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Unlike the little recognition received by many nineteenth century female authors, female authors of the twentieth century have been accepted as talented and necessary contributors to the literary field. A. Unlike the little recognition received by many nineteenth century female authors, female authors of the twentieth century B. Unlike nineteenth century female authors, who received little recognition, female authors of the twentieth century C. Unlike the little recognition received by many nineteenth century female authors, the recognition received by female authors of the twentieth century D. Many nineteenth century female authors received little recognition, but unlike them, female authors of the twentieth century E. While little recognition was received by many nineteenth century female authors, that of female authors of the twentieth century

2. Formulas for gross domestic product and trade balance do not apply to small, emergent economies in the same way they apply to established economies, because they are developing and are not in equilibrium. A. Formulas for gross domestic product and trade balance do not apply to small, emergent economies in the same way they apply to established economies, because they are developing and are not in equilibrium B. Because they are developing and are not in equilibrium, formulas for gross domestic product and trade balance do not apply to small, emergent economies in the same way they apply to established economies C. Because they are developing and are not in equilibrium, small, emergent economies are not subject to the same applicability of formulas for gross domestic product and trade balance as established economies D. Because small, emergent economies are developing and are not in equilibrium, formulas for gross domestic product and trade balance do not apply to them in the same way they apply to established economies E. Small, emergent economies are not subject to the applicability of formulas for gross domestic product and trade balance in the same way as established economies, because they are developing and are not in equilibrium

Recent research shows that hyenas outperform chimps in solving problems through teamwork. In experiments by a major U.S. university, spotted hyena pairs were introduced into a pen containing two large platforms placed ten feet above the ground. From each platform dangled two ropes that when pulled in unison opened a trapdoor and provided a food reward. The experiment design, with the dual platforms and double ropes, ensured that the hyenas could not perform the task individually or by chance as a pair. Captive hyena pairs were given no training in the task, but the first pair took less than two minutes to solve the problem. Primates, such as chimps, required extensive training to complete similar tasks. Researchers found that the size of each hyena party and pair membership had effects on performance. For example, when more than two hyenas were present, the task was solved more quickly, even if the additional hyenas were merely observing. When two dominant hyenas were paired, they performed less successfully than dominant-subordinate pairs. Thus, social context influenced the hyenas' behavior. Consequently, the research shows that social carnivores, defined as animals that hunt in packs, may be effective models for exploring cooperative problem solving. Past research focused on largebrained primates, such as chimps, which are capable of higher cognitive function, in the assumption that higher cognitive function made primates more capable of organized teamwork. However, as study coauthor Christine Drea concludes, the newer experiments "show that [hyenas] are more hard-wired for social cooperation than chimpanzees." 3. It can be inferred from the passage that A. results in lab studies do not parallel results in the wild. B. future research in social cognition should focus only on social carnivores. C. chimps are not as smart as hyenas.

D. cooperative problem solving is more instinctive for hyenas than for primates. E. wolves would perform poorly on a similar team problemsolving task.

4. The author most likely mentions "social context" in order to A. imply that primates are not social animals. B. prove that the hyenas' problem-solving skills are greater than those of chimps. C. give an example of how hyenas work together. D. provide an explanation for why hyenas' problem-solving abilities varied. E. show that hyenas perform better with an audience.

5. Which of the following, if true, would most strengthen Drea's position? A. Even untrained hyenas rarely pulled on the rope if no other hyena was present. B. Aggression in paired dominant animals interfered with cooperation. C. The required action in the double-rope experiment imitates the action required to bring down prey in the wild. D. Success rates were also greater for hyenas in experiments requiring nonsocial problem-solving skills. E. Once trained, chimps could perform the double-rope experiment faster than hyenas.

African exploration in the late nineteenth century is almost entirely a story of white males: scientists, traders and missionaries. Mary Henrietta Kingsley stands out as an exception. Ostensibly, Kingsley planned her first trip to Africa so she could conduct research on fetishes and complete the academic treatise her father, an explorer, had begun. Privately, Kingsley told a friend she was traveling to Africa "to die," though she had dreamt of such an adventure since childhood. Nevertheless, she prepared for the trip carefully, interviewing friends, doctors, missionaries, and former explorers, all of whom advised her not to make the trek. Kingsley was undaunted and set off for West Africa carrying only £300, and chemicals and specimen cases designed to collect samples of unknown fish and insects for the British Museum. Kingsley sailed the coast, finally putting in at the mouth of the Congo. Recognizing that the natives were naturally suspicious of Europeans traveling without an obvious purpose, Kingsley purchased cloth and other goods in the port and traveled inland for six months as a trader, exchanging goods for food and shelter along the way. During this and her second trip in 1895, Kingsley demonstrated resourcefulness in dealing with such challenges as rescuing a native from cannibals, defeating a leopard with a bucket of water, learning to pilot a native canoe up the Ogooue River, and becoming the first white woman and third "Englishman" to climb the 14,435 foot Mount Cameroon. Upon her return to London, Kingsley campaigned for an enlightened African policy, published her bookTravels in West Africa and advocated a forum for the serious ethnological study of Africa. Kingsley's third trip was to Cape Town during the 1900 Boer War. There she encountered an epidemic of dysentery, volunteered to nurse prisoners of war, contracted typhoid, and died.

