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June 2011 Vol. 29 Issue 6

MONDay DeveLOPMeNts MaGaziNe


the Latest issues and trends in international Development and Humanitarian assistance

Refugees Migration
and
www.mondaydevelopments.org
InterAction 1400 16th Street NW, Suite 210 Washington, DC 20036

the troubling state of

Cash Transfers 2.0 Climate Displacement Whos at the Table?


NGO Diversity: Preparing for

Communications Technology

Local Development in

MONDay DeveLOPMeNts MaGaziNe

THIS ISSUE
June 2011

21 Local Development in communications technology

DepArtmeNtS
4 reflections from the President 5 infobytes 25 best Practices 29 events 30 job Opportunities
[Also visit our online job board at careers.interaction.org]

Vol. 29 No. 6

Why we need participatory design for technology innovation. By Samuel Suraphel

22 Dollars for Lives, Dollars for jobs

Boosting the U.S. economy while contributing to global health successes. By Kaitlin Christenson and Kimberley Lufkin

23 beyond banks: cash transfers 2.0

Electronic payments technology in humanitarian assistance in Kenya. By Glenn Hughson and Breanna Ridsdel

23

FeAtureS
8 conflict and violence-induced internal Displacement

13 the refugee convention at 60

The challenge of a humanitarian response. By Eric P. Schwartz

A global overview of trends and developments in 2010. By Kate Halff

15 iraqi refugees Need a Workable Option


The viability of durable solutions must be questioned. By Megan Prinster Sheehan

10 Fleeing Libya

10 19

A photo essay by Jonathan Alpeyrie.

11 Preparing for climate Displacement


In 2008 more people were internally displaced by natural disasters than conflict. Are we ready to respond to this new trend? By Alice Thomas

17 a Pipeline for Diversity

Creatively tackling the issue of diversity in the international NGO community. By Nina Segal and Marquis Brown

19 Whos at the table?


Americas face is multi-ethnic, but developments is not. By Tawana Jacobs

11

15
JUNE 2011 MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS 3

Reflections from the President

MONDay DeveLOPMeNts MaGaziNe

Changing Our Methods after 60 Years


This year marks the 60th anniversary of the Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees and the creation of the Office of the United Nations High
Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR). Over the last six decades, UNHCR and international NGOs providing humanitarian assistance have been instrumental in helping 50 million people restart their lives after war, political violence and displacement. While we applaud these successes, the need for aid for the displaced is growing. In 2009, UNHCR counted 15.2 million refugees and 27.1 million internally displaced people (IDPs) in the world. Four-fifths of these refugees were found in developing countries, while the internally displaced were found in 22 countries, mainly ones engulfed in conflict. As these numbers suggest, the nature of displacement has changed over time. Where once people fleeing persecution and conflict almost always crossed an international border and qualified for refugee status, now most remain within their country of origin, becoming IDPs. The situation in the eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo exemplifies the complexity of responding to displacement today. The constantly changing frontlines make it difficult for UNHCR to set up permanent camps and for the displaced to get there. This leaves thousands seeking food, shelter and protection primarily from host communities, making them vulnerable to manipulation and attack by armed groups. In other countries, such as the current situation in Libya, UNHCR is unable to work in government-controlled areas, as international norms obligate it to receive permission from the host government to provide its services. The internally displaced therefore received little help unless and until they are able to cross into a neighboring country. Another shift is the increasing incident of refugees seeking asylum in urban areas. More and more InterAction members are finding that refugees are not content to stay in semipermanent camps with their basic needs fulfilled by UNHCR and international NGOs. Instead, they seek to move to cities where they have more freedom of movement and are better placed to find work, usually in the informal sector. Some even return home periodically to bring goods and money to their families who remain behind. While not fitting the traditional approach to refugee protection, the flight to urban areas is arguably better for refugees in light of recent criticisms of camp populations becoming dependent on international aid and reluctant to return to their previous ways of life. The challenge is ensuring that the special needs of urban refugees are met even though they are living in a larger and more economically viable area. How do we locate refugees and organize services in an urban area? How do we ensure their needs are met without providing them with more assistance than the host community? How do we distinguish a refugee from an economic migrant within such a landscape? There are no easy answers to any of these questions. Recent natural disasters in Haiti and Japan have shown us that the international community is not well equipped for urban emergency response. We must begin to adapt our tactics to the evolving definition of a refugee in the modern era. We must be flexible: Refugees are not simply people who dwell in crowded camps, but often empowered individuals determined to make their own way. Dealing with the complex realities of increasing numbers of internally displaced people, changing frontlines and swelling urban refugee populations makes it even more difficult to ensure that we do not ignore the needs and sacrifices made by the host communities. As we celebrate 60 years and 50 million people assisted, lets reflect on how to adapt our tactics and definitions to the conditions of the 21st century in order to protect 50 million more. MD

