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HIGHER EDUCATION

Higher education is education provided by universities, vocational universities, community colleges, liberal arts colleges, technical colleges, and other collegial institutions that award academic degrees, such as career colleges. Post-secondary or tertiary education, also referred to as third-stage, third level education, or higher education, is the non-compulsory educational level following the completion of a school providing a secondary education, such as a high school, secondary school, or gymnasium. Tertiary education is normally taken to include undergraduate and postgraduate education, as well as vocational education and training. Colleges and universities are the main institutions that provide tertiary education (sometimes known collectively as tertiary institutions). Examples of institutions that provide post-secondary education are vocational schools, community colleges and universities in the United States, the TAFEs in Australia, CEGEPs in Quebec,and the IEKs in Greece. They are sometimes known collectively as tertiary institutions. Tertiary education generally results in the receipt of certificates, diplomas, or academic degrees. Higher education includes teaching, research and social services activities of universities, and within the realm of teaching, it includes both the undergraduate level (sometimes referred to as tertiary education) and the graduate (or postgraduate) level (sometimes referred to as graduate school). In the United Kingdom post-secondary education below the level of higher education is referred to as further education. Higher education in that country generally involves work towards a degree-level or foundation degree qualification. In most developed countries a high proportion of the population (up to 50%) now enters higher education at some time in their lives. Higher education is therefore very important to national economies, both as a significant industry in its own right, and as a source of trained and educated personnel for the rest of the economy. There can be disagreement about what precisely constitutes post-secondary or tertiary education: "It is not always clear, though, what tertiary education includes. Is it only that which results in a formal qualification or might it includes leisure classes? In the UK, is A-levels tertiary education as they are post-compulsory but taught in school settings as well as colleges? Is professional updating or on-the-job training part of tertiary education, even if it does not follow successful completion of secondary education?"[1] There are two types of higher education in the UK: higher general education and higher vocational education. Higher education in the United States specifically refers to postsecondary institutions that offer associate degrees, baccalaureate degrees, master's degrees or Ph.D. degrees or equivalents. Such institutions may offer non-degree certificates which indicate completion of a set of courses comprising some body of knowledge, but the granting of such certificates is not the primary purpose of the institution. Tertiary education is not a term used in reference to post-secondary institutions in the United States.

FEMALE EDUCATION
Female education is a catch-all term for a complex of issues and debates surrounding education (primary education, secondary education, tertiary education and health education in particular) for females. It includes areas of gender equality and access to education, and its connection to the alleviation of poverty. Also involved are the issues of single-sex education and religious education, in that the division of education along gender lines, and religious teachings on education, have been traditionally dominant, and are still highly relevant in contemporary discussion of female education as a global consideration. While the feminist movement has certainly promoted the importance of the issues attached to female education, discussion is wide-ranging and by no means confined to narrow terms of reference: it includes for example AIDS.[1] Two terms those are mutually exclusive

Medieval period In medieval Europe, education for girls and women was at best patchy, and was controversial in the light of pronouncements of some religious authorities.[2] Shulamith Shahar writes[3], of the situation in the nobility, that Among girls there was an almost direct transition from childhood to marriage, with all it entails. Education was also seen as stratified in the way that society itself was: in authors such as Vincent of Beauvais, the emphasis is on educating the daughters of the nobility for their social position to come. [edit] Early modern period, humanist attitudes In early modern Europe, the question of female education had become a standard commonplace, in other words a literary topos for discussion. Around 1405 Leonardo Bruni wrote De studies et letteris[4], addressed to Baptista di Montefeltro, the daughter of Antonio II da Montefeltro, Duke of Urbino; it commends the study of Latin, but warns against arithmetic, geometry, astrology and rhetoric. In discussing the classical scholar Isotta Nogarola, however, Lisa Jardine[5] notes that (in the middle of the fifteenth century), Cultivation is in order for a noblewoman; formal competence is positively unbecoming. Christine de Pisan's Livre des Trois Vertus is contemporary with Bruni's book, and sets down the things which a lady or baroness living on her estates ought to be able to do[6].

Erasmus wrote at length about education in De pueris instituendis (1529, written two decades before); not mostly concerned with female education[7], in this work he does mention with approbation the trouble Thomas More took with teaching his whole family[8]. In 1523 Juan Luis Vives, a follower of Erasmus, wrote in Latin his De institutione foeminae Christianae[9], translated[10] for the future Queen Mary of England as Education of a Christian Woman. This is in line with traditional didactic literature, taking a strongly religious direction [11]. Elizabeth I of England had a strong humanist education, and was praised by her tutor Roger Ascham[12]. She fits the pattern of education for leadership, rather than for the generality of women. Schooling for girls was rare; the assumption was still that education would be brought to the home environment. Communions was an advocate of formal education for women.[13] [edit] Modern period The issue of female education in the large, as emancipator and rational, is broached seriously in the Enlightenment. Mary Wollstonecraft is a writer who dealt with it in those terms. Actual progress in institutional terms, for secular education of women, began in the West in the nineteenth century, with the founding of colleges offering single-sex education to young women. These appeared in the middle of the century. The Princess: A Medley, a narrative poem by Alfred Lord Tennyson, is a satire of women's education, still a controversial subject in 1847, when Queen's College first opened in London. Emily Davies campaigned for women's education in the 1860s, and founded Girton College in 1869. W. S. Gilbert parodied the poem and treated the themes of women's higher education and feminism in general with The Princess in (1870) and Princess Ida in 1883. Once women began to graduate from institutions of higher education, there steadily developed also a stronger academic stream of schooling, and the teacher training of women in larger numbers, principally to provide primary education. Women's access to traditionally allmale institutions took several generations to become complete.

