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contract manufacturing

Definition
Production of goods by one firm, under the label or brand of another firm. Contract manufacturers provide such service to several (even competing ) firms based on their own or the customers ' designs , formulas , and/or specifications . Also called private label manufacturing

contract manufacturer
An organization that makes products under contract for other companies. It caters to the OEM market. In the computer and electronics fields, thousands of products are manufactured by contract manufacturers. These products are ordered by and branded with the OEM's name, which sells them to its customers. Contract Manufacturers Can Be Huge Some of the most popular products in the business are made by contract manufacturers. For example, Microsoft's Xbox game machine is made by Flextronics Corporation (www.flextronics.com), a huge company with factories around the world and nearly $15 billion in sales in 2004. Flextronics also makes cellphones for Ericsson, routers for Cisco and printers for HP. Other major contract manufacturers are Flextronics International (www.flextronics.com), Sanmina-SCI Corporation (www.sanmina-sci.com) and Celestica (www.celestica.com). The ODM An "original design manufacturer" (ODM) is similar to a contract manufacturer, but typically owns the intellectual property (IP) for the product itself, while the regular contract manufacturer uses its customer's designs and IP. Contract manufacturers can make hundreds or even thousands of different products, but ODMs often specialize in only a handful of categories. EMS and CEMS Contract manufacturers in the electronics field that not only make products, but offer assistance with the design and supply chain generally prefer to call themselves "electronics manufacturing services" (EMS) or "contract electronics manufacturing services" (CEMS). See OEM.

Business model
In a contract manufacturing business model, the hiring firm approaches the contract manufacturer with a design or formula. The contract manufacturer will quote the parts based on processes, labor, tooling, and material costs. Typically a hiring firm will request quotes from multiple CMs. After the bidding process is complete, the hiring firm will select a source, and then, for the agreed-upon price, the CM acts as the hiring firm's factory, producing and shipping units of the design on behalf of the hiring firm.

[edit ] Industries that utilize the practice
Many industries utilize this process, especially the aerospace , defense , computer , semiconductor , energy , medical , food manufacturing , personal care , and automotive fields.

contract manufacturing may not be a good business strategy . training and benefits. The contract manufacturer is likely to have relationships formed with raw material suppliers or methods of efficiency within their production . When making the decision on whether or not a company should contract manufacture. such as China. They can only suggest strategies to the contract manufacturer. aluminum die casting. it loses control over that advantage. For large companies that are trying to grow and extend into new markets. [edit ] Why Contract Manufacture? There are many benefits as well as risks to contract manufacturing. Economies of Scale – Contract Manufacturers have multiple customers that they produce for. A company’s core competencies are what make them competitive in the market place. [edit ] Benefits • Cost Savings – Companies save on their cost of capital because they do not have to pay for a facility and the equipment needed for production . the less expensive the price per unit will be. For small companies. They can also save on labor costs such as wages.Some types of contract manufacturing include CNC machining. Focus– Companies can focus on their core competencies better if they can hand off base production to an outside company. The more units there are in one shipment . The pharmaceutical industry utilizes this process with CMs called Contract manufacturing organizations .[1] Advanced Skills – Companies can take advantage of skills that they may not possess.[2] • • • • • [edit ] Risks • Lack of Control – As soon as a company signs the contract allowing another company to produce their product. gears. Because they are servicing multiple customers. they cannot force them to implement them. Some companies may look to contract manufacture in low-cost countries. The manufacturer will know that it will have a steady flow of business until then. [2] Quality – Contract Manufacturers are likely to have their own methods of qualitycontrol in place that helps them to detect counterfeit or damaged materials early on. and forging. However.[1] Mutual Benefit to Contract Site – A contract between the manufacturer and the company it’s producing for may last several years. the company should weigh the benefits and risks associated with it. production outside of the company does come with many risks attached. Companies are finding many reasons why they should be outsourcing their production to other companies. If a company allows another company to take control of them. they loose a significant amount of control over that product. Companies must identify what their core competencies are first before deciding whether or not they should contract manufacture. broaching. contract manufacturing is likely to be a good choice. they can offer reduced costs in acquiring raw materials by benefiting from economies of scale . complex assembly.[2] . grinding. to benefit from the low cost of labor. . but the contract manufacturer does.

expensive and time-consuming. Strategic Supply Chain Management: The Five Disciplines for Top Performance. It is very easy for an employee to download such information from a computer and steal it. Inc. The company has to rely on the contract manufacturer for having good suppliers that also meet these standards.• Relationships . companies must make sure that the manufacturer’s standards are in line with their own. Print. risking their customer service levels. Quality concerns – When entering into a contract. Industrial Quick Search. It may also hurt their ability to respond to demand fluctuations. Most companies mitigate this risk by working cohesively with the manufacturer and awarding good performance with more of their business. Inc. cultural differences and long lead times. the company will lose some of its ability to respond to disruptions in the supply chain. Usually. The recent uptake in intellectual property loss has companies and government officials struggling to find the best method of security. 16 Apr 2010. . a company is letting someone else in on their formulas or technologies. [edit ] References 1. • • • • • [edit ] Protectionism In an international context. This is why it is very important that a company not give out any of its core competencies to contract manufacturers. "The Benefits and Disadvantages of Contract Manufacturing. Soshanah." IQS Newsroom. it does bring along risks such as language barriers. 2. They should also evaluate the methods in which they test product to make sure the products being produced are of good quality . Web. Thus. they may find that they are de-prioritized over other companies during high production periods. 21 Feb 2011.It is imperative that the company forms a good relationship with its contract manufacture. depending upon the activities of the contract manufacturer. 316. they may not be able to get the product they need when they need it. They cannot force them to produce their product before a competitor’s. establishing a foreign subsidiary as a contract manufacturer can have favorable tax benefits for the parent company. it comes down to the integrity of the employees. The company must keep in mind that it is not the only customer to the manufacturer. United States: The McGraw-Hill Companies. and Joseph Roussel. Loss of Flexibility and Responsiveness . Outsourcing Risks – Although outsourcing to low-cost countries has become very popular. This is a form of protectionism . allowing them to reduce overall tax liabilities and increase profits. Knowdell. Capacity Constraints – If a company does not make up a large portion of the contract manufacturer’s business.[2] This could make the management of contract manufacturers more difficult.Without direct control over the manufacturing facility. Intellectual Property Loss – When entering into a contract. ^ a b [1] . Jenny. 2005. ^ a b c d Cohen.

[edit ] See also • • • • • • Interactive Contract Manufacturing (ICM) Electronic Contract Manufacturing (ECM) Electronics manufacturing services (EMS) Original design manufacturer (ODM) Private label Bill of materials (BOM) Retrieved from "http://en.org/wiki/Contract_manufacturer " Categories : Production and manufacturing Personal tools • Log in / create account Namespaces • • Article Discussion Variants Views • • • Read Edit View history Actions Search Top of Form Special:Search Search Bottom of Form Navigation • • • • • Main page Contents Featured content Current events Random article .wikipedia.

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