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A Comparative Study of the Effectiveness of Stearic Acid in Preventing Iron Against Rusting

In partial fulfillment of the requirements in Technical Research

Presented to: Ms. Divina Paulette

Proponents: Vibandor, Mark Angelo Pulintan, Aubrey Marie Martin, Kristine Jane Dianito, Ivan Rennel Ramos, Luzviminda Robles, Ian Carlos Paala, Darrel John Dean, Ma. Isabel Co, Charlene

Abstract Philippines is considered as the µGateway of Typhoons¶ in the Pacific. Because of the continuous climate change, this condition greatly affects the country¶s stability especially when most of our infrastructures and equipments were damaged due to bad weather. When our equipments especially those which are made in metal are exposed to changing environment¶s condition, their quality will soon deteriorate because of rusts caused by abnormal climate change. The researchers therefore thought of a solution to that problem which is more affordable than buying more paints then coat them again, which is obviously time consuming and impractical. There are many types of paint available in the market today which came from different manufacturers but of the same purpose and of the same effect. We all know that paint¶s resistance of rust is affected by our environment and of the climate change we are experiencing making the resistance of the paint be effective in such a short time. In our experiment we made an enamel paint which could resist the oxidation of metal in such a longer time compared to any other available enamel paint in the market by mixing Stearic acid in the enamel paint itself. We conducted experiments and gathered in formations based on the set-ups we made wherein we made four samples of it- one with only enamel paint itself, second is of constant amount of paint but changing amount of Stearic acid, third is of constant Stearic acid and changing enamel paint and the fourth of equal amount of Stearic acid and enamel paint. Based on the data we¶ve gathered we were able to prove the effectiveness of Stearic acid in the prevention of oxidation of such metal. And as the amount of Stearic acid increase the more the effective the enamel paint would be.


And above all. our class adviser for being supportive and reminding us about our responsibilities. our parents for providing us our needs.Acknowledgement The researchers would like to express their deepest gratitude to the following people: Our classmates for the enjoyment they gave us during ups and downs. our teachers for giving us their time to finish this research project. we thank God for His guidance wherever we are and for He endowed us such knowledge and strength to accomplish this project. 2 . our research adviser for her persistence and sympathy. enduring support and assistance which made us what we are today.

.Table of Contents Chapter1: Introduction«««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««4 Background of the study«««««««««««««««««««««««««««4 Statement of the problem ««««««««««««««««««««««««««.19 Analysis of data««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««20-21 Chapter V: Conclusions & Recommendation««««««««««««««««««««..16 Table 1: The Iron Plates after Experimentation«««««««««««...««««....14 Procedural Diagram«««««««««««««««««««««««««««««15 Chapter IV: Results and discussion««««««««««««««««««««««««...5 Significance of the problem««««««««««««««««««««««««««5 Scope and limitation«««««««««««««««««««««««««.13 Materials««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««..11-12 Chapter III: Methodology«««««««««««««««««««««««««««««.22 Bibliography««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««..«23 3 .13 Research paradigm«««««««««««««««««««««««««««««......6 Chapter II: Review of Related Literature and Studies«««««««««««««««««7 Related Literature«««««««««««««««««««««««««««««7-10 Related Studies«««««««««««««««««««««««««««««.16-17 Table 2: Region of Rust in Iron Metal Plates accumulated per Day««««««««18 Graph 1: Region of Rust in Iron Metal Plates accumulated per Day«««««««....

