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DECLARATION We , HABIYAREMYE Joseph (GS20060139) and NGABO Desir (GS20060443) declare tha t this research DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION

OF AN AUTOMATIC WATER PUMPING SYSTEM f or the award of Bachelor of Science in Electronics and Telecommunication is our original work and has never been presented anywhere else for the same purpose. A ll sources we have used and quoted have been acknowledged as complete references . Signed by: HABIYAREMYE Joseph NGABO Desir (GS20060139) .. .


Date ..

DEDICATION This research project is dedicated to: Almighty GOD Our parents Family members Colleagues and friends

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT We are deeply intended to almighty God who has guided us through the whole perio d of our studies .We are very grateful to our family for their support and advic e. Our special thanks are addressed to the Government of Rwanda for the appreciable policy of promoting education at all levels. Our sincere acknowledgements go to entire administration of KIST and the whole a cademic staff. Our sincere gratitude goes to our supervisor, Eng .ZIMULINDA Francois for his te chnical and wise advise, suggestions that made this research project fruitful. Our sincere thanks are due to all friends and colleagues who helped us in one way or another. Finally we express our gratitude to each one who directly and indirectly contrib uted to make our studies successful today.

ABSTRACT An automatic water pumping system is system which shall be used in water distrib ution system .Normally water is found in valley (point of lower altitude); to supply water to customers we first pump water from the valley to a point of h igher altitude and then from this point water flows by simple gravitation pheno mena to town, farms, industries... In this project, the system has a sensor which will control the level of water i n the tank and the sensor connected to a transmitter will send a signal to the motor at the pumping station, accord automatically the motor will be activated to begin to pump depending on the water level in the tank. In this system, the sensor (water level detector), transmitter, the receiver and some interfacing circuits are well explained.

CONTENTS DECLARATION i DEDICATION ii ACKNOWLEDGEMENT iii ABSTRACT iv CONTENTS v LISTS OF FIGURES: vii LISTS OF ABREVIATIONS x CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION - 1 1.1GENERAL INTRODUCTION - 1 1.2 PROBLEM STATEMENT - 2 1.3 SCOPE OF THE STUDY - 2 1.4 METHODOLOGY - 2 1.5 OBJECTIVES OF THE PROJECT - 2 CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW - 3 2.1 555 Timer IC - 3 2.1.1 General description - 3 2.1.2 555 IC timer monostable circuit - 4 2.2 Operational Amplifier - 5 2.2.1 General description - 5 2.2.2 Op-Amp as voltage comparator - 6 2.2.3 Lm324 IC - 7 2.3 TRANSMITTER - 8 2.3.1. General description - 8 2.3.2 Transmitter - 8 AM transmitter - 9 FM transmitter - 9 2.4 NAND gates - 9 2.4.1 BC 4011 IC (NAND gates) - 10 2.5 MOSFET and FET - 10 2.5.1 General description - 10 -

2.5.2 MOSFET - 11 2.5.3 Operation Mode - 11 2.5.4 Application - 12 2.6 Light Emitting Diode (LED) - 12 2.6.1 General description - 12 2.7 RADIO Receiver - 13 2.7.1General description - 13 2.8.1 General description - 14 2.8.2 Working Principal - 14 2.9 LM386ic - 15 2.9.1 General Description - 15 2.9.2. Applications of LM386 - 16 2.10 .Water pipe - 16 2.11 Electric water pumping motor - 17 CHAPTER 3: DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF CIRCUIT - 18 3.1 DESIGN OF THE SYSTEMS CIRCUITS - 18 3.1.1 Design of the transmitting end circuits - 19 3.1.2 Design of the receiving end circuits - 20 3.2 IMPLEMENTATION - 22 3.2.1 Implementation of the transmitting end circuits - 22 3.2.2 Implementation of the receiving end circuits - 38 CHAPTER 4 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION - 45 4.1 CONCLUSION - 45 4.2 RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTHER WORK - 45 REFERENCES - 47 -