Managing Editor/Creative Director Chad Brobst Advertising/Subscriptions Zoe Plaugher Copy Editor Kathy Ward Executive Editor Sue Pleming News Editor Tawana Jacobs Proofreader Margaret Christoph Monday Developments Magazine is published by: InterAction 1400 16th Street, NW, Suite 210 Washington, DC 20036 Tel: 202.667.8227 publications@interaction.org ISSN 1043-8157

in 2009, UNHcr counted 15.2 million refugees and 27.1 million internally displaced people (iDPs) in the world.

Monday Developments Magazine is published 11 times a year by InterAction, the largest alliance of U.S.-based international development and humanitarian nongovernmental organizations. With more than 190 members operating in every developing country, InterAction works to overcome poverty, exclusion and suffering by advancing social justice and basic dignity for all. InterAction welcomes submissions of news articles, opinions and announcements. Article submission does not guarantee inclusion in Monday Developments. We reserve the right to reject submissions for any reason. It is at the discretion of our editorial team as to which articles are published in individual issues. All statements in articles are the sole opinion and responsibility of the authors. Articles may be reprinted with prior permission and attribution. Letters to the editor are encouraged. A limited number of subscriptions are made available to InterAction member agencies as part of their dues. Individual subscriptions cost $40 a year (add $15 for airmail delivery outside the U.S.) Samples are $5, including postage. Additional discounts are available for bulk orders. Please allow 4-6 weeks for delivery. Advertising rates are available on request.

Sam Worthington President and CEO InterAction

MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS JUNE 2011

InfoBytes

To keep up-to-date on community news between issues, follow us on: Facebook www.facebook.com/interaction.org Twitter twitter.com/interactionorg

House FY2012 Budget Resolution Proposes 30% Cut to International Affairs Spending
With the fiscal year (FY) 2011 budget finally passed, Congress has begun work on the FY2012 budget. Before the FY2011 budget was finalized, House Budget Committee Chair Paul ryan (r-WI) proposed a budget for FY2012 with a nonbinding recommendation for a 30 percent cut to the International Affairs account. the House voted on ryans proposal in April, and passed it by a vote of 135-193. See a full analysis chart of the budget at www.interaction.org/demystifying-foreign-assistance, on the resources page. though several alternative budgets were proposed with different levels and mixtures of proposed cuts, none of the others passed. the

Senate will also need to draft and pass a separate budget resolution. A budget resolution only sets the overall discretionary spending level. Discretionary spending is money that Congress has to approve, and is different from mandatory spending (programs like Social Security and medicare), which is authorized by law and is not subject to the congressional appropriations process. A budget resolutions proposed levels for the individual budget functions (like International Affairs) within the overall budget are purely advisory. the Appropriations Committee chair will divide the total discretionary budget between the appropriations subcommittees, a process called 302(b) sub-allocations. Because the Democratic Senate will have a far different budget resolution, there will likely have to be a great deal of negotiation between

the two chambers before a final budget resolution is accepted on both sides. For a full description of the federal budget process, see the October 2009 monday Developments Washington update column, passing the Federal Budget (available online at www. mondaydevelopments.org).

Google for Nonprofits


recently, Google has consolidated several of its programs that it has offered free or at reduced costs to nonprofits under one website: www.google.org/nonprofits. In addition to Google earth and various Google applications, the Google Grants program for in-kind advertising grants has also been included in this website. the biggest benefit of this new website is that there is now

just one single application that a nonprofit must fill out, and when the approval comes through, all of the associated tools are available for that nonprofits use. previously, each tool or program had a separate application process. If your organization already participates in one of these programssuch as the advertising grantsand wants to continue using only those same programs, then you do not need to reapply. If, however, you want to add any of the others, then you can reapply just once and have the entire suite available to you. the website also has tips and advice for ways your nonprofit can maximize its voice and impact with these tools. For more information, including a complete list of the available tools and some videos on their use, visit the Google for Nonprofits website.

