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STUDY OF REACTIVE POWER COMPENSATION USING
STATCOM

A PROJECT SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENT FOR THE DEGREE OF
Bachelor of Technology
in
Electrical Engineering
By
Abhijeet Barua (107EE015)
Pradeep Kumar (107EE050)


Department of Electrical Engineering
National Institute of Technology
Rourkela-769008, Orissa


2

STUDY OF REACTIVE POWER COMPENSATION USING
STATCOM

A PROJECT SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENT FOR THE DEGREE OF
Bachelor of Technology
in
Electrical Engineering
By
Abhijeet Barua (107EE015)
Pradeep Kumar (107EE050)


Department of Electrical Engineering
National Institute of Technology
Rourkela-769008, Orissa


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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

We would like to express our gratitude towards all the people who have contributed their precious time
and efforts to help us in completing this project, without whom it would not have been possible for us to
understand and analyze the project.

We would like to thank Prof. P. C. Panda, Department of Electrical Engineering, our Project Supervisor,
for his guidance, support, motivation and encouragement throughout the period this work was carried
out. His readiness for consultation at all times, his educative comments, his concern and assistance have
been invaluable.

We are also grateful to Dr. B.D. Subudhi, Professor and Head, Department of Electrical Engineering, for
providing the necessary facilities in the department.

Last, but not the least, we would like to thank Mr. Joseph Therattil for his constant help and support
throughout the length of the project.



Abhijeet Barua (107EE015)
Pradeep Kumar (107EE050)

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CERTIFICATE


This is to certify that the Project entitled “STUDY OF REACTIVE POWER COMPENSATION USING
STATCOM” submitted by Abhijeet Barua and Pradeep Kumar in partial fulfillment of the requirements
for the award of Bachelor of Technology Degree in Electrical Engineering at National Institute of
Technology, Rourkela (Deemed University), is an authentic work carried out by them under my
supervision and guidance.



Date: (Prof. P. C. Panda)
Place: Rourkela Department of Electrical Engineering
NIT, Rourkela




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CONTENTS

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT 3
CERTIFICATE 4
CONTENTS 5
LIST OF FIGURES 7
ABSTRACT 9
INTRODUCTION 10

Chapter 1: Preliminary Theory 11-18
1.1 Reactive Power
1.2 Compensation Techniques
1.3 FACTS devices used
1.4 Need for reactive power compensation
Chapter 2: Static Shunt Compensator: STATCOM 19-25
2.1 STATCOM
2.2 Phase angle control
2.3 PWM Techniques used in STATCOM
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Chapter 3: Load flow analysis and study 26-43
3.1 Study of Load Flow Analysis
3.2 Types of Buses
3.3 Load Flow Equations and their Solutions
3.3.1 Development of Load Flow Equations
3.3.2 Load Flow Equation Solution Methods
3.3.2.1 Gauss-Seidel Method
3.3.2.2 Newton-Raphson Method
3.3.3 N-R Algorithm
3.3.4 Comparison of Solution Methods
Chapter 4: Power Flow Analysis with STATCOM 44-48
Chapter 5: Stability in Power System 49-52
5.1 Derivation of Swing Equations
5.2 Equal Area criterion
Chapter 6: Case Studies and Results 53-61
CONCLUSION 62
APPENDIX 63
REFERENCES 64


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List of Figures
Fig 1.1 System without shunt compensation
Fig 1.2 System with shunt compensation
Fig 1.3 System without series compensation
Fig 1.4 System with series compensation
Fig 2.1 Connection of a STATCOM to a bus bar
Fig 2.2 Reactive power compensation by the STATCOM
Fig 2.3 Voltage control using PWM technique
Fig 3.1 Convergence graph of G-S Method
Fig 4.1 Circuit with STATCOM
Fig 4.2 Equivalent circuit of a STATCOM
Fig 5.1 Equal Area Criterion Graph
Fig 6.1 6-bus bar system used for case study
Fig 6.2 Fault at bus 6 with (5,6) being the lines removed
Fig 6.3 Fault at bus 1 & removing lines (1,4)
Fig 6.4 Fault at bus 4 & removing lines (4,6)
Fig 6.5 Fault at bus 6 & removing lines (1,6)
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Fig 6.6 Fault at bus 5 & removing lines (1,5)
Fig 6.7 Rotor angle difference v/s time after the implementation of STATCOM at bus 5
Fig 6.8 Difference in the behaviour of the system with faults at all the connected buses without
and with the STATCOM


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ABSTRACT


The study of shunt connected FACTS devices is a connected field with the problem of
reactive power compensation and better mitigation of transmission related problems in today’s
world. In this paper we study the shunt operation of FACTS controller, the STATCOM, and how
it helps in the better utilization of a network operating under normal conditions. First we carry
out a literature review of many papers related to FACTS and STATCOM, along with reactive
power control. Then we look at the various devices being used for both series and shunt
compensation. The study of STATCOM and its principles of operation and control, including
phase angle control and PWM techniques, are carried out. We also delve into the load flow
equations which are necessary for any power system solution and carry out a comprehensive
study of the Newton Raphson method of load flow. Apart from this, we also carry out a study of
the transient stability of power systems, and how it is useful in determining the behavior of the
system under a fault. As an example, a six bus system is studied using the load flow equations
and solving them. First this is done without the STATCOM and then the STATCOM is
implemented and the characteristics of the rotor angle graph along with faults at various buses
are seen. In this thesis, it is tried to show the application of STATCOM to a bus system and its
effect on the voltage and angle of the buses. Next the graphs depicting the implemented
STATCOM bus are analyzed and it is shown that the plots of the rotor angles show a changed
characteristic under the influence of the STATCOM.

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INTRODUCTION


Power Generation and Transmission is a complex process, requiring the working of many
components of the power system in tandem to maximize the output. One of the main components
to form a major part is the reactive power in the system. It is required to maintain the voltage to
deliver the active power through the lines. Loads like motor loads and other loads require
reactive power for their operation. To improve the performance of ac power systems, we need to
manage this reactive power in an efficient way and this is known as reactive power
compensation. There are two aspects to the problem of reactive power compensation: load
compensation and voltage support. Load compensation consists of improvement in power factor,
balancing of real power drawn from the supply, better voltage regulation, etc. of large fluctuating
loads. Voltage support consists of reduction of voltage fluctuation at a given terminal of the
transmission line. Two types of compensation can be used: series and shunt compensation. These
modify the parameters of the system to give enhanced VAR compensation. In recent years, static
VAR compensators like the STATCOM have been developed. These quite satisfactorily do the
job of absorbing or generating reactive power with a faster time response and come under
Flexible AC Transmission Systems (FACTS). This allows an increase in transfer of apparent
power through a transmission line, and much better stability by the adjustment of parameters that
govern the power system i.e. current, voltage, phase angle, frequency and impedance.


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CHAPTER 1

1.1 Reactive Power

Reactive power is the power that supplies the stored energy in reactive elements. Power,
as we know, consists of two components, active and reactive power. The total sum of active and
reactive power is called as apparent power.

In AC circuits, energy is stored temporarily in inductive and capacitive elements,
which results in the periodic reversal of the direction of flow of energy between the source and
the load. The average power after the completion of one whole cycle of the AC waveform is the
real power, and this is the usable energy of the system and is used to do work, whereas the
portion of power flow which is temporarily stored in the form of magnetic or electric fields and
flows back and forth in the transmission line due to inductive and capacitive network elements is
known as reactive power. This is the unused power which the system has to incur in order to
transmit power.

Inductors (reactors) are said to store or absorb reactive power, because they store energy
in the form of a magnetic field. Therefore, when a voltage is initially applied across a coil, a
magnetic field builds up, and the current reaches the full value after a certain period of time. This
in turn causes the current to lag the voltage in phase.

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Capacitors are said to generate reactive power, because they store energy in the form of
an electric field. Therefore when current passes through the capacitor, a charge is built up to
produce the full voltage difference over a certain period of time. Thus in an AC network the
voltage across the capacitor is always charging. Since, the capacitor tends to oppose this change;
it causes the voltage to lag behind current in phase.

In an inductive circuit, we know the instantaneous power to be:

p = V
max
I
max
cos ωt cos(ωt − θ )

p =

( )

The instantaneous reactive power is given by:

Where:
p = instantaneous power
V
max
= Peak value of the voltage waveform
I
max
= Peak value of the current waveform
ω = Angular frequency
= 2πf where f is the frequency of the waveform.
t = Time period
θ = Angle by which the current lags the voltage in phase
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From here, we can conclude that the instantaneous reactive power pulsates at twice the
system frequency and its average value is zero and the maximum instantaneous reactive power is
given by:
Q = |V| |I| sin θ
The zero average does not necessarily mean that no energy is flowing, but the actual
amount that is flowing for half a cycle in one direction, is coming back in the next half cycle.

1.2 Compensation Techniques
The principles of both shunt and series reactive power compensation techniques
are described below:
1.2.1 Shunt compensation


Fig 1.1
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Fig 1.2
The figure 1.1 comprises of a source V
1
, a power line and an inductive load. The figure
1.1 shows the system without any type of compensation. The phasor diagram of these is also
shown above. The active current I
p
is in phase with the load voltage V
2
. Here, the load is
inductive and hence it requires reactive power for its proper operation and this has to be supplied
by the source, thus increasing the current from the generator and through the power lines. Instead
of the lines carrying this, if the reactive power can be supplied near the load, the line current can
be minimized, reducing the power losses and improving the voltage regulation at the load
terminals. This can be done in three ways: 1) A voltage source. 2) A current source. 3) A
capacitor.
In this case, a current source device is used to compensate I
q
, which is the reactive
component of the load current. In turn the voltage regulation of the system is improved and the
reactive current component from the source is reduced or almost eliminated. This is in case of
lagging compensation. For leading compensation, we require an inductor.
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Therefore we can see that, a current source or a voltage source can be used for both
leading and lagging shunt compensation, the main advantages being the reactive power
generated is independent of the voltage at the point of connection. .

1.2.2 Series compensation


Fig 1.3
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Fig 1.4

Series compensation can be implemented like shunt compensation, i.e. with a current or a
voltage source as shown in figure 1.4. We can see the results which are obtained by series
compensation through a voltage source and it is adjusted to have unity power factor at V
2
.
However series compensation techniques are different from shunt compensation techniques, as
capacitors are used mostly for series compensation techniques. In this case, the voltage V
comp
has
been added between the line and the load to change the angle V
2
’. Now, this is the voltage at the
load side. With proper adjustment of the magnitude of V
comp
, unity power factor can be reached
at V
2
.

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1.3 FACTS devices used
Flexible AC transmission system or FACTS devices used are:
1) VAR generators.
a) Fixed or mechanically switched capacitors.
b) Synchronous condensers.
c) Thyristorized VAR compensators.
(i) Thyristors switched capacitors (TSCs).
(ii) Thyristor controlled reactor (TCRs).
(iii) Combined TSC and TCR.
(iv) Thyristor controlled series capacitor (TCSC).
2) Self Commutated VAR compensators.
a) Static synchronous compensators (STATCOMs).
b) Static synchronous series compensators (SSSCs).
c) Unified power flow controllers (UPFCs).
d) Dynamic voltage restorers (DVRs).

1.4 Need for Reactive power compensation.
The main reason for reactive power compensation in a system is: 1) the voltage
regulation; 2) increased system stability; 3) better utilization of machines connected to the
system; 4) reducing losses associated with the system; and 5) to prevent voltage collapse as well
as voltage sag. The impedance of transmission lines and the need for lagging VAR by most
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machines in a generating system results in the consumption of reactive power, thus affecting the
stability limits of the system as well as transmission lines. Unnecessary voltage drops lead to
increased losses which needs to be supplied by the source and in turn leading to outages in the
line due to increased stress on the system to carry this imaginary power. Thus we can infer that
the compensation of reactive power not only mitigates all these effects but also helps in better
transient response to faults and disturbances. In recent times there has been an increased focus on
the techniques used for the compensation and with better devices included in the technology, the
compensation is made more effective. It is very much required that the lines be relieved of the
obligation to carry the reactive power, which is better provided near the generators or the loads.
Shunt compensation can be installed near the load, in a distribution substation or transmission
substation.












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CHAPTER 2

2.1 Static Shunt Compensator: STATCOM
One of the many devices under the FACTS family, a STATCOM is a regulating device
which can be used to regulate the flow of reactive power in the system independent of other
system parameters. STATCOM has no long term energy support on the dc side and it cannot
exchange real power with the ac system. In the transmission systems, STATCOMs primarily
handle only fundamental reactive power exchange and provide voltage support to buses by
modulating bus voltages during dynamic disturbances in order to provide better transient
characteristics, improve the transient stability margins and to damp out the system oscillations
due to these disturbances.

A STATCOM consists of a three phase inverter (generally a PWM inverter) using SCRs,
MOSFETs or IGBTs, a D.C capacitor which provides the D.C voltage for the inverter, a link
reactor which links the inverter output to the a.c supply side, filter components to filter out the
high frequency components due to the PWM inverter. From the d.c. side capacitor, a three phase
voltage is generated by the inverter. This is synchronized with the a.c supply. The link inductor
links this voltage to the a.c supply side. This is the basic principle of operation of STATCOM.