LISTS OF FIGURES: Figure 1: Figure 1: The picture of the former used system Figure 3: The picture of 555 Timer IC - 3 Figure 4: Internal configuration of 555 Timer IC Figure 5: Monostable circuit using 555ic timer - 4 Figure 6: The symbol of op-amp - 5 Figure 7: Op-amp as voltage comparator circuit - 6 Figure 8: The photo of LM324 IC - 7 Figure 9: The circuit diagram of LM324 IC - 7 Figure 10: Block diagram of typical radio transmitter Figure 11: Symbol of NAND gates - 9 Figure 12: Pin out diagram for the 4011 quad NAND gate Figure 13: Circuit symbol for MOSFET - 11 Figure 14: Mosfet used as switch - 12 Figure 15: LED Circuit symbol - 13 Figure 16: Block diagram of radio receiver - 13 Figure 17: Relay schematic diagram - 14 Figure 18: The picture of internal view of relay Figure 19: LM 386 schematic diagram - 15 Figure 20: Circuit of LM386 used as voltage amplifier Figure 21: Plastic water pipe - 16 -

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8 - 10 -

14 16 -

Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure

22: Water pumping motor - 17 23: Block diagram of the complete system - 18 24: Block diagram of the transmitting end circuits - 19 25: Block diagram of the receiving end circuits - 20 26: Circuit of water level detector - 22 27: PCB for the water detector circuit - 24 28: Circuit diagram of Tx - 25 29: Inductance calculation equations - 26 30: PCB for FM transmitter circuit - 27 31: circuit diagram of 555 used as monostable circuit - 28 32: The transmitting end circuit - 30 33: Power supply for the transmitting end - 31 34 : The input waveform to the transformer primary winding 35: The waveform at the secondary winding of the transformer 36: The waveform at the output of the diode bridge - 32 37: The output of the power supply - 33 38: The photo of transmitting end - 34 39: The photo of transmitting end with tank - 35 40: The FM receiver circuit with MPF102 (n-channel FET) - 36 41: Inductance value calculation equations - 38 42: Circuit of receiving end - 39 43:The pcb of the FM receiver - 40 44: The photo for the water pumping motor(M1) - 41 -

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LISTS OF ABREVIATIONS AM: Amplitude Modulation C: Capacitor COM: Common D : Diode DC: Direct Current DIP: Dual in-Line package EEE : Electrical and Electronics Engineering F: Farad FET: Field Effect Transistor FM: Frequency Modulation GS: Government Sponsor H: Henry Hz: Hertz IC : Integrated Circuit IGFET: Insulated Gate Field Effect Transistor Eng: Engineer JFET : junction Field Effect Transistor K : Kilo ohm

KIST : Kigali Institute of Science and Technology L: Inductor LED: Light Emitting Diode MHz: Mega hertz MOSFET: Metal Oxide semiconductor Field Effect Transistor NC: Normal closed NO : Normal Open Op-Amp : Operational Amplifier PCB: Printed Circuit board pF: Pico Farad PM: Phase Modulation R: Resistor RECO: Rwanda Electricity Corporation. RF: Radio Frequency RWASCO: Rwanda Water and Sanitation Corporation Rx: Receiver Tx: Transmitter uF: Micro Farad VR: Variable Resistor : Ohm

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION 1.1GENERAL INTRODUCTION In water distribution system there is two processes which are used: pumping and gravitation. With pumping process, water is fetched form from a point of lower altitude to a point of higher altitude (tank) by using a pumping motor, for the second process , water leaves thank (higher altitude point) and goes to the area(point of lowe r altitude) where we want to supply by a simple gravitation principle. Our project is concentrated on the first process. There is a method which is used to control the flow of water in the tank by usin g the ball valve Figure 1: Figure 1: The picture of the former used system [1] A float on water inside the tank is attached on an arm which operates which cont rols the inflow of water. As the water in the tank drops, the arm falls and open s the valve to allow water to enter the tank; then as water flows in, the water level rises, as the ball thus moving the arm which then closes the valve shuttin g off the water flow. When a higher pressure water flow is used for example when the tank is connected to a pumping motor this system will fail. The reason why we designed an electronic circuit which will solve this problem w here the ball valve will be replaced by a water detector circuit. Our automatic water pumping system is a system whereby the level of liquid will be controlled and according to the level of water in the tank , the pumping moto r will send the water in the tank or not. In this system the communication betwe en the motor and the tank is achieved without any wire; is a wireless transmissi on. 1.2 PROBLEM STATEMENT After some research, a problem of how we can control the water level in the tank and then pump automatically water in that tank according to that level was discus sed. Our project comes as a solution to that problem in form of an automatic water pu mping system. 1.3 SCOPE OF THE STUDY -This study will be about the design of an automatic water pumping system.