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JUNE 2011 MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS

InfoBytes

InterAction Welcomes New Members


InterAction is pleased to announce the following new members: community. Its mission is to: help people overcome the devastating effects of poverty and develop the capacity to create a new future for themselves and their communities; and provide responsible ways for people with charitable hearts to help the poor to a better life. All of its programs are designed to build the capacity of the people involved. Its experience has shown that the best way to foster sustainable change is to build the ability of the poor to help themselves. Outreach Interna-

Outreach international engages the public on issues of poverty awareness and eradication, and understanding the inter-relatedness of the global

tional does this through a process called participatory Human Development. this grassroots development approach enables communities to act on issues of shared concern and build accountability and transparency by involving the marginalized poor. Outreach International provides training and technical support to NGOs and municipal governments. Its senior field staff provide consulting and training to a variety of NGOs and other organizations to help build mission effectiveness and improve work outcomes in poor communities.

Pan american Health and education Foundation (PaHeF) works with the pan American Health Organization (pAHO) and other strategic partners in the Americas to mobilize resources and jointly address key health, education and training priorities. Initiatives address the most pressing health issues in Latin America and the Caribbean, particularly chronic diseases and healthy aging, immunizations, neglected tropical diseases and health education. Its Small Grants

Countdown to Deauville: Development Priorities for the G8 Summit


On January 24, French president Nicolas Sarkozy laid out his governments priorities for the 2011 G8 Summit in Deauville, France on may 26-27. Besides proposing discussions on the Internet, green growth and innovation, and various peace and security concerns, president Sarkozy also prioritized various development-related issues for the G8 Summits agenda. At this years summit, G8 leaders will continue their long-term focus on African development efforts, which date back to the June 2002 G8 Summit when leaders adopted the Africa Action plan in response to the New partnership for Africas Development (NepAD). Furthermore, the may summit will continue examining food security and global health issues and monitor progress made on G8 commitments in these areas, most prominently through the G8-created LAquila Food Security Initiative and the muskoka Initiative on maternal, Newborn and Child Health. Based in part on president Sarkozys January 24 press conference, InterActions G8/G20 task Force shortly thereafter released its G8 Summit policy brief u.S. Leadership at the may G8 Summit. the paper provides background information and outlines recommendations in the areas of food security, agriculture and nutrition; maternal, newborn and child health; and accountability that it urges the Obama administration to consider while preparing for Deauville. the brief recommends: dination, accountability and investment to achieve millennium Development Goals 4 and 5 through active support of the uN SecretaryGenerals Global Strategy on Womens and Childrens Health. 2. Coordinate donor funding to support integration of services within the health sector and with other development sectors, and ensure equitable access to health services across the full continuum of care.

accountability
1. Direct the G8 Accountability Working Group (AWG) to seek outside input to inform its reporting. 2. When the AWG establishes a new expert group, make public its terms of reference and the names and affiliations of all of the experts; then update the information in a timely and transparent fashion. 3. require that the AWG conduct a comprehensive evaluation of all G8 commitments, make it publically available 30 days before each summit and hold a public comment period. 4. publicly release the AWGs upcoming report on the G8s LAquila Food Security Initiative and health commitments, expenditures and evaluations 30 days prior to this years summit. make a similar public release before the relevant summit a requirement for all AWG reports going forward and publish the report schedule (with probable topics) through 2015. With these policy recommendations in hand, InterActions G8/G20 task Force met with Obama administration officials from the Departments of State, treasury and Agriculture as well as the National Security Council and the u.S. Agency for International Development. these officials are members of the u.S. governments G8/G20 Interagency task Force responsible for determining the policy positions that the u.S. G8/G20 Sherpa michael Froman advances prior to the summits. InterActions post-G8 Summit analysis will appear in Julys mD.

Food security, agriculture and Nutrition


1. Fully fund the LAquila $22 billion pledge. 2. rebalance donor funds to improve nutrition and reach small-scale producers. 3. Integrate resilience to climate change and civil society partnerships into food security plans.

Maternal, Newborn and child Health (MNcH)


1. Implement the mNCH commitments made under the 2010 muskoka Initiative and ensure the necessary international engagement, coor-