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Fig 2.1
For two AC sources which have the same frequency and are connected through a series
inductance, the active power flows from the leading source to the lagging source and the reactive
power flows from the higher voltage magnitude source to the lower voltage magnitude source.
The phase angle difference between the sources determines the active power flow and the
voltage magnitude difference between the sources determines the reactive power flow. Thus, a
STATCOM can be used to regulate the reactive power flow by changing the magnitude of the
VSC voltage with respect to source bus voltage.
2.2 Phase angle control
In this case the quantity controlled is the phase angle δ. The modulation index “m” is kept
constant and the fundamental voltage component of the STATCOM is controlled by changing
the DC link voltage. By further charging of the DC link capacitor, the DC voltage will be
increased, which in turn increases the reactive power delivered or the reactive power absorbed by
the STATCOM. On the other hand, by discharging the DC link capacitor, the reactive power
delivered is decreased in capacitive operation mode or the reactive power absorbed by the
STATCOM in an inductive power mode increases.
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For both capacitive and inductive operations in steady-state, the STATCOM voltage lags behind
AC line voltage (δ > 0).
Fig 2.2
By making phase angle δ negative, power can be extracted from DC link. If the
STATCOM becomes lesser than the extracted power, P
c
in becomes negative and STATCOM
starts to deliver active power to the source. During this transient state operation, V
d
gradually
decreases.
The phasor diagrams which illustrating power flow between the DC link in transient state
and the ac supply is shown in above Fig.
For a phase angle control system, the open loop response time is determined by the DC
link capacitor and the input filter inductance. The inductance is applied to filter out converter
harmonics and by using higher values of inductance; the STATCOM current harmonics is
minimized.
The reference reactive power (Q
ref
) is compared with the measured reactive power (Q).
The reactive power error is sent as the input to the PI controller and the output of the PI
controller determines the phase angle of the STATCOM fundamental voltage with respect to the
source voltage.
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2.3 PWM Techniques used in STATCOM

Sinusoidal PWM technique
We use sinusoidal PWM technique to control the fundamental line to-line converter
voltage. By comparing the three sinusoidal voltage waveforms with the triangular voltage
waveform, the three phase converter voltages can be obtained.
The fundamental frequency of the converter voltage i.e. f
1
, modulation frequency, is
determined by the frequency of the control voltages, whereas the converter switching frequency
is determined by the frequency of the triangular voltage i.e. f
s,
carrier frequency. Thus, the
modulating frequency f
1
is equal to the supply frequency in STATCOM.
The Amplitude modulation ratio, m
a
is defined as:
control
a
tri
V
m
V
=


Where V
control
is the peak amplitude of the control voltage waveform and V
tri
is the peak
amplitude of the triangular voltage waveform. The magnitude of triangular voltage is maintained
constant and the V
control
is allowed to vary.
The range of SPWM is defined for 0≤m
a
≤1 and over modulation is defied for m
a
>1.
The frequency modulation ratio m
f
is defined as:
s
f
i
f
m
f
=

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The frequency modulation ratio, m
f
, should have odd integer values for the formation of odd and
half wave symmetric converter line-to-neutral voltage(V
A0
). Thus, even harmonics are
eliminated from the V
A0
waveform. Also, to eliminate the harmonics we choose odd multiples of
3 for m
f
.
The converter output harmonic frequencies can be given as:
f
h
= (jm
f
± k)f
1
The relation between the fundamental component of the line-to-line voltage (V
A0
) and the
amplitude modulation ratio m
a
can be gives as:
0
, 1
2
d
A a a
V
V m m = s

From which, we can see that V
A0
varies linearly with respect to m
a,
irrespective of m
f
.
The fundamental component converter line-to-line voltage can be expressed as:
1
3
; 1
2 2
LL a d a
V m V m = s

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Fig 2.3

In this type of PWM technique, we observe switching harmonics in the high frequency
range around the switching frequency and its multiples in the linear range. From above equation,
we can see that the amplitude of the fundamental component of the converter line-to-line voltage
is 0.612m
a
V
d
. But for square wave operation, we know the amplitude to be 0.78V
d
. Thus, in the
linear range the maximum amplitude of fundamental frequency component is reduced. This can
be solved by over modulation of the converter voltage waveform, which can increase the
harmonics in the sidebands of the converter voltage waveform. Also, the amplitude of V
LL1

varies nonlinearly with m
a
and also varies with m
f
in over modulation as given
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In a Constant DC Link Voltage Scheme the STATCOM regulates the DC link voltage
value to a fixed one in all modes of operation. This fixed value is determined by the peak
STATCOM fundamental voltage from the full inductive mode of operation to full capacitive
mode at minimum and maximum voltage supply. Therefore, for 0 ≤ ma ≤ 1;
The fundamental voltage is varied by varying m
a
in the linear range.


















26

CHAPTER 3


3.1 Study of Load Flow Analysis
Load-flow studies are very common in power system analysis. Load flow allows us to
know the present state of a system, given previous known parameters and values. The power that
is flowing through the transmission line, the power that is being generated by the generators, the
power that is being consumed by the loads, the losses occurring during the transfer of power
from source to load, and so on, are iteratively decided by the load flow solution, or also known
as power flow solution. In any system, the most important quantity which is known or which is
to be determined is the voltage at different points throughout the system. Knowing these, we can
easily find out the currents flowing through each point or branch. This in turn gives us the
quantities through which we can find out the power that is being handled at all these points.

In earlier days, small working models were used to find out the power flow solution for
any network. Because computing these quantities was a hard task, the working models were not
very useful in simulating the actual one. It’s difficult to analyze a system where we need to find
out the quantities at a point very far away from the point at which these quantities are known.
Thus we need to make use of iterative mathematical solutions to do this task, due to the fact that
there are no finite solutions to load flow. The values more often converge to a particular value,
yet do not have a definite one. Mathematical algorithms are used to compute the unknown
quantities from the known ones through a process of successive trial and error methods and
consequently produce a result. The initial values of the system are assumed and with this as
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input, the program computes the successive quantities. Thus, we study the load flow to determine
the overloading of particular elements in the system. It is also used to make sure that the
generators run at the ideal operating point, which ensures that the demand will be met without
overloading the facilities and maintain them without compromising the security of the system
nor the demand.
The objective of any load-flow analysis is to produce the following information:
• Voltage magnitude and phase angle at each bus.
• Real and reactive power flowing in each element.
• Reactive power loading on each generator.

3.2 Types of Buses
Generally in an a.c. system, we have the variables like voltage, current, power and
impedance. Whereas in a dc system, we have just the magnitude component of all these variables
due to the static nature of the system, this is not the case in ac systems. AC systems bring one
more component to the forefront, that of time. Thus any quantity in an AC system is described
by two components: the magnitude component and the time component. For the magnitude we
have the RMS value of the quantity, whereas for the time we take the phase angle component.
Thus voltage will have a magnitude and a phase angle. Hence when we solve for the currents, we
will get a magnitude and a phase angle. These two when combined, will give the power for the
system, which will contain a real and a reactive term.
The actual variables that are given as inputs to the buses and the operating constraints
that govern the working of each bus decide the types of buses. Thus we have the two main types
of buses: the load bus and the generator bus. At the load bus, the variables that are already
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specified are the real power (P) and the reactive power (Q) consumed by the load. The variables
which are to be found out are voltage magnitude (V) and the phase angle of this voltage (δ).
Hence load bus is also called PQ bus in power systems.
At the generator bus, the variables which are specified are the real power being generated
(V) and the voltage at which this generation is taking place (V). The variables which are to be
found out are the generator reactive power (Q) and the voltage phase angle (δ). This is done so
for convenience as the power needs of the system need to be balanced as well as the operational
control of the generator needs to be optimized.
Apart from these two we have the slack bus which is responsible for providing the losses in the
whole system and the transmission lines and thus is specified by the variables voltage magnitude
(V) and angle (δ).
If we are given any of the two inputs of the system, along with the fixed parameters like
impedance of the transmission lines as well as that of the system, and system frequency, then
using mathematical iterations we can easily find out the unknown variables. Thus the operating
state of the system can be determined easily knowing the two variables. The variables to be
specified and the variables to be computed are given below.
29


3.3 Load Flow Equations and their Solutions
3.3.1 Development of Load Flow Equations
The real and reactive power components for any bus p can be used as:

Now the nodal current equations for a n-bus system can be written as
Type of bus Specified quantities Calculated quantities

Generator bus Real power (P) Reactive power (Q)
(PV Bus) Voltage magnitude (V) Voltage angle (δ)

Load bus Real power (P) Voltage magnitude (V)
(PQ Bus) Reactive power (Q) Voltage angle (δ)

Slack bus Voltage magnitude (V) Real power (P)
Voltage angle (δ) Reactive power (Q)
30

1
1
, 1, 2, 3,..., ;

n
p pq q
q
n
p pp p pq q
q
q p
I Y V p n
I Y V Y V
=
=
=
= =
= +
¯
¯

1
1
n
p
p pq q
q
pp pp
q p
I
V Y V
Y Y
=
=
¬ = ÷
¯




Now,
*
*
p p p p
p p
p
p
V I P jQ
P jQ
I
V
= ÷
÷
¬ =

Substituting for I
p
in the above equation,
*
1
1
, 1, 2, 3,..., ;
n
p p
p pq q
q
pp p
q p
P jQ
V Y V p n
Y V
=
=

÷

= ÷ =



¯


We substitute I
p
by active and reactive power, because the quantities are usually specified in a
power system.
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3.3.2 Load Flow Equation Solution Methods
To start with by solving the load flow equations, we first assume values for the unknown
variables in the bus system. For instance, let us suppose that the unknown variables are the
magnitude of the voltages and their angles at every bus except the Slack bus, which makes them
the load bus or the PQ bus. In this case, we assume the initial values of all voltage angels as zero
and the magnitude as 1p.u. Meaning, we choose a flat voltage profile. We then put these assumed
values in our power flow equations, knowing that these values don’t represent the actual system,
even though it should have been describing its state. So, now we iterate this process of putting in
the values of voltage magnitudes and angles and replacing them with a better set. So, as the flat
voltage profile keeps converging to the actual values of the magnitudes and angles, the mismatch
between the P and Q will reduce. Depending on the number of iterations we use and our
requirements we can end the process with values close to the actual value. This process is called
as the iterative solution method.
The final equations derived in the previous section are the load flow equations where bus
voltages are the variables. It can be seen that these equations are nonlinear and they can be
solved using iterative methods like:
1) Gauss-Seidel method
2) Newton-Raphson method

3.3.2.1 Gauss-Seidel method

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The Gauss-Seidel method is based on substituting nodal equations into each other. It’s
convergence is said to be Monotonic. The iteration process can be visualized for two equations:

Fig 3.1
Although not the best load-flow method, Gauss-Seidel is the easiest to understand and was the
most widely used technique until the early 1970s. Here, we use the Newton-Raphson method
which is the most efficient load-flow algorithm.


3.3.2.2 Newton-Raphson (N-R) Method

Newton-Raphson algorithm is based on the formal application of a well-known algorithm for the
solution of a set of simultaneous non-linear equations of the form:
[F(x)] = [0]
Where: [F(x)] is a vector of functions: f
1
--- f
n
in the variables x
1
--- x
n
.
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The expression described above will not become equal zero until the N-R process has converged
and the iterations been performed, assuming the initial set of values x
1
, x
2
, --- x
n
. In the load-flow
problem, where the x's are voltage magnitude and phase angle at all load buses and voltage phase
angles at all generator buses i.e., angles at all buses except slack and │V│ for all PQ buses.
The equations for load flow problem which can be solved by using N-R method can be
derived as:
* *
1
n
p p p p p pq q
q
P jQ V I V Y V
=
÷ = =
¯

Let,

p p p pq pq pq
V e jf and Y G jB = + = ÷

1
1
( )* ( )( )
( ) ( )( )
n
p p p p pq pq q q
q
n
p p pq pq q q
q
P jQ e jf G jB e jf
e jf G jB e jf
=
=
÷ = + ÷ +
= ÷ ÷ +
¯
¯

Separating the real and imaginary parts, we have:
1
[ ( ) ( )]
n
p p q pq q pq p q pq q pq
q
P e e G f B f f G e B
=
= + + ÷
¯

And,
1
[ ( ) ( )]
n
p p q pq q pq p q pq q pq
q
Q f e G f B e f G e B
=
= + ÷ ÷
¯

Also,
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2
2 2
p p p
V e f = +

The three sets of equations above are the load flow equations for the N-R method and we
can see that they are non-linear in terms of real and imaginary components of nodal voltages.
The left hand quantities i.e. P
p
,Q
p
for a load bus and P
p and
|V
p
| for a generator bus are specified
and e
p
and f
p
are unknown quantities are unknown quantities. For an n-bus system, the number of
unknowns are (2n-1) because the voltage at the slack bus is known and is kept fixed both in
magnitude and phase. Thus, if bus 1 is taken as the slack bys, the unknowns are e
2
,e
3
,..,e
n-1
,e
n
and
f
2
,f
3
,..,f
n-1
,f
n.

Thus to solve all these variables, we need to solve all the 2(n-1) equations.