-The study is a pure electronic devices. 1.4 METHODOLOGY The methods used in the project are: -Documentation and internet -Simulation (CircuitMaker, Pspice, PcbArtist, Vb, LTspice,TINA). 1.5 OBJECTIVES OF THE PROJECT -To design and implement a system which will control the water level in the tank This system will control automatically the pumping process. -To develop specific practical skills CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 555 TIMER IC 2.1.1 General description 555 IC is an integrated circuit implementing a variety of timer and multivibrato r application.The IC was designed by Hans R.Camenzin in 1970 and brought to the market in 1971. The orginal name was SE555 (metal)/NE555 (plastic DIP).It has cl aimed that the 555 gets its name from the three 5K resistors used in typical ear ly implementation. Bellow is its picture: Figure 2: The picture of 555 Timer IC [2]

And its internal configuration Figure 3: Internal configuration of 555 Timer IC [2] Depending on the manufacture, the 555 ic package include 20 transistor, 2 diodes and 15 resistors on a silicon chip installed in 8 pins (DIP-8) 2.1.2 555 IC timer monostable circuit When the 555 IC is used as monostable multivibrator, it will only pulse once. Monostable circuits can be used to turn lights/LEDs ON or OFF just once. They ar e also used in many more school based circuits. Bellow is the circuit where the monostable circuit is used Figure 4: Monostable circuit using 555ic timer [2] When a negative trigger enters the pin 2, the output 3 goes high for a time whic h is equal to 1.1RC seconds. When this time is finished, the output will return back to its stable state (low voltage) 2.2 OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER 2.2.1 General description An operational amplifier, which is often called an op-amp, is a dc-coupled highgain electronic voltage amplifier with a differential input and usually a single -ended output. An op-amp produces an output voltage that is typically millions o f times of times larger than the voltage difference between its input terminals. Figure 5: The symbol of op-amp[3] The circuit symbol for an op-amp is shown above, where: : non-inverting input : inverting input : output

: positive power supply : negative power supply The power supply pins ( and ) can be labeled in different ways . Despite diffe rent labeling, the function remains the same to provide additional power for amp lification of the signal. Often these pins are left out of the diagram for clari ty, and the power configuration is described or assumed from the circuit. 2.2.2 Op-Amp as voltage comparator From this figure bellow, the voltage across R1 is known as reference voltage whe n V across variable resistor R3 is less than VR1 the output voltage will be high and the diode will be ON and when the voltage across R3 is greater than VR1, th e output will be low and the diode will be OFF. [16] Figure 6: Op-amp as voltage comparator circuit

2.2.3 Lm324 IC General description Figure 7: The photo of LM324 IC [3] Figure 8: The circuit diagram of LM324 IC [3] The LM324 IC consists of four independent, high gain, internally frequency comp ensated operational amplifiers which were designed specifically to operate from a single power supply over a wide range of voltages. Operation from split power supplies is also possible and the low power supply current drain is independent of the magnitude of the power supply voltage. Application areas include transducer amplifiers, voltage comparator,

