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Difference between rural and urban regarding environmental concern

Rural areas are settled places outside towns and cities. They can have an agricultural character, though many rural areas are based on natural gas, petroleum, etc... Rural areas are less modern and open than urban areas. People there are probably more attached to there traditions and beliefs. We don’t usually see the society moving, and meaning by that, seeing the population changing habits, accepting other cultures and adopting some, etc. however we do found in rural areas hospitals, schools, and banks. An urban area is an area with an increased density of human-created structures in comparison to the areas surrounding it. Urban areas may be cities, towns or conurbations...Unlike an urban area, a metropolitan area includes not only the urban area, but also satellite cities plus intervening rural land that is socio-economically connected to the urban core city, typically by employment ties through commuting, with the urban core city being the primary labor market. In fact, urbanized areas agglomerate and grow as the core population/economic activity center within a larger metropolitan area or envelope. People living there are open, they choose there cultures and there beliefs and share them and that's what make them a very modern society. They care most about technology, communication, economy, etc and always look forward to develop and extend markets, diversification products. One of the most characteristic features of modern society is that the level of environmental concern is high and generalized. This has been reflected in studies carried out with all types of samples and in a variety of cultures: North American, Swedish, Lithuanian, and Latvian or Spanish, to cite some examples. These high indices of concern are a reflection of the importance that citizens attribute to environmental problems, as well as an indicator of the growing awareness of the impact of human activity on the environment n general, and the transformation of ecosystems in particular.

and (3) orientation driven by egoistic motives. gender.. and that values do not necessarily predict either attitudes or behavior. education. liberal ideology. given the impact that its deterioration may have on the people that are important to us. Behavior depends to a greater extent on specific attitudes or on direct experience with the natural world and it is necessary to construct intervention models. attitudes. we find – within what has come to be called western civilization – that young women. race and ethnic group. values. . with high educational level. designed for education. consciousness-raising and land management. from a sociodemographic perspective. (2) orientation toward care of the environment as the reflection of altruistic behavior. and place of residence. living in cities and actively involved in organized religion represent. income. they can be grouped around six basic issues refer to variables such as age and cohort. educational level or political ideology). among them we can identify two basic lines of research one of these research lines has concentrated its efforts on identifying the sociodemographic factors associated with environmental concern (e. age. A second one has focused on the more purely psychological determinants (i.g. The results with both approaches have been abundant and quite varied. From an applied perspective. the results suggest the need to stress that environmental concern has several levels of analysis. which take into account the needs and customs of the environment’s users.. the ideal profile of the person concerned about the environment. gender. and industrial sector. political ideology. As a result. In the case of the sociodemographic studies. it is agree that research has developed on the basis of three types of orientation that determine the subject’s motivation to be concerned about the environment (1) orientation toward the environmental values within one’s own society. given the enjoyment of the comfort and convenience obtained from the exploitation of natural resources. occupation. religion.Despite the large number of studies and their theoretical variety. As regards the second line of research on environmental concern (psychological determinants). and finally. social class. and beliefs) of such environmental concern.e.

2. Other migration models • • • • Migration occurs because individuals search for food.(Idyorough. 3. sex and security outside their usual habitation. The laws are as follows: 1. and pastoral farming Transhumance. migration from rural areas to the cities Ravenstein's 'laws of migration' Certain laws of social science have been proposed to describe human migration. Every migration flow generates a return or counter migration. It also moves from China to Southeast Asia. Families are less likely to make international moves than young adults. Rural exodus. from Europe to North America. The majority of migrants move a short distance. The migratory movement that moves from the eastern part of the United States to the western part. 5. and nomadism. The periodic movement which consists of migrant labor.Migration: Toward an understanding of migration: Types of migrations • • • • The cyclic movement which involves commuting. migrants who move longer distances tend to choose big-city destinations 4. Urban residents are less migratory than inhabitants of rural areas. military service. and from South America to the middle part of the Americas. 2008) Zipf's Inverse distance law (1956) Gravity model of migration and the Friction of distance Buffer Theory . The following was a standard list after Ravenstein's proposals during the time frame of 1834 to 1913. a seasonal movement.