6. What is the main purpose of this passage? A. To demonstrate that even the most seasoned African explorers are at risk due to disease. B. To outline the early history of African exploration. C. To establish the need for a more tolerant colonial policy in 19
th

century England.

D. To discuss the achievements of one female explorer. E. To argue that the contributions made by women explorers in Africa were as important as those made by men.

7. The author suggests that Mary Kingsley may have gone to Africa for each of the following reasons EXCEPT: A. to serve as an Anglican missionary B. to complete her father's fetish research C. to fulfill a childhood dream D. to collect specimens of fish and insects for the British Museum E. to die

8. Mary Kingsley's reason for purchasing cloth and other supplies at the mouth of the Congo was: A. to be able to trade for food and shelter along the way B. to earn extra money to finance her trip C. to assuage the natives' concerns over her motives D. to acquire examples of fetish sculptures for her father's research E. to acquaint the natives with European goods

9. Why does the author insert the anecdotes about Kingsley's travels in paragraph three? A. To show that she was not afraid of wild beasts. B. To compare the obstacles faced by female travelers with those faced by male explorers of the day. C. To entice you into reading Kinsley's best-selling book Travels in West Africa. D. To emphasize the dangers Mary faced in her travels. E. To illustrate Kingsley's ability to conquer a variety of challenges.

10. In the late 1920s, a Classical scholar's linguistic research proved that Greek minstrels recited Homeric epics not from recall of texts memorized word for word, but filling out lines of verse according to preset metrical formulas. A. recited Homeric epics not from recall of texts memorized word for word, but filling B. did not recite Homeric epics from recall of texts memorized word for word, but filling C. recited Homeric epics not by recalling texts memorized word for word, but by filling D. did not recite Homeric epics by recalling texts memorized word for word, but they filled E. recited Homeric epics not word for word from recall of memorized texts, instead they filled

Lactose intolerance arises in individuals who lack the enzyme required to digest lactose, a carbohydrate found in milk, cheese, and other common dairy products. Bacteria in the digestive tract metabolize the lactose for their benefit, producing copious amounts of gas. Individuals who suffer from lactose intolerance must abstain from consuming dairy products. Typical symptoms associated with lactose intolerance include flatulence, bloating, and abdominal cramps. 11. The above statements, if true, provide the most support for asserting which of the following? A. Anyone who suffers from lactose intolerance will experience abdominal cramps. B. Abstaining from lactose will cure lactose intolerance. C. Individuals experiencing flatulence, bloating, and abdominal cramps are lactose-intolerant. D. Lactose is only found in milk. E. Not every human body can always digest common types of food.

12. In some animal species whose hormone levels have been studied, the number of neural receptors for the sex hormone oxytocin has been found to depend on the concentration of other sex hormones. A. the number of neural receptors for the sex hormone oxytocin has been found to depend on the concentration of other sex hormones B. it has been found that the number of neural receptors for the sex hormone oxytocin changes as to the others' concentration C. they have found that the number of neural receptors for the sex hormone oxytocin changes depending on the others' concentration D. they have found the change in the number of neural receptors for the sex hormone oxytocin depending on the concentration of other sex hormones E. the number of neural receptors for the sex hormone oxytocin has been found to change as to the others' concentration