Steven rocker, Sr. Advocacy and research Associate, InterAction

MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS JUNE 2011

InfoBytes

associate Membership in interaction


In 2009, InterAction member CeOs and the board of directors endorsed a strategic expansion of InterActions current membership structure and approved creation of an Associate member category. InterAction then began considering institutions that would meet the eligibility criteria and decided to first approach educational institutions with development or/and humanitarian programs. InterAction is now broadening its non-voting associate membership to include other institutions beyond universities. Applications are now being accepted from qualified institutions such as: think tanks interested in foreign assistance; religious institutions that advocate concerning our issues; Foundations active in funding our community; Social entrepreneurship investment organizations; and Community service organizations. All Associate member applicants must embody a philosophy that reflects InterActions values of partnership, humanitarianism, sustainable development, justice, diversity, ethical practice and gender equity. Associate members will pay dues, calculated on their total budgets, at a rate of 50 percent of full member dues, and will need to meet the Section I Self Certification plus requirements of InterAction pVO standards (non-program standards). Questions regarding the application process should be directed to taina Alexander in the membership and Standards office at talexander@interaction.org. program supports high-impact projects to promote healthy aging, fight childhood obesity and combat chronic diseases. For 22 years, pAHeF has worked with merck and pAHO to support ministries of health in six countries to reach populations at risk of contracting river blindness. Another pAHeF programs fights meningitis by improving surveillance and characterization of meningococcal disease in the Latin American region; and its Safe Biotech Initiative educates physicians and patients about the present and future impact of biotechnology on human health and its importance for Latin American societies. nonprofit organization dedicated to creating, supplying and strengthening food banks and food bank networks throughout the world. It supports the largest nongovernmental network devoted to fighting hunger and is the only such private sector network operating on the global level. GFN does this by supporting food banks and food bank networks where they exist and by working collaboratively to create them in communities where they are needed. GFN pursues and maintains strong partnerships with the grocery products industry, the NGO community, global philanthropic resources and others focused on reducing hunger and improving nutrition. It uses these partnerships to help deliver resources to expand the reach and improve the effectiveness of existing food banks and food bank networks. In any given country, GFNs efforts focus on the particular needs of the food banking system

in that country. examples include expanding food sourcing capacity, enhancing handling and logistics capacity, developing or enhancing the networks relationship with government, and improving training and network development expertise.

InterAction is also pleased to welcome as an Associate member the Global Masters in Development Practice secretariat of the earth institute at columbia University, established in response to a core recommendation of the International Commission on education for Sustainable Development practice funded by the John D. and Catherine t. macArthur Foundation. the secreInsideNGOAd:Layout 1 copy 1 12/16/10 4:22 PM Page 1 MD tariat serves as the umbrella orga-

nization overseeing all Global masters in Development practice (mDp) programs and activities worldwide. Secretariat functions include helping to manage the mDp program, developing an open-source repository for the mDp curriculum and other teaching materials, and offering online global courses on development practice for students worldwide. A partnership with InterAction will help the secretariat develop and update the mDp curriculum with real-life insights from the field and increase salient field training opportunities for mDp students. mutually beneficial for all partners, it will enhance capacity to coordinate across sectors, connect with relevant individuals and institutions, and integrate innovative approaches into sustainable development education and practice.

260 member organizations worldwide know the value of a network the power of knowledge
InsideNGO provides international relief and development organizations with one stop for keeping current on international operations issues. For information on training, advocacy, professional development, and membership go to: www.InsideNGO.org or email info@InsideNGO.org

the mission of the Global Food banking Network (GFN) is to alleviate hunger. It is the only

JUNE 2011 MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS

iDPs

internal Displacement
A global overview of trends and developments in 2010.
By Kate Halff, Head of the Internal Displacement Monitoring Center, Norwegian Refugee Council

conflict and violence-induced

he number of people displaced within their country due to conflict or violence (IDPs) rose to 27.5 million in 2010, the highest figure reported in a decade. This information was released in late March by the Norwegian Refugee Councils Geneva-based Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre (IDMC), which, since 1998 at the request of the UN, monitors trends and developments related to internal displacement worldwide. IDMCs annual report, the Internal Displacement: Global Overview of Trends and Developments in 2010 identified Colombia, Sudan, Iraq, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), Somalia and Pakistan as the six countries with the highest figures of IDPs at the end of the year. Of these, Colombia, Sudan and Somalia each had over 1 million IDPs throughout the last decade. Africa was the only continent with a decrease in its number of IDPs, confirming the continuation of the sustained downward trend since 2004. Nevertheless, it remains the continent with the highest number of IDPs40 percent of the global total. IDPs in Sudan, DRC and Somalia represent 70 percent of all IDPs in Africa, while IDPs in Sudan alone account for over 40 percent of the continents total. A significant, positive development in Africa is the adoption of the Kampala Convention, the first regional instrument in the world to impose legal obligations on states in relation to the protection and assistance of IDPs. The Convention will come into force once it has been ratified by 15 African Union member states. In the Middle East, the number of IDPs has more than tripled over the last 10 years, as a result both of the escalation of conflict in Iraq and Yemen and of protracted situations of displacement in Syria, Lebanon and the occupied Palestinian Territories. In Asia, the total number of IDPs has increased by 70 percent
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4
(1) Roma IDPs in a Belgrade informal settlement, Serbia; (2) Internally displaced family in Faryab Province, Afghanistan. (3) People forced to flee Colombias conflict or violence by armed groups have often gathered in cities. In the city of Tumaco on the south-east coast, they have built houses on stilts to remain clear of the tide. (4) IDPs on the outskirts of Yei town, Sudan. They have no other source of water than the nearest river, where it is unsafe to drink. These IDPs arrived in Yei from the north of Southern Sudan, but because they were illegally occupying abandoned plots, they had to move again.