2.3 TRANSMITTER 2.3.1. General description In communication system, the source of information is not electrical in nature; it will be unsuitable for immediate transmission. According to this a lot of wor k must be done to make such message suitable. [4] 2.3.2 Transmitter In long distance communication, telephone wire is not sufficient that why wirele ss or radio communication is needed. To achieve this technique, the transmitter is required to process, encode the information so as to make it suitable for tra nsmission and reception. In a transmitter, the information modulate the carrier i.e is superimposed on a high frequency signal. The method of modulation varies from a system to another. Then the system itself may be amplitude modulation, fr equency modulation or pulse modulation. Figure 9: Block diagram of typical radio transmitter [4] According to the modulation used we can have different types of transmitter: AM transmitter FM transmitter AM TRANSMITTER [4] Is a transmitter which uses amplitude modulation as the modulation technique wit hout affecting the frequency or the phase. AM works by varying the strength of t

he transmitted signal in relation to the information being sent. FM TRANSMITTER [4] Is the transmitter which uses the frequency modulation process by keeping the am plitude constant. Frequency modulation is a form of continuous wave or analogue modulation whose characteristic are: 1. the amplitude of the modulated carrier is kept constant 2. The frequency of modulated carrier is varied by the modulated voltage. F requency modulation additionally has the advantage AM of providing protection fr om noise for lowest modulating frequencies 2.4 NAND GATES NAND gates are one of the two basic logic gates (along with NOR gates) from whic h any other logic gates can be built. Due to this property, NAND and NOR gates a re sometimes called universal gates. Figure 10: Symbol of NAND gates [5]

2.4.1 BC 4011 IC (NAND gates) General description 4047 IC is an integrated circuit which has four NAND gates inside. Bellow is its internal configuration ** Figure 11:Pin out diagram for the 4011 quad NAND gate [6] 2.5 MOSFET AND FET 2.5.1 General description The FET is a device in which the flow of current through the conductin g region is controlled by an electric field .Hence the name Field Effect Tr ansistor . As current conduction is only by majority carrier FET is sa id to be unipolar device. Based on the construction the FET can be classified into two types as: Junction FET (JFET) and Metal Oxide Semiconductor FET(MOSFET) or Insulated Gate FET(IGFET) or Metal Oxide Silicon Transistor. 2.5.2 MOSFET The MOSFET is an electronic device used for switching or amplifying the signal . The basic principle of the device was first proposed by Julius Edgar Lili enfeld in 1925. In MOSFETs, a voltage on the oxide-insulated gate electrode can induce a conducting channel between the two other contacts called source an d drain. The channel can be of n-type or p-type and is accordingly called an n MOSFET or pMOSFET. Figure 12: Circuit symbol for MOSFET 2.5.3 Operation Mode The operation of a MOSFET can be separated into three different modes, d epending on the voltages at terminals. The three operational modes are a. Cut off, Sub threshold or weak inversion mode when Vgs < Vth where Vth is the threshold voltage of the device. According to t he basic threshold model, the transistor is turned OFF and there is no conductio n between drain and source. b. When Vgs> Vth and Vds<Vds-Vth The transistor is turned ON and a channel has been created which allows current to flow between the drain and the source.The MOSFET operates like a resistor, co

ntrolled by the gate voltage relative to both the source and the drain and drain voltage. c. Saturation or active mode This mode occurs when Vgs>Vth and Vds>Vds-Vth The switch is turned on ,and a channel has been created ,which allows c urrent to flow between the drain and source. Since the drain voltage is hig her than the gate voltage ,the electrons spread out ,and conduction is not through a narrow channel but through a broader, two or three-dimensiona l current distribution extending away from the interface and deeper i n the substrate. [15] 2.5.4 Application MOSFET can be used as amplify or switch for both analogue or digital signal. Figure 13: Mosfet used as switch [7] 2.6 LIGHT EMITTING DIODE (LED) 2.6.1 General description The LED is semiconductor device that gives out light when a small current flows through it. LEDs are used extensively as electronic indicators in many devices. The LED is based on working principle of the semiconductor diode. When a diode i s forward biased (switched on), electrons are able to recombine with holes withi n the device, releasing energy in the form of photons. This effect is called ele ctroluminescence and the color of the light (corresponding to the energy of the photon) is determined by the energy gap of the semiconductor. [16] Figure 14: LED Circuit symbol [8] 2.7 RADIO RECEIVER 2.7.1General description In communication system we have variety of receiver since the exact form of part icular receiver is influenced by many requirements. Among the more important req uirements are the modulation system used, the operating frequency and its range and the type of display required, which in turn depends on destination of the in telligence received. Figure 15:Block diagram of radio receiver[4] The above diagram shows the typical receiver with radio frequency (RF) section, which is a tunable circuit connected to the antenna terminals. It there to selec t the wanted frequency and reject some unwanted frequencies. All other remainin g parts are for contribution in other to give the good quality of the output thr ough the loudspeaker. 2.8 Relay 2.8.1 General description A relay is an electrically operated switch. Many relays use an electromagnet to operate a switching mechanism. Relays find applications where it is necessary to control a circuit by a low-pow er signal where several circuits must be controlled by one signal. coil Figure 16: Relay schematic diagram [10] A simple electromagnetic relay consists of a coil of wire surrounding a soft iro n core, which provides a low reluctance path for magnetic flux, a movable iron a rmature, and a set or sets of contacts. Figure 17: The picture of internal view of relay [10] 2.8.2 Working Principal When an electric current is passed through the coil, the resulting magnetic fiel d attracts the armature and the consequent movement of the movable contact or co ntacts either makes or breaks a connection with a fixed contact. If the set of contacts was closed when the relay was reenergized, then the move ment opens the contacts and breaks the connection, and vice versa if the contact