Standard & Poor's sovereign nation debt ratings reflect the opinions of the U.S.-based financial services company on the ability and willingness of governments to fulfill their financial obligations. Just as the company publishes credit ratings for national and international private corporations, so too does it rate governments as long-term borrowers on a scale of AAA to D. AAA to BBB are investment grade, considered stable. BB ratings and below are considered to be noninvestment grade, commonly referred to as junk bonds. On the high end (BB), ratings warn investors that a nation is more prone to adverse economic conditions than are its investment-grade peers. lower-end ratings can indicate that the government is highly vulnerable to default (C), has selectively defaulted on one or more obligations (SD), or is under full default (D) and thus is likely to fail to pay most or all of its obligations. To be clear, sovereign nation ratings are not country ratings. They reflect only the credit risk of national governments, not private issuers within the rated country. Consequently, although government-controlled factors, such as the exchange rate or industry regulations, do undoubtedly affect the private sector operating and financial environment, sovereign nation ratings do not speak to these factors specifically. But because private markets operate on fear, instinct, and panic as much as on logic, they do unfortunately react to nation debt ratings. The merest hint that a nation's debt rating may be downgraded can send stock markets into a tumble, with short-term private stocks faring worse than government bonds. 13. The main purpose of the passage is to A. demonstrate the unfair effects of debt ratings. B. emphasize the importance of junk bond ratings in growing markets. C. persuade readers to invest in AAA- or BBB-rated debt.

D. question the use of sovereign nation debt ratings. E. explain a type of debt rating and its influence.

14. With which of the following statements would the author most likely agree? A. A financially sound private company may see its stock lose significant value even if there is no rational expectation that the company's financial prospects are poor. B. It is unfair to refer to noninvestment grade debt as "junk bonds" because the ratings range from slightly negative to very negative. C. The nations of the world should not be graded by a U.S.-based company. D. Investment in BB-rated nations is well worth the risk because payouts can be high. E. Investors considering private investment opportunities within select nations should ignore the conditions of that nation's public finances.

15. The author includes the sentence about ""governmentcontrolled factors"" most probably in order to A. relate the history of sovereign nation debt ratings. B. discuss the effects of exchange rates on the private sector. C. show how government regulation hurts business. D. contradict the idea that ratings show only governments' credit risk. E. stress that ratings do not reflect private sector data, despite market reaction.

16. Meteors may start out as very large objects, but in the Earth's atmosphere they burn and break in to much smaller pieces, so that most vaporize completely before they reach the ground. A. in the Earth's atmosphere B. in the Earth's atmosphere, in which C. it is in the Earth's atmosphere in which D. in the Earth's atmosphere where E. it is in the Earth's atmosphere and

17. The zoologists pointed out that hunters had nearly exterminated the northern elephant seal 100 years ago, but they also noted that the seal population has grown dramatically in recent years. A. The zoologists pointed out that hunters had nearly exterminated the northern elephant seal 100 years ago, but they also noted that the seal population has grown dramatically in recent years. B. There has been dramatic growth in recent years in the northern elephant seal population noted by the zoologists, although they also pointed out that hunters had nearly exterminated the seals 100 years ago. C. Although northern elephant seals had been, according to the zoologists, nearly exterminated 100 years ago, they also noted that the seal population has grown dramatically in recent years. D. Hunters had nearly exterminated the northern elephant seal 100 years ago according to the zoologists, but they also noted that there has been dramatic growth in the seal population in recent years. E. Added to noting that the elephant seal population has grown dramatically in recent years, the zoologists pointed out that they had been nearly exterminated by hunters 100 years ago.

When Anton van Leeuwenhoek made the first recorded estimation of global population in the latter third of the 17th century, he reported the number at 13.85 billion people. Despite this grandiose guess, which was based on Leeuwenhoek's estimation of the amount of inhabitable land worldwide, a number of factors, including drought, disease, famine, high infant mortality, natural disasters, and war, had been keeping the world population far more in check. In fact, Leeuwenhoek was off by several orders of magnitude; the actual population figure for his time is now estimated at about half a billion. Although this number is relatively small compared to the nearly 7 billion people inhabiting the planet today, Leeuwenhoek made his prediction at a time when the population was rapidly expanding. By 1830, the number of people increased twofold to a billion, and over the next century, the global population doubled again to 2 billion. Since 1930, a tripling of the human population has occurred, thanks to the scientific and technological advancements that have significantly improved life expectancy rates around the world. The developments of modern sanitation and health care practices have been particularly influential in enhancing the average quality and length of human life. Enhanced agricultural techniques provide greater crop yields from even marginal soil, making devastating food shortages a rarity around the globe. Particularly benefitting from these advances are large families in third-world communities, who once suffered high child mortality rates but now see the majority of their children reach adulthood. With each successive generation, the global population grows at a rapid pace. According to the United Nations, Earth's current population of approximately 7 billion could swell to 10.5 billion by the year 2045; the consequences of such an increase are yet unknown, although some experts predict they are dire. In 1798, English economist Thomas Malthus postulated that the population

grows faster than the food supply until war and pestilence balance the numbers, but the only time the world's population actually declined was when the bubonic plague struck Europe in the mid-14th century. Thus far, technology has managed to keep pace with the ever-expanding populace, but whether innovations will continue to keep us ahead of the demands of an enormous global population remains to be seen. 18. It can be inferred from this passage that A. Anton van Leeuwenhoek was incompetent as a scientist. B. someone born today will witness a tripling of the world's population. C. the United Nations only recently began keeping population statistics. D. the theories of Thomas Malthus will ultimately be proved correct. E. an ever-expanding population could put a strain on world resources.

