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MBA SEMESTER III MB0050 – Research Methodology- 4 Credits (Book ID: B1206) Assignment Set- 1 (60 Marks) Note: Each question carries 10 Marks. Answer all the questions
Q1. Why should a manger know about research when the job entails managing people, products, events, environments, and the like? [10 Marks] Answer: The manager, while managing people, products, events, and environments will invariably face problems, big and small, and will have to seek ways to find long lasting effective solutions. This can be achieved only through knowledge of research even if consultants are engaged to solve problems. The primary purpose for applied research (as opposed to basic research) is discovering, interpreting, and the development of methods and systems for the advancement of human knowledge on a wide variety of scientific matters of our world and the universe. Research can use the scientific method, but need not do so. The goal of the research process is to produce new knowledge, which takes three main forms (although, as previously discussed, the boundaries between them may be fuzzy): Exploratory research, which structures and identifies new problems Constructive research, which develops solutions to a problem Empirical research, which tests the feasibility of a solution using empirical evidence The research room at the New York Public Library, an example of secondary research in progress. Research can also fall into two distinct types: Primary research Secondary research In social sciences and later in other disciplines, the following two research methods can be applied, depending on the properties of the subject matter and on the objective of the research: Qualitative research Quantitative research Research is often conducted using the hourglass model Structure of Research. The hourglass model starts with a broad spectrum for research, focusing in on the required information through the methodology of the project (like the neck of the hourglass), then expands the research in the form of discussion and results. Research and development is nowadays of great importance in business as the level of competition, production processes and methods are rapidly increasing. It is of special importance in the field of marketing where companies keep an eagle eye on competitors
and customers in order to keep pace with modern trends and analyze the needs, demands and desires of their customers. Unfortunately, research and development are very difficult to manage, since the defining feature of research is that the researchers do not know in advance exactly how to accomplish the desired result. As a result, higher R&D spending does not guarantee "more creativity, higher profit or a greater market share. Q 2. a. How do you evolve research design for exploratory research? Briefly analyze. [5 marks]. b. Briefly explain Independent dependent and extraneous variables in a research design. [5 Marks] Answer: a. Research design in case of exploratory research studies Exploratory research studies are also termed as formulative research studies. The main purpose of such studies is that of formulating a problem for more precise investigation or of developing the working hypothesis from an operational point of view. The major emphasis in such studies is on the discovery of ideas and insights. As such the research design appropriate for such studies must be flexible enough to provide opportunity for considering different aspects of a problem under study. Inbuilt flexibility in research design is needed because the research problem, broadly defined initially, is transformed into one with more precise meaning in exploratory studies, which fact may necessitate changes in the research procedure for gathering relevant data. Generally, the following three methods in the context of research design for such studies are talked about: 1. The survey of concerning literature happens to be the most simple and fruitful method of formulating precisely the research problem or developing hypothesis. Hypothesis stated by earlier workers may be reviewed and their usefulness be evaluated as a basis for further research. It may also be considered whether the already stated hypothesis suggests new hypothesis. In this way the researcher should review and build upon the work already done by others, but in cases where hypothesis have not yet been formulated, his task is to review the available material for deriving the relevant hypothesis from it. Besides, the bibliographical survey of studies, already made in one’s area of interest may as well as made by the researcher for precisely formulating the problem. He should also make an attempt to apply concepts and theories developed in different research contexts to the area in which he is himself working. Sometimes the works of creative writers also provide a fertile ground for hypothesis formulation as such may be looked into by the researcher. 2. Experience survey means the survey of people who have had practical experience with the problem to be studied. The object of such a survey is to obtain insight into the relationships between variables and new ideas relating to the research problem. For such a survey, people who are competent and can contribute new ideas may be carefully selected as respondents to ensure a representation of different types of
experience. The respondents so selected may then be interviewed by the investigator. The researcher must prepare an interview schedule for the systematic questioning of informants. But the interview must ensure flexibility in the sense that the respondents should be allowed to raise issues and questions which the investigator has not previously considered. Generally, the experience of collecting interview is likely to be long and may last for few hours. Hence, it is often considered desirable to send a copy of the questions to be discussed to the respondents well in advance. This will also give an opportunity to the respondents for doing some advance thinking over the various issues involved so that, at the time of interview, they may be able to contribute effectively. Thus, an experience survey may enable the researcher to define the problem more concisely and help in the formulation of the research hypothesis. This, survey may as well provide information about the practical possibilities for doing different types of research. 