s where open. When the current t the coil is switched off, the armature is returned by a force to its relaxed position. 2.9 LM386IC 2.9.1 General Description The LM386 is a power amplifier designed for use in low voltage consumer applicat ions. Its gain is internal set to 20 to keep external part count low, but with t he additional of an external resistor and capacitor between pins 1-8 the gain ca n be set to any value from 20 to 200. Figure 18:LM 386 schematic diagram [11]

2.9.2. Applications of LM386 Below is a circuit where LM386 is used as a 20 Gain voltage amplifier Figure 19: Circuit of LM386 used as voltage amplifier [11] 2.10 .WATER PIPE Water pipes are pipes or tubes, frequently made of polyvinyl chloride, polyethyl ene or copper that carry pressurized and treated fresh water to building, as wel l as inside the building. Figure 20: Plastic water pipe [12]

2.11 ELECTRIC WATER PUMPING MOTOR Electric water pumping motor is an electric motor used to move water from low al titude to high altitude. Figure 21: Water pumping motor [13] From the above picture, we see that the water pumping motor has inlet and outlet pipes for water and it has also some electrical cables for its supply.

CHAPTER 3: DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF CIRCUIT 3.1 DESIGN OF THE SYSTEMS CIRCUITS Below is the complete block diagram of the system: Antenna A Antenna

B Figure 22: Block diagram of the complete system Note: 1. Altitude of A is higher than that of B 2. Flow by pumping (in pipe) 3. Flow by gravitation (in pipe) 3.1.1 Design of the transmitting end circuits Figure 23: block diagram of the transmitting end circuits

The transmitting end has the water detector circuit, which is capable of detecti ng the level of the water inside the tank, and then to send that information by using the FM transmitter. There are also some circuits needed for interfacing th is detector to the transmitter. The above figure shows the working principle of the transmitting part of the sys tem. This transmitting end has a water level detector circuit having a NAND gate (CD4 011), and a comparator for comparing different level of water in the tank in for m of voltage. The comparator used here is LM324 IC which has four operational am plifiers inside, but we used only two among them. This end has also a FM transmitter for sending the information of the water leve l in the tank to the pumping station. The interfacing and display circuits are composed by some transistors as switch for switching ON and OFF the transmitter and some LEDs for showing the level of water in the tank. A power supply will give the energy to the whole circuit. 3.1.2 Design of the receiving end circuits

Figure 24: Block diagram of the receiving end circuits The receiving end has three major pats: FM receiver which will capture the info rmation of the water level in the tank from FM transmitter, a pumping motor whic h will send water in the tank according to that information, interfacing circuit s for coupling the low voltage from the control circuit (FM receiver) and the hi gh voltage from the motor. The receiving end has a FM receiver circuit which must have the same frequency a s the transmitter. This transmitter will capture the information about the level of water in the tank, and will switch ON or OFF the pumping motor according to that level. Between the FM receiver and pumping motor there are some interfacing circuit lik e relay, power mosfet because the pumping motor will use a higher energy than th e control circuit (FM receiver) The FM receiver was done by using an N- channel FET (MPF102) and LM386 which wer e used as an amplifier

