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of coal. The country's increasing dependence on coal for electricity generation puts the health and environment of the nation at great risk and adds much economic burden to the already impoverished Filipinos. • Coal fired power plants (CFPP) remain the country's dominant source of energy accounting for 27.4% of the 2009 total installed capacity of 15,610 MW. The ten existing coal fired power plants consumed 80% of the total coal supply in 2009. • In 2009. the country consumed 13.959 million metric tons of coal, 81% of which is imported from Indonesia, China and Vietnam. • The Philippine government has approved the construction of at least four new coal power plants by 2012 and is planning to construct more coal-fired power plants in the provinces of Isabela, Zambales, Negros Oriental and Occidental, Saranggani, General Santos, Davao City, and Davao del Norte. • The Philippine government continues to open up national coal reserves to foreign companies for exploration and production and is targeting to increase the local production of coal by 250% by 2015. THE DIRTY FACTS ON COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS Coal is the dirtiest source of energy. • All throughout the coal’s life cycle, from mining to preparation, from transportation and consumption to disposal, coal releases numerous toxic pollutants into our air, our waters and onto our lands.i • A typical coal plant produces 3,700,000 tons of carbon dioxide (CO2), 10,000 tons of sulfur dioxide (SO2), 720 tons of carbon monoxide (CO), 170 pounds of mercury, 225 pounds of arsenic, 114 pounds of lead, 4 pounds of cadmium, and other toxic heavy metals. These
making the energy sector the priority for mitigation. diseases.vi • The Philippines ranks in the top 32 countries with the highest CO2 emitting power sectors in the world. and deaths in affected communities. air pollution-related cases of these diseases amounted to an estimated five percent of all reported diseases in the country. • Air pollution adds to the large health burden of cardiovascular and respiratory disease. an increase from the 49% share of total share of emissions in 1994. Air pollution is also estimated to account for over four percent of all deaths in the country . among the leading causes of disease and death in the Philippines.vii Coal fired power plants are a leading contributor to air pollution • Based on the 2006 National Emissions Inventory.ii Electricity generated from coal emits more carbon dioxide (CO2) than any other energy source.v • The Philippines is the 6th most vulnerable country to the impacts of climate change in the world. the energy sector accounts for 55% of the total GHG emissions.chemical compounds and heavy metals have been proven to cause pollution. making it a leading cause of global warming. In 2004. • Coal is the most carbon intensive of fossil fuels and other energy sources. 31% of the total NOX emissions and 14 % of the particulate matter. It produces 21 percent more CO2 than oil and 76 percent more CO2 than natural gas for every unit of energy consumption. emissions from stationary sources such as coal-fired power plants account for 97% of the total SOX emissions.iv • Based on the Philippine's 2000 green house gas (GHG) inventory.iii • A typical 500 megawatt coal-fired power plant produces approximately 3 million tons/year of CO2.
ix • In the Philippines. The toxic metals in coal ash can leach out of ash disposal sites. and contaminate surface waters and underground aquifers. lead. . chromium and selenium.xi Tons of toxic wastes are generated by coal-fired power plants yearly.• The costs associated with treating the reported disease cases attributed to air pollution amount to PHP962 million (US$19 million) per year.x • In an average year. is the largest single source of emissions from human sources. a typical coal plant generates 170 pounds of mercury.000 tons of ash and 193.viii Coal. • Waste created by a typical 500-megawatt coal plant includes more than 125. and cardiopulmonary disease and lung cancer in adults.xiii Coal-fired power plants wastes huge amounts of water and contributes directly to water pollution.000 tons of sludge from the smokestack scrubber each year. resulted in an additional PHP6. accounting for 20% of the total mercury releases.7 billion (US$134 million) in lost income per year. • Burning of fossil fuels.fired power plants are the largest single source mercury emissions in most countries. cadmium. primarily coal. extraction and use of fuel and energy resources is the second largest sector responsible for mercury releases. mercury. accounting for about 45% of the total anthropogenic mercury emissions. Similarly air pollution-related deaths due to pneumonia in children. xii • Coal ash commonly contains some of the earth’s deadliest toxics: arsenic. where they can cause cancer and neurological harm in humans and can poison fish. especially from wet storage. where just 1/70th of a teaspoon deposited on a 25-acre lake can make the fish unsafe to eat.