One interesting fact about Stearic Acid is that it is available in the market. Stearic Acid is an effective preventive measure against oxidation and combustion that leads to rusting of iron metals. This study will enhance the features of paints against rust. Background of the Study The Stearic Acid allows metal powders such as aluminum and iron to be stored for a longer period of time because of its property against combustion and oxidation11. Rusting occurs when oxygen and moisture come into contact with exposed to metal. 4 . Paints have preventive measure for combustion because it contains gas which is a fine source of fire. I. It is widely used in the world today to prevent rust. a type of paint that will prevent composition against rusting for a longer period of time by using the property of Stearic Acid against oxidation and combustion. an eHow contributor that shows the instruction and effectiveness of Stearic acid in the removal of rust.Chapter I Introduction Paints are quite causing too much expenses just to prevent rust from the objects they were being consumed. Stearic acid occurs in many animal and vegetable fats and oils but it is more abundant in animal fat than 1 The statements were according to Giselle Diamond. The study now will determine if the property of Stearic Acid to prevent oxidation and combustion can even prevent iron from rusting by enhancing the property of commercially available enamel paints. It takes place when metal is isolated from the rest environment such as paint. It can be control using metal coating. And it is quite hard to find a paint that could last for a longer period of time when it is exposed to different environments. Environments that could damage its performance and leads to another paint coating again to protect our properties being used everyday.

we can establish the enamel paint maintenance for longer period of time. and for softening rubber. It is usually used in making candles. Significance of the Study The enamel paint¶s performance to stay longer is one of the most important qualities that consumers take into consideration. It will be easier for all of us to use our properties. oil pastels and cosmetics. plastics. The study can economically help our society in solving one of its minor problems. whether the weather may rain or shine. equipments and other objects coated with paint whatever that may occur. simply by combining the major properties of Stearic Acid and enamel paint against rust. It can also offer better services to various consumers from different fields that use paints for iron metal coatings. Statement of the Problem General Objective Is enamel paint with Stearic Acid an effective agent for the prevention of rust than commercially available paints? Specific Objective Is enamel paint with Stearic Acid lasts longer than commercially available paints to protect iron metal from rusting? y Is enamel paint with Stearic Acid accumulates lesser rust than commercially available paints? y III.vegetable fat. such as iron rusting. efforts and time for enamel paint coating for our properties to last longer with or without any damage. dietary supplements. This can help us to minimize our expenses. 5 . Using the properties of Stearic Acid. II.

enamel paint. The study will only determine the effectiveness of paint with Stearic Acid on iron metal against rusting for a longer period of time than commercially available enamel paint. 6 . It will only focus on the iron metals that are commercially available as well as the enamel paint specifically white enamel paint and Stearic Acid. iron. Scope and Limitation The study will be on chemical property of Stearic Acid against oxidation and combustion used to enhance enamel paint performance against iron rusting as well as the reactions that may occur to the Stearic Acid. and the iron rust.IV.

vegetable fats and some oil s. These have been used in varnishing oil-based paint. Typically. ISBN 9780911910285. It is a waxy solid. or CH3(CH2)16COOH. ed (1989). Rahway. It is also often use d to change the consistency and melting temperature of a product. enamel paint is an oil-based covering product with significant amount of gloss.. 8761. It also used tin some metal polishes to help prevent the oxidation and rust that can occur on metal parts of tools.2 It is extracted from any type of animal fats.). allowing them to be stored for longer period. The salts and esters of stearic acid are called stearates. Enamel Paint Enamel paint is a paint that dries with air which is usually glossy and hard. New Jersey: Merck & Co.wikipedia. Inc. 3 www. and it is a weak acid with a chemical formula C18H36O2. p. It is usually used in coating metal to prevent rust3.2 It is commonly used to coat metal powders such as iron and aluminium that are used in fireworks. as a lubricant. Merck Index (11th ed.Chapter II Review of Related Literature and Studies Related Literature Stearic Acid Stearic acid is a saturated fatty acid with an 18 carbon chain and has the IUPAC name octadecanoic acid. come from the Greek word stéar (genitive: stéatos). or to prevent oxidation. Enamel paint is also used on wood to make it 2 Susan 7 . which means tallow.