3.2 IMPLEMENTATION 3.2.1 Implementation of the transmitting end circuits Water level detector circuit (sensor) Water tank Pats: R1 ,R2, R10-R12___15K Resistors R3, R4____________1K Resistors R5_____________100R Resistor R6______________47K Resistor R7, R8, R13________3K3 Resistors R9, R14, R15_______2K7 Resistors C1_____________470nF 63V Ceramic Capacitor D1_______________3mm Green LED D2_______________3mm Yellow LED D3_______________3mm Red LED Q1_____________BC547 45V 100mA NPN Transistor or a power Mosfet U2a ,U2b_____________4011 quad 2 input NAND gate IC U1,U3____________LM324 quad Comparator IC V1________________9V Battery Two steel rods of appropriate length Circuit operation When the water-level is below the steel rods, no contact is occurring from the m etal can and the rods. The small circuit built around U2 draws no current and th erefore no voltage drop is generated across R5. U1, U3 and Q1 are wired as a wi ndow comparator and, as there is zero voltage at input pins #2 and #5, D3 will i lluminate. When the water comes in contact with the first rod, pin #13 of U2 will go high, as its input pins #9 to #12 were shorted to negative by means of the water conta ct. Therefore, R4 will be connected across the full supply voltage and the remot e circuit will draw a current of about 9mA. This current will cause a voltage dr op of about 0.9V across R5 and the window comparator will detect this voltage an d will change its state, switching off D3 and illuminating D2. When the water will reach the second rod, also pin #1 of IC1 will go high for th e same reason explained above. Now either R3 or R4 will be connected across the full supply voltage and the tot al current drawing of the remote circuit will be about 18mA. The voltage drop ac ross R5 will be now about 1.8V and the window comparator will switch off D2 and will drive D1. The battery will last very long because the circuit will be mostly in the off st ate. Current is needed only for a few seconds. [9] Sometime, if it will be necessary to print the circuit on a board, here is the P CB for that water detector circuit: Figure 26: PCB for the water detector circuit PL1 is the connector that has 5 connectors in which 2 are for voltage supply and

other 3 for three rods entering the tank Fm transmitter circuit Figure 27: Circuit diagram of Tx Parts R 19:4,7k R17:1.5k R18:1.8k R16:100 C2:30pF C3:30pF C4:1nF C5:15pF

C6:5nF C7:1uF electrolytic capacitor L1: an inductor which its value depend on the wanted transmitting frequency Q2:S9018 is a high frequency transistor 3.2. 1.2 .2 Circuit operation The above circuit has an oscillating circuit composed by L1 and C2, this configu ration will generate the carrier with a frequency according to C2 and L1.The fre quency is defined as follow: Figure 28: Inductance calculation equations [14] ------------------------------------------------------------------- Equation 1 And the frequency is given by: ------------------------------------------------------------------------- Equat ion 2 Where: N, x and r are number of turns, length of the coil(in inch) and radius o f turns(in inch) respectively. L= inductance of the coil in F= frequency in Hertz L, C inductance and capacitance respectively. From these formulae the inductance in Henry and the frequency in Hertz are fund. In our implementation,we used a 30pF capacitor and we have build the inductor so that we get a frequency of 87.4MHz which is a range of FM receiver means that f rom the above formulae ,the inductor is about 0.11uH. The information from the water sensor enters the transmitter from the point T an d then is mixed with the carrier by the transistor Q2.This transistor will work as a modulator. The modulated signal which has the information and the carrier frequency will li ve the circuit through a capacitor C6 which will remove the dc component. That signal will be radiated from the antenna toward the receiver which shall be tuned to the same frequency as the transmitter. Below is the PCB of the above FM transmitter circuit: Figure 29: PCB for FM transmitter circuit 555 monostable circuit Trigger in .1 parts list R23:47k R21:15k R22:220 C9:0.01uF C8:4.7uF [18] Circuit operation The above circuit is a monostable circuit; its stable state is LOW. When a negat ive trigger enters the IC at pin 2 from the output of one of Op-amps, the output of the 555IC will be HIGH for a time determined by R21 and C8, this time is gi ven by T=1.1RC (in seconds).When a negative voltage is feed at pin 4 of our IC, it will reset the circuit to the low level output. The complete circuit of the transmitting end. The transmitting end power supply design and implementation The transmitting end circuit will be supplied by a DC source. This DC source we got it from a rectifier. Figure 32: Power supply for the transmitting end The above circuit has a step down transformer which will reduce the supply volta ge of 220V AC to 8V AC, below is the waveform available at the input of the tran sformer (at point A). Figure 33 : The input waveform to the transformer primary winding

