easy to adjust seize of diameter
Difficult to dissolve in cold water Easy to dissolve in hot and cold water
High returns
Table 2.1: Main characteristics of granules and flakes (source: Tummers Methodic)

Because of the differences between granules and flakes they have different
application areas. Restaurants prefer granules, because of the high dumping
weight, resistance to heavy stirring, and a good attraction of boiling water.
Flakes, with their good attraction of cold water, are mainly used as a food
ingredient, especially in the snack industry. The Pringle, the pile-up-chips of
Proctor and Gamble since 1971, has been very important for the production of
potato flakes. But in spite of the different characteristics and processing granules
and flake share the same application areas too. These common application areas
are:
Bakeries
Preserved food
Soups
Deep frozen meals
Chips
Thickeners
Meat

For Tummers Methodic the upmost important market is that of potato flakes.
These flakes are mainly used as ingredients for Pringles (chips), potato snacks,
pastas, tickeners, and soup.

The main customers are: Lamb Weston Meijer
1
(The Netherlands), Mydibel
(Belgium), Farm Frites (Belgium and The Netherlands), Hoff Potetindustrier
(Norway), CTS (Belgium), Ballymoney Foods (Ireland), Marbo (Yugoslavia),
Vorenesh (Russia), Zhangye (China), and Nutricia
2
(Indonesia).

New markets are especially the food industry in Poland, the Czech Republic,
Yugoslavia, Russia, and the Middle East. And a very newly developing market is
the food industry in China.

Potato World News says about the success in China: "The Dutch engineering
company of Tummers Machinebouw, which is well-known to readers of Potato
Business World, recently revealed that it has completed two interesting and
speedy agreements for flake lines. (Potato World News, 2000)



1
Lamb Weston Meijer has taken over the well-known Danisco Foods Bergen op Zoom
(formerly Fri dOr) about two years ago.
2
Nutricia uses the drum not to make flakes, but to process baby food.
2.4 Political and juridical factors

These two factors are taken together because they show a great amount of
overlap. These factors mainly consist of two aspects: safety regulation and
patent policy. These two aspects will be discussed successively.

Safety regulation

Recent years safety regulation has become a very important issue in the
manufacturing industry. Especially within the framework of European integration
higher safety standards have arisen. The main term in this field is `CE-marking.
These directives form the most important part of the safety measurement that
have to taken into account. The goals of the legislator are: safety and health,
and free trade.

CE is the abbreviation of `Conformit Europenne. If machinery answers the
safely demands of the regulation it is marked with the CE-logo, see appendix I.

It is clear that Tummers Methodic has to take the safety regulation into account
in order to fulfil the directives. Tummers Methodic will have to make an effort to
do this, and they have never had any problems with it. This effort, of course,
costs money, e.g. a manual has to be made and this costs about C 80,-. Another
example is simply the wages of the employees who have to take time to consider
the marking.

Risk analysis is also an important and compulsory part of the CE-marking. In this
risk analysis Tummers Methodic has to make an inventory of latent risks. These
risk have to be identified on the basis of seriousness, exposure, possibility, and
possibility of aversion. Then the magnitude of the risk is determined and a
measure is taken. And after this the magnitude of the risk is determined again in
the same way as mentioned above. In appendix J an example of such a risk
analysis of a belt conveyor is given.

Patent policy

Because of the confidential information it is difficult to say much about the patent
policy. Tummers Methodic has some patents which they use in order to gain a
monopoly on the market. Because of the close involvement with the market
Tummers Methodic is able to innovate and to apply for patents. A recent patent
application is that of an automatically moving satellite role scraper. This moving
scraper makes it possible to have more control over the mash scraping from one
role to another, and it can also be used as an automatic cleaning system. The
speed and scraping time can be programmed by PLC, an operating system. In
appendix K two pictures of this scraper are given.


2.5 Esthetical factors

Esthetical factors arent of real importance in the case of the drum drier and the
whole flake line. The determinative factors for the design are maintenance, ease
of cleaning, safety, and functionality.

Conclusions and recommendations


This multifactor analysis shows that the scientific factors arent really important
for the product development of the drum dryer at Tummers Methodic. This also
counts for the esthetical factors. The factors of concern are the technological,
market, political, and juridical factors. Many technologies, mainly based on
experience and measurements, are used to manufacture a drum dryer. Examples
are steam pressure (temperature) and drum speed. Because of the insight in the
market factors Tummers Methodic has been able to achieve a strong position in
the market. Important are the services from design to maintenance, and the
high flexibility within the customers need. The political and juridical factors also
are important for the development of the drum. The development is constraint
by the safety regulations on the one hand, but the patent policy gives a
possibility of a very strong market position on the other hand.

The recommendations come down to the fact that Tummers Methodic has to go
on with the product policy in the way they are doing it now. They have a very
strong market position, but they surely have to strengthen it by exploiting the
opportunities in the new foreign market. It can give Tummers Methodic a very
strong and steady position in the world market of potato flakes. Of course,
Tummers Methodic should always keep considering the safety regulations.
Perhaps they even can go further than the CE-marking by setting up an own
safety plan. In this way they can even answer some more demands from the
market. Finally, innovations will always be essential to achieve and maintain a
strong market position. Therefore, Tummers Methodic has to develop and
distinguish itself as an innovative manufacturer.
Bibliography


Books:
Avier ingenieurs (1999). Syllabus CE-markering. Avier, Leende.
Sarlemijn, A. & Vries, M.J. de (1993). Ontwerpmethodologie en
Productbeleid. Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, Eindhoven.
Talburt, William F. & Smith, Ora (1987). Potato Processing, fourth edition.
Van Nostrand Reinhold Company Inc., New York.


