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TRAINING

MEANING OF Training
Training is the act of increasing the knowledge and skills of an Employee for doing a particular job. Training is a short-term educational process and utilizing a systematic and organized procedure by which employees learn technical knowledge and skills for a definite purpose. What is training?
One definition of training is µthe process of bringing a person to an agreed standard of skill by practice and instruction¶. Another definition is µa trainer and participant working together to transfer information from the trainer to the participant, to develop the participant¶s knowledge, attitudes or skills so they can perform work tasks better¶. Taken together these definitions say two things: 1. Training is directed towards agreed standards or objectives. These are sometimes called learning outcomes ² what you want people to learn from training. 2. The person being trained participates with the trainer in the training activity, rather than simply receiving instruction. Training usually involves participation. This means that a person being trained has an active role in the training process, rather than a passive role. Also it often takes place in the workplace or community where the skills and knowledge being communicated will be used.

TRAINING METHODS :All training methods can be grouped into two categories :a] Training methods for operatives and b] Training methods for managers a] Training Methods for Operatives :Under these methods the new employee is assigned to a specific job at a machine or workshop or laboratory. He is instructed by an experienced employee or by a special supervisor who explains to him the method of handling tools, operating the machines etc. Vestibule Training :- This method involves the creation of a separate training centre within the plant itself for the purpose of providing training to the new employees. An experienced instructor is put in-charge of this training. Machines and tools are also managed in the training centre, so as to create working conditions similar to those in the workshop. Advantage :- No interference with regular production. Disadvantage - Costly, adds nothing to productions during training period. Apprenticeship Training :-This method of training is meant to give the trainee sufficient knowledge and skill in those trades and crafts in which a long period of training is required for gaining complete proficiency. Generally, the trainees work as apprentices under the direct supervision of experts for long periods of say, two to seven years. This programme consists of providing actual work experience in the actual job as well as imparting theoretical knowledge through class room lectures which may be arranged either in the plant or in the institution attached to the concern. This method of training enables the trainees to become all-round craftsmen. But this method is very expensive

There is no "right" . the executive comes to learn not only the various organizational problems. (Prod. This encourages cross fertilization of ideas.This method of training is generally provided to the skilled and technical personnel. views of senior and experienced members. 2] Position Rotation :Under this method. so that meaningful learning experiences occur.). Internship Training :. Ex. One advantage of this type of training is that all the participants coming from different organizations get an opportunity to pool their ideas and experience in attempting to solve mutual problems. he is informed on the policies and theories involved.E. While working on such project. 4] Assignment of special Projects :Sometimes. it does not appear on the company's balance sheet. the trainee executive is rotated among different managerial jobs. its profit and the price of its stock than any other asset in its possession. 6] Case Study :A case is a written account seeking to describe an actual situation.E. seminar or workshop to receive a quick orientation in various areas of Management with which he might be unfamiliar. the newly recruited executive called "understudy" is made an assistant to the current job holder. If decisions are discussed with him. Discussion on a case requires a capable instructor. The following are the various training methods for managers.6 months in plant training B. students from a technical institution possessing only theoretical knowledge are sent to some business enterprise to gain practical work experience. He learns by experience. who can evoke and guide intelligent discussion analysis. The object of this type of training is to bring about a balance between theoretical and practical knowledge.2 days in a week during final year b] Training Methods for Managers :Executive talent is the most important asset which a company can posses. 3] Serving on Committees :Another important method of training on an executive is to make him serve on a committee. The attitude is one of joint exploration. the employees of business enterprises are sent to technical institutions to gain the latest theoretical knowledge on a subject. he may be ask to develop a system of cost allocation in the production of certain goods for which an order has been received by the company. This not only broaden and enriches his experience as a manager but also enables him to understand inter departmental relations and the need for co-ordination and co-operation among various departments. but also learns how to work with and relate to other people holding different views. A good case is the vehicle by which a chunk of realty is brought into the class room to be discussed over by the class and the instructor. B. for example. Although. but also learns how a manger should adjust himself to the overall needs of the enterprise.and also there is no guarantee that a trained worker will continue to work in the same concern after the training is completed. While serving on a committee. as a method of training some special project is assigned to a trainee executive. but it produces more important effects on the company's progress.) . 5] Conference and Seminars :Often an executive is deputed to attend a conference. the trainee not only acquires knowledge about them. under this method. observation and imitation. (Mech. Simultaneously. 1] Observation Assignment :Under this method.

I. There may be achievement goals set by the mentor or learner. 8] Role Playing :In this method. advises. The achievement of these goals can bring about new goals to help the learner gain more insight and advance in their career. The laboratory training aims at achieving behavioural. Counselling ± is the providing of direction or advice to another person on a specific course of action. effectiveness in transactions with ones environment. one that often must take place in actual business situations. and then provides advice on next steps of growth. The group then puts questions to the instructor to draw out of him the salient facts and additional information. A unique advantage of this method over the case method is the procedure of obtaining information by questions. acts as a sounding board. 9] Laboratory Training (or Sensitivity Training) (T group Training): This type of training is designed to increase the managers understanding of himself and of his own impact on others. the group may decide on the subject of discussion or suggest changes in procedure. Counselling may use techniques that focus on the understanding of past situations to help deal with current situations. more perception in a situation. The mentor shares his experience and knowledge. the instructor assigns parts taken from case materials to group members. The role players attempt to act the parts as they would behave in a real life situation. working without a script or memorized lines and improvising as they play the parts. The development of empathy and sensitivity is one of the primary objectives of role playing. stress and frustration may be purposely generated for they later on become motivations for growth as well as food for learning. The counsellor tends to gain an understanding of the situation and the person. by Paul and Pigors. greater respect for and consideration for the opinion of others. The training takes the form of a group discussion. Counselling can be related to therapy based assistance that uses psychological methods (and sometimes tools and methods very similar to those of coaching). needed to arrive at a reasonable solution or resolution of the case. in its very general sense.T. There may be some . This method draws the participants into discussion with greater emotional involvement.answer or simple explanation in the comprehensive case. In the usual case method the entire problem is presented to the students. The advantages of this method are more depth of thinking. conflict. The situation is usually one involving conflict between people. hostility. There is some understanding of who the person being counselled is (qualities and characteristics that arise in coaching as well). and through a leader trained in the technique is present. whereas in the incident method only a brief incident is presented to provoke discussion in the class. In the course of discussion. as an outgrowth of dissatisfaction felt with the case method. 7] Incident Method :This method was developed at M. Mentoring ± is a relationship between an individual with experienced in a particular field and a person within the same field who is looking for guidance to learn and grow in that field.