In general we can divide factors causing migrations into two groups of factors: Push and pull factors. [It] turns the conventional view of international migration on its head: it investigates how migration regulates labor markets. into Mesopotamia or southwards. political. political. Barriers/Obstacles which is an example of Nigeria in the 1970s and 1980s.. . each group pushing the next further to the south and west. Some cases are constant. the plains of Hungary. cultural.• • • • Stouffer's Theory of intervening opportunities (1940) Lee's Push-pull theory (1967) Zelinsky's Mobility Transition Model (1971) Bauder's Regulation of labor markets (2006) "suggests that the international migration of workers is necessary for the survival of industrialized economies. especially Mongolia and the Altai. rather than labor markets shaping migration flows. People were displaced from their home ground by other tribes trying to find land that could be grazed by essential flocks. into the highlands of Anatolia. and environmentally based. cultural. In general: • • • Push Factors are economic. into the rich pastures of China. and environmentally based." (from the book description) Migrations and climate cycles The modern field of climate history suggests that the successive waves of Eurasian nomadic movement throughout history have had their origins in climatic cycles. some of them do not carry the same importance as years ago (for example: in 18th and 19th centuries labor migration did not have the same character like today). Pull Factors are economic. which have expanded or contracted pastureland in Central Asia. Causes of migrations Causes of migrations have modified over hundreds of years..

It is generally some problem which results in people wanting to migrate. the causes of migration can be distilled into two main categories: security dimension of migration (natural disasters. poor political prospects) and economic dimension of migration (poor economic situation.Some certain factors are both push and pull like education. A push factor is a flaw or distress that drives a person away from a certain place. industry etc. [AIV document] Push and Pull Factors Push and pull factors are those factors which either forcefully push people into migration or attract them. poor situation of national market). It is generally a benefit that attracts people to a certain place. A pull factor is something concerning the country to which a person migrates. Push and pull factors are usually considered as north and south poles on a magnet. and a factor which relates to the country from which a person migrates. threats to individual safety. Push Factors • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Not enough jobs Few opportunities "Primitive" conditions Political fear Poor medical care Not being able to practice religion Loss of wealth Natural Disasters Death threats Slavery Pollution Poor housing Landlords Bullying Poor chances of finding courtship . On the macro level. conflicts. Different types of push factors can be seen further below. A push factor is forceful.

It has contributed to the diffusion of cultures by interchange and communication. Migration has had a significant effect on world geography. which are of the greatest importance for the development of the countries. Economic results. having both advantages and disadvantages. migrants are mostly young and in productive age. what in turn can be followed by economic problems (shrinking group of economically active population has to finance extending group of inactive population). Effects of migrations are: • • • changes in population distribution Demographic consequences: since migration is selective of particular age groups. • • • It has contributed to the evolution and development of separate cultures. It has contributed to the complex mix of people and cultures found in different regions of the world today . It can cause a demographic crisis – population ageing.Pull Factors • • • • • • • • • Job opportunities Better living conditions Political and/or religious freedom Enjoyment Education Better medical care Security Family links Better chances of finding courtship Effects of migration Migration like any other process shapes many fields of life.

bullying. and abuse Discontent with immigration rate. even a natural disaster is unlikely to cause out-migration.Push and pull factors in emigration: Push factors • • • • • • • • • • • • War or other armed conflict Famine or drought Disease Poverty Political corruption Disagreement with politics Religious fundamentalism / religious intolerance Natural disasters Discontent with the natives. excepting disagreement with politics and discontent with natives and immigrants. bullying. generally do not affect people in developed countries. such as frequent harassment. causing frequent harassment. and abuse for home populations Lack of employment opportunities Lack of various rights These factors. Pull factors • • • • • • • • • • • • Higher incomes Lower taxes Better weather Better availability of employment Better medical facilities Better education facilities Better behavior among people Family reasons Political stability Religious tolerance Relative freedom National prestige .

negative (orange). stable (green). and no data (gray). .Net migration rates (2008): Net migration rates for 2008: positive (blue).