Photo: IDMC/N. Sluga

Photo: NRC/Erik Tresse

Photo: NRC/Christen Jepsen

Photo: IDMC/Barbara McCallin

Turkey FYR Macedonia 954,000 1,201,000 650 Serbia About 225,000 Kosovo 18,300 Croatia 2,300

Russian Federation Armenia 6,500 78,000 At least 8,000

Azerbaijan Up to 593,000

Uzbekistan About 3,400

Turkmenistan Undetermined Kyrgyzstan About 75,000 Afghanistan At least 352,000

Georgia Up to 258,000

Bosnia and Herzegovina 113,400


Cyprus Up to 208,000 Israel Undetermined Occupied Palestinian Territory At least 160,000 Chad 171,000 Mexico About 120,000 Algeria Undetermined Iraq 2,800,000 Sri Lanka Syria At least At least 327,000 433,000 Lebanon At least 76,000 Yemen About 250,000 Indonesia Eritrea About 200,000 About 10,000 Ethiopia About 300,000 Somalia About 1,500,000 Kenya About 250,000 Uganda At least 166,000 Rwanda Undetermined Pakistan At least 980,000 Nepal About 50,000 India At least 650,000
Bangladesh Undetermined

Senegal 10,00040,000 Liberia Undetermined Cte dIvoire Undetermined Togo Undetermined Niger Undetermined Nigeria Undetermined Sudan 4,500,000 5,200,000 CAR 192,000 Republic of the Congo Up to 7,800 DRC About 1,700,000

Laos Undetermined The Philippines At least 15,000 Myanmar At least 446,000


Timor-Leste Undetermined

Guatemala Undetermined Colombia 3,600,0005,200,000 Peru About 150,000

Internally displaced people worldwide December 2010

Burundi Angola Undetermined Up to 100,000 Zimbabwe 570,0001,000,000

map courtesy NRC

since 2005, due mainly to an increase in internal displacement in Pakistan and Afghanistan. It is likely though that the total figures remain much higher than the 4.6 million total reported in the Global Overview, as the more access to information in countries such as India or Myanmar the higher the IDP estimates. Increasingly, IDMC has been reporting displacement as a result of armed violence, such as in Mexico where violence is related to drug cartel and gang violence. At the end of 2010, IDMC reported a higher figure of new displaced in Mexico than in Afghanistan. Violence related to land grabbing such as in Colombia or South Sudan or due to resource extraction such as in eastern DRC is also causing displacement. The Global Overview shows that most conflicts that caused new displacement during 2010 were ongoing, internal conflicts between governments and armed opposition groups, as in Pakistan, DRC, Darfur in Sudan and Somalia. The only new conflict that resulted in displacement in 2010 was in Kyrgyzstan. In all of the above countries, high figures for new displacement were reported alongside high figures for return, highlighting the fluidity and complexity of the situations. This increase in global figures has resulted not only from new displacement but also the difficulty that IDPs have in achieving

durable solutions. It is estimated that over half of the worlds IDPs are caught in situations of protracted displacement, whereby they are discriminated against as a result of their displacement and their progress towards durable solutions is stalled. In 2010, there were over 40 countries in the world with a significant number of IDPs living in situations of protracted displacement, some of them for close to two decades. Since the Global Overview was written, massive displacement has taken place in Libya and Cte dIvoire, where over 1 million people were forced to flee their homes. Many of them are still not able to access humanitarian assistance because of insecurity in some areas of the country. IDPs remain a group at risk with specific protection and assistance needs. The 2010 Global Overview highlights a number of protection concerns that demonstrate that IDPs remain at risk of physical insecurity and discrimination even at their place of refuge and sometimes, such as in DRC, after having returned home. A significant number of IDPs live in urban areas in practically all the countries monitored by IDMC. Initial findings from case studies indicate that IDPs are more likely to be urbanized than the rest of the population. This reality means that humanitarian organizations
continued on page 29

JUNE 2011 MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS

Libya

Clockwise from top: A refugees makeshift tent; Migrant workers from Sudan; A female refugee is served food by a Tunisian NGO; A Tunisian soldier makes sure refugees behave while waiting in line for food.