growth and co-ordination ‡ Improves labour management relations ‡ Aids improving organizational communication ‡ Helps employees adjust to change ‡ Improves the moral of workforce ‡ Develops a sense of responsibility to the organization for being competent and knowledgeable ‡ It is an investment in HR with a promise of better returns in future training includes increased value of human resources of both the trainee ‡ Training: Training is skills focused. flexibility and capacity for growth in an organization ‡ Accidents. frustration and conflict ‡ Provides a good climate for learning. absenteeism. scraps and damages to machinery can be avoided ‡ Serves as effective source of recruitment Reduces dissatisfaction. Development: Development is creating learning abilities . Trainings are generally need based . Development is a broader concept focused on personality development. Training may not include development .awareness of the character of the learner that comes out of the mentoring relationship. Training needs depend up on lack or deficiency in skills . tension. . Training is presumed to have a formal education. but this is not the focus. Benefits of Training Helps remove performance deficiencies in employees ‡ Greater stability. Training is aimed at improving job related efficiency and performance. complaints and turnover of employees ‡ Helps person handle stress. Development is not education dependent . Training is a narrower concept focused on job related skills . Development depends on personal drive and ambition. Development is voluntary .

seminars. and should always be the first step of the training process. Training is one of the most profitable investments an organization can make.A dynamic appearance and good posture. The primary objective of all training is to improve individual and organizational performance. .An ability to motivate participants to ³want´ to learn. One-on-one training. an organization can decide what specific knowledge.³What´ type of training is needed? . The objective in establishing a needs analysis is to find out the answers to the following questions: . Establishing a needs analysis is. a complete list of standards and procedures should be established from each responsibility outlined in the job description.A working knowledge of the subject being taught. . . The needs analysis is the starting point for all training.³Where´ is the training needed? .³How´ will the training be performed? By determining training needs. and customer comment cards. STEP 3: DELIVER THE TRAINING PROGRAM. Once the job description is completed. and workshops are the most popular methods. and high turnover. make sure you have a thorough understanding of the following characteristics of an effective trainer. low morale. If you have ever thought about developing a training program within your organization consider the following four basic training steps. STEP 1: ESTABLISHING A NEEDS ANALYSIS. No matter what business or industry you are in the steps for an effective training process are the same and may be adapted anywhere. observations. This step is responsible for the instruction and delivery of the training program.³Why´ is training needed? . STEP 2: DEVELOPING TRAINING PROGRAMS AND MANUALS. Once you have designated your trainers. . . The techniques necessary for the data collection are surveys.Development includes training wherever necessary . The trainer should have: . This step establishes the development of current job descriptions and standards and procedures. Before presenting a training session. group training.A desire to teach the subject being taught. Job descriptions should be clear and concise and may serve as a major training tool for the identification of guidelines.³When´ is the training needed? . You will find that all four of these steps are mutually necessary for any training program to be effective and efficient. Several examples of an analysis outlining specific training needs are customer dissatisfaction. This will standardize the necessary guidelines for any future training.³Who´ needs the training? and "Who" will conduct the training? . Development aims at overall personal effectiveness including job efficiencies . This step identifies activities to justify an investment for training. interviews. on-the-job training. low productivity. and attitudes are needed to improve the employee¶s performance in accordance with the company¶s standards. the training technique must be decided. skills.A good sense of humor.

employee productivity. This step will determine how effective and profitable your training program has been. evaluations are an efficient way to determine the overall effectiveness of the training program for the employees as well as the organization. Consider this information the next time you need to evaluate your training program.Appropriate audio/visual equipment to enhance the training session. There are several obvious benefits for evaluating a training program. employee morale. Third. It is a team effort and must be implemented by all members of the organization to be fully successful. It is this step that will indicate the effectiveness of both the training as well as the trainer. the trainer does not have a true indication of the effectiveness of the training. As business and industry continues to grow. the use of various training methods. The reason for an evaluation system is simple. more jobs will become created and available. all training must receive support from the top management as well as from the middle and supervisory levels of management. the establishment of a cost/benefit analysis outlining your expenses and returns. . evaluations will provide feedback on the trainer¶s performance. good communication skills. For a training program to be successful. To be successful.A strong passion for their topic.A strong compassion towards their participants. You will be amazed with the results. Second. the trainer should be conscious of several essential elements.. allowing them to improve themselves for future programs. and an increase in customer satisfaction and profits. The evaluation of training programs are without a doubt the most important step in the training process. The importance of the evaluation process after the training is critical. evaluations will indicate its cost-effectiveness. Methods for evaluation are preand post. First. STEP 4: EVALUATE THE TRAINING PROGRAM. and employee turnover as well as the current economic realties of a highly competitive workforce are just some of the reasons for establishing and implementing training in an organization. and trainee participation. Without it. . . including a controlled environment.surveys of customer comments cards. The need for training your employees has never been greater. good planning. Customer demands.