The Newton-Raphson method helps us to replace a set of nonlinear power-flow equations with a
linear set, using Taylor’s series expansion. The mathematical background for this method is as
follows:
Let the unknown variables be (x
1
, x
2
,…., x
n
) and the quantities specified be y
1
, y
2
,…, y
n

These are related by the set of non-linear equations

Y
1
=f
1
(x
1
, x
2
,…., x
n
)
Y
2
=f
2
(x
1
, x
2
,…., x
n
)
.
.
.
.
Y
n
=f
n
(x
1
, x
2
,…., x
n
)
35


To be able to solve the above equations, we start with an approximate solution
0 0 0
1 2
(x , x ,...., x )
n
. Here, the 0 in the superscript implies the zero
th
iteration in the process of solving
the above equations. We need to note that the initial solution for the equations should be close to
the actual solution. In other respects, the chances exist for the solution to diverge rather than
converge, which reduces our chances of achieving a solution for the equations. We assume a flat
voltage profile i.e V
p
=1.0+j0.0 for p=1,2,3…,n; except the slack bus, which is satisfactory for
almost all practical systems.

The equations are linearized about the initially assumed values. We then expand the first
equation y
1
= f
1
and the results for the following equations.

Assuming
0 0 0
1 2
, ,....,
n
x x x A A A as the corrections required for
0 0 0
1 2
x , x ,...., x
n
respectively for
the next better solution. The equation y
1
= f
1
will be

0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
1 1 1 1 2 2
0 0 0 0 0 0
1 1 1
1 1 2 1 2 1
1 2
( , ,...., )
(x , x ,...., x ) ...
n n
n n
n
x x x
y f x x x x x x
f f f
f x x x
x x x
= + A + A + A
c c c
= + A + A + + A + u
c c c


Where
1
u is function of higher order of
8
x A and higher derivatives which are neglected
according to N-R method. In fact this is the assumption which needs the initial solution close to
the final solution. After all the equations are linearized and arranged in a matrix form, we get:
36

1 1 1
0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2
1 1 1 1 2 2
2 2 2
0 0 0 0 0 0
2 2 1 1 2 2
1 2
0 0 0 0 0 0
1 1 2 2
1

( , ,...., )

( , ,...., )
( , ,...., )

n
n n
n n
n
n n n n
n
f f f
x x x
y f x x x x x x
f f f
y f x x x x x x
x x x
y f x x x x x x
f
x
c c c
c c c
÷ + A + A + A
c c c
÷ + A + A + A

c c c =



÷ + A + A + A

c c
c
0
1
0
2
0
2

n
n n
n
x
x
x
f f
x x


A

A



A

c


c c

. B J C =


Here the matrix J is called the Jacobian matrix. The solution of the equations requires
calculation of the vector B on the left hand side, which is the difference of the specified
quantities and calculated quantities at
0 0 0
1 2
(x , x ,...., x )
n
. Similarly the Jacobian is calculated at this
assumption. Solution of the matrix equation gives
0 0 0
1 2
( , ,...., )
n
x x x A A A and the next better solution
is obtained as follows:
1 0 0
1 1 1
1 0 0
2 2 2
1 0 0
n n n
x x x
x x x
x x x
= + A
= + A
= + A

The better solution is now available and it is
1 1 1
1 2
(x , x ,...., x )
n

With these values the iteration process is repeated till:
(1) The largest element in the left column of the equations is less than the assumed value, or
(2) The largest element in the column vector
1 2
( , ,...., )
n
x x x A A A is less than assumed value.
37

Temporarily assuming that all buses except bus 1, are PQ buses. Thus, the unknown parameters
consist of the (n - 1) voltage phasors, V
2
, . . . , V
n
. In terms of real variables, these are:
Angles θ
2
, θ
3
, . . . , θ
n
(n _ 1) variables
Magnitudes |V
2
|, |V
3
|, . . . , |V
n
| (n _ 1) variables
The linearized equations thus becomes,
2 2 2 2 2 2
2 3 2 3
3 3 3 3 3 3
2
2 3 2 3
3
2
3

n n
n n
n
n
P P P P P P
e e e f f f
P P P P P P
P
e e e f f f
P
P
Q
Q
Q
c c c c c c
c c c c c c
c c c c c c
A
c c c c c c

A



A

=

A

A



A

2 3 2 3
2 2 2 2 2 2
2 3 2 3
3 3
2 3




n n n n n n
n n
n n
P P P P P P
e e e f f f
Q Q Q Q Q Q
e e e f f f
Q Q
e e
c c c c c c
c c c c c c
c c c c c c
c c c c c c
c c
c c
3 3 3 3
2 3
2 3 2 3



n n
n n n n n n
n n
Q Q Q Q
e f f f
Q Q Q Q Q Q
e e e f f f



c c c c

c c c c

c c c c c c

c c c c c c

2
3
2
3
n
n
e
e
e
f
f
f

A

A

A

A

A

A

In short form it can be written as,
1 2
3 4

J J P e
Q J J f
A A

=

A A


38

If the system consists of all kinds of buses, the above set of equations becomes,
1 2
3 4
2
5 6

| |
p
J J P
e
Q J J
f
J J
V

A


A






A =



A





A



The elements of the Jacobian matrix can be derived from the three load flow equations
used for N-R method.
The off-diagonal elements of J
1
are,


,
p
p pq p pq
q
P
e G f B q p
e
c
= ÷ =
c

and the diagonal elements of J
1
are

1

1
2 ( )
2 ( )
n
p
p pp p pp p pp p pq p pq
q
p
q p
n
p pp p pq p pq
q
q p
P
e G f B f B e G f B
e
e G e G f B
=
=
=
=
c
= + ÷ + +
c
= + +
¯
¯


The off-diagonal elements of J
2
are,


,
p
p pq p pq
q
P
e B f G q p
f
c
= ÷ =
c

and the diagonal elements of J
2
are
39

1
2 ( )
n
p
p pp p pq p pq
q
p
q p
P
f G f G e B
f
=
=
c
= + +
c
¯

The off-diagonal elements of J
3
are,



,
p
p pq p pq
q
Q
e B f G q p
e
c
= + =
c

and the diagonal elements are,

1
2 ( )
n
p
p pp p pq q pq
q
p
q p
Q
e B f G e B
e
=
=
c
= ÷ ÷
c
¯

The off-diagonal and diagonal elements for J
4
respectively are,

,
p
p pq p pq
q
Q
e G f B q p
f
c
= ÷ + =
c

1
2 ( )
n
p
p pp q pq p pq
q
p
q p
Q
f B e G f B
f
=
=
c
= + +
c
¯


The off-diagonal and diagonal elements of J
5
are,
2
2
| |
0,
| |
2
p
q
p
p
p
V
q p
e
V
e
e
c
= =
c
c
=
c

40


The off-diagonal and diagonal elements of J
6
are,
2
2
| |
0,
| |
2
p
q
p
p
p
V
q p
f
V
e
f
c
= =
c
c
=
c

The next step is that we calculate the residual column vector containing the P A , Q A and
the
2
| | V A . Let P
sp
, Q
sp
and |V
sp
| be the specified quantities at the bus p. Now, assuming a flat
voltage profile, the value of P,Q and |V| at various buses are calculated. Then,
0
0
2 2 2
0
p sp p
p sp p
p sp p
P P P
Q Q Q
V V V
A = ÷
A = ÷
A = ÷

where the superscript zero implies that the value calculated corresponding to initial assumption
i.e zero
th
iteration.
After calculating the Jacobian matrix and the residual column vector corresponding to the
initial solution, the desired increment vector
e
f
A

A

can be calculated by using any standard
technique.
The next desired solution would be:
1 0 0
1 0 0
p p p
p p p
e e e
f f f
= + A
= + A

41

We use these voltage values in the next iteration. This process keeps repeating and the better
estimates for the voltages of the buses will be:
1
1
k k k
p p p
k k k
p p p
e e e
f f f
+
+
= + A
= + A

We repeat this process until the magnitude of the largest element in the residual column vector is
lesser than the assumed value.

3.3.3 Newton-Raphson Algorithm
1. We assume a suitable solution for all the buses except the slack bus. We assume a flat
voltage profile i.e. V
p
=1.0+j0.0 for p=1,2,…,n, p≠s, V
s
=a+j0.0.
2. We then set a convergence criterion = ε i.e. if the largest of absolute of the residues
exceeds ε, the process is repeated, or else its terminated.
3. Set the iteration count K=0.
4. Set the bus count p=1.
5. Check if a bus is a slack bus. If that is the case, skip to step 10.
6. Calculate the real and reactive powers P
p
and Q
p
respectively, using the equations derived
for the same earlier.
7. Evaluate
k k
p sp p
P P P A = ÷
8. Check if the bus p is a generator bus. If that is the case, compare
k
p
Q with the limits. If it
exceeds the limits, fix the reactive power generation to the corresponding limit and treat
42

the bus as a load bus for that iteration and go to the next step. If lower limit is violated,
set Q
sp
=Q
p min
. If the limit is not violated evaluate the voltage residue.
2 2 2
k
p p p
spec
V V V A = ÷

9. Evaluate
k k
p sp p
Q Q Q A = ÷ .
10. Increment the bus count by 1, i.e. p = p+1 and finally check if all the buses have been
taken into consideration. Or else, go back to step 5.
11. Determine the largest value among the absolute value of residue.
12. If the largest of the absolute value of the residue is less than ε, go to step 17.
13. Evaluate the Jacobian matrix elements.
14. Calculate the voltage increments
k
p
e A
and
k
p
f A
.
15. Calculate the new bus voltage
1 k k k
p p p
e e e
+
= + A
and
1 k k k
p p p
f f f
+
= + A
.
Evaluate cosc and sinc of all voltages.
16. Advance iteration count K=K+1 and go back to step 4.
17. Evaluate bus and line powers and output the results.

3.3.4 Comparison of Solution methods
The other load flow solution method we did not discuss is the Gauss method, since
Gauss-Seidel method is clearly superior, because its convergence is much better. So we compare
only between Newton-Raphson and Gauss-Seidel solution methods. Taking the computer
memory requirement into consideration, polar coordinates are preferred for solution based on
43

Newton-Raphson method whereas rectangular coordinates for Gauss-Seidel method. The time
taken to execute an iteration of computation is much smaller using Gauss-Seidel method in
comparison to Newton-Raphson method, but if we consider the number of iterations required,
Gauss-Seidel method has higher number of iterations than N-R method for a particular system,
and the number of iterations increase with the increase in the size of the system. The
convergence characteristics of N-R method are not affected by the selection of slack bus whereas
the convergence characteristics of G-S method maybe seriously affected with the selection of the
bus.
Nevertheless, the main advantage of G-S method over N-R method is the ease of
programming and the efficient use of the computer memory. However, N-R method is found to
be superior and more efficient than G-S method for large power systems, from the practical
aspects of computational time and convergence characteristics. Even though N-R method can
provide solutions to most of the practical power systems, it sometimes might fail in respect to
some ill-conditioned problems.









44

Chapter 4


Power Flow Analysis with STATCOM
As discussed in the earlier chapter, we use a STATCOM for transmission voltage control
by shunt compensation of reactive power. Usually, STATCOM consists of a coupling
transformer, a converter and a DC capacitor, as shown in the figure below.

Fig 4.1

Fig 4.2
45

Supposing that the voltage across the statcom is V
st
∠ δ
st
and the voltage of the bus is V
p

δ
p
then we have Y
st
= 1/ Z
st
= g
st
+ jb
st

Then the power flow constraints of the statcom are given by
P
st
= V
p
2
g
st
− V
p
V
st
(g
st
cos(θ
p
− θ
st
) + b
st
sin(θ
p
− θ
st
))
Q
st
= −V
p
2
b
st
– V
p
V
st
(g
st
sin(θ
p
− θ
st
) − b
st
cos(θ
p
− θ
st
))
In our case we are using the STATCOM to control the reactive power at one of the buses
to see its effect on the performance of the transmission system and infer useful conclusions from
this. This is done by the control of the voltage at the required bus.
The main constraint of the STATCOM while operating is that, the active power exchange via the
DC link should be zero, i.e. PEx = Re(V
st
I
St
*)=0.
Where
Re(V
st
I
st
*)=V
St
2
g
st
– V
p
V
st
(g
st
cos(θ
p
−θ
st
)-b
st
sin(θ
p
−θ
st
)

Control Function of STATCOM:
The control of the STATCOM voltage magnitude should be such that the specified bus
voltage and the STATCOM voltage should be equivalent and there should be no difference
between them. By proper design procedure, knowing the limits of the variables and the
parameters, but not exactly knowing the power system parameters, simultaneous DC and AC
control can be achieved. We can ensure the stability of the power system by the proposed
STATCOM controller design. Thus it can work along with the other controllers in the network.
The bus control restraint will be
p
F V 0
sp
V = ÷ =
Where V
sp
is the specified voltage for the bus.
46

Implementation of STATCOM to a bus network:
The Newton power flow equations for a bus system containing n number of buses,
including a STATCOM are developed as follows