Libya

Fleeing

Tens of thousands of migrant workers have crossed into Tunisia due to Libyas recent internal conflict. Most have found their way into camps only 10 miles from the border. Migrant workers from Sudan, Burkina Faso, Ivory Coast, Somalia, Bangladesh, Niger, and Nigeria have lost everything and are attempting to return home. It is estimated that about 1,000 refugees cross into Tunisia each day. Photos by Jonathan Alpeyrie.

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MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS JUNE 2011

cLiMate DisPLaceMeNt

Preparing for

climate Displacement
In 2008 more people were internally displaced by natural disasters than conflict. Are we ready to respond to this new trend?
By Alice Thomas, Program Manager, Bacon Center for Climate Displacement, Refugees International

Ny DISCUSSION ABOUT REFUgees and displacement must now also acknowledge this truth: Climate displacement is happening today and will increase in the future as the full effects of climate change unfold. Each day, more and more people are being forced from their homes by weather-related disasters and changing climactic conditions. Take, for example, the current situation facing Colombia. Four months after President Santos declared a state of emergency due to massive flooding, a serious humanitarian crisis still exists in many parts of the country. I recently visited dozens of communities there that are still without water and sanitation, as well as numerous areas where people are living in sub-human conditions in makeshift shelters. The situation is particularly alarming in Atlntico, where the breach of the Dique Canal has left large areas still underwater. But getting the public and policymakers to see the Colombia floods and other recent disasters not only as a portent of things to come but also as an indication that climate change is already occurring is likely to prove challenging. This is due in part to the inability of scientists to prove that any one storm, drought or flood was caused by global warming as opposed to a variety of other factors that affect weather. As early as 1990, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change concluded that one of the most significant impacts of climate change will be on human mobility. And the most immediate way in which climate change affects displacement is through an increase in the frequency and severity of extreme weather events, such as storms, floods and droughts. In addition, more gradual changes brought on by global warming will lead to deserti-

fication, water scarcity, declining fisheries and decreased agricultural output causing people to migrate in order to support natural resource-dependent livelihoods. According to the Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre, in 2008 (the year for which the most recent data is available) more than 36 million people were displaced within their own countries as a result of suddenonset natural disasters, which over the past several decades have increased in force and frequency. Many more were likely uprooted by slow-onset events like droughts. Compare this to the 25 million internally displaced by conflict and human rights abuses. But the current international legal framework does not afford protection to people who are forced to cross

international borders due to environmental or climate change factors, often erroneously referred to as climate change refugees or environmental refugees. And herein lies the problem with those descriptors. From a refugee rights perspective, the term climate change refugee is meaningless. The 1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees defines a refugee as someone who is outside the country of his or her nationality owing to well-founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group or political opinion. Since then, fleeing persecution has become an accepted rationale for claiming international protection. However, the status of people fleeing from sudden-onset natural disasters or of those who may migrate as a result of sloweronset events like drought or desertification is far less clear. Thus, under international law, there is no coherent or consistent approach to the protection needs of people displaced by climate change-related events. This gap in the current global protection regime will have to be addressed if climate change has anywhere near the profound impact currently projected. Whether on an international or regional basis, frameworks or legal instruments must be put in place recognizing that millions of people may need temporary protection as the result of climate change. One of the goals of Refugees Internationals

Photo: Sangoiri

JUNE 2011 MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS

11

cLiMate DisPLaceMeNt

climate displacement program is to identify the ways in which climate-induced displacement differs from displacement that results from conflict, and therefore requires a different response. Last years devastating floods in Pakistan provide a case in point. Unlike conflict, natural disasters like the flooding in Pakistan often strike with little or no advance warning. Thus, there is limited opportunity to scale up or mobilize resources to respond. In addition, in the case of sudden-onset disasters like floods or storms, the displacement occurs over a very short period of time and often on a very large scale. In Pakistan, the floods forced millions from their homes. yet most people were displaced for only a short period of time. Unlike conflict situations, affected populations were not constrained from returning by ongoing warfare or violence. Unfortunately in Pakistan, the humanitarian community was not prepared for the quick rate of return. People returned to areas where homes and belongings had been ruined or swept away. The floods had also wiped out basic infrastructure such as roads, water, electricity,

Children in front of their flooded home in Colombia bathe in stagnant flood waters.