Binders include synthetic or natural resins such as alkyds. and affects the stability of the paint while in liquid state. London: Graham & Trotman. vinyl-acrylics. flexibility. (1989). and strongly influences such properties as gloss potential.The titanium dioxide used in most paints today is often coated with silica or alumina for various reasons such as better exterior durability.4 Binder The binder imparts adhesion. Solvent The solvent are to adjust the curing properties and viscosity of the paint. acrylics.. A. It also controls flow and application properties. or curing mechanism. polyesters.resistant to the elements via the waterproofing and rotproofing properties of enamel. Marine painting manual. Composition of white enamel paint Pigment Enamel paint manufacturers began replacing white lead pigments with the less toxic substitute. titanium white (titanium dioxide). A. M. Binders can be categorized according to drying. It is volatile and does not become part of the paint film4. ISBN 1853332860 8 . exterior durability. treated surfaces last much longer and are much more resistant to wear than untreated surfaces. vinyl acetate/ethylene (VAE). polyurethanes. The four most common are simple solvent evaporation. oxidative crosslinking. and toughness4. binds the pigments together. & Berendsen. or better hiding performance (opacity) via better efficiency promoted by more optimal spacing within the paint film. Its 4 Berendsen. and coalescence. or oils. Generally. epoxy. melamine resins. M. catalyzed or cross linked polymerization.

or sulfur dioxide in the system are removed or consumed. Unlike iron oxides. (2000).. the hydroxides do not adhere to the bulk metal.5 The rusting of iron is an electrochemical process that begins with the transfer of electrons from iron to oxygen6. water. a tightly adhering oxide coating. As with other metals... A.main function is as the carrier for the non volatile components. like aluminium. doi:10. iron hydroxide species are formed. These volatile substances impart their properties temporarily. 2001. Schindler. Horn. H. as illustrated by the effects of 5 6 Holleman. carbon dioxide. Iron metal is relatively unaffected by pure water or by dry oxygen. the conversion of the passivating iron oxide layer to rust results from the combined action of two agents.b01_08 9 . a thinner oil is required. fresh iron is exposed. protects the bulk iron from further oxidation. H. Under these corrosive conditions. and the corrosion process continues until all of the iron is either consumed or all of the oxygen. As they form and flake off from the surface. "Corrosion".1002/14356007. Other degrading solutions are sulfur dioxide in water and carbon dioxide in water. Wiley-VCH. usually oxygen and water. Thus. linseed) as in oil-based interior housepaint. In order to spread heavier oils (i. the remaining paint is fixed to the surface. a passivation layer.e. Wiberg. H. F. Iron Metal Rusting Iron rusts when it is in contact with water and oxygen or other strong oxidants and acids. ISBN 0-12-352651-5 Gräfen. E. E. Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry.. "Inorganic Chemistry" Academic Press: San Diego. M. The rate of corrosion is affected by water and accelerated by electrolytes. once the solvent has evaporated or disintegrated. Schlecker.

Indeed.+ 2 H2O 4 OH- Because it forms hydroxide ions. Providing the electrons for the above reaction is the oxidation of iron that may be described as follows: Fe Fe2+ + 2 eí The following redox reaction also occurs in the presence of water and is crucial to the formation of rust: 4 Fe2+ + O2 4 Fe3+ + 2 O2í Additionally. the following multistep acid-base reactions affect the course of rust formation: Fe2+ + 2 H2O Fe3+ + 3 H2O Fe(OH)2 + 2 H+ Fe(OH)3 + 3 H+ as do the following dehydration equilibrium: Fe(OH)2 Fe(OH)3 2 FeO(OH) FeO + H2O FeO(OH) + H2O Fe2O3 + H2O 10 .road salt on the corrosion of automobiles. the corrosion of most metals by oxygen is accelerated at low pH. this process is strongly affected by the presence of acid. The key reaction is the reduction of oxygen: O2 + 4 e.