2 2 2 2 2 2
2 3 2 3
3 3 3 3 3
2
2 3 2
3
2
3


n n
n
n
n
P P P P P P
e e e f f f
P P P P P
P
e e e f
P
P
Q
Q
Q
PEx
F
c c c c c c
c c c c c c
c c c c c
A

c c c c

A



A


A
=
A



A

A


A

3
3
2 3 2 3
2 2
2 3




n
n n n n n n
n n
P
f f
P P P P P P
e e e f f f
Q Q
e e
c
c c
c c c c c c
c c c c c c
c c
c c
2 2 2 2
2 3
3 3 3 3 3 3
2 3 2 3



n n
n n
Q Q Q Q
e f f f
Q Q Q Q Q Q
e e e f f f
c c c c
c c c c
c c c c c c
c c c c c c
2 3 2 3
2 3 2 3



n n n n n n
n n
n n
Q Q Q Q Q Q
e e e f f f
PEx PEx PEx PEx PEx PEx
e e e f f f















c c c c c c

c c c c c c

c c c c c c

c c c c c c

2
3
2
3
n
n
st
st
e
e
e
f
f
f
V
o
A


A



A


A

A



A

A

A

. B J C =

Where V
st
and δ
st
are the two state variables of the STATCOM defined by the two
equations given above. The Jacobian elements can be calculated by taking partial derivatives of
the corresponding equations in the matrix. The STATCOM has two equality criterion and two
state variables st
V A
and st
o A
.
47

The first equality is the real power balancing equation, given by:
*
Re( )
st st
PEx V I =

And the second equality for the control restraint of the STATCOM, given by:
p sp
F V V = ÷

The Jacobian matrix elements can be found out by partially differentiating the corresponding
equations.
Elements of the Jacobian Matrix:
The complex power injected at any bus p in a system is,
* *
1
*
1
( )
( )
n
p p p pk k
k
n
p P p pk k
k
V I V Y V
V I V Y V
=
=
=
=
¯
¯

Considering
(cos sin )
(cos sin )
p p i i
pk pk pk
k k k k
V V j
Y g jb
V V j
o o
o o
= +
= +
= +

Rewriting the previous equations as:
*
1 1 2 2
* * *
1 2
1 1 1 1 2 2 2
2
1 1 1 1 1
( ... )
..
{cos( ) sin( )} {cos( )
sin( ) .. {cos( ) sin( )}
[{ cos( ) sin( )} {
p p p p p pn n
p p p p p pn n
p k k k k k k
k pn n p n k n k
k k k k k k
P jQ V Y V Y V Y V
V Y V V Y V V Y V
Y VV j Y V V
j Y V V j
VV g b j g
o o o o o o
o o o o o o
o o o o
÷ = + + +
= + + +
= ÷ + ÷ + ÷
+ ÷ + + ÷ + ÷
= ÷ ÷ ÷ + ÷
1 1
1 1
( )
cos( )}] ... [{ cos( ) sin( )}
{ ( ) cos( )}
k
k k n k kn n k kn n k
kn n k kn n k
b V V g b
j g b
o o
o o o o o o
o o o o
÷ +
÷ + + ÷ ÷ ÷
+ ÷ ÷ + ÷

Sorting out the real and imaginary parts, i.e. P
p
and Q
p
,

1 1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1 1
{ cos( ) sin( )} ... { cos( ) sin( )}
{ sin( ) cos( )} ... { sin( ) cos( )}
p p p p p p n p pn n p pn n p
p p p p p p n p pn n p pn n p
P VV g b V V g b
Q VV g b V V g b
o o o o o o o o
o o o o o o o o
= ÷ ÷ ÷ + + ÷ + ÷
= ÷ + ÷ + + ÷ + ÷

48

Taking the derivatives of P
p
and Q
p
gives us the Jacobian matrix elements:
( sin( ) cos( ))
( sin( ) cos( ))
( cos( ) sin( ))
( sin( ) cos( ))
p
p k pk p k pk p k
k
p
p k pk p k pk p k
k
p
p pk p k pk p k
k
p
p pk p k pk p k
k
P
V V g b
Q
V V g b
P
V g b
V
Q
V g b
V
o o o o
o
o o o o
o
o o o o
o o o o
c
= ÷ ÷ ÷
c
c
= ÷ ÷ + ÷
c
c
= ÷ ÷ ÷
c
c
= ÷ ÷ ÷
c


The elements of the Jacobian can be found out from the above equations and put in the
Newton-Raphson Power Flow solution.














49

Chapter 5


Stability in power system
Stability is the tendency of the power system to revert back to its original undisturbed
state once the perturbations or disturbances are over. This disturbance may be caused due to a
fault, or the loss of a generator, or a fault in the line, etc. The operating point of the system may
change after the adjustment of the system to a new operating point post fault. This is known as
the transient period and the behaviour of the system during this period is crucial in defining the
stability of the system. The synchronous generators should synchronize with each other after the
fault is over. This may take a lot of time if the fault is severe. During the transient period the
system oscillates between multi stable points and thus it is important to damp these oscillations
to bring the system to a stable operating state.
We may have two main types of stability, that is, steady state stability of the power system and
transient stability.

5.1 Derivation of Swing Equations

The swing equation describes the relative motion of the rotor with respect to the
synchronously rotating airgap mmf wave. The angle between the two is δ and is known as the
power angle or torque angle.
Assuming synchronous operation of the generator connected to the power system, let T
e
be the electromagnetic torque of the generator at synchronous speed of ω
s
. During the
50

synchronous operation of the generator the mechanical torque is equal to the electromagnetic
torque, i.e. T
m
=T
e
.
If the accelerating/decelerating torque T
a
(=T
m
-T
e
) is not equal to zero (T
a
> 0 implying
acceleration and T
a
<0 implying deceleration) due to a disturbance, then we have,
2
2
m
a m e
d
J T T T
dt
u
= = ÷

Where J is the moment of inertia for the prime mover and generator combined in Kg-m
2
.This is
also known as the equation for the law of rotation.
Also, we have
,
m s m
t u e o = +

Where ω
s
is the constant angular velocity.
Differentiating the above equation for the angular displacement twice, we get
2 2
2 2
m m
d d
dt dt
u o
=

Substituting the above values in the equation for the law of rotation, we get
2
2
m
a m e
d
J T T T
dt
o
= = ÷

We then obtain the power equation by multiplying a factor of ω
m
,
2 2
2 2
m m
m m m m e m e
d d
J M T T P P
dt dt
o o
e e e = = ÷ = ÷

P
m
is the mechanical power and P
e
is the electromagnetic power.
Thus we derive the swing equation in terms of the inertia constant M as,
2
2
m
m e
d
M P P
dt
o
= ÷

Where everything is expressed in the per unit system. And,
51

2
s
H
M
e
=

Where H is the inertia constant.

5.2 Equal Area criterion

Using the swing equation, we derive the equal area criterion which can be used for
stability analysis of the system. The swing equation is
2
2
m
m e
d
M P P
dt
o
= ÷

Multiplying both sides of the equation by 2dδ/dt, and then integrating with respect to time, we
get
0
0
2
2
2
2 . 2( )
2 ( )
2
( )
m e
m e
m e
d d d
M dt P P dt
dt dt dt
d
M P P d
dt
d
P P d c
dt M
o
o
o
o
o o o
o
o
o
o
= ÷
| |
= ÷
|
\ .
= ÷ +
í í
í
í

Where δ
0
is the initial torque angle before any disturbance occurs. When dδ/dt = 0 then the angle
the angle δ will stop varying and the machine will be again be operating at synchronous speed
post disturbance.
52


Fig 5.1
In this case, curve A represents the power angle curve corresponding to healthy condition
of the system, curve B represents the fault on the line, and curve C corresponds to the situation
when the faulted line is removed.
Initially for P
m
the torque angle is δ
0.
At the instant of fault the output of the generator is
given by O`. The rotor accelerates along curve B till the faulted line is removed at m`, when the
operating point becomes m on curve C. Here the output is more than the input and thus the rotor
decelerates till speed becomes equal to the speed of the bus and the torque angle ceases to
increase at point n. We can conclude that the transient stability depends on the type of
disturbance as well as the clearing time of the breaker.







53

Chapter 6


6.1 Case Study


Fig 6.1
The 6 bus system shown above describes a transmission line network. The load data,
voltage magnitude, generation schedule, and the reactive power limits for the buses are tabulated
in the appendix. Bus 1, with a voltage specified as, is taken as the slack bus, and accounts for all
the losses associated with the transmission line as well as the generators. The base MVA is taken
54

as 100 MVA. All the resistances, reactances, susceptances and other parameters are calculated on
the basis of this MVA. First we analyse the system without the implementation of a STATCOM
and see the results of the fault at different buses and removing different lines. Then we compare
the graphs of the different buses with their respective faults, and find out the point where it
would be best suited to implement a STATCOM. Thereafter we analyse the system with a
STATCOM and check out the improvement if any. The transient stability due to the sudden fault
at any point is analysed.
Case 1: Using Hadi Saadat power system analysis toolbox, we analyse the 6 bus system
and for fault at bus 6 with (5,6) being the lines removed, we get

Fig 6.2
The fault is cleared at 0.1 secs for a simulation time of 2 secs.
Case 2: Similarly, we analyse for fault at bus 1 by removing lines (1,4) for the same
simulation time and fault clearance time.
55


Fig 6.3
Case 3: Fault at bus 4, lines removed are (4,6)

Fig 6.4
56


Case 4: Fault at 6, lines removed are (1,6)

Fig 6.5
Case 5: Fault at 5, lines removed are (1,5)
Fig 6.6

57

Therefore we find out that fault at bus 5 causes the maximum excursion of rotor angle of
Generator 2 and 3 with respect to Generator 1. The angle of mismatch varies much in this case
and it deviates much compared to the previous cases. Thus it would be an appropriate point for
the implementation of STATCOM. Hence we put the STATCOM in shunt with the bus 5, and
the value of STATCOM reactive power is assumed to be 30 MVAr. Thus the bus 5 and
STATCOM together have a total reactive power of 60 MVAr.
STATCOM implementation:

Fig 6.7
Next we find from the graphs that the bus system without and with STATCOM and see
the difference in rotor angle characteristics. Improved rotor angles can be seen from both the
graphs and the implementation of STATCOM has made the transient characteristics much better.
58


Fig 6.8

The above graph shows the difference between the behaviour of the system with faults at
all the connected buses without and with the STATCOM. We can see that the waveform of the
rotor angle of generator 3 with respect to generator 1 shows much better characteristics with the
STATCOM and the harmonics are removed due to its action.
From the power flow solution without the STATCOM, we find out that the value of the
voltage and angle at bus 5 is 1.016∠-1.499. Thus for reactive power control, we maintain the
voltage angle of the STATCOM same as that of bus 5, while changing the magnitude of the
voltage of the STATCOM to deliver or absorb reactive power.

59

6.2 Output
The MATLAB output for the six bus sytem without the STATCOM and for a fault at bus 6, with
[5,6] lines removed is shown below.

Power Flow Solution by Newton-Raphson Method
Maximum Power Mismatch = 1.80187e-007
No. of Iterations = 4

Bus Voltage Angle ------Load------ ---Generation--- Injected
No. Mag. Degree MW Mvar MW Mvar Mvar

1 1.060 0.000 0.000 0.000 105.287 107.335 0.000
2 1.040 1.470 0.000 0.000 150.000 99.771 0.000
3 1.030 0.800 0.000 0.000 100.000 35.670 0.000
4 1.008 -1.401 100.000 70.000 0.000 0.000 0.000
5 1.016 -1.499 90.000 30.000 0.000 0.000 0.000
6 0.941 -5.607 160.000 110.000 0.000 0.000 0.000

Total 350.000 210.000 355.287 242.776 0.000




60

Prefault reduced bus admittance matrix
Ybf =

0.3517 - 2.8875i 0.2542 + 1.1491i 0.1925 + 0.9856i
0.2542 + 1.1491i 0.5435 - 2.8639i 0.1847 + 0.6904i
0.1925 + 0.9856i 0.1847 + 0.6904i 0.2617 - 2.2835i

G(i) E'(i) d0(i) Pm(i)
1 1.2781 8.9421 1.0529
2 1.2035 11.8260 1.5000
3 1.1427 13.0644 1.0000
Enter faulted bus No. -> 6

Faulted Reduced Bus Admittance Matrix
Ydf =

0.1913 - 3.5849i 0.0605 + 0.3644i 0.0523 + 0.4821i
0.0605 + 0.3644i 0.3105 - 3.7467i 0.0173 + 0.1243i
0.0523 + 0.4821i 0.0173 + 0.1243i 0.1427 - 2.6463i

Fault is cleared by opening a line. The bus to bus nos. of the
line to be removed must be entered within brackets, e.g. [5, 7]
Enter the bus to bus Nos. of line to be removed -> [5,6]
61


Postfault reduced bus admittance matrix
Yaf =

0.3392 - 2.8879i 0.2622 + 1.1127i 0.1637 + 1.0251i
0.2622 + 1.1127i 0.6020 - 2.7813i 0.1267 + 0.5401i
0.1637 + 1.0251i 0.1267 + 0.5401i 0.2859 - 2.0544i
Enter clearing time of fault in sec. tc = 0.1
Enter final simulation time in sec. tf = 2.