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MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS JUNE 2011

Photo: Alice Thomas, Refugees International

reFUGee resPONse

sanitation and the like. And the humanitarian community was not there to help them. U.S. policymakers must confront the fact that the current budget for humanitarian efforts in disaster response is and will continue to be insufficient as natural disasters increase in frequency. If the United States wants to continue to lead the world in humanitarian assistance, increased flexible funding for the State Departments Bureau of Population, Refugees and Migration (PRM) and USAIDs Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance (OFDA) will be critical to ensure a quicker and more effective response to more frequent disasters. The White House Council on Environmental Qualitys Interagency Climate Change Adaptation Task Force has called for an integrated and long-term approach to climate change that leverages the full technical capacities of the federal government to lead on adaptation internationally. Today, it is unclear to what extent the issue of climate change has been mainstreamed into USAIDs disaster risk reduction (DRR), response, recovery or longer-term development efforts in climatevulnerable countries. For example, U.S. bilateral assistance to climate vulnerable countries must view development through a climate change lens. Likewise, relief and early recovery programs implemented by OFDA must link up with climate change adaptation programs recognizing that climate change cuts across all sectors of relief and development assistance. Moving forward, the United States must recognize the importance of a greater investment in DRR and building preparedness in high-risk countries. Recent experience in Colombia, Pakistan and other disasters has shown that DRR investments must be focused at the local level, as it is often local governments and communities that not only have the requisite knowledge of risks and circumstances in order to plan for disasters but also are the first to respond when disaster strikes. Congress should also appropriate new and additional funds to help the worlds poorest countries adapt to climate change. Ramping up the amount of money we spend to build the resilience of vulnerable populations so they are better able to cope with both natural hazards and more gradual environmental changes will address and reinforce broader anti-poverty and security goals, and result in substantial savings over the long termboth financial and in terms of limiting loss of human life. MD

UNHCR supports the reintegration of refugees from the Democratic Republic of the Congo as they rebuild their lives after years of conflict and displacement.

the refugee convention at 60


The challenge of a humanitarian response.
By Eric P. Schwartz, Assistant Secretary of State for Population, Refugees, and Migration, U.S. Department of State

HIS yEAR MARKS THE 60TH ANNIversary of the Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees and it is a good time to reflect on progress and prospects for international humanitarian protection and assistance. Through the Convention and its 1967 Protocol, countries around the world have held themselves to high standards for safeguarding the well-being and rights of those who seek asylum on their shores. At home, the 1980 Refugee Act guides our own efforts to vindicate the most noble values in refugee protection. In the decades since the adoption of the Refugee Convention, governments, international organizations and NGOs have developed an array of legal instruments and best practices to create a stronger web of protection for those displaced by conflict, from the Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement to the Sphere Project Humanitarian

Charter and Minimum Standards in Humanitarian Response. Inevitably, the challenges ahead seem more formidable than the progress achieved over the past 60 years. Around the world, there are still more than 15 million refugees who have been uprooted from their homes and forced to live in difficult and often unacceptable conditions. There are more than 30 protracted refugee situations throughout the world, the majority of them in African and Asian countries that are struggling to meet the needs of their own citizens. At the same time, some 27 million people around the world remain displaced within their own countries due to conflict and persecution. So at this key moment, it is fitting that we ask ourselves: How are we doing? Abroad and at home, are we doing everything possible to defend and to promote the human rights,
JUNE 2011 MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS 13

Photo: Wendy Henning, U.S. Department of State

reFUGee resPONse

the well-being and the empowerment of the worlds most vulnerable uprooted people? That is the critical question that should inform our work, because these goalsdefending rights, and promoting well-being and empowermentare the essence of protection. On this important anniversary, let me suggest several critical challenges in responding to the needs of refugees and others displaced by conflict that merit our focus and sustained attention in the months and years ahead. First, it is essential that humanitarians embrace broad and more integrated perspectives on protection, both conceptually and operationally. Whether or not protection has ever been the exclusive domain of the specially mandated agencies such as UNHCR, protection is now a collective responsibility that involves vigilance and action by the full range of UN agencies, nongovernmental organizations, international organizations, donor governments and hosting governments. While first asylum and nonrefoulement must remain at the heart of international refugee protection efforts, we must all rise to other protection challenges as well, such as combating genderbased violence and sexual exploitation and abuse, promoting freedom of movement, security and rights related to personal status, and many others. Humanitarians must also be responsible advocates and must weave a protective approach more deeply into the design of programs relating to food, shelter, health, sanitation, among otherswhat some call the mainstreaming of protection. The challenge is to develop and further refine best practices that seek to empower local communities in such efforts. Humanitarians know best that conflictinduced displacement crises do not have humanitarian solutions. From Congo to Cte dIvoire to Kyrgystan, good governance, political reconciliation and the peaceful settlement of disputes are the critical enablers for security and well-being. Without compromising the impartiality of humanitarian response, humanitariansespecially those of us in governmentmust press to ensure a sustained focus on these objectives. Second, humanitarians in government, spurred on by the scrutiny from NGOs and others in civil society, must more effectively strive to practice at home what we preach abroad. This includes our policies on temporary protection, treatment of asylum-seekers and durable solutions for individuals inter14 MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS JUNE 2011