RAGGING
Ragging is a term used in India to refer to criminal activity which takes place inside educational institutions. Ragging is different from other crimes because the motive is solely to get perverse pleasure.[attribution needed] Ragging is also different from other crimes as it is actively promoted by certain sections of the society.[weasel words] The following criminal activities can be categorized under ragging (especially if they take place inside a school or college):

unlawful coercion criminal intimidation assault battery sexual abuse rape murder

Ragging is different from "hazing" in that it is forced on the victim, whereas "hazing" is done with the consent of a person.[citation needed] The phenomenon was particularly prevalent in army and police forces, in which new recruits are required to undergo a degree of physical abuse. This practice is to a large degree actively promoted by many military groups.[citation needed] But in India, ragging is more infamous for its ubiquitous presence in the educational institutions. According to the observations by the Dr. Raghavan Committee, which has been construed by the Union Human Resource Development ministry on the orders of the Hon'ble Supreme Court of India, the medical colleges are the worst affected in India. However, India's first and only registered Anti Ragging NGO, Society Against Violence in Education (SAVE) has supported that ragging is also widely and dangerously prevalent in Engineering and other institutions, mainly in the hostels [edit] Ragging in India With the increasing privatization of higher education in India, academic institutions in India have been experiencing increasing ragging related excesses. A report from 2007 highlights 42 instances of physical injury, and reports on ten deaths purportedly the result of ragging:[3] Ragging has reportedly caused at least 30-31 deaths in the last 7 years:[4] , [all of which] are not those of freshers. C. Lalitha, the mother of Mukesh, ended her life due to the controversy surrounding the sexual abuse of her son during ragging (Andhra Pradesh, Sept 2006). Three of the ragging deaths were those of seniors: two seniors were killed by a first-year student when he was being ragged (Vidyanagar, MP, Aug 2006); one senior ended his life when he was punished for ragging. The other seven deaths were those of freshman, six who committed suicide, and one due to the result of brutal ragging (equivalent to murder). In the 2007 session, 7 ragging deaths have been reported. In addition, a number of freshmen were severely traumatized to the extent that they were admitted to mental institutions.

Ragging in India commonly is involves serious abuses and clear violations of human rights. Often media reports and others unearth that it goes on, in many institutions, in the infamous Abu Ghraib style [5] and on innocent victims. However, in many colleges, like IIT, Bombay and IIIT Hyderabad, ragging has been strictly banned. But how far the ban is effective appears clear on the campuses, hostels and in the media.

VALUES EDUCATION
Values education is all aspects of the process by which teachers (and other adults) transmit values to pupils.[1] It can be an educational subject or an approach to education applied to the whole or parts of the curriculum, or indeed the whole school ethos. The values dealt with usually transcend exclusive religious viewpoints although Values education schemes may derive from particular religious traditions or New Religious Movements. Definitions A fuller definition refers to it as the process that gives young people an initiation into values, giving a knowledge of the rules which function in this mode of relating to other people and to seek to develop in in the student a grasp of their underlying principles, together with the ability to apply these rules intelligently, and to have the settled disposition to do so[2] Some researchers use the concept values education as an umbrella of concepts that includes moral education and citizenship education[3][4][5] The concept is seen as complex and includes a number themes which overlap. These different themes are receive different weighting in different countries' values education in a way that reflects the countries' historical and ideological development. Themes that values education can address to varying degrees are character, moral development, Religious Education, Spiritual development, citizenship education, personal development, social development and cultural development.[6] It is important to see that the meaning in the term values education deals with two different phenomena, namely

the experience, i.e. to those documents or the impact that happen and that is held in the definition above, and knowledge about the experience, i.e. theories and research about it that is held in the definition above.

There is a further distinction between explicit values education and implicit values education[7][8] where:

explicit values education is associated with those different pedagogies, methods or programmes that teachers or educator uses in order to create learning experiences for students when it comes to value questions.

Implicit values education on the other hand covers those aspects of the educational experience that results from explicit values education.

[edit] Objectives of Values Education As many societies of the world have become heterogeneous with respect to religious belief and more secular, to stem the resulting moral relativism, Values education has been found a more politically correct way to teach spiritual, moral, social and cultural development, than nurture within any particular religious tradition.