62

CONCLUSION

The study of the basic principles of the STATCOM is carried out as well as the basics of reactive
power compensation using a STATCOM. A power flow model of the STATCOM is attempted
and it is seen that the modified load flow equations help the system in better performance. The
bus system shows improved plots and the thus we can conclude that the addition of a STATCOM
controls the output of a bus in a robust manner.











63

APPENDIX
The bus data and the transmission line data for the six bus system described above is given
below.
basemva = 100; accuracy (convergence ᶓ) = 0.0001; maximum iterations = 10;
Load Data
Bus Load
No MW Mvar
1
2
3
4
5
6
0
0
0
100
90
160
0
0
0
70
30
110


Generation
Schedule

Bus
no.
Voltage
Magnitude
Generation
MW
MVAr Limit
Min.
MVAr Limit
Max.
1 1.06
2 1.04 150 0 140
3 1.03 100 0 90

Line Data
Bus No. Bus No. R, PU X, PU ½ B, PU
1 4 0.035 0.225 0.0065
1 5 0.025 0.105 0.0045
1 6 0.040 0.215 0.0055
2 4 0.000 0.035 0.0000
3 5 0.000 0.042 0.0000
4 6 0.028 0.125 0.0035
5 6 0.026 0.175 0.0300

Machine Data
Generator R
a
X
d
’ H
1 0 0.20 20
2 0 0.15 4
3 0 0.25 5

64

References:
[1] C. L. Wadhwa, Electrical Power Systems, New Age International Publishers, 2009
[2] Hadi Saadat, Power System Analysis, WCB McGraw Hill, 1999.
[3] Narain Hingorani & L. Gyugi, Understanding FACTS, Concepts and Technology of Flexible
AC Transmission Systems, IEEE Press, 2000.
[4] N. Tambey & M. L. Kothari, Damping of power system oscillations with unified power flow
controller (UPFC), IEE Proc. – Generation, Transmission, Distribution, Vol. 150, 2003.
[5] Juan Dixon, Luis Moran, Jose Rodriguez, Ricardo Domke, Reactive Power compensation
Technologies, State-of-the-Art Review, Pontificia Universisdad Catolica de Chile, Universidad de
Concepcion, Universidad Federico Sta. Maria.
[6] Alper Cetin, Design and Implementation of VSC based STATCOM For Reactive power
Compensation And Harmonic Filtering, Middle East Technical University, 2007.
[7] Ashok Kumar Bajia, Development of power flow model of a STATCOM, Delhi College of

Engineering, 2009.

[8] L. Dong, M.L. Crow, Z. Yang, C.Shen, L.Zhang, A Reconfigurable FACTS System For

University Laboratories.

[9] Zhiping Yang, Chen Shen, Mariesa L. Crow, Lingli Zhang, An Improved STATCOM Model
for Power Flow Analysis, University Of Missouri, 2000.
[10] W.D. Stevenson, Elements Of Power System Analysis, McGrawHill,1975

STUDY OF REACTIVE POWER COMPENSATION USING STATCOM
A PROJECT SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENT FOR THE DEGREE OF Bachelor of Technology in Electrical Engineering By Abhijeet Barua (107EE015) Pradeep Kumar (107EE050)

Department of Electrical Engineering National Institute of Technology Rourkela-769008, Orissa

2

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

We would like to express our gratitude towards all the people who have contributed their precious time and efforts to help us in completing this project, without whom it would not have been possible for us to understand and analyze the project.

We would like to thank Prof. P. C. Panda, Department of Electrical Engineering, our Project Supervisor, for his guidance, support, motivation and encouragement throughout the period this work was carried out. His readiness for consultation at all times, his educative comments, his concern and assistance have been invaluable.

We are also grateful to Dr. B.D. Subudhi, Professor and Head, Department of Electrical Engineering, for providing the necessary facilities in the department.

Last, but not the least, we would like to thank Mr. Joseph Therattil for his constant help and support throughout the length of the project.

Abhijeet Barua (107EE015) Pradeep Kumar (107EE050)

3

C. is an authentic work carried out by them under my supervision and guidance. Panda) Department of Electrical Engineering NIT. P. Date: Place: Rourkela (Prof. Rourkela 4 . Rourkela (Deemed University).CERTIFICATE This is to certify that the Project entitled “STUDY OF REACTIVE POWER COMPENSATION USING STATCOM” submitted by Abhijeet Barua and Pradeep Kumar in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of Bachelor of Technology Degree in Electrical Engineering at National Institute of Technology.

4 Reactive Power Compensation Techniques FACTS devices used Need for reactive power compensation 11-18 Chapter 2: Static Shunt Compensator: STATCOM 2.CONTENTS ACKNOWLEDGEMENT CERTIFICATE CONTENTS LIST OF FIGURES ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION 3 4 5 7 9 10 Chapter 1: Preliminary Theory 1.1 1.1 2.3 STATCOM Phase angle control PWM Techniques used in STATCOM 19-25 5 .2 1.2 2.3 1.

1 3.2 3.2 Newton-Raphson Method 3.2.3.3 Study of Load Flow Analysis Types of Buses Load Flow Equations and their Solutions 3.3.3 3.1 5.2 Derivation of Swing Equations Equal Area criterion 44-48 49-52 Chapter 6: Case Studies and Results CONCLUSION APPENDIX REFERENCES 53-61 62 63 64 6 .1 Gauss-Seidel Method 3.3.2.Chapter 3: Load flow analysis and study 3.4 N-R Algorithm Comparison of Solution Methods 26-43 Chapter 4: Power Flow Analysis with STATCOM Chapter 5: Stability in Power System 5.2 Development of Load Flow Equations Load Flow Equation Solution Methods 3.1 3.3.3.3.

2 Reactive power compensation by the STATCOM Fig 2.3 System without series compensation Fig 1.6) being the lines removed Fig 6.1 Connection of a STATCOM to a bus bar Fig 2.4) Fig 6.List of Figures Fig 1.1 Convergence graph of G-S Method Fig 4.2 Fault at bus 6 with (5.6) Fig 6.1 Equal Area Criterion Graph Fig 6.3 Fault at bus 1 & removing lines (1.1 Circuit with STATCOM Fig 4.1 6-bus bar system used for case study Fig 6.1 System without shunt compensation Fig 1.2 Equivalent circuit of a STATCOM Fig 5.4 System with series compensation Fig 2.4 Fault at bus 4 & removing lines (4.3 Voltage control using PWM technique Fig 3.6) 7 .5 Fault at bus 6 & removing lines (1.2 System with shunt compensation Fig 1.

Fig 6.6 Fault at bus 5 & removing lines (1,5) Fig 6.7 Rotor angle difference v/s time after the implementation of STATCOM at bus 5 Fig 6.8 Difference in the behaviour of the system with faults at all the connected buses without and with the STATCOM

8

ABSTRACT

The study of shunt connected FACTS devices is a connected field with the problem of reactive power compensation and better mitigation of transmission related problems in today’s world. In this paper we study the shunt operation of FACTS controller, the STATCOM, and how it helps in the better utilization of a network operating under normal conditions. First we carry out a literature review of many papers related to FACTS and STATCOM, along with reactive power control. Then we look at the various devices being used for both series and shunt compensation. The study of STATCOM and its principles of operation and control, including phase angle control and PWM techniques, are carried out. We also delve into the load flow equations which are necessary for any power system solution and carry out a comprehensive study of the Newton Raphson method of load flow. Apart from this, we also carry out a study of the transient stability of power systems, and how it is useful in determining the behavior of the system under a fault. As an example, a six bus system is studied using the load flow equations and solving them. First this is done without the STATCOM and then the STATCOM is implemented and the characteristics of the rotor angle graph along with faults at various buses are seen. In this thesis, it is tried to show the application of STATCOM to a bus system and its effect on the voltage and angle of the buses. Next the graphs depicting the implemented STATCOM bus are analyzed and it is shown that the plots of the rotor angles show a changed characteristic under the influence of the STATCOM.

9

INTRODUCTION

Power Generation and Transmission is a complex process, requiring the working of many components of the power system in tandem to maximize the output. One of the main components to form a major part is the reactive power in the system. It is required to maintain the voltage to deliver the active power through the lines. Loads like motor loads and other loads require reactive power for their operation. To improve the performance of ac power systems, we need to manage this reactive power in an efficient way and this is known as reactive power compensation. There are two aspects to the problem of reactive power compensation: load compensation and voltage support. Load compensation consists of improvement in power factor, balancing of real power drawn from the supply, better voltage regulation, etc. of large fluctuating loads. Voltage support consists of reduction of voltage fluctuation at a given terminal of the transmission line. Two types of compensation can be used: series and shunt compensation. These modify the parameters of the system to give enhanced VAR compensation. In recent years, static VAR compensators like the STATCOM have been developed. These quite satisfactorily do the job of absorbing or generating reactive power with a faster time response and come under Flexible AC Transmission Systems (FACTS). This allows an increase in transfer of apparent power through a transmission line, and much better stability by the adjustment of parameters that govern the power system i.e. current, voltage, phase angle, frequency and impedance.

10

Power. energy is stored temporarily in inductive and capacitive elements. and the current reaches the full value after a certain period of time. because they store energy in the form of a magnetic field. This is the unused power which the system has to incur in order to transmit power.1 Reactive Power Reactive power is the power that supplies the stored energy in reactive elements. and this is the usable energy of the system and is used to do work. The average power after the completion of one whole cycle of the AC waveform is the real power. which results in the periodic reversal of the direction of flow of energy between the source and the load. 11 . when a voltage is initially applied across a coil. The total sum of active and reactive power is called as apparent power. This in turn causes the current to lag the voltage in phase. a magnetic field builds up. Therefore. whereas the portion of power flow which is temporarily stored in the form of magnetic or electric fields and flows back and forth in the transmission line due to inductive and capacitive network elements is known as reactive power. as we know.CHAPTER 1 1. In AC circuits. Inductors (reactors) are said to store or absorb reactive power. active and reactive power. consists of two components.

Thus in an AC network the voltage across the capacitor is always charging. a charge is built up to produce the full voltage difference over a certain period of time. Therefore when current passes through the capacitor. we know the instantaneous power to be: p = VmaxImax cos ωt cos(ωt − θ ) p= ( ) The instantaneous reactive power is given by: Where: p Vmax Imax ω = instantaneous power = Peak value of the voltage waveform = Peak value of the current waveform = Angular frequency = 2πf where f is the frequency of the waveform. In an inductive circuit. it causes the voltage to lag behind current in phase. Since. the capacitor tends to oppose this change.Capacitors are said to generate reactive power. because they store energy in the form of an electric field. t θ = Time period = Angle by which the current lags the voltage in phase 12 .

but the actual amount that is flowing for half a cycle in one direction.1 Shunt compensation Fig 1.1 13 . we can conclude that the instantaneous reactive power pulsates at twice the system frequency and its average value is zero and the maximum instantaneous reactive power is given by: Q = |V| |I| sin θ The zero average does not necessarily mean that no energy is flowing.From here. 1.2.2 Compensation Techniques The principles of both shunt and series reactive power compensation techniques are described below: 1. is coming back in the next half cycle.

In this case. if the reactive power can be supplied near the load.1 shows the system without any type of compensation. Here. a current source device is used to compensate Iq. In turn the voltage regulation of the system is improved and the reactive current component from the source is reduced or almost eliminated. The phasor diagram of these is also shown above. This can be done in three ways: 1) A voltage source. thus increasing the current from the generator and through the power lines.1 comprises of a source V1. The active current Ip is in phase with the load voltage V2. 14 .Fig 1. The figure 1.2 The figure 1. the line current can be minimized. the load is inductive and hence it requires reactive power for its proper operation and this has to be supplied by the source. For leading compensation. 2) A current source. we require an inductor. which is the reactive component of the load current. a power line and an inductive load. This is in case of lagging compensation. 3) A capacitor. Instead of the lines carrying this. reducing the power losses and improving the voltage regulation at the load terminals.

1.Therefore we can see that.3 15 .2 Series compensation Fig 1. the main advantages being the reactive power generated is independent of the voltage at the point of connection.2. a current source or a voltage source can be used for both leading and lagging shunt compensation. .

as capacitors are used mostly for series compensation techniques. 16 . With proper adjustment of the magnitude of Vcomp. i.4.Fig 1. the voltage Vcomp has been added between the line and the load to change the angle V2’. Now. In this case. with a current or a voltage source as shown in figure 1. this is the voltage at the load side. We can see the results which are obtained by series compensation through a voltage source and it is adjusted to have unity power factor at V 2. unity power factor can be reached at V2.4 Series compensation can be implemented like shunt compensation.e. However series compensation techniques are different from shunt compensation techniques.

Thyristor controlled reactor (TCRs).1. The impedance of transmission lines and the need for lagging VAR by most 17 . 2) Self Commutated VAR compensators. Combined TSC and TCR. 3) better utilization of machines connected to the system. 2) increased system stability. and 5) to prevent voltage collapse as well as voltage sag. 1. c) Unified power flow controllers (UPFCs).4 Need for Reactive power compensation.3 FACTS devices used Flexible AC transmission system or FACTS devices used are: 1) VAR generators. d) Dynamic voltage restorers (DVRs). b) Synchronous condensers. a) Fixed or mechanically switched capacitors. a) Static synchronous compensators (STATCOMs). c) Thyristorized VAR compensators. b) Static synchronous series compensators (SSSCs). Thyristor controlled series capacitor (TCSC). (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) Thyristors switched capacitors (TSCs). 4) reducing losses associated with the system. The main reason for reactive power compensation in a system is: 1) the voltage regulation.