3. Analyses of ‘insight-stimulating’ examples are also a fruitful method for suggesting hypothesis for research. It is particularly suitable in areas where there is little experience to serve as a guide. This method consists of the intensive study of selected instance of the phenomenon in which one is interested. For this purpose the existing records, if nay, may be examined, the unstructured interviewing may take place, or some other approach may be adopted. Attitude of the investigator, the intensity of the study and the ability of the researcher to draw together diverse information into a unified interpretation are the main features which make this method an appropriate procedure for evoking insights. Now, what sorts of examples are to be selected and studied? There is no clear cut answer to it. Experience indicates that for particular problems certain types of instances are more appropriate than others. One can mention few examples of ‘insight-stimulating’ cases such as the reactions of strangers, the reactions of marginal individuals, the study of individuals who are in transition from one stage to another, the reactions of individuals from different social strata and the like. In general, cases that provide sharp contrasts or have striking features are considered relatively more useful while adopting this method of hypothesis formulation. Thus, in an exploratory of formulative research study which merely leads to insights or hypothesis, whatever method or research design outlined above is adopted, the only thing essential is that it must continue to remain flexible so that many different facets of a problem may be considered as and when they arise and come to the notice of the researcher. b. Dependent and Independent variables: A magnitude that varies is known as a variable. The concept may assume different quantitative values, like height, weight, income, etc. Qualitative variables are not quantifiable in the strictest sense of objectivity. However, the qualitative phenomena may also be quantified in terms of the presence or absence of the attribute considered. Phenomena that assume different values quantitatively even in decimal points are known as ‘continuous variables’. But, all variables need not be continuous. Values that can be expressed only in integer values are called ‘non-continuous variables’. In statistical term, they are also known as ‘discrete variable’. For example, age is a continuous variable; where as the number of children is a noncontinuous variable. When changes in one variable depends upon the
changes in one or more other variables, it is known as a dependent or endogenous variable, and the variables that cause the changes in the dependent variable are known as the independent or explanatory or exogenous variables. For example, if demand depends upon price, then demand is a dependent variable, while price is the independent variable. And if, more variables determine demand, like income and prices of substitute commodity, then demand also depends upon them in addition to the own price. Then, demand is a dependent variable which is determined by the independent variables like own price, income and price of substitute. 2. Extraneous variable: The independent variables which are not directly related to the purpose of the study but affect the dependent variable are known as extraneous variables. For instance, assume that a researcher wants to test the hypothesis that there is relationship between children’s school performance and their self-concepts, in which case the latter is an independent variable and the former, the dependent variable. In this context, intelligence may also influence the school performance. However, since it is not directly related to the purpose of the study undertaken by the researcher, it would be known as an extraneous variable. The influence caused by the extraneous variable on the dependent variable is technically called as an ‘experimental error’. Therefore, a research study should always be framed in such a manner that the dependent variable completely influences the change in the independent variable and any other extraneous variable or variables.
Q 3. A. Differentiate between ‘Census survey’ and ‘ Sample Survey’. [5 Marks] b. Analyze multi-stage and sequential sampling. [5 Marks] Answer: a. Surveys are done all over the world to collect information from the populace to arrive at conclusions that help in improving the products or services of a company. There are many techniques of survey out of which sample survey and census survey are very popular. Though there are many similarities between these two methods, there are many differences in features and also the results obtained. It depends upon time available and other circumstances to engage in either of the two types of surveys. The sample is a portion of the population whereas census takes into consideration everyone in the population. This obviously means that a census survey is a much bigger exercise in nature and procedures than a sample survey. Census survey also is a very time consuming exercise as information needs to be collected from each and every individual from the population. On the other hand, sample survey is easier as a representative sample is taken from the population and the results obtained are extrapolated to fit the entire population.
There are times and requirements where governments have to indulge in census survey even if it is time consuming and very expensive as it needs to formulate policies and welfare programs for the population. For example, when a government has to count heads of the population, it cannot For completed assignment visit www.studenthelp.tk Census survey: • Gathers information from every individual in a certain group For completed assignment visit www.studenthelp.tk Sample Survey: • Gathers information from only a section of the population For completed assignment visit www.studenthelp.tk b. Multi-stage sampling is carried out in two or more stages. The population is regarded as being composed of a number of second stage units and so forth. That is, at each stage, a sampling unit is a cluster of the sampling units of the subsequent stage. Sequential sampling: Double sampling refers to the subsection of the final sample form a preselected larger sample that provided information for improving the final selection. When the procedure is extended to more than two phases of selection, it is then, called multi-phase sampling. This is also known as sequential sampling, as subsampling is done from a main sample in phases. Double sampling or multiphase sampling is a compromise solution for a dilemma posed by undesirable extremes. “The statistics based on the sample of ‘n’ can be improved by using ancillary information from a wide base: but this is too costly to obtain from the entire population of N elements. Instead, information is obtained from a larger preliminary sample nL which includes the final sample n.