19. The author mentions Thomas Malthus's theory in order to A. provide support for the argument that population expansion is unsustainable. B. demonstrate that science has kept a predicted population collapse at bay. C. divert the reader with an improbable but fascinating scientific assertion. D. illustrate the evolution of thinking on the subject of population expansion. E. highlight the weaknesses of 18th-century scientific understanding.

20. According to the passage, the factor that has had the greatest impact on population growth since Anton van Leeuwenhoek's time has been A. plagues and other instances of disease. B. war and natural disasters. C. scientific and technological innovation. D. high infant mortality. E. the tradition of raising large families in the third world.

21. Declining sales are forcing many companies to choose among raising prices and reduction of personnel. A. among raising prices and reduction of personnel B. among raising prices and reducing of personnel C. between raising prices and reducing personnel D. between raising prices or reducing personnel E. between the rise of prices and the reduction of staff

22. There has been confusion in regards to why the train has been delayed continuously. A. in regards to why the train has been delayed continuously B. continuously delaying the train's regards C. as to why the train has been delayed continuously D. in regards to why the train have been delayed continuously E. as to why the train has been continually delayed

23. One reason some particle physicists are switching to astronomy late in their careers is that they tire of spending years constructing environments in which they can conduct experiments; astronomers have an infinite and ready-made supply of environments at their disposal. A. One reason some particle physicists are switching to astronomy late in their careers is that they tire of spending years constructing environments in which they can conduct experiments; astronomers have an infinite and ready-made supply of environments at their disposal B. Late in their careers, one reason that some particle physicists are switching to astronomy is suggested by the fact that particle physicists must spend years constructing environments in which they can conduct experiments, while astronomers have an infinite and ready-made supply of environments at their disposal C. Late in their careers, one reason that some particle physicists are switching to astronomy is suggested by the fact that particle physicists must spend years constructing environments in which they can conduct experiments, while an infinite and ready-made supply of environments is at the disposal of astronomers D. The fact that particle physicists must spend years constructing environments in which they can conduct experiments while astronomers have an infinite and readymade supply of environments at their disposal is one reason, late in their careers, some particle physicists are switching to astronomy E. The existence of an infinite and ready-made supply of environments at the disposal of astronomers compared with the fact that particle physicists must spend years constructing environments in which they can conduct experiments suggests one reason some particle physicists are switching to astronomy late in their careers

As of the model year 1998, the government has required automobile manufacturers to install airbags in all passenger automobiles manufactured for sale in the United States. These airbags have been designed to protect people who are not wearing a seatbelt from injury in an accident. One automobile engineer argues that airbags may be causing an increase in accidents and injuries due to the false sense of security that airbags give. Drivers are less likely to drive safely and both drivers and passengers are less likely to wear a seatbelt in an automobile equipped with airbags. 24. Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the engineer's argument? A. The chances of having an automobile accident are much greater in large urban areas and for drivers under twenty-five years of age. B. Surveys show that a significant proportion of consumers who purchased automobiles with air bags installed are aware that the airbags could prevent injuries if they should not be wearing a seatbelt. C. The rate of automobile accidents and related injuries per year involving cars manufactured since model year 1998 is no greater than that involving cars manufactured in the ten preceding years. D. State laws requiring seatbelt use have significantly decreased the number of fatalities resulting from traffic accidents. E. Before the government required airbags in new vehicles, there were fewer accidents per registered vehicle in the United States.