Unnecessary voltage drops lead to increased losses which needs to be supplied by the source and in turn leading to outages in the line due to increased stress on the system to carry this imaginary power. Thus we can infer that the compensation of reactive power not only mitigates all these effects but also helps in better transient response to faults and disturbances.machines in a generating system results in the consumption of reactive power. the compensation is made more effective. which is better provided near the generators or the loads. It is very much required that the lines be relieved of the obligation to carry the reactive power. 18 . in a distribution substation or transmission substation. thus affecting the stability limits of the system as well as transmission lines. In recent times there has been an increased focus on the techniques used for the compensation and with better devices included in the technology. Shunt compensation can be installed near the load.

a D. The link inductor links this voltage to the a.CHAPTER 2 2.c.c supply side. a three phase voltage is generated by the inverter. STATCOMs primarily handle only fundamental reactive power exchange and provide voltage support to buses by modulating bus voltages during dynamic disturbances in order to provide better transient characteristics. This is synchronized with the a. improve the transient stability margins and to damp out the system oscillations due to these disturbances.c supply. a STATCOM is a regulating device which can be used to regulate the flow of reactive power in the system independent of other system parameters. From the d. side capacitor.1 Static Shunt Compensator: STATCOM One of the many devices under the FACTS family.c supply side. 19 . A STATCOM consists of a three phase inverter (generally a PWM inverter) using SCRs.C capacitor which provides the D. a link reactor which links the inverter output to the a. In the transmission systems. filter components to filter out the high frequency components due to the PWM inverter.C voltage for the inverter. This is the basic principle of operation of STATCOM. MOSFETs or IGBTs. STATCOM has no long term energy support on the dc side and it cannot exchange real power with the ac system.

2. the reactive power delivered is decreased in capacitive operation mode or the reactive power absorbed by the STATCOM in an inductive power mode increases. which in turn increases the reactive power delivered or the reactive power absorbed by the STATCOM. The modulation index “m” is kept constant and the fundamental voltage component of the STATCOM is controlled by changing the DC link voltage. the DC voltage will be increased. 20 .1 For two AC sources which have the same frequency and are connected through a series inductance. the active power flows from the leading source to the lagging source and the reactive power flows from the higher voltage magnitude source to the lower voltage magnitude source. The phase angle difference between the sources determines the active power flow and the voltage magnitude difference between the sources determines the reactive power flow. By further charging of the DC link capacitor. Thus. a STATCOM can be used to regulate the reactive power flow by changing the magnitude of the VSC voltage with respect to source bus voltage.2 Phase angle control In this case the quantity controlled is the phase angle δ. On the other hand.Fig 2. by discharging the DC link capacitor.

21 . the open loop response time is determined by the DC link capacitor and the input filter inductance. the STATCOM voltage lags behind AC line voltage (δ > 0). During this transient state operation.For both capacitive and inductive operations in steady-state. power can be extracted from DC link. The reference reactive power (Qref) is compared with the measured reactive power (Q). The inductance is applied to filter out converter harmonics and by using higher values of inductance. Fig 2. If the STATCOM becomes lesser than the extracted power. The reactive power error is sent as the input to the PI controller and the output of the PI controller determines the phase angle of the STATCOM fundamental voltage with respect to the source voltage.2 By making phase angle δ negative. the STATCOM current harmonics is minimized. For a phase angle control system. Pc in becomes negative and STATCOM starts to deliver active power to the source. The phasor diagrams which illustrating power flow between the DC link in transient state and the ac supply is shown in above Fig. Vd gradually decreases.

By comparing the three sinusoidal voltage waveforms with the triangular voltage waveform.e.2. Thus. The Amplitude modulation ratio. fs. the three phase converter voltages can be obtained.3 PWM Techniques used in STATCOM Sinusoidal PWM technique We use sinusoidal PWM technique to control the fundamental line to-line converter voltage. modulation frequency. whereas the converter switching frequency is determined by the frequency of the triangular voltage i. The frequency modulation ratio mf is defined as: mf  22 fs fi .e. carrier frequency. is determined by the frequency of the control voltages. f1. The magnitude of triangular voltage is maintained constant and the Vcontrol is allowed to vary. The range of SPWM is defined for 0≤ma≤1 and over modulation is defied for ma>1. The fundamental frequency of the converter voltage i. ma is defined as: Vcontrol ma  Vtri Where Vcontrol is the peak amplitude of the control voltage waveform and Vtri is the peak amplitude of the triangular voltage waveform. the modulating frequency f1 is equal to the supply frequency in STATCOM.

The fundamental component converter line-to-line voltage can be expressed as: VLL1  3 maVd . ma  1 2 From which. should have odd integer values for the formation of odd and half wave symmetric converter line-to-neutral voltage(VA0). irrespective of mf. we can see that VA0 varies linearly with respect to ma. ma  1 2 2 23 .The frequency modulation ratio. The converter output harmonic frequencies can be given as: fh = (jmf ± k)f1 The relation between the fundamental component of the line-to-line voltage (VA0) and the amplitude modulation ratio ma can be gives as: VA0  ma Vd . to eliminate the harmonics we choose odd multiples of 3 for mf. even harmonics are eliminated from the VA0 waveform. Also. Thus. mf .

But for square wave operation. we know the amplitude to be 0. From above equation. in the linear range the maximum amplitude of fundamental frequency component is reduced. we observe switching harmonics in the high frequency range around the switching frequency and its multiples in the linear range. which can increase the harmonics in the sidebands of the converter voltage waveform.3 In this type of PWM technique.Fig 2. the amplitude of VLL1 varies nonlinearly with ma and also varies with mf in over modulation as given 24 . This can be solved by over modulation of the converter voltage waveform. Also.612maVd.78Vd. we can see that the amplitude of the fundamental component of the converter line-to-line voltage is 0. Thus.

Therefore. This fixed value is determined by the peak STATCOM fundamental voltage from the full inductive mode of operation to full capacitive mode at minimum and maximum voltage supply. 25 . for 0 ≤ ma ≤ 1. The fundamental voltage is varied by varying ma in the linear range.In a Constant DC Link Voltage Scheme the STATCOM regulates the DC link voltage value to a fixed one in all modes of operation.

the power that is being generated by the generators. The power that is flowing through the transmission line. Because computing these quantities was a hard task. Knowing these. the most important quantity which is known or which is to be determined is the voltage at different points throughout the system. The values more often converge to a particular value. the working models were not very useful in simulating the actual one. are iteratively decided by the load flow solution. small working models were used to find out the power flow solution for any network. we can easily find out the currents flowing through each point or branch. Load flow allows us to know the present state of a system. yet do not have a definite one. given previous known parameters and values.CHAPTER 3 3. It’s difficult to analyze a system where we need to find out the quantities at a point very far away from the point at which these quantities are known. In any system. the losses occurring during the transfer of power from source to load. The initial values of the system are assumed and with this as 26 . due to the fact that there are no finite solutions to load flow. In earlier days. and so on. or also known as power flow solution. Mathematical algorithms are used to compute the unknown quantities from the known ones through a process of successive trial and error methods and consequently produce a result. Thus we need to make use of iterative mathematical solutions to do this task.1 Study of Load Flow Analysis Load-flow studies are very common in power system analysis. the power that is being consumed by the loads. This in turn gives us the quantities through which we can find out the power that is being handled at all these points.

we study the load flow to determine the overloading of particular elements in the system. power and impedance. • Reactive power loading on each generator. current.2 Types of Buses Generally in an a. we have just the magnitude component of all these variables due to the static nature of the system. this is not the case in ac systems. will give the power for the system. which will contain a real and a reactive term. For the magnitude we have the RMS value of the quantity. which ensures that the demand will be met without overloading the facilities and maintain them without compromising the security of the system nor the demand. Thus. It is also used to make sure that the generators run at the ideal operating point. we have the variables like voltage. • Real and reactive power flowing in each element. the variables that are already 27 . AC systems bring one more component to the forefront. that of time. Hence when we solve for the currents. 3.input. These two when combined. Thus voltage will have a magnitude and a phase angle. Whereas in a dc system. the program computes the successive quantities.c. Thus any quantity in an AC system is described by two components: the magnitude component and the time component. The actual variables that are given as inputs to the buses and the operating constraints that govern the working of each bus decide the types of buses. The objective of any load-flow analysis is to produce the following information: • Voltage magnitude and phase angle at each bus. At the load bus. system. whereas for the time we take the phase angle component. Thus we have the two main types of buses: the load bus and the generator bus. we will get a magnitude and a phase angle.

The variables to be specified and the variables to be computed are given below. If we are given any of the two inputs of the system. the variables which are specified are the real power being generated (V) and the voltage at which this generation is taking place (V). At the generator bus. Thus the operating state of the system can be determined easily knowing the two variables. Hence load bus is also called PQ bus in power systems. The variables which are to be found out are voltage magnitude (V) and the phase angle of this voltage (δ).specified are the real power (P) and the reactive power (Q) consumed by the load. then using mathematical iterations we can easily find out the unknown variables. Apart from these two we have the slack bus which is responsible for providing the losses in the whole system and the transmission lines and thus is specified by the variables voltage magnitude (V) and angle (δ). The variables which are to be found out are the generator reactive power (Q) and the voltage phase angle (δ). This is done so for convenience as the power needs of the system need to be balanced as well as the operational control of the generator needs to be optimized. and system frequency. 28 . along with the fixed parameters like impedance of the transmission lines as well as that of the system.

1 Development of Load Flow Equations The real and reactive power components for any bus p can be used as: Now the nodal current equations for a n-bus system can be written as 29 .3.3 Load Flow Equations and their Solutions 3.Type of bus Specified quantities Calculated quantities Generator bus (PV Bus) Real power (P) Voltage magnitude (V) Reactive power (Q) Voltage angle (δ) Load bus (PQ Bus) Real power (P) Reactive power (Q) Voltage magnitude (V) Voltage angle (δ) Slack bus Voltage magnitude (V) Voltage angle (δ) Real power (P) Reactive power (Q) 3.

2.3. because the quantities are usually specified in a power system. p  1. 2... Pp  jQ p * Vp   1  Pp  jQp n Vp    YpqVq  . *  Ypp  Vp q 1   q p   We substitute Ip by active and reactive power.... p  1. n.I p   YpqVq . q 1 n I p  YppV p   YpqVq q 1 q p n 1  Vp   Ypp Ypp Ip Y q 1 q p n pq q V Now... * V p I p  Pp  jQ p  Ip  Substituting for Ip in the above equation. n.3.. 30 .

the mismatch between the P and Q will reduce.2. knowing that these values don’t represent the actual system. we first assume values for the unknown variables in the bus system. It can be seen that these equations are nonlinear and they can be solved using iterative methods like: 1) Gauss-Seidel method 2) Newton-Raphson method 3. as the flat voltage profile keeps converging to the actual values of the magnitudes and angles. which makes them the load bus or the PQ bus. In this case. Depending on the number of iterations we use and our requirements we can end the process with values close to the actual value. We then put these assumed values in our power flow equations. So. let us suppose that the unknown variables are the magnitude of the voltages and their angles at every bus except the Slack bus.1 Gauss-Seidel method 31 .2 Load Flow Equation Solution Methods To start with by solving the load flow equations.3. The final equations derived in the previous section are the load flow equations where bus voltages are the variables. we assume the initial values of all voltage angels as zero and the magnitude as 1p.3. For instance. Meaning.u.3. This process is called as the iterative solution method. we choose a flat voltage profile. now we iterate this process of putting in the values of voltage magnitudes and angles and replacing them with a better set. So. even though it should have been describing its state.

The Gauss-Seidel method is based on substituting nodal equations into each other.1 Although not the best load-flow method. It’s convergence is said to be Monotonic. The iteration process can be visualized for two equations: Fig 3. Here. we use the Newton-Raphson method which is the most efficient load-flow algorithm.xn. 32 . 3.2.3.2 Newton-Raphson (N-R) Method Newton-Raphson algorithm is based on the formal application of a well-known algorithm for the solution of a set of simultaneous non-linear equations of the form: [F(x)] = [0] Where: [F(x)] is a vector of functions: f1 --.fn in the variables x1 --. Gauss-Seidel is the easiest to understand and was the most widely used technique until the early 1970s.

. The equations for load flow problem which can be solved by using N-R method can be derived as: Pp  jQp  V I  V * p p * p Y q 1 n pq q V Let. assuming the initial set of values x1.xn. where the x's are voltage magnitude and phase angle at all load buses and voltage phase angles at all generator buses i. Qp   [ f p (eqG pq  f q Bpq )  e p ( f qG pq  eq Bpq )] q 1 n Also.e. we have: Pp   [e p (eqG pq  f q Bpq )  f p ( f qG pq  eq Bpq )] q 1 n And.The expression described above will not become equal zero until the N-R process has converged and the iterations been performed. --. Vp  ep  jf p and n Ypq  Gpq  jBpq Pp  jQ p  (e p  jf p ) *  (G pq  jB pq )(eq  jf q ) q 1  (e p  jf p ) (G pq  jB pq )(eq  jf q ) q 1 n Separating the real and imaginary parts. x2. 33 . angles at all buses except slack and │V│ for all PQ buses. In the load-flow problem.

