Dividends are payments made by a corporation to its shareholders or it is the portion of corporate profits paid out to stockholders. Every company follows or tries to follow a certain dividend policy. Dividend policy is the policy taken by the management of the firm to make payments to its shareholders from the firm’s profit or reserve. It is very important from the Corporate finance’s point of view to understand every aspects of dividend policy. So clear understanding of dividend policy helps management or other responsible persons to take efficient decision in this regard. In Bangladesh practice of following a particular dividend policy is not very strong. We know that in 1956 Lintner showed that a firm basically increases its dividend after being assured that its earnings growth is sustainable. But in our country it is really very difficult to find a pattern in dividend policy of a company because most of the companies here pay dividend without following any policies that we find in the text. To analyze the dividend policy of a company I have taken Gemini Sea Food Limited and showed its dividend policy and various effects of its dividend policy on market, firm and other investors. To do so, I have calculated many ratios and showed the impact of dividend policy followed by the company on those ratios to identify any particular pattern. I have also answered the assigned questions which explore various effects of dividend policy.

Date of incorporation Date of operation Brands Nature of business Products

16.09.1982 03.08.1984 ‘MEENA’ & ‘GEMINI’ Processing, Packaging & Exporting of quality frozen Raw shrimp, Cooked shrimp and White fish. • • • • • • • Headless shell-on Peeled & Deveined Head-on Shell-on Semi IQF Butterfly IQF Ezypeel IQF Cooked and balanced IQF Skewer Semi IQF



raw The company processes the firm raised shrimps


This is the most common form of dividend. Historically dividends were a major portion of returns to stockholders. For example: Beximco limited declared 20% stock dividend for its shareholders. which means that a current shareholder of Beximco limited who owns 100 shares of the company will be entitled to receive 20 additional shares at ex dividend date. When we state dividend in % term we basically mean dividend on par value or face value. DEFINITION OF DIVIDEND Dividends are payments that firms make to their shareholders. STOCK DIVIDEND Stock dividend is a kind of dividend paid out in the form of additional stock shares of the issuing corporation. From its business operations a company generates profit. normally out of the corporation's current earnings or accumulated profits. Stock dividend is very much preferred in our country as we know that in Bangladesh it is profitable to sell shares after the record date because after the record date price of shares appreciates very quickly from the adjusted price. & The company is equipped with state-of-the-art and world class machineries and best possible equipments • • Block: 15 tons IQF: 10 tons Machineries Equipments Production capacity Quality control The company possesses a very well set and equipped laboratory with highly professionals capable of carrying out all essential tests and checks required to ensure best possible hygienic products conforming to the standard as per HACCP. TYPES OF DIVIDEND CASH DIVIDEND Cash dividend is the money paid to stockholders. All dividends must be declared by the board of directors and are taxable as income to the recipients. Part of this profit is kept in the company as retained earnings and the other part is distributed as dividends to shareholders.material received from the government FIQC approved sources only. They are usually issued in proportion to shares owned. 2 . All the shrimps are naturally cultured.

• • • • Stable dividend policy Constant payout ratio dividend policy Residual dividend policy Sticky dividend policy Stable dividend policy 3 . For example: FuWang food’s 100 shares of stock are priced at $50 per share. Stock repurchase is an alternative to cash or stock dividend. STOCK SPLIT A stock split or stock divide increases the number of shares in a public company. the same as before the split. In some countries. This happens due to increased accessibility of the company’s stock by the investors after split. Well. The price is adjusted such that the before and after market capitalization of the company remains the same and dilution does not occur. This is not familiar in our country. that is. Though price increases fundamentals of the company remain same after the split. The market capitalization is 200 × $25 = $5000. The company either retires the repurchased shares or keeps them as treasury stock. and the UK. The market capitalization is 100 × $50. or $5000. including the U.S. available for re-issuance. The price of each share is adjusted to $25. these are written below. in our market. DIVIDEND POLICY Dividend policy is the policy used by a company to decide how much it will pay out to shareholders in dividends. There are now 200 shares of stock and each shareholder holds twice as many shares. TYPES OF DIVIDEND POLICY There are mainly four types of dividend policies in practice.STOCK REPURCHASE Stock repurchase (or share buyback) is the reacquisition by a company of its own stock. a corporation can repurchase its own stock by distributing cash to existing shareholders in exchange for a fraction of the company's outstanding equity. cash is exchanged for a reduction in the number of shares outstanding. from the recent evidence we have seen that price of a company’s stock increases unusually when it splits its stock. The company splits its stock 2-for-1.