49. Young basketball players in the National Basketball Association lack big-game experience to such a large extent as to make it difficult to feature them in a professional league becoming ever more dependent on tournament play. A. lack big-game experience to such a large extent as to make it difficult to feature them in a professional league becoming B. lack big-game experience to a large enough extent that they will be difficult to feature in a professional's league becoming C. lack of big-game experience is so large as to be difficult to feature them in the professional league that becomes D. are lacking so much in big-game experience as to be difficult to feature into a professional league becoming E. are so lacking in big-game experience that it will be difficult to feature them in a professional league becoming

The psychology of crowds has come under increasing scrutiny. Masses of people jammed into a too-small space tend to exhibit stampede-like behaviors-no matter the time or place. Interestingly, the results of this new understanding may explain a historic event: the Battle of Agincourt. On October 25, 1415, a small English force of less than 9,000 troops and archers faced a French army that, by some accounts, numbered 50,000. A substantial proportion of the French were fully armored knights. But when these two forces clashed, the English won, suffering only modest casualties while delivering devastating losses to the French. Using modern understanding of crowd dynamics and computer simulations, contemporary researchers have new ideas that explain the outcome of the battle. The French numbers contributed to overcrowding on the field-a narrow plot of recently ploughed land bordered by thick forest. English archers quickly realized that their arrows could not penetrate the French knights' heavy armor, so they aimed at the horses instead. As the horses fell, dismounted knights continued on foot, joining the French foot soldiers and crowding the field. At the same time, French soldiers from behind pressed up against their cohorts at the front. At some point, researchers suspect, a stampede effect took over, as soldiers from behind trampled those caught in front. As a result, researchers now believe that the high French casualties were more likely caused by the crushing and smothering effects of a stampeding crowd rather than the military superiority of English troops. 26. It can be inferred from this passage that A. human responses to overcrowding vary. B. the French may have been better positioned to win had they attacked with a smaller force. C. computers will replace on-the-ground examination in historical research.

D. crowd behavior has evolved in pace with an expanding world population. E. the English victory at the Battle of Agincourt can be best explained as a matter of luck.

27. The author most likely mentions the knights being "dismounted" in order to A. create sympathy for the loss of horses at Agincourt. B. provide an example of superior English tactics in the battle. C. paint a dramatic portrait of the confusion and chaos of medieval combat. D. underscore the difficulties faced by all medieval armies in the face of enemy archers. E. explain how falling horses aggravated the conditions that led to the French defeat.

28. Which statement, if true, would most weaken the conclusion drawn in the second paragraph? A. An investigation using period armor and battlefield soil reveals that many French knights probably drowned in thick mud. B. A compilation of firsthand accounts convincingly demonstrates that considerable numbers of French knights survived the battle. C. The computer algorithms used to calculate the overcrowding effects at Agincourt in 1415 were based on behavior studies done on college students in 2010. D. An archeological study suggests that the English deliberately shaped the battlefield with trenches that would create an overcrowding effect. E. Research suggests that computer simulations of historic events lack credibility.

29. The group of athletes were thrilled to be participating in the national championships. A. The group of athletes were thrilled to be participating in the national championships. B. The group of athletes were thrilled to be participants of the national championships. C. The group of athletes was thrilled to be participating in the national championships. D. Groups of athletes were thrilled to be participating in the championships of the nation. E. Groups of athletes was thrilled to participate in the national championships.

This year, the athletes at Starvard University performed worse on the speed and agility test than their counterparts did last year. Some observers say that funding cuts are behind the disappointing results. Starvard received less state funding for its strength and conditioning program this year, and as a result, the athletes worked out with worn equipment and received less individualized attention than in previous years. 30. Which of the following, if true, best supports the explanation offered by the observers for the athletes' performance? A. Athletes at other schools in the same state as Starvard also performed more poorly on the speed and agility test this year than last year. B. Schools other than Starvard experienced drops in state funding comparable to Starvard's. C. Academic performance of students at Starvard improved from last year. D. The test that the athletes at Starvard took this year was identical to the test that the athletes took last year. E. No new coaches were hired this year at Starvard.

31. According to researchers who developed it, a new computer-based system for early diagnosis of heart attacks, which give the physician immediate access to threedimensional color graphics, will save lives and improve the survival chances of others. A. According to researchers who developed it, a new computer-based system for early diagnosis of heart attacks, which give the physician immediate access to three-dimensional color graphics, will save lives and improve the survival chances of others. B. According to researchers who developed it, a new computer-based system for early diagnosis of heart attacks will save lives and improve the survival chances of others, which gives the physician immediate access to three-dimensional color graphics. C. According to researchers who developed it, a new computer-based system for early diagnosis of heart attacks, which gives the physician immediate access to three-dimensional color graphics, will save lives and improve the survival chances of others. D. According to researchers who developed it, a new computer-based system for early diagnosis of heart attacks, which gives the physician immediate access to graphic three-dimensional colors, will save lives and improve the survival chances of others. E. According to researchers who developed it, a new computer-based system for early diagnosis of heart attacks, which gives the physician immediate access to three-dimensional color graphics, will save the lives of others and improve the survival chances.