At the output of the transformer the voltage is reduced to 8V AC this shown to t he graph below (at point B) Figure 34: The waveform at the secondary winding of the transformer The flowing part is a bridge rectifier composed by four diodes this will form a full wave rectifier. Below is the waveform available at the output of the diode bridge (at point C) : Figure 35: The waveform at the output of the diode bridge The signal from the diode bridge enters the polar capacitor of 1000uF for removi ng some AC component. At the output of the capacitor we will observe a signal like this (at point D): Figure 36: The output of the power supply The transmitting end circuits operation. When the tank is empty, the red LED is ON means that the output of that connecte d op-amp is low, this low will trigger the monostable circuit which will put al so ON the transmitter through the MOSFET Q3. The pumping motor will pump the water during the time of when the monostable out put at pin 3 is high.

When the tank is full, the green LED will be ON means the that the output of tha t op-amp is LOW, this low level voltage through the NAND gate U2c and MOSFET Q4 will reset the 555 Monostable IC which will switch OFF the transmitter, and t hen the pumping motor will be also OFF. Q4 will reset the 555 monostable IC which will switch OFF the transmitter, and t hen the pumping motor will be also OFF. The transmitting end circuit consumes a very small electrical energy, the reason why if want to use this system in water pumping process, we shall use a small s olar panel and a small battery then this solar panel will charge the battery dur ing day. The transmitting end circuits photo. Figure 37: The photo of transmitting end From the above picture, we see: 1. The transmitting end circuit (2) having water level detector and FM tran smitter 2. The transmitter antenna (1) 3. The water tank (3) 4. The inlet water pipe (4) 5. The outlet water pipe (5) The transmitting end circuits photo with its tank. Figure 38:The photo of transmitting end with tank From this picture: 1. Two wires (4and 3) which enter the tank for getting the information abou t the level of the water in the tank, wire 3 detects the full level and wire 4 d etects the low water level. 2. The tank (5) 3. The inlet pipe (2) 4. Water level and transmitter circuits (6) 5. The tank cover (1) 6. The white wire which connect the tank and the circuits (7) 3.2.2 Implementation of the receiving end circuits

\ Parts list: Q1:MPF102 C1:10uF C2:15-120pF C3:220uF C4:15pF C5:0.0047uF C6:0.1uF C7:4.7pF or 5pF C8:0.001uF C9:100uF C10:0.047uF C12:0.01uF C13:0.47u R1:10k R2:10k R3:1k

U1: LM386 (audio amplifier) L1 and L2 are according to the wanted frequency [18] Circuit operation: The modulated signal which has the information about the water level in tank wil l enter the above receiver from the antenna, connected to a FM receiver, constru cted from MPF102, a VHF amplifier. The frequency of the transmitter is tuned by using that variable capacitor and t he inductor connected to it in parallel. L1 and L2 detail : In the circuit , the value of L1 and L2 in uH are determined according to the fo rmula below (Based on the formula for an air cored inductor): ----------------------------------------------------- Equation 3 Or ---------------------------------------------------- Equation 4 Where L = inductance in uH r = radius of coil in inches l = length of coil in millimeters (mm) n = number of turns on coil The above formula is same as that one seen on the transmitter the only problem i s the conversion between Inch and meter knowing that 1In is equal to 0.0254meter s. --------------------------------------------------------------------- Equation 5 For example: Using the above values, the inductance of L1 can be calculated. A diameter of 5. 5mm = 0.22 inches, the radius is half this value or 0.11 inch, the length is 4.5 mm and number of turns, n = 6. This gives L1 a value of: [14] --------------------------------------- Equation 6 LM386 is used as an audio amplifier; it will amplify the voltage out from the MP F102 FET. The complete circuit of the receiving end.