. x2.. For an n-bus system... xn) ..…. using Taylor’s series expansion... Thus. x2. Thus to solve all these variables. The mathematical background for this method is as follows: Let the unknown variables be (x1. y2. xn) Y2=f2(x1.. if bus 1 is taken as the slack bys.….en-1. xn) and the quantities specified be y1..Qp for a load bus and Pp and |Vp| for a generator bus are specified and ep and fp are unknown quantities are unknown quantities.Vp  e2  f p2 p The three sets of equations above are the load flow equations for the N-R method and we can see that they are non-linear in terms of real and imaginary components of nodal voltages.. Yn=fn(x1. xn) 34 .fn-1. yn These are related by the set of non-linear equations Y1=f1(x1.….…. . x2. x2.e3.e.…. we need to solve all the 2(n-1) equations.f3..fn.en and f2. the number of unknowns are (2n-1) because the voltage at the slack bus is known and is kept fixed both in magnitude and phase. . 2 The Newton-Raphson method helps us to replace a set of nonlinear power-flow equations with a linear set. Pp. The left hand quantities i. the unknowns are e2.

. x 0 .. except the slack bus. we get: 35 .. We then expand the first equation y1 = f1 and the results for the following equations.. The equations are linearized about the initially assumed values... we start with an approximate solution 0 (x1 . x2  x2 .. x2 . x 0 ... We need to note that the initial solution for the equations should be close to the actual solution..To be able to solve the above equations.. We assume a flat voltage profile i. the chances exist for the solution to diverge rather than converge. which reduces our chances of achieving a solution for the equations. x 0 respectively for 2 n the next better solution. which is satisfactory for almost all practical systems..3….. In fact this is the assumption which needs the initial solution close to the final solution..0+j0. After all the equations are linearized and arranged in a matrix form.e Vp=1.n. x 0 . x 0 ) ... xn as the corrections required for x1 . Here....2.. xn  xn ) 0  f1 (x1 . the 0 in the superscript implies the zeroth iteration in the process of solving 2 n the above equations.0 for p=1.. x 0 )  x10 2 n f1 x1 0  x2 x0 f1 x2 0  .  xn x0 f1 xn  1 x0 Where 1 is function of higher order of x8 and higher derivatives which are neglected according to N-R method... The equation y1 = f1 will be 0 0 0 0 y1  f1 ( x10  x10 ... In other respects.. 0 0 0 Assuming x10 ..

. 36 .. x 0 ) .....C f1  xn    x10  f 2   0  x xn   2      0   xn   f n   xn   Here the matrix J is called the Jacobian matrix.... x 0 ......... or (2) The largest element in the column vector (x1 . xn  xn )    x   1    0 0 0 0 0 0  yn  f n ( x1  x1 . f1  x 0 0 0 0 0 0  y1  f1 ( x1  x1 . The solution of the equations requires calculation of the vector B on the left hand side.. Similarly the Jacobian is calculated at this 2 n 0 0 assumption.. xn ) and the next better solution is obtained as follows: 1 x1  x10  x10 0 0 x1  x2  x2 2 0 0 x1  xn  xn n The better solution is now available and it is (x1 .. xn  xn )   1    f 2 0 0 0 0 y2  f 2 ( x10  x10 .. x2 . xn  xn )      f n  x1  f1 x2 f 2 x2 f n x2 B  J . xn ) is less than assumed value. Solution of the matrix equation gives (x10 . x1 ) 1 2 n With these values the iteration process is repeated till: (1) The largest element in the left column of the equations is less than the assumed value.. x2  x2 . x2  x2 . x2  x2 .... x1 ........ which is the difference of the specified 0 quantities and calculated quantities at (x1 .... x2 .

 P    Q    J1 J 2   e           J 3 J 4   f      37 . . . |Vn| (n _ 1) variables The linearized equations thus becomes. the unknown parameters consist of the (n .Temporarily assuming that all buses except bus 1. θ3. V2. . . θn (n _ 1) variables Magnitudes |V2|. are PQ buses. In terms of real variables. . . Vn. Thus.  P2  e  2  P3  P2   e2  P    3      Pn     Pn    e2  Q   Q  2  2  Q3   e2    Q    3  Qn   e2      Q  n   e2 P2 e3 P3 e3 Pn e3 Q2 e3 Q3 e3 Qn e3 P2 en P3 en Pn en Q2 en Q3 en Qn en P2 f 2 P3 f 2 Pn f 2 Q2 f 2 Q3 f 2 Qn f 2 P2 f 3 P3 f 3 Pn f 3 Q2 f 3 Q3 f 3 Qn f 3 P2  f n   P3  f n   e2      e3    Pn     f n   en   Q2   f 2    f n   f3    Q3     f n   f n     Qn   f n   In short form it can be written as. . . . .1) voltage phasors. . |V3|. . these are: Angles θ2.

q  p 38 . The off-diagonal elements of J1 are. the above set of equations becomes. Pp f q and the diagonal elements of J2 are  e p Bpq  f p G pq .If the system consists of all kinds of buses. Pp eq and the diagonal elements of J1 are  e pG pq  f p Bpq .  P   J1 J 2      e       Q    J J       3 4         f   2   | V p |   J 5 J 6  The elements of the Jacobian matrix can be derived from the three load flow equations used for N-R method. q  p Pp e p  2e p G pp  f p B pp  f p B pp   (e pG pq  f p B pq ) q 1 q p n  2e p G pp   (e p G pq  f p B pq ) q 1 q p n The off-diagonal elements of J2 are.

Qp eq and the diagonal elements are.Pp f p  2 f pG pp   ( f pG pq  e p Bpq ) q 1 q p n The off-diagonal elements of J3 are. q  p  2e p 39 .  | V p |2 eq  | V p |2 e p  0.  e p Bpq  f p G pq . Qp f q Qp f p  e pG pq  f p Bpq . q  p  2 f p Bpp   (eq G pq  f p Bpq ) q 1 q p n The off-diagonal and diagonal elements of J5 are. q  p Qp e p  2e p Bpp   ( f pG pq  eq Bpq ) q 1 q p n The off-diagonal and diagonal elements for J4 respectively are.

Now.Q and |V| at various buses are calculated.e zeroth iteration. Let Psp . The next desired solution would be: e1  e0  e0 p p p 1 f p  f p0  f p0 40 . q  p  2e p The next step is that we calculate the residual column vector containing the P .The off-diagonal and diagonal elements of J6 are. Pp  Psp  Pp0 0 Q p  Qsp  Q p V p  Vsp  V p0 2 2 2 where the superscript zero implies that the value calculated corresponding to initial assumption i. Then. the value of P. the desired increment vector   can be calculated by using any standard  f  technique. Qsp and |Vsp| be the specified quantities at the bus p. Q and the | V |2 . assuming a flat voltage profile. After calculating the Jacobian matrix and the residual column vector corresponding to the  e  initial solution.  | V p |2 f q  | V p |2 f p  0.

2. Set the bus count p=1. fix the reactive power generation to the corresponding limit and treat 41 . Set the iteration count K=0. Check if the bus p is a generator bus. using the equations derived for the same earlier.e. If it exceeds the limits. Calculate the real and reactive powers Pp and Qp respectively. If that is the case. We assume a flat voltage profile i. We assume a suitable solution for all the buses except the slack bus. 6. the process is repeated. skip to step 10. 4. 3. If that is the case.3. We then set a convergence criterion = ε i. 7.e. Vp=1. or else its terminated.0+j0.2.0. compare Q p with the limits. 3. if the largest of absolute of the residues exceeds ε.3 Newton-Raphson Algorithm 1. 5.We use these voltage values in the next iteration. p≠s.n. Vs=a+j0.…. Check if a bus is a slack bus.0 for p=1. This process keeps repeating and the better estimates for the voltages of the buses will be: ek 1  ek  ek p p p f pk 1  f pk  f pk We repeat this process until the magnitude of the largest element in the residual column vector is lesser than the assumed value. Evaluate Pp  Psp  Pp k k k 8.

So we compare only between Newton-Raphson and Gauss-Seidel solution methods. since Gauss-Seidel method is clearly superior. i. go to step 17. 16. Increment the bus count by 1. p = p+1 and finally check if all the buses have been taken into consideration. 11. Advance iteration count K=K+1 and go back to step 4. Taking the computer memory requirement into consideration. If lower limit is violated. go back to step 5. polar coordinates are preferred for solution based on 42 . 12. k k 2 2 spec  Vpk 2 10. 13. ek 1  ek  ek p p p and f p k 1 voltage  f pk  f pk .4 Comparison of Solution methods The other load flow solution method we did not discuss is the Gauss method. Determine the largest value among the absolute value of residue. Calculate the new bus ek p and f pk . 14. set Qsp=Qp min. Evaluate Qp  Qsp  Qp . 3.3. If the largest of the absolute value of the residue is less than ε. Vp  Vp 9. Evaluate the Jacobian matrix elements. Evaluate bus and line powers and output the results. If the limit is not violated evaluate the voltage residue. Evaluate cos  and sin  of all voltages.e. Or else. Calculate the voltage increments 15.the bus as a load bus for that iteration and go to the next step. because its convergence is much better. 17.

N-R method is found to be superior and more efficient than G-S method for large power systems.Newton-Raphson method whereas rectangular coordinates for Gauss-Seidel method. from the practical aspects of computational time and convergence characteristics. However. The convergence characteristics of N-R method are not affected by the selection of slack bus whereas the convergence characteristics of G-S method maybe seriously affected with the selection of the bus. the main advantage of G-S method over N-R method is the ease of programming and the efficient use of the computer memory. Nevertheless. and the number of iterations increase with the increase in the size of the system. The time taken to execute an iteration of computation is much smaller using Gauss-Seidel method in comparison to Newton-Raphson method. Even though N-R method can provide solutions to most of the practical power systems. it sometimes might fail in respect to some ill-conditioned problems. Gauss-Seidel method has higher number of iterations than N-R method for a particular system. but if we consider the number of iterations required. 43 .

2 44 . STATCOM consists of a coupling transformer.1 Fig 4. Fig 4.Chapter 4 Power Flow Analysis with STATCOM As discussed in the earlier chapter. we use a STATCOM for transmission voltage control by shunt compensation of reactive power. a converter and a DC capacitor. Usually. as shown in the figure below.

simultaneous DC and AC control can be achieved. Where Re(VstIst*)=VSt2gst – VpVst(gst cos(θp−θst)-bst sin(θp−θst) Control Function of STATCOM: The control of the STATCOM voltage magnitude should be such that the specified bus voltage and the STATCOM voltage should be equivalent and there should be no difference between them.Supposing that the voltage across the statcom is Vst∠ δst and the voltage of the bus is Vp∠ δp then we have Yst = 1/ Zst = gst + jbst Then the power flow constraints of the statcom are given by Pst = Vp2 gst − VpVst(gst cos(θp − θst) + bst sin(θp − θst)) Qst = −Vp2bst – VpVst(gst sin(θp − θst) − bst cos(θp − θst)) In our case we are using the STATCOM to control the reactive power at one of the buses to see its effect on the performance of the transmission system and infer useful conclusions from this. Thus it can work along with the other controllers in the network. We can ensure the stability of the power system by the proposed STATCOM controller design. PEx = Re(VstISt*)=0. The main constraint of the STATCOM while operating is that. the active power exchange via the DC link should be zero. 45 . knowing the limits of the variables and the parameters.e. This is done by the control of the voltage at the required bus. i. The bus control restraint will be F  Vp  Vsp  0 Where Vsp is the specified voltage for the bus. By proper design procedure. but not exactly knowing the power system parameters.

46 . The STATCOM has two equality criterion and two state variables Vst and  st .C Where Vst and δst are the two state variables of the STATCOM defined by the two equations given above.Implementation of STATCOM to a bus network: The Newton power flow equations for a bus system containing n number of buses. The Jacobian elements can be calculated by taking partial derivatives of the corresponding equations in the matrix. including a STATCOM are developed as follows  P2 P2  e3  e2  P3 P3  P2   e2 e3  P    3      P Pn    n e3  Pn   e2   Q   Q Q2  2  2 e3  Q3   e2    Q Q3    3 e3  Qn   e2    PEx    F   Qn Qn     e2 e3   PEx PEx  e2 e3  P2 en P3 en Pn en Q2 en Q3 en Qn en PEx en P2 f 2 P3 f 2 Pn f 2 Q2 f 2 Q3 f 2 Qn f 2 PEx f 2 P2 f 3 P3 f3 Pn f 3 Q2 f 3 Q3 f3 Qn f 3 PEx f 3 P2   f n  P3   f n   e2      e3    Pn     f n   en   Q2   f 2    f n   f3    Q3      f  f n  n    Vst   Qn    st    f n   PEx   f n  B  J .