use the rust remover and a rag to rub the biggest rust spots first. If the rusty object is still intact.Related Studies Stearic acid prevents oxidation that can result in rusting of metals. so it will be thick or oily in appearance. Use a large amount at first to completely cover the object. Rubber gloves. Smear the stearic acid onto the item that you want to protect from rust. which causes rust7. Towel. This was done for a few hours. Stearic acid can be found in the candle-making section of most craft stores. depending on how bad the rust is. Second. It is important that the rust did not cause any holes to form in the object. an eHow contributor that shows the instruction and effectiveness of stearic acid in the removal of rust. Aside from this. remove the rust from the rest of the object by rubbing the rust remover into the rusty areas. Stearic acid is generally used as an emulsifier. Then open the stearic acid container. In this experiment they have used the following materials Rag. It is very easy to apply stearic acid to any metal object. Use circular motions. Remove the object when the rust was completely gone then dried it with a towel. First there is a need to examine the rusty object that you want to recover. Stearic acid acts as a to sealant over metal object prevent them from oxidizing.Dip a rag into the stearic acid.Rub the stearic acid into the object. If it has. Wear rubber gloves when handling the stearic acid. then you probably will not be able to reuse the item even after the rust has been removed. It is best shown in the manufacturing of fireworks where stearic acid is coated on iron to prevent oxidation. You need to do this for several 7 The statements below were according to Giselle Diamond. Do not get the acid in your eyes or near your face. but don't soak the rag. as it is often used to improve the appearance of candles and soap. Find the worst rust spots. 11 . Put enough on the rag so it is damp. then it may be necessary to soak the object in a container of rust remover. if the rust is really bad. and it only takes a few minutes. Rust remover. However. it is also proven that stearic acid is a best removal of rust.

Lastly. 8 Lubricating Oil Composition For Food Processing Machines by Royji Ohgake. having melting points of 30-60 degrees Celsius. Yokohama 12 . Chiba. you can use it for whatever task you had in mind. Set the metal object on a table or other surface to completely dry. explosion or poisoning. Mitsuo Okada. the present invention is directed to rust proof lubricant composition comprising partial esters of pentaerythritol with fatty acid. The object will now be protected from collecting future rust. Once the object is completely dry. as a chief constituent.minutes. but also no danger of fire. Yokohama. and which maybe adapted for the continuous coating of steel plates. wipe away the excess stearic acid with another dry rag. cold rolled steel plates and surface treated steel plates to effect temporary rust proofness of steel plates or an improvement in lubrication at the time of forming. Hiroyuki Takashima. In this study we saw that stearic acid is an effective measure in preventing rust. The stearic acid acts as a protector for the metal. Rust-Lubricant compositions This invention relates to rust-proof lubricant compositions8 of the solid film type for use with metals which are applied on the surfaces of hot rolled steel plates. More particularly. rust preventives lubrication improving agents surface active agents etc. so it is important to cover the entire metal object. Try to absorb as much of the stearic acid into the object as possible. which can be applied on steel plates without the necessity of any solvent or heat dry. The present invention resides in a coating composition which possesses not only a very excellent rust proof action and lubricity as compared with conventional composition which have been used to give steel plates some rust-prevention and working lubrication.

producing eight iron metal plates. we need commercially available Stearic acid melted at 343F which will be mixed in the paint to enhance the paint¶s rust preventing ability. eight iron plates of same sizes which will be coated by the paint with stearic acid and paint without stearic acid. The study used experimental research to determine if the enamel paint with Stearic Acid would last longer than commercially available paint and would accumulate lesser rusts than ordinary enamel paints. in order to liquefy our Stearic acid from its pellet form. Second. use muriatic acid to shorten the time it will take for the iron plates to rust. 1L of white enamel paint which will serve as coating for the iron plates. The samples would undergo controlled condition and environment to accurately get the results of the experimentation. Materials/Equipment First. one will be mixed with Stearic acid and other set-up will use paint alone. There will be two paints being tested first the Enamel paint with Stearic Acid and the commercially available paints. Next.Chapter III Methodology Method of Research Used In our study we used Experimental Research to test if Stearic Acid can enhance the preventive measure of enamel paints against iron metal rusting. Last. we heated it at 343 13 . it will cause the iron plates to rust easily Treatment/General Procedure The iron metal was cut into the desired size. Each of the paints had four set-ups of iron metals being observed to test the enamel paint performance. Third.