The Philippines does not need additional coal-fired power plants.xv • In the Philippines. which burns 250 tons of coal per hour.319MW while the peak power demand is just 9. uses 12 million gallons of water an hour or 300 million gallons a day for cooling.610 megawatts (MW) and dependable power capacity of 13. the power sector which represents only 1% of the total number of water permit grantees was allocated with 57% of the total volume of water.xiv • Compared to other energy sources. Coal-fired power plants do not guarantee lower electricity rates for end consumers as the power industry is deregulated is and controlled by foreign and private companies. • In terms of power supply.xvi Coal does not provide for cheap energy rates and even imposes high external costs to the Filipinos • Despite the use of supposedly cheaper fossil-based sources such as coal. coal-fired power plants is second only to nuclear power plants being the most water intensive power generation method.472MW. External costs arise when project impacts such as damages to human health are not fully accounted or compensated for by a power plant. Simple computation tells us that the . The Department of Energy data also show that in 2009 the country has an installed power capacity of 15. the country does not need more coal-fired power plants. the power sector already gets the most of the country's water resources as compared to other sectors. A typical 500-megawatt coal-fired utility. In 2007. power rates have not gone down.• A kilowatt-hour of electricity requires on average about 25 gallons of water to produce or almost 3 times as much water used when turning on the lights and running appliances than taking showers and watering plants. • A study conducted by the European Commission in 2003 on different types of power generation bared that coal-fired power plants registered to have the highest external cost.
as a matter of policy. members of civil society groups and representatives of grassroots sectors and organizations. Each and every Filipino and energy consumer has a right to demand for clean. . • If ever we do need additional energy supplies in the Philippines. making equitable power distribution. the Department of Energy and the Department of Environment and Natural Resources to 1.) conduct a comprehensive assessment and full audit on the socio-economic and environmental impacts of coal-fired power plant construction in the Philippines and 2. The Philippines has one of the highest potentials in the world in terms of geothermal resources while our solar and wind power potential are more than enough to replace existing power generation. THE SOLUTION Join the concerned citizens. environmentalists. renewable and affordable sources of energy without compromising our right to a healthful environment and genuine development. and more pro-people framework of development. we can tap better and cleaner local power sources and technologies instead of using imported coal resources and dirty coal technologies.country actually has an excess power supply of 3. and systematically developing our renewable energy resources. THE BOTTOM LINE The Philippines is already vulnerable to the impacts of disasters and diseases due to a degraded environment and deep poverty. professionals.) embark on a review of the Philippine Energy Plan for 2009-2030. in calling for President Aquino to direct. more sustainable. These industries have to be tapped and developed within a broader.847 MW or equivalent to 19 power plants having a 200MW capacity each. the Philippine government can provide for additional energy supply and help bring down electricity rates for the people already mired in hardship. The Philippines has enough renewable energy sources that can be tapped to supply the countryʼs growing energy needs. • By reducing electricity losses. Church workers.
PEW Center.ch/mercury/.unep. Support the resolution calling for the immediate moratorium on the construction and/or expansion of all coal-fired power plant projects until 2050.com. Protect our communities. questions or more details contact Kalikasan Peopleʼs Network for the Environment through kalikasan. yes to Renewable Energy! Stop energy privatization! Nationalize the energy industry! For comments. 2001 Union of Concerned Scientists. The Future of Coal. vii ScienceDaily (Nov. 2004. save our environment. xii UCUSA xiii Physicians for Social Responsibility xiv NETL. xv USDOE.pne@gmail. 2007) viii World Bank ix UNEP x DENR. www. and consumption of coal. 15. Associated Mercury Action Plan for the Philippines./THE%20PHILIPPINES%20Draft%20Action%20Plan. production.doc xi UCUSA. Clean Air Task Force.. no to coal power plants. v Needs vi Maplecroft. 2006 xvi NWRB ii iii i . iv MIT.particularly with regards to its strategy of aiming to increase the importation. Cradle to Grave: The Environmental Impacts from Coal..chem.
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