Pp and Qp. Vp I *  V p ( k 1YpkVk )* p n Vp I P  Vp* ( k 1YpkVk ) n Considering V p  V p (cos  i  j sin  i ) Ypk  g pk  jbpk Vk  Vk (cos  k  j sin  k ) Rewriting the previous equations as: Pp  jQ p  V p* (Yp1V1  Yp 2V2  .. given by: F  Vp  Vsp The Jacobian matrix elements can be found out by partially differentiating the corresponding equations..The first equality is the real power balancing equation. given by: * PEx  Re(Vst I st ) And the second equality for the control restraint of the STATCOM..  VnVp {g pn cos( n   p )  bpn sin( n   p )} 1 Qp  VVp {g p1 sin(1   p )  bp1 cos(1   p )}  .  YpnVn )  V p*Yp1V  V p*Yp 2V  .  VnVk [{g kn cos( n   k )  bkn sin( n   k )}  j{ g kn ( n   k )  bkn cos( n   k )} Sorting out the real and imaginary parts. Pp  VVp {g p1 cos(1   p )  bp1 sin(1   p )}  .  YpnVnV p {cos( n   k )  j sin( n   k )}  V1Vk [{g k1 cos(1   k )  bk 1 sin(1   k )}  j{ g k 1 (1   k )  bk1 cos(1   k )}]  ..  VnVp {g pn sin( n   p )  bpn cos( n   p )} 1 47 . Elements of the Jacobian Matrix: The complex power injected at any bus p in a system is.e.... i..  V p*YpnVn  Yp1V1Vk {cos(1   k )  j sin(1   k )}  Yk 2V2Vk {cos( 2   k )  j sin( 2   k )  ...

48 .Taking the derivatives of Pp and Qp gives us the Jacobian matrix elements: Pp  k Q p  k Pp Vk Q p Vk  V pVk ( g pk sin( p   k )  bpk cos( p   k ))  V pVk ( g pk sin( p   k )  bpk cos( p   k ))  V p ( g pk cos( p   k )  bpk sin( p   k ))  V p ( g pk sin( p   k )  bpk cos( p   k )) The elements of the Jacobian can be found out from the above equations and put in the Newton-Raphson Power Flow solution.

let Te be the electromagnetic torque of the generator at synchronous speed of ωs. or a fault in the line. that is. This is known as the transient period and the behaviour of the system during this period is crucial in defining the stability of the system.1 Derivation of Swing Equations The swing equation describes the relative motion of the rotor with respect to the synchronously rotating airgap mmf wave. The angle between the two is δ and is known as the power angle or torque angle. 5. The operating point of the system may change after the adjustment of the system to a new operating point post fault. or the loss of a generator. During the 49 . We may have two main types of stability. During the transient period the system oscillates between multi stable points and thus it is important to damp these oscillations to bring the system to a stable operating state. steady state stability of the power system and transient stability. The synchronous generators should synchronize with each other after the fault is over.Chapter 5 Stability in power system Stability is the tendency of the power system to revert back to its original undisturbed state once the perturbations or disturbances are over. This may take a lot of time if the fault is severe. etc. Assuming synchronous operation of the generator connected to the power system. This disturbance may be caused due to a fault.

we get J d 2 m  Ta  Tm  Te dt 2 We then obtain the power equation by multiplying a factor of ωm. then we have. Tm=Te. Where ωs is the constant angular velocity. we get d 2 m d 2 m  dt 2 dt 2 Substituting the above values in the equation for the law of rotation.This is also known as the equation for the law of rotation. Also. Thus we derive the swing equation in terms of the inertia constant M as.synchronous operation of the generator the mechanical torque is equal to the electromagnetic torque. 50 . J m d 2 m d 2 m M  mTm  mTe  Pm  Pe dt 2 dt 2 Pm is the mechanical power and Pe is the electromagnetic power.e. M d 2 m  Pm  Pe dt 2 Where everything is expressed in the per unit system. And. we have m  st   m . Differentiating the above equation for the angular displacement twice. J d 2 m  Ta  Tm  Te dt 2 Where J is the moment of inertia for the prime mover and generator combined in Kg-m2. i. If the accelerating/decelerating torque Ta (=Tm-Te) is not equal to zero (Ta > 0 implying acceleration and Ta<0 implying deceleration) due to a disturbance.

we derive the equal area criterion which can be used for stability analysis of the system. The swing equation is M d 2 m  Pm  Pe dt 2 Multiplying both sides of the equation by 2dδ/dt.M 2H s Where H is the inertia constant. and then integrating with respect to time. we get  2M d 2 d  d .2 Equal Area criterion Using the swing equation. 5. dt   2( Pm  Pe ) dt 2 dt dt dt  d  M   2  ( Pm  Pe )d   dt  0 2  d 2  dt M  0  (P m  Pe )d   c Where δ0 is the initial torque angle before any disturbance occurs. 51 . When dδ/dt = 0 then the angle the angle δ will stop varying and the machine will be again be operating at synchronous speed post disturbance.

Here the output is more than the input and thus the rotor decelerates till speed becomes equal to the speed of the bus and the torque angle ceases to increase at point n. Initially for Pm the torque angle is δ0. The rotor accelerates along curve B till the faulted line is removed at m`. curve A represents the power angle curve corresponding to healthy condition of the system.1 In this case. At the instant of fault the output of the generator is given by O`.Fig 5. curve B represents the fault on the line. and curve C corresponds to the situation when the faulted line is removed. when the operating point becomes m on curve C. 52 . We can conclude that the transient stability depends on the type of disturbance as well as the clearing time of the breaker.

generation schedule.1 Case Study Fig 6. and accounts for all the losses associated with the transmission line as well as the generators.Chapter 6 6. and the reactive power limits for the buses are tabulated in the appendix. The base MVA is taken 53 .1 The 6 bus system shown above describes a transmission line network. is taken as the slack bus. voltage magnitude. The load data. Bus 1. with a voltage specified as.

Then we compare the graphs of the different buses with their respective faults. The transient stability due to the sudden fault at any point is analysed. Case 1: Using Hadi Saadat power system analysis toolbox.2 The fault is cleared at 0. First we analyse the system without the implementation of a STATCOM and see the results of the fault at different buses and removing different lines. 54 . we get Fig 6. Case 2: Similarly.1 secs for a simulation time of 2 secs. All the resistances.4) for the same simulation time and fault clearance time. we analyse for fault at bus 1 by removing lines (1. Thereafter we analyse the system with a STATCOM and check out the improvement if any. we analyse the 6 bus system and for fault at bus 6 with (5. and find out the point where it would be best suited to implement a STATCOM.as 100 MVA.6) being the lines removed. susceptances and other parameters are calculated on the basis of this MVA. reactances.

Fig 6. lines removed are (4.4 55 .6) Fig 6.3 Case 3: Fault at bus 4.

5) Fig 6.6) Fig 6. lines removed are (1.Case 4: Fault at 6. lines removed are (1.5 Case 5: Fault at 5.6 56 .

57 .Therefore we find out that fault at bus 5 causes the maximum excursion of rotor angle of Generator 2 and 3 with respect to Generator 1. Hence we put the STATCOM in shunt with the bus 5. Thus the bus 5 and STATCOM together have a total reactive power of 60 MVAr. and the value of STATCOM reactive power is assumed to be 30 MVAr. The angle of mismatch varies much in this case and it deviates much compared to the previous cases.7 Next we find from the graphs that the bus system without and with STATCOM and see the difference in rotor angle characteristics. STATCOM implementation: Fig 6. Improved rotor angles can be seen from both the graphs and the implementation of STATCOM has made the transient characteristics much better. Thus it would be an appropriate point for the implementation of STATCOM.

58 . We can see that the waveform of the rotor angle of generator 3 with respect to generator 1 shows much better characteristics with the STATCOM and the harmonics are removed due to its action. Thus for reactive power control.Fig 6. we find out that the value of the voltage and angle at bus 5 is 1. while changing the magnitude of the voltage of the STATCOM to deliver or absorb reactive power.8 The above graph shows the difference between the behaviour of the system with faults at all the connected buses without and with the STATCOM. we maintain the voltage angle of the STATCOM same as that of bus 5. From the power flow solution without the STATCOM.499.016∠-1.

---Generation--.000 105.000 0.000 0.000 5 1.000 70.040 3 1.030 0.335 0.776 0.000 0.941 -5.060 2 1.287 107.000 99.771 35.000 6 0.016 -1.401 100. Mag.000 0.008 -1.000 0. of Iterations = 4 Bus Voltage Angle No.607 160.000 210.000 0.6] lines removed is shown below.000 Total 350.000 30.800 0. Degree ------Load-----.000 0.000 0.470 0.6.000 0.000 0.000 355.Injected MW Mvar MW Mvar Mvar 1 1.670 0.000 1.000 0.000 150.000 110.000 100.000 0.000 4 1. Power Flow Solution by Newton-Raphson Method Maximum Power Mismatch = 1.000 59 .499 90. with [5.000 0.000 0.80187e-007 No.000 0.287 242.2 Output The MATLAB output for the six bus sytem without the STATCOM and for a fault at bus 6.

3517 .5435 .1491i 0.6] 60 .2.8260 13.3.1847 + 0.3644i 0.4821i 0.7467i 0.1925 + 0.1243i 0.2542 + 1.6904i 0.1913 .6904i 0. e.8875i 0.1243i 0.0173 + 0.2542 + 1. of the line to be removed must be entered within brackets.5849i 0.2.0644 Pm(i) 1.1427 . -> 6 Faulted Reduced Bus Admittance Matrix Ydf = 0.0529 1.2.0173 + 0.0523 + 0. The bus to bus nos.3644i 0.4821i 0.2.2035 1.1491i 0.Prefault reduced bus admittance matrix Ybf = 0.2617 .g.5000 1.1847 + 0.1925 + 0. 7] Enter the bus to bus Nos.6463i Fault is cleared by opening a line.0605 + 0.2781 1.3105 . of line to be removed -> [5.9856i 0.0605 + 0.2835i G(i) 1 2 3 E'(i) 1.8639i 0. [5.0523 + 0.1427 d0(i) 8.0000 Enter faulted bus No.9856i 0.3.9421 11.

0251i 0.5401i 0.5401i 0.1127i 0.1637 + 1. tf = 2.2859 .1 Enter final simulation time in sec.2622 + 1.8879i 0.1267 + 0.Postfault reduced bus admittance matrix Yaf = 0.2.6020 .7813i 0.1267 + 0.2622 + 1.3392 .1127i 0.2.0544i Enter clearing time of fault in sec.2.0251i 0. 61 . tc = 0.1637 + 1.

CONCLUSION The study of the basic principles of the STATCOM is carried out as well as the basics of reactive power compensation using a STATCOM. The bus system shows improved plots and the thus we can conclude that the addition of a STATCOM controls the output of a bus in a robust manner. 62 . A power flow model of the STATCOM is attempted and it is seen that the modified load flow equations help the system in better performance.

PU 0. 0 0 MVAr Limit Max.225 0. 4 5 6 4 5 6 6 Line Data R.175 ½ B. 140 90 Bus No.125 0.0000 0.0055 0.0300 Generator 1 2 3 Machine Ra 0 0 0 Data Xd’ 0.0035 0.026 X. Load Data Load MW 0 0 0 100 90 160 Bus No 1 2 3 4 5 6 Mvar 0 0 0 70 30 110 Bus no.215 0.000 0. maximum iterations = 10. accuracy (convergence ᶓ) = 0.25 H 20 4 5 63 .035 0.035 0.025 0.028 0.03 Generation Schedule Generation MW 150 100 MVAr Limit Min.040 0.0045 0. 1 2 3 Voltage Magnitude 1. PU 0.0001. basemva = 100.15 0. PU 0.042 0.APPENDIX The bus data and the transmission line data for the six bus system described above is given below.20 0.105 0.04 1.06 1.000 0.0065 0. 1 1 1 2 3 4 5 Bus No.0000 0.

Wadhwa. [5] Juan Dixon. Stevenson. 2003.Zhang. Design and Implementation of VSC based STATCOM For Reactive power Compensation And Harmonic Filtering. Electrical Power Systems. Middle East Technical University. Ricardo Domke.L. [3] Narain Hingorani & L. 2009. [10] W. Universidad de Concepcion. Reactive Power compensation Technologies. Power System Analysis. M. Luis Moran. Delhi College of Engineering. [7] Ashok Kumar Bajia Development of power flow model of a STATCOM. Tambey & M. Concepts and Technology of Flexible AC Transmission Systems. L. Universidad Federico Sta. 150. University Of Missouri. – Generation.D. L. WCB McGraw Hill. L. Gyugi. C. [4] N. Jose Rodriguez. 2009 [2] Hadi Saadat. Dong. Maria. IEE Proc. McGrawHill.Shen. 1999. Understanding FACTS. Distribution. [6] Alper Cetin. 2007. [9] Zhiping Yang. Crow. Chen Shen. New Age International Publishers. Damping of power system oscillations with unified power flow controller (UPFC). Pontificia Universisdad Catolica de Chile. 2000. Z. An Improved STATCOM Model for Power Flow Analysis. Kothari.References: [1] C. 2000. 64 . Yang. Transmission. Vol. State-of-the-Art Review. IEEE Press. Lingli Zhang. A Reconfigurable FACTS System For University Laboratories.1975 . [8] L. Crow. Elements Of Power System Analysis. Mariesa L.