With our pre-cut metal plates. After that we measured the amount of Stearic acid that is incorporated with the enamel paint. Label the container according to the ratio of the amount of paint and Stearic Acid. Everyday. Research Paradigm Inputs y y y y y y Enamel Paint Stearic Acid Iron Metal Plate Time* Environment* Rust Process Melting Stearic Acid Pellets Incorporate Stearic acid to paint Drying of enamel paints coatings Exposed to controlled environment Soaked in Muriatic Acid Output Hypotheses: Null: Stearic acid is not really effective in the prevention of rust. observations were taken to determine if there is any occurrence of rusts in the samples being experimented. Let it dry. The samples undergone controlled condition and were exposed to certain environment for two weeks. We let it cool until the temperature is tolerable for us to incorporate the enamel paint in the mixture. 14 . Method of Collecting Data In the study. we applied each mixture to its corresponding plate. Mixed it properly until we achieved the desired consistency. Alternative: Stearic acid is really effective in the prevention of rust. the rusts were being measured by getting the area of the samples affected by rusts.Fahrenheit. the data are collected after the enamel paints have dried and ready for observation. At the moment when the rusts appeared.

Procedural Diagram Cut Iron Metal Plates into equal sizes Melt Steatic Acid Pellets Cool the Stearic Acid until the temperature is tolerable for us to incorporate the enamel paint in the mixture Measure the volume of liquefied Stearic Acid according to the ratio in mililiters Measure the volume of enamel paint according to the ratio in mililiters Mix the enamel paint with Stearic Acid and stir thouroughly Cover the iron metal plates with the enamel paint with Stearic Acid and with the ordinary enamel paint Let the metal iron plates coated with different enamel paints to dry Place and expose the metal iron plates in the area of controlled condition and environment. if necessary use a rusting agent to test the paints¶ performances 15 .

Chapter IV Results and Discussion The Iron Plates After Experimentation Set ups Amount in ml Enamel Stearic Paint Acid Iron Metal Plate Set up 1 10 ml 0 ml 50 ml 40 ml Set up 2 50 ml 30 ml 50 ml 20 ml 16 .

Set up 3 50 ml 50 ml 40 ml 50 ml Set up 4 30 ml 50 ml 20 ml 50 ml 17 .

and there are no rust occurrences from set up 2 (5:3). As the presence of muriatic acid in the experiment is used.(5:40) until set up 4 (4:5).Collected Data Region of Rust in Iron Metal Plates accumulated per Day Set ups Amount in ml Enamel Paint Set up 1 10 ml 50 ml Set up 2 50 ml 50 ml Set up 3 50 ml 40 ml 30 ml 20 ml Stearic Acid 0 ml 40 ml 30 ml 0% 20 ml 50 ml 50 ml 50 ml 50 ml 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 1% 2% 0% 2% 3% 6% 9% 2% 10% 17% 35% 40% 3% 12% 19% 92% 97% 1-9 Exposed to Controlled Environment 10 0% 0% 0% 11 2% 0% 0% 12 6% 0% 0% 13 14 Soaked in Muriatic Acid 15 16 17 11% 14% 16% 90% 100% 1% 0% 5% 0% 10% 55% 4% 19% 65% 22% Set up 4 In the table above. there is slow rate of iron rusting 18 . the metal iron plates coated with different mixture of enamel paint is first treated with controlled environment (moisture and the presence of water) from day 1 to day 14. all of the metal iron plate rust but still the set ups that is mentioned in the first sentence of this.

19 .Region of Rust in Iron Metal Plates accumulated per Day Set up 1 10 ml 0 ml Set up 2 50 ml 40 ml Set up 2 50 ml 30 ml Set up 2 50 ml 20 ml Set up 3 50 ml 50 ml Set up 4 40 ml 50 ml Set up 4 30 ml 50 ml Set up 4 20 ml 50 ml 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 Set up 4 30 ml 50 ml Set up 2 50 ml 20 ml Set up 1 10 ml 0 ml In the graph above. there is a rapid rusting of metal iron plate. there is rapid rusting of metal iron plate in first set up. rusting of iron metal plate is lowered. as the amount of Stearic Acid reaches the same amount of enamel paint (set up 3) and as it overcomes the amount of enamel paint. as the presence of Stearic Acid in the mixture increases with constant amount of enamel paint (set up 2).