Magazines:
Potato Business World 2000 (January/February): Chinese $6m success p.
3, Volume 8
Primeur 2001 (nr. 21) pp. 57-58


Websites:
http://www.tummers.nl


Brochures:
Tummers Methodic

Appendices

Appendix A: Sample of potato flakes
Appendix B: Overview of flake line
Appendix C: Drum surfaces, drum capacities, and steam capacities
Appendix D: Separate drum
Appendix E: Screw conveyor
Appendix F: Effect of drum speed and solids content of potatoes on potato flake
production rate
Appendix G: Effect of drum speed on potato flake sheet density
Appendix H: Steam measurements
Appendix I: CE-logo
Appendix J: Risk analysis of a belt conveyor (example)
Appendix K: Picture of moving satellite role scraper
Appendix L: Lay-out of a potato flake line


Appendix A: Sample of potato flakes


Appendix B: Overview of flake line



Appendix C: Drum surfaces, drum capacities, and steam capacities





13-okt-98 DRUMOPPERVLAKTEN (BRUTO) m2

diameter 3 5 5,2 5,4 5,5 6 7 8 lengte
1,5 14,13 23,55 24,492 25,434 25,905 28,26 32,97 37,68
2 18,84 31,4 32,656 33,912 34,54 37,68 43,96 50,24
2,2 20,724 34,54 35,9216 37,3032 37,994 41,448 48,356 55,264
2,3 21,666 36,11 37,5544 38,9988 39,721 43,332 50,554 57,776
2,5 23,55 39,25 40,82 42,39 43,175 47,1 54,95 62,8

Tummers Machinebouw BV

DRUMCAPACITEITEN (BRUTO) uitgaande van 15,7 kg/m2

diameter 3 5 5,2 5,4 5,5 6 7 8 lengte
1,5 221,841 369,735 384,5244 399,3138 406,7085 443,682 517,629 591,576
2 295,788 492,98 512,6992 532,4184 542,278 591,576 690,172 788,768
2,2 325,3668 542,278 563,9691 585,6602 596,5058 650,7336 759,1892 867,6448
2,3 340,1562 566,927 589,6041 612,2812 623,6197 680,3124 793,6978 907,0832
2,5 369,735 616,225 640,874 665,523 677,8475 739,47 862,715 985,96

Tummers Machinebouw BV

STOOMCAPACITEITEN (KG) 1m2=56(kg water)*1,4(stoom)

diameter 3 5 5,2 5,4 5,5 6 7 8 lengte
1,5 1186,92 1978,2 2057,328 2136,456 2176,02 2373,84 2769,48 3165,12
2 1582,56 2637,6 2743,104 2848,608 2901,36 3165,12 3692,64 4220,16
2,2 1740,816 2901,36 3017,414 3133,469 3191,496 3481,632 4061,904 4642,176
2,3 1819,944 3033,24 3154,57 3275,899 3336,564 3639,888 4246,536 4853,184
2,5 1978,2 3297 3428,88 3560,76 3626,7 3956,4 4615,8 5275,2

(Source: Tummers Methodic)
Appendix D: Separate drum





Drum dryer, separate from the flake line

Appendix E: Waste conveyor, preflaker


Screw conveyor for waste


Preflaker



Appendix F: Effect of drum speed and solids content of potatoes on
potato flake production rate



(Source: Talburt & Smith, 1987; p. 582)

Appendix G: Effect of drum speed on potato flake sheet density



(Source: Talburt & Smith, 1987; p. 583)


Appendix H: Steam measurements

Stoommetingen drum 3 Mydibel (2000*5200).

Tijd Hoeveelheid stoom Stoomdruk Stoomtemperatuur Snelheid drum Som stoom
[uur] [kg/uur] [bar] [grad. Celcius] [Herz] [kg/uur]
0 1547 10,8 182,6 31 0
3 1523 10,8 182,4 31 4360
5 1556 10,8 182,3 31 7738
6 1564 10,8 182,2 31 9020
8 1585 10,7 182,2 31 11982
23 1628 10,8 182,2 31 33508
24 1698 10,7 182,1 33 35629
25 1688 10,8 182,2 34 37200
28 1710 10,7 182,0 35 42317
29 1677 10,7 182,0 35 44030
31 1737 10,7 182,0 33 47403
48 1672 9,4 176,4 32 76123
50 1781 10,7 181,9 35 79601
53 1762 10,7 182,0 35 83520
54 1670 10,4 180,7 37 85072
72 1710 10,7 182,2 35 110728

























LET OP:
Stoominput is afhankelijk van drumsnelheid en totale hoeveelheid puree op de drum.
Een overladen drum (te veel puree op de rollen) geeft duidelijk een hoger stoomverbruik
dan een drum met voldoende puree op de rollen.
Een stilstaande drum, zonder puree, met een inwendige maximale stoomdruk (11.0 bar) heeft
nagenoeg geen stoomverbruik.
(Source: Tummers Methodic)
Appendix I: CE-logo






Appendix J: Risk analysis of a belt conveyor (example)


Appendix K: Pictures of moving satellite role scraper



Patent pending



Appendix L: Lay-out of a potato flake line