The California ground squirrel must constantly balance the conflicting demands of self-preservation and predator assessment. Because predator assessment requires a fairly high degree of proximity and sensory contact, the ground squirrel can only safely assess predators from whom there is little to no immediate threat. For example, when avian predators, including the red-tailed hawk and golden eagle, launch sudden, unexpected aerial attacks, self-preservation must take precedence over the acquisition of knowledge. Rattlesnakes, on the other hand, pose relatively little immediate danger, and give the squirrel the greatest opportunity for predator assessment. Predator assessment might normally be hampered by the inherent danger of the rattlesnake's lethal bite. But while squirrels constitute almost 70 percent of the rattlesnake's diet, adult ground squirrels are all but immune to rattlesnakes. Rattlesnakes hunt slowly and stalk their prey, in marked contrast to sudden avian attacks. And even though a rattlesnake's strike is fast, the ground squirrel can move much faster. More important, any danger posed by a snakebite is mitigated by proteins in the squirrel's blood that confer resistance to rattlesnake venom. Adult ground squirrels will generally survive a rattlesnake bite that could prove lethal to a grown human. Indeed, it is the squirrel pups that are most susceptible to rattlesnake bites, because their smaller bodies cannot neutralize a full bite's worth of venom. This innate resistance allows the ground squirrel to change the dynamic of the traditional predator-prey relationship and approach the rattlesnake in an effort to acquire useful information regarding size and body temperature. Larger snakes, which deliver more venom per strike, are naturally more dangerous, as are warmer snakes, which can strike faster, from a greater distance, and with greater accuracy. Visual cues can be helpful, but the squirrel is often hampered by the

surrounding vegetation and darkness of burrows. Auditory cues are generally more reliable. For this reason, the ground squirrel will engage in tail-flagging, sand-kicking, and substrate-throwing in an attempt to put the snake on the defensive, and coax the snake into rattling its tail. The sound of a particular snake's rattle "leaks" information about the snake's size and body temperature. Not only does this information allow the squirrel to accurately assess the surrounding danger to itself and its pups, but it also allows the squirrel to communicate this danger (or lack thereof) to other squirrels by additional tail-flagging. 32. Which of the following can most reasonably be concluded about adult ground squirrels on the basis of the passage? A. They are found exclusively in California. B. They have always been immune to rattlesnake venom. C. They are sometimes vulnerable to a rattlesnake's venom. D. They generally stay away from rattlesnakes in order to protect their young. E. They have only avian and reptilian predators.

33. According to the passage, the adult ground squirrel generally does NOT engage in which of the following? A. The self-application of snake scent B. Acquisition of knowledge regarding a rattlesnake's size C. Biting rattlesnakes D. Large-scale assessment of avian predators E. Communication with other adult ground squirrels

34. The author mentions the hunting method of rattlesnakes in order to A. show how the rattlesnake can sneak up on a ground squirrel engaged in predator assessment. B. give an example of an attack against which the adult ground squirrel must defend itself in order to survive. C. explain why 70 percent of squirrels are eaten by rattlesnakes. D. show how the rattlesnake is different from the red-tailed hawk and golden eagle. E. provide a secondary explanation for the adult California ground squirrel's ability to safely approach the rattlesnake.

35. The passage suggests which of the following about predator-prey relationships? A. They only allow for predator assessment when there is no danger from the predator. B. They often do not allow for a high degree of predator assessment. C. They are fairly traditional in their resistance to evolution. D. They tend to minimize the predator-prey proximity. E. They are the same regardless of the species in question.

In a recent university newspaper article, the school's athletic department released a statement claiming that contrary to recent charges, the university does not have a funding bias in favor of men's sports. The athletic director confirmed that when a new women's lacrosse program was funded, a men's lacrosse program was subsequently introduced for funding, but he claimed that this was not a show of bias. Instead, he argued that these actions reflect the university's commitment to equally financing men's and women's athletic programs. 36. The answer to which of the following would be most useful in assessing the validity of the athletic director's claim? A. Did the university establish a lacrosse program based on requests from the student population? B. Did the coach for the women's lacrosse program come from a school that did not have a men's lacrosse team? C. Is the newly added women's lacrosse program required to share funding with the men's program? D. Has attendance at university athletic events been dropping steadily over the last two years? E. Has the university established an additional women's athletic program whenever an additional men's athletic program has been added?