In order to determine the answer. the iron metal plate coated with paint only is the first to rust among all of the iron metal plates coated with different mixture of enamel paint and Stearic Acid and it had also accumulated the greatest amount of rusts In the experiment. It only shows that amount of Stearic Acid in enamel paint should be higher than 80% but lesser than 100% of the amount of enamel paint because in the experiment it is clearly showed that as the 20 . it is also found out that the amount of Stearic Acid in enamel paint has a significant to rusts that a certain iron metal plate had accumulated after a certain time. It is clearly showed that in the first condition that it has undergone (controlled environment) and second condition (soaked in muriatic acid). It is proven that the changing amount of enamel paint and Stearic Acid has a significant relevance to the rusting of iron metal plates. the researchers found out that enamel paint itself greatly inhibits rust than the enamel paint with Stearic Acid.Analysis of Data The collected data is used to prove if the presence of Stearic Acid in Enamel Paint is more effective than the Enamel paint in preventing. The graph showed the amount of rusts that the iron metal plates had accumulated. The second table showed the occurrences of rust in iron metal plates for a certain period of time. It also showed that in any condition the iron metal plates rust according to the amount of mixtures of enamel paint and Stearic Acid. there is a need to take data of rust occurrences for a certain period of time and the rust that an iron metal had accumulated. The researchers found out that the amount of enamel paint and Stearic Acid has a great effect to rusts that a certain iron metal plate had accumulated. Conclusion Based on the results gathered after the experimentation.

21 . the adhesiveness of paint to the iron metal plate decreases that leads to easy breakage of enamel paint when dried which accumulates more rusts. These data only suggest that Stearic Acid is effective as it reaches 80% of the enamel paint but as it reaches and exceeds 100%.amount of Stearic Acid exceeds below 80% of the enamel paint the rusts the iron metal plate increases faster through certain time and as well as it exceeds above 99% of the enamel paint.

it is proven that paint with Stearic Acid is more effective in preventing rust. Recommendation Based on the study.Chapter V Conclusion and Recommendation Conclusion After all the experiments that the researchers made and gathered data. It was also prove that as the amount of Stearic acid in enamel paint has a certain point in integrating with enamel paint because as amount of Stearic Acid exceeds below 80% and above 99% of the amount of enamel paint. This study also recommends the readers and researchers to study Stearic Acid¶s preventive property against rusting for future use in manufacturing metals. the researchers were able to prove that Stearic acid in enamel was really effective in the preventing rust in iron metal plates. The researchers therefore conclude that Stearic Acid is an effective preventive measure against rusting of iron metal plates. that¶s why the study suggests for further researches about paints¶ reaction with Stearic Acid to enhance its special characteristics in preventing iron from rusting. 22 . the ability of the mixture to prevent rusting of iron metal plate decreases. than commer cially available paint.

M. E.. (1989). A. y Susan Budavari. Schindler.wikipedia. H. New Jersey: Merck & Co.Bibliography y Giselle Diamond. "Corrosion". M. Hiroyuki Takashima. & Berendsen.b01_08 y Lubricating Oil Composition For Food Processing Machines by Royji Ohgake. Chiba. Marine painting manual. E. Inc. 2001.. "Inorganic Chemistry" Academic Press: San Diego.. Yokohama 23 . H.. Yokohama. ed (1989).. doi:10. Mitsuo Okada. Schlecker.1002/14356007. Wiberg. ´The Instruction and Effectiveness of Stearic Acid in the Removal of Rust´. H. Rahway. 8761.. p. (2000). Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Berendsen.). M. London: Graham & Trotman. an eHow contributor. ISBN 1853332860 Holleman. ISBN 0-12-352651-5 y y Gräfen. Horn. A. ISBN 9780911910285 y y www. F. A. Merck Index (11th ed. Wiley-VCH.