Here dividend fluctuates with increased or decreased earnings. P0 is the current price D1 is the dividend in the coming years. Then. After one year P1 = D1/r because D1 = D2. again in 2010 EPS was 6 so DPS became 2.In the stable dividend policy. Now. If return on equity is 15% then under Dividend discount model the value of the company’s share will be: P0 = 3/(.15-0) = 20. as there is no growth of dividend for stable dividend policy if there is no growth in dividend.3 cash dividend annually on par value of Tk.8. Constant payout ratio dividend policy In the constant payout ratio situation. Sticky Dividend Policy 4 . g=0. EXAMPLE Management of FuWang foods limited can be said to maintains a stable dividend policy if it pays dividend to its stock holders at a payout ratio of 35% for indefinite period. management maintains a fixed percentage dividend payout ratio. Under this policy dividend amount per share remains same over the years even though the earning of the company increases. The impact on share pricing can be seen from the share valuation formula (DDM) below: P0 = D1/(r-g) Where. EXAMPLE Management of FuWang foods limited maintains a stable dividend policy. which will continue for indefinite period until the company changes its current dividend policy. Suppose the company decided to pays Tk. r is the required equity return and g is the dividend growth rate.1.10 for indefinite time period. P0 = D1/r. Suppose in 2008 the company’s EPS was 8 so DPS was 2. Thus P1 = P2 and there is no growth in the share price. management of a company maintains a fixed dividend per share each year.

From the graph below we can see that there is a declining trend in the company’s EPS though in 2008 and in 2010 EPS of the company bounced back and increased. in 2006 EPS was 4 & DPS was 1. Residual Dividend Policy In a residual dividend policy.5. From the graph below we can see that total dividend of the company was 25% or Taka 25 per share. the remaining Tk. In the graph we compared between EPS and Total dividend in percentage. 60 million. profits are used to fund new projects at first and then the residual or remaining profit is distributed as dividends. This leads to "sticky dividend policy. So finally we can say that for the first three years company’s dividend policy seemed to stable then from 2008 with incremental EPS but decreased total dividend the company lost its pattern of the earlier dividend policy or we can say for the last three years Gemini did not For the first 3 years Gemini Sea Food followed stable dividend policy then in the next three years the company’s 5 . We can see that in 2010 Gemini’s EPS increased but the company cut its dividend. 40 million will be distributed as dividends.5 again and in 2007 when EPS became 5 then the company’s management was sure that earnings growth is stable so it increased its DPS to 2. 100 million and is going to fund a new development project costing Tk. GEMINI SEA FOOD-TYPE OF DIVIDEND POLICY We can see a mix up in the dividend policy of Gemini sea food limited. again from 2005-2007 company’s dividend policy was stable though EPS decreased. In 2005 EPS was 3 & DPS was 1. EXAMPLE Suppose management of FuWang foods limited follow sticky dividend policy. Thus once the Board of Directors decides to raise dividends they want to be sure they do not need to cut them in the future. EXAMPLE If a company has a profit of Tk. So we can say that from 2005-07 company’s dividend policy was stable." Sticky dividend policy refers to the idea that dividends track earnings but with a lag since management wants to be sure the earnings are sustainable. Below we can see the EPS of the company which fluctuated highly over the years.Lintner (1956) found that managers hate to cut dividends (because investors see cuts as a signal that things are going poorly). Here 2005-2006 is a lag when management did not increased dividend with incremental EPS to be sure that earnings growth is stable.

We know that past dividend generates expectation of better future dividend so the company tried to pay dividend at a stable rate to its shareholders from 2003 to 2007 then its dividend fluctuated or declined gradually. GEMINI SEA FOOD-FACTORS DIVIDEND DECISION AFFECTING We know that dividend decision of a company is taken by the management and there are several factors that influence this decision. So we can say that past dividend is has been a factor that influenced the dividend decision of the company. Past dividend of Amount of The following factors affect the dividend decision of Gemini Sea Food Limited: • • • • Past dividend Estimate of Future Earnings Future Needs of Capital Present Amount of Reserves Attitude of of Future • • • • • • Age of the Company Position of Liquidity Government Policy Taxation Legal Restrictions Attitude of Management • Though the company was in loss in the early years of 2000 it rebounded from 2003 and since then the company paid some dividend to its shareholders though it’s accumulated retained earnings was negative.follow any particular dividend policy. Estimate of Future Earnings 6 . We can also observe the fluctuation in EPS in the last three years. Final figure of dividend of a company is determined only after considering the following factors: • • • • • • • • Type of Business Current Year's Earnings Past Dividends Estimate Earnings Future Needs of Capital Fluctuations in Business Present Reserves Distribution Shareholders So from Gemini Sea Food’s perspective only 6 of the above factors seems affected the dividend decision of the company.

We have already seen that the company’s dividend declined from 2008 to 2010. Present Amount of Reserves Present amount of reserve of the company is negative. the signaling its market price increases to reflect the investors belief that effect and proves the company’s future cash flow generating potential has that there is no 7 . We know that in 2008 & 2009 Sidr & Ila two tornadoes visited Bangladesh which affected the shrimp industry of our country as a result of which many shrimp processing companies closed down their operations. Attitude of Management Attitude of management towards investors is positive because they recommended cash dividend to the stockholders when they could have stopped paying any form of dividend as the company’s reserve was negative. So to reduce the loan or to increase the company’s ability to meet working capital requirements its management may have revised its dividend decision in the Gemini’s market later years. We know that signaling effect means that when contradictory to the firm pays better or higher dividend compared to last year. Position of Liquidity From the balance sheet in the appendix we can see that most of the bank loan that company has in the form of term loan for meet up the working capital requirements. So to retire the negative reserve as early as possible the company may have reduced the dividend from 2008-2010. So this factor may have an effect on the reduced dividend decision of the company in later years. price increased GEMINI SEA FOOD-SIGNALING sharply when it reduced its EFFECT dividend greatly Signaling effect is very important issue from the perspective in 2009. After suffering from two devastating natural calamities the company was in need of immediate capital investment to smoothen its operations. This is because of Estimate of Future Earnings by the company’s management. Future Needs of Capital This is another factor which we can say might have affected the dividend decision of the company. From the companies act 1994 we know that a company may not to pay any dividend until its accumulated reserve or retained earnings became positive. This is of literature. So the expectation of future less profitability and more sufferings may have shaped the declining dividend decision of Gemini Sea Food limited’s management.