Sometimes it will be necessary to put the above FM receiver at board, below is the PCB of the FM receiver circuit. The connector PL1 will help us to connect the supply voltage, antenna to our cir cuit and also it will help to take the signal from the output of the amplifier w hich will go to the interfacing circuit which will command the motor. Figure 42:The pcb of the FM receiver The photo for the water pumping motor (M1) Figure 43: The photo for the water pumping motor (M1) From the above picture, the motor has: 1: The filter used for avoiding something else (solid) to enter the motor 2: Supply cables 3: The motor 4: Outlet pipe The working principle of the whole receiving end circuit When the receiver capture a signal, that signal goes out the amplifier at the po int where the loudspeaker could be connected that signal will enter the comparat or by one of the four op-amps inside LM324, if the voltage from the receiver is greater than the reference voltage (across the variable resistance), the output voltage from the comparator will +Vsat otherwise Vsat. If Vout is +Vsat, this vol tage opens the MOSFET, and then the coil of the relay will be energized, then a current will pass which will close the relay. When the relay is closed, the motor will be ON and stating to pump water into th e tank. This motor has to be supplied to a 12v DC voltage, it has two pipes one which enters the motor another which leaves. The pipe which enters is connected into the source of water, and that which leaves is connected to a remote tank. O n the other hand, when there is no signal to the antenna of the receiver, the MO SFET will be off; the motor will be off too. The variable resistor is there for changing the reference voltage to the comparator according to the signal strengt h from the output of the receiver. The receiver used here has a screen which sho ws the transmitter frequency.

CHAPTER 4 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION This chapter is going to give the conclusion of the project and recommendation f or increasing the working principal of this automatic water pumping system. 4.1 CONCLUSION This project was designed and implemented for solving the problem which occurs i n water distribution system. The system used in the project will replace the sys tem of floating ball used in low pressure pumping system. The implementation was successful, but the radio receiver used was an FM receive r purchased from market because the MPF 102 FET supposed to be used in the recei ver circuit was fund to have some problems, and it was not easy to find another one . This project will save electrical energy; also there is no leakage of water due to a high pressure. There is no need of being there for controlling the level of water in the tank, and then someone who could go there shall do something else. This project can be used for example in RECO-RWASCO in water distribution field. 4.2 RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTHER WORK This project was done was than by using FM Tx and FM Rx and we worked in the FM broadcasting range of frequency ,this shall sometimes interfere with some missi on from some radio transmissions stations; the reason way we recommend ,if this work is continued, to change the range of frequency for avoiding the interferenc es .

We recommend again that if this work is continued, to put some others circuit w hich can show the level of battery which supply the water level detector circui t because if that supply is expired, there is no control ;there will be some lea kage of water, or there will be no water in the region to be supplied. It will be better if the information about the battery level at the transmitting end is sent to someone who is charged the maintenance of the system by using mo

bile phone, because every time we are together with our mobile phones. Our final recommendation goes to KIST and other technical high leaning instituti ons to give to theirs students projects focusing on solving some problems in our country, this gives not only practical knowledge to the student but also motiva te him because his dealing with something real and important to his society.

REFERENCES [1] [2] [3] [4] Denus Radddy. John Cool(1999) electronic communication Englewood Cliff. [5] [6] [7] [8] [9]] [10] [11] Audio Amp.htm [12] [13] [14] [15] Nigel P.Cook (2004) Practical digital electronics Upper Saddle River, New J ersey. [16] Robert F.Coughlin (2001), Operational 0amplifier and Linear Integrated Circ uits, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey. [17] [18] David I.Schneider (1998) visual basic 5.0 Prentice-Hall.