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Difference between rural and urban regarding environmental concern:

Rural areas are settled places outside towns and cities. They can have an agricultural character, though many rural areas are based on natural gas, petroleum, etc... Rural areas are less modern and open than urban areas. People there are probably more attached to there traditions and beliefs. We dont usually see the society moving, and meaning by that, seeing the population changing habits, accepting other cultures and adopting some, etc. however we do found in rural areas hospitals, schools, and banks. An urban area is an area with an increased density of human-created structures in comparison to the areas surrounding it. Urban areas may be cities, towns or conurbations...Unlike an urban area, a metropolitan area includes not only the urban area, but also satellite cities plus intervening rural land that is socio-economically connected to the urban core city, typically by employment ties through commuting, with the urban core city being the primary labor market. In fact, urbanized areas agglomerate and grow as the core population/economic activity center within a larger metropolitan area or envelope. People living there are open, they choose there cultures and there beliefs and share them and that's what make them a very modern society. They care most about technology, communication, economy, etc and always look forward to develop and extend markets, diversification products. One of the most characteristic features of modern society is that the level of environmental concern is high and generalized. This has been reflected in studies carried out with all types of samples and in a variety of cultures: North American, Swedish, Lithuanian, and Latvian or Spanish, to cite some examples. These high indices of concern are a reflection of the importance that citizens attribute to environmental problems, as well as an indicator of the growing awareness of the impact of human activity on the environment n general, and the transformation of ecosystems in particular.

Despite the large number of studies and their theoretical variety, among them we can identify two basic lines of research one of these research lines has concentrated its efforts on identifying the sociodemographic factors associated with environmental concern (e.g., gender, age, educational level or political ideology). A second one has focused on the more purely psychological determinants (i.e., values, attitudes, and beliefs) of such environmental concern. The results with both approaches have been abundant and quite varied. In the case of the sociodemographic studies, they can be grouped around six basic issues refer to variables such as age and cohort; education, political ideology, and place of residence; race and ethnic group; income, social class, occupation, and industrial sector; gender; and finally, religion. As a result, we find within what has come to be called western civilization that young women, with high educational level, liberal ideology, living in cities and actively involved in organized religion represent, from a sociodemographic perspective, the ideal profile of the person concerned about the environment. As regards the second line of research on environmental concern (psychological determinants), it is agree that research has developed on the basis of three types of orientation that determine the subjects motivation to be concerned about the environment (1) orientation toward the environmental values within ones own society, (2) orientation toward care of the environment as the reflection of altruistic behavior, given the impact that its deterioration may have on the people that are important to us, and (3) orientation driven by egoistic motives, given the enjoyment of the comfort and convenience obtained from the exploitation of natural resources. From an applied perspective, the results suggest the need to stress that environmental concern has several levels of analysis, and that values do not necessarily predict either attitudes or behavior. Behavior depends to a greater extent on specific attitudes or on direct experience with the natural world and it is necessary to construct intervention models, designed for education, consciousness-raising and land management, which take into account the needs and customs of the environments users.

Toward an understanding of migration: Types of migrations

The cyclic movement which involves commuting, a seasonal movement, and nomadism. The periodic movement which consists of migrant labor, military service, and pastoral farming Transhumance. The migratory movement that moves from the eastern part of the United States to the western part. It also moves from China to Southeast Asia, from Europe to North America, and from South America to the middle part of the Americas. Rural exodus, migration from rural areas to the cities

Ravenstein's 'laws of migration'

Certain laws of social science have been proposed to describe human migration. The following was a standard list after Ravenstein's proposals during the time frame of 1834 to 1913. The laws are as follows:
1. Every migration flow generates a return or counter migration. 2. The majority of migrants move a short distance. 3. migrants who move longer distances tend to choose big-city

destinations 4. Urban residents are less migratory than inhabitants of rural areas. 5. Families are less likely to make international moves than young adults. Other migration models

Migration occurs because individuals search for food, sex and security outside their usual habitation.(Idyorough, 2008) Zipf's Inverse distance law (1956) Gravity model of migration and the Friction of distance Buffer Theory