Although dividend signaling theory implies that dividend increases signal better prospect but recently some research works found evidence that signaling effect of dividend does not exist in market. Many earlier studies had shown that stock prices tend to increase when an increase in dividends is announced and tend to decrease when a decrease or omission is announced. A model developed by Merton Miller and Kevin Rock in 1985 suggests that dividend announcements convey information to investors regarding the firm's future prospects. After the work of Lintner in 1956. Miller and Rock pointed out that this is likely due to the information content of dividends. So in this case. This is contradictory to the signaling theory.increased. there exists clientele effect because price of the company’s shares in the market increased when the company reduced its Clientele effect represents the impact on the stock price that investors would cause in reaction to a change in policy of a company. From the graph above we can see that when the company’s dividend was stable its price was almost stable though it was little higher in 2006 compared to 2005 and 2007. dividend policy 8 . Fama and Mayers also found that increased dividend convey good news to the investors and boost their confidence which eventually is reflected in the increased share price. to identify whether here exists any signaling effect I have tested the market price of Gemini sea food’s per share and its total dividend per share over the period 2005 to 2010. So we can say that there is no signaling effect in case of Gemini sea food limited. But when the company started to reduce its dividend to a great deal from 2009 Gemini’s market price rose sharply. Consequently. GEMINI SEA FOOD-CLIENTELE EFFECT In case of Gemini Sea Food limited.

Managers change dividend only when they feel firm’s permanents earnings have changed. so when there is clientele effect dividend policy is irrelevant. Managers use a target payout ratio to set dividends. these are 1. We know that in Bangladesh individual investors pay 10% on dividend gain immediately and institutions pay 20%. GEMINI SEA DIVIDENDS FOOD-STYLIZED FACTS OF Lintner in 1956 developed a set of stylized facts about corporate dividend policies by making a series of interviews with the managers responsible for those policies. there exists clientele effect because price of the company’s shares in the market increased when the company reduced its dividend. Here in case of Gemini Sea Food limited. 3. On the graph above we can see that dividend yield also declined gradually as the dividend amount decreased but market price of the company’s share increased. So we can say that institutions like less dividend payments compared to high dividend preference by the individuals.won't affect the value of the stock as long as clientele exist. Lintner found four basic stylized facts. So there exists clientele effect of dividend for the company. Managers try to smoothing the dividend. Basically the company paid dividend at a constant amount from 2005-2007 then it declined its dividend but this had no impact on the price of the company as the price of the company increased with the decline of dividend. 9 . 2. If the company pays higher dividend people will increase their investment in the company on the other hand institutions will decrease.

The graph below shows this stylize fact: In Gemini Sea Food’s case two other stylized factors like “Managers use a target payout ratio to set dividends & Managers change dividend only when they feel firm’s permanents earnings have changed” are absent and I did not find any evidence for these two factors.4. If free cash flow increases with incremental free float then we can 10 . Here in case of Gemini Sea Food limited we have found managers try to smoothing the dividend by gradually decreasing dividend payout ratio to increase the growth of the form. but they can also act as a corporate governance device to align the management's interests with those of the shareholders. GEMINI SEA FOOD-CORPORATE GOVERNANCE Dividends are not only a signal about a firm's prospects under asymmetric information. But for the last stylize fact I have found that managers of the company reduced the dividend when they were forced to do so in 2008-2010. Managers only cut dividends when they are forced to do so. The company’s EPS fluctuated but dividend payout ratio gradually declined o we can say that managers tried to smooth the dividend effect by gradually decreasing the dividend payout ratio and total dividend payment for increased growth rate and fluctuating EPS.

There is no signaling effect for the firm but clientele effect was there. CONCLUSION So we can come up with the conclusion that Gemini Sea food followed stable dividend policy in the earlier years but later management of the company was forced to cut dividend to ensure firms growth by investing retained earnings in the working capital. Here in case of Gemini we have seen that due to reduced dividend individuals left investing in the company. 11 . As we know that individuals have low tax bracket so they prefer high dividend compared to institutional investors. So due to less dividend payment free float of the company reduced. Firms management follow two stylize facts in making dividend decisions as well as management’s intention to preserve investors rights was quite clear though I did not find any clear evidence of corporate governance.say that a firm practices strong corporate governance because there is less or no agency problem. Again free cash flow per share fluctuated over the period so we cannot say anything strictly about the corporate governance practice of the firm.