Q4. List down various measures of central tendency and explain the difference between them? [10 marks]. Answer: Measures of Central Tendency Analysis of data involves understanding of the characteristics of the data. The following are the important characteristics of a statistical data: • Central tendency • Dispersion • Skew ness
• Kurtosis In a data distribution, the individual items may have a tendency to come to a central position or an average value. For instance, in a mark distribution, the individual students may score marks between zero and hundred. In this distribution, many students may score marks, which are near to the average marks, i.e. 50. Such a tendency of the data to concentrate to the central position of the distribution is called central tendency. Central tendency of the data is measured by statistical averages. Averages are classified into two groups. 1. Mathematical averages 2. Positional averages
For completed assignment visit www.studenthelp.tk Q.5. Select any topic for research and explain how you will use both secondary and primary sources to gather the required information. [10 marks] Answer: For example, the general statistical information in the number of co-operative credit societies in the country, their coverage of villages, their capital structure, volume of business etc., may be taken from published reports and quoted as background information in a study on the evaluation of performance of cooperative credit societies in a selected district/state. Second, secondary data may be used as bench marks against which the findings of research may be tested, e.g., the findings of a local or regional survey may be compared with the national averages; the performance indicators of a particular bank may be tested against the corresponding indicators of the banking industry as a whole; and so on. Finally, secondary data may be used as the sole source of information for a research project. Such studies as securities Market Behaviour, Financial Analysis of companies, Trade in credit allocation in commercial banks, sociological studies on crimes, historical studies, and the like, depend primarily on secondary data. Year books, statistical reports of government departments, report of public organizations of Bureau of Public Enterprises, Censes Reports etc, serve as major data sources for such research studies.
Primary data are directly collected by the researcher from their original sources. In this case, the researcher can collect the required date precisely according to his research needs, he can collect them when he wants them and in the form he needs them. But the collection of primary data is costly and time consuming. Yet, for several types of social science research required data are not available from secondary sources and they have to be directly gathered from the primary sources. In such cases where the available data are inappropriate, inadequate or obsolete, primary data have to be gathered. They include: socio economic surveys, social anthropological studies of rural communities and tribal communities, sociological studies of social problems and social institutions. Marketing research, leadership studies, opinion polls, attitudinal surveys, readership, radio listening and T.V. viewing surveys, knowledge-awareness practice (KAP) studies, farm managements studies, business management studies etc.
Q 6. a. Explain the role of Graphs and Diagrams? [5 Marks] b. What are the Types and General rules for graphical representation of data? [5 Marks] Answer: In presenting the data of frequency distributions and statistical computations, it is often desirable to use appropriate forms of graphic presentations. In additions to tabular forms, graphic presentation involves use of graphics, charts and other pictorial devices such as diagrams. These forms and devices reduce large masses of statistical data to a form that can be quickly understood at the glance. The meaning of figures in tabular form may be difficult for the mind to grasp or retain. “Properly constructed graphs and charts relieve the mind of burdensome details by portraying facts concisely, logically and simply.” They, by emphasizing new and significant relationship, are also useful in discovering new facts and in developing hypothesis. The device of graphic presentation is particularly useful when the prospective readers are non-technical people or general public. It is useful to even technical people for dramatizing certain points about data; for important points can be more effectively captured in pictures than in tables. However, graphic forms are not substitutes for tables, but are additional tools for the researcher to emphasize the research findings. Graphic presentation must be planned with utmost care and diligence. Graphic forms used should be simple, clear and accurate and also be appropriate to the data. In planning this work, the following questions must be considered. (a) What is the purpose of the diagram? (b) What facts are to be emphasized? (c) What is the educational level of the audience? (d) How much time is available for the preparation of the diagram? (e) What kind of chart will portray the data most clearly and accurately?
b. Types of Graphs and General Rules The most commonly used graphic forms may be grouped into the following categories: a) Line Graphs or Charts b) Bar Charts c) Segmental presentations. For completed assignment visit www.studenthelp.tk
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