Stouffer's Theory of intervening opportunities (1940) Lee's Push-pull theory (1967) Zelinsky's Mobility Transition Model (1971) Bauder's Regulation of labor markets (2006) "suggests that the international migration of workers is necessary for the survival of industrialized economies... [It] turns the conventional view of international migration on its head: it investigates how migration regulates labor markets, rather than labor markets shaping migration flows." (from the book description)

Migrations and climate cycles

The modern field of climate history suggests that the successive waves of Eurasian nomadic movement throughout history have had their origins in climatic cycles, which have expanded or contracted pastureland in Central Asia, especially Mongolia and the Altai. People were displaced from their home ground by other tribes trying to find land that could be grazed by essential flocks, each group pushing the next further to the south and west, into the highlands of Anatolia, the plains of Hungary, into Mesopotamia or southwards, into the rich pastures of China.

Causes of migrations
Causes of migrations have modified over hundreds of years. Some cases are constant, some of them do not carry the same importance as years ago (for example: in 18th and 19th centuries labor migration did not have the same character like today). In general we can divide factors causing migrations into two groups of factors: Push and pull factors. In general:

Push Factors are economic, political, cultural, and environmentally based. Pull Factors are economic, political, cultural, and environmentally based. Barriers/Obstacles which is an example of Nigeria in the 1970s and 1980s.

Some certain factors are both push and pull like education, industry etc. On the macro level, the causes of migration can be distilled into two main categories: security dimension of migration (natural disasters, conflicts, threats to individual safety, poor political prospects) and economic dimension of migration (poor economic situation, poor situation of national market). [AIV document] Push and Pull Factors

Push and pull factors are those factors which either forcefully push people into migration or attract them. A push factor is forceful, and a factor which relates to the country from which a person migrates. It is generally some problem which results in people wanting to migrate. Different types of push factors can be seen further below. A push factor is a flaw or distress that drives a person away from a certain place. A pull factor is something concerning the country to which a person migrates. It is generally a benefit that attracts people to a certain place. Push and pull factors are usually considered as north and south poles on a magnet. Push Factors

Not enough jobs Few opportunities "Primitive" conditions Political fear Poor medical care Not being able to practice religion Loss of wealth Natural Disasters Death threats Slavery Pollution Poor housing Landlords Bullying Poor chances of finding courtship

Pull Factors

Job opportunities Better living conditions Political and/or religious freedom Enjoyment Education Better medical care Security Family links Better chances of finding courtship

Effects of migration

Migration like any other process shapes many fields of life, having both advantages and disadvantages. Effects of migrations are:

changes in population distribution Demographic consequences: since migration is selective of particular age groups, migrants are mostly young and in productive age. It can cause a demographic crisis population ageing, what in turn can be followed by economic problems (shrinking group of economically active population has to finance extending group of inactive population). Economic results, which are of the greatest importance for the development of the countries.

Migration has had a significant effect on world geography.

It has contributed to the evolution and development of separate cultures. It has contributed to the diffusion of cultures by interchange and communication. It has contributed to the complex mix of people and cultures found in different regions of the world today

Push and pull factors in emigration: Push factors

War or other armed conflict Famine or drought Disease Poverty Political corruption Disagreement with politics Religious fundamentalism / religious intolerance Natural disasters Discontent with the natives, such as frequent harassment, bullying, and abuse Discontent with immigration rate, causing frequent harassment, bullying, and abuse for home populations Lack of employment opportunities Lack of various rights

These factors, excepting disagreement with politics and discontent with natives and immigrants, generally do not affect people in developed countries; even a natural disaster is unlikely to cause out-migration.

Pull factors

Higher incomes Lower taxes Better weather Better availability of employment Better medical facilities Better education facilities Better behavior among people Family reasons Political stability Religious tolerance Relative freedom National prestige

Net migration rates (2008):

Net migration rates for 2008: positive (blue), negative (orange), stable (green), and no data (gray).