For over a millennium, the Alps have stood as a solid rampart inhibiting European travel and trade. Before the European Union (EU) effectively erased the economic borders between the European nations, this wall did not much matter, as the trade routes were primarily localized. However, with the opening of the continent's economy, Switzerland began to see heavy truck traffic taking a major toll on its delicate highway passesroads intended more for tourism than for commerce. The solution was a constructive one-figuratively and literally: Dig a tunnel. Not just any tunnel would do-only the deepest, longest, most technically difficult hole ever bored: the Gotthard Base Tunnel. At 35 miles long, this new tunnel is four miles longer than Europe's next longest contender: the Channel Tunnel between England and France. However, the real achievement of the Gotthard Base Tunnel has not been its length as much as its impressive depth. The Channel Tunnel is relatively shallow, while the new Swiss tunnel lies 1.2 miles below the mountain range's surface. Adding to the challenge presented by the necessary length and depth of the tunnel, the Gotthard massif, the rock formation through which the builders had to drill, is a geological jigsaw puzzle of folded and refolded layers of rock. The effort, although singularly demanding and expensive, will have a greater payoff economically than most such endeavors. Trucks will no longer need to burn gas grinding over the summit in low gear, as they will be replaced by fast, direct-route freight trains. high-speed electric passenger trains, outfitted to carry massive tons of cargo, will zip across the level tracks at 155 miles per hour. Also important for the Swiss economy, the road that snakes over the remote Gotthard Pass will once again be the province of tourists, preserved forever from the heavy trucks that once posed such a threat to this unparalleled scenic attraction.

37. It can be inferred from this passage that A. the tunnel may help reduce consumption of fossil fuels in trade traffic. B. the Swiss will profit from this tunnel more than the rest of Europe. C. digging through a mountain is easier than tunneling under a body of water. D. tourism is a very small part of Switzerland's economy. E. the European Union forced Switzerland to build the Gotthard Base Tunnel.

38. The author most likely mentions the mountain's "folded and refolded layers of rock" in order to A. discourage others from attempting similar feats. B. provide one example of a factor that facilitated construction. C. describe in detail how the geology of the Gotthard massif was formed. D. underscore the difficulty of this engineering achievement. E. explain the techniques employed in drilling the Gotthard Base Tunnel.

39. Which statement, if true, would most strengthen the author's argument that the Gotthard Base Tunnel solution was ""a constructive one-figuratively and literally""? A. Polls indicate that tourists miss driving over the scenic mountain passes-although not enough to avoid taking the trains through the tunnel instead. B. The tunnel will require the same level of upkeep as the highway passes. C. A study shows that improving the roads of the Gotthard massif would have been cheaper than digging the tunnel. D. The tunnel has generated an explosion of new revenue from increased tourism and commerce. E. Research suggests that in 50 years, the highway passes will need to be improved anyway, despite the presence of the tunnel.

40. Of all the possible threats that affect American national security, the possibility of electromagnetic attack is maybe the more difficult for analysis. A. is maybe the more difficult for analysis B. is probably the most difficult to analyze C. is maybe the most difficult for analysis D. is probably the more difficult to analyze E. is, it may be, the analysis that is most difficult

A recent poll taken at the nation's three-largest business schools found that more than 85 percent of their students intended to pursue a position at a banking or investment firm. Based on the results of this survey, the dean of Zaken Business School concluded that the market for management positions in the banking and investment sector would become flooded in the next few years and that students should be encouraged to pursue careers with technology or military consulting firms. 41. Which of the following statements, if true, would most damage the dean's conclusion? A. The poll included more than 7,000 respondents representing all major age categories. B. Responses for the poll were received from every student attending the three-largest business schools. C. Students at the three-largest business schools are much more likely to be interested in working for banking or investment firms than are students at other business schools. D. Admissions at the three-largest business schools have increased by over 50 percent in the last five years. E. All respondents received a one-year subscription to MBA Times magazine as a thank-you for completing the poll.

Spokesperson: At a recent meeting of the National Collegiate Athletic Association, member universities agreed to test their athletes for illegal steroid use by employing frequent random drug screenings. Workplace data show that instituting random drug tests can reduce drug use by employees by as much as 73 percent in only three years. Because all participating schools will enforce these drug screenings, we can expect to see our current steroid use rate of 12 per 100 students drop to just over 3 per 100 students in three years. 42. The spokesperson's argument depends on which of the following assumptions? A. Universities concerned with illegal drug use in their athletics departments already have a drug-screening policy in effect. B. The cost to many member universities of the new drugtesting policy is as much as 10 percent of their athletics budget. C. A rate of 3 in 100 students using steroids is better for sports teams than a rate of 12 per 100 students using steroids. D. Collegiate athletes will not be able to use steroids that go undetected by typical drug screenings. E. The National Collegiate Athletic Association will only institute the new drug screening policy for three years.

The term biomimicry surfaces frequently in scientific circles to describe a method of using lessons from nature to make technological progress. In recent years, human beings have learned to replicate the strategies of animals in order to improve the efficiency of products. However, biomimicry is not an invention of modern scientists but is of the natural world itself. To escape perceived threats and to help ensure species survival, some animals rely on their ability to adopt or mimic the appearance of another species and thus trick their predators into thinking that they are something else. Some butterflies use biomimicry effectively to ward off predators who mistake them for their poisonous cousins: the monarchs. Different species of butterfly can be distinguished by the pattern on their wings, and in theory, these patterns alert predators to the types of prey that will harm them. The diverse methods of camouflage have long intrigued animal scientists, but the concept of biomimicry in general has piqued the interest of inventors who recognize the value of nature's designs. A biological mechanism in spiders enables them to produce silk that is five times stronger than steel, and an equally impressive mechanism unique to the brittle star has the ability to focus light ten times more sharply than a human-made lens. 43. The passage implies that biomimicry in the animal world A. closely mirrors the human pursuit for technological improvement. B. is common to animals that exhibit functionally similar behaviors. C. serves as a method of interspecies communication. D. clarifies concepts such as how spiders developed incredibly strong silk. E. explains why some species are more prone to extinction than others.

44. The main purpose of the passage is to A. describe an animal behavior mechanism aimed at selfdefense. B. rebut those who claim that biomimicry is a human invention. C. describe natural designs that will be used as the basis of technological innovation. D. show that designs based on the natural world tend to be superior to more traditional designs. E. discuss a recent strategy for technological innovation that is highly similar to a strategy employed by some animal species.

45. The author states that biomimicry in scientific laboratories involves A. tracing the evolution of a specific technological process to an animal behavior. B. analyzing the effectiveness of a biological process to species survival. C. comparing biological processes in animals and humans to identify functional similarities. D. modeling natural biological mechanisms and applying them to synthetic commodities. E. studying a natural phenomenon with the intention of applying it to human society.

Numerous studies of chemotherapy patients over the last ten years have shown that patients who had regularly attended support groups or received counseling experienced significantly fewer side effects and shorter recovery times from chemotherapy than did patients who had not. Clearly, although the mainstream scientific community has been slow to acknowledge it, psychological support has an effect on the body's ability to heal. 46. Which of the following, if true, would most strengthen the argument above? A. The survival rates for chemotherapy patients in the study were virtually identical regardless of whether or not they received support. B. The patients who did not attend support groups chose not to do so, even though they were healthy enough to attend. C. Many medical doctors believe that the mind plays a role in the causation and prevention of illness. D. The majority of chemotherapy patients must undergo more than one round of treatment. E. Some hospitals do not conduct support groups on their premises for chemotherapy patients and their families.

47. A new technology does not automatically eliminate previously existing technologies; for example, candles are still widely used for decoration and for religious rites even with electric lights being available. A. even with electric lights being available B. despite electric lights and their availability C. in spite of electric lights, which are available D. in spite of the fact of electric lights being available E. even though electric lights are available

Any regulatory intervention in a perfectly competitive market will distort market forces and result in an inefficient allocation of resources. Therefore, assessing a sales tax on luxury goods in the United States will result in an inefficient allocation of resources. 48. Which of the following, if true, most weakens the argument's conclusion? A. Some items are not assessed sales tax. B. Nations other than the United States allow the imposition of a sales tax on luxury items. C. The luxury goods market in the United States is not perfectly competitive. D. The sales tax on a purchase is clearly identified on all sales receipts. E. Sales taxes help to fund education and public works initiatives.

49. Young basketball players in the National Basketball Association lack big-game experience to such a large extent as to make it difficult to feature them in a professional league becoming ever more dependent on tournament play. A. lack big-game experience to such a large extent as to make it difficult to feature them in a professional league becoming B. lack big-game experience to a large enough extent that they will be difficult to feature in a professional's league becoming C. lack of big-game experience is so large as to be difficult to feature them in the professional league that becomes D. are lacking so much in big-game experience as to be difficult to feature into a professional league becoming E. are so lacking in big-game experience that it will be difficult to feature them in a professional league becoming