dicted at sea. The U.S. Refugee Admissions Program resettled more than 73,000 persons last year and we have taken serious and substantial measures to increase the support that resettled refugees receive in the first months after they arrive. yet there is so much more we should do to improve the initial experience of those coming to our shores for the first time, as well as the longer-term experience newcomers face, beyond their first 30 to 90 days in our country. For instance, I remain deeply concerned by the absence of intensive, longerterm case management for those seeking to navigate the myriad challenges of integration in the first year or two of residence. Third, humanitarians in government and civil society must translate our growing appreciation of the imperative to address the

Humanitarians know best that conflict-induced displacement crises do not have humanitarian solutions.
needs of underserved populations into actual programs and practices. At the State Departments Bureau of Population, Refugees, and Migration (PRM) in particular, this will mean additional advocacy, programs and resources to combat the phenomenon of statelessness; to address the requirements of non-camp, urbanbased refugees and conflict-affected populations; and to develop durable solutions for protracted refugee situations from Afghans in Pakistan and Bhutanese in Nepal to Burmese in Thailand and Somalis in Kenya. Fourth, we must transform our efforts at home and within the international communityto promote policy and operational

coherence in international humanitarian response. At home, the challenge is to strengthen the civilian capabilities and comparative advantages of the Department of State and USAID, while promoting greater integration of effort. As reflected in the Quadrennial Diplomacy and Development Review, the creation of a new State-USAID Humanitarian Issues Working Group and regular interagency dialogue, we are making progress. Internationally, the challenge is analogous: to strengthen the capabilities of the specialized agencies like UNHCR and the International Organization for Migration, while at the same time enhancing the coordinating capacity of the Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs. Finally, we must continually seek to strengthen the reservoir of support for international humanitarian assistance by forcefully making the case that these efforts significantly strengthen our national interests. To be sure, we are in difficult economic circumstances at present. But our spending on civilian overseas assistance each year is extraordinarily modest (less than 1 percent of our federal budget) and yet reaps enormous benefits in terms of U.S. leadership and enhanced security around the world. Most importantly, it reflects our appreciation that protection of the most vulnerable is critical to our foreign policy: due to the moral imperative and the simple goal of saving lives; due to our governments interest in sustaining U.S. leadership and building sustainable partnerships that enable us to drive the development of international humanitarian principles, programs and policies like no other government in the world; and due to the importance of promoting reconciliation, security and wellbeing in circumstances where despair and misery not only threaten stability, but also critical security interests of the United States. Fortunately, for the rest of this fiscal year, the U.S. Congress has reaffirmed our governments commitment to international humanitarianism. Although relief and recovery needs of those who suffer from crises around the world still outstrip available resources, recently enacted federal funding legislation for 2011 sustains much of the U.S. commitment in support of these vulnerable populations. yet the debate is far from over and we must continue to make the case for the importance of humanitarian assistance. In doing so, we serve our values and our interests, and offer the prospect of a brighter future for millions around the world. MD

iraqi reFUGees

iraqi refugees
Need a Workable Option
The viability of durable solutions must be questioned.
By Megan Prinster Sheehan, Asia and Middle East Regional Representative, Catholic Relief Services

Iraqi refugees Rania, 19 (left) and her friend describe their lack of hope for their futures given the poverty and little access to tertiary education.

W
Photo: Liz ONeill, Catholic Relief Services

HILE THE U.S. PREPARES FOR the withdrawal of its troops from Iraq by December 31, 2011, the Obama administration, the government of Iraq and humanitarian actors must create and commit to a plan for the 1.7 million Iraqi refugees in the Middle East region. To better understand both the nuances and common features of the plight of Iraqi refugees, representatives of Catholic Relief Services recently traveled to Egypt, Jordan and Syria where they conducted a series of personal interviews and focus group discussions with Iraqi refugees. These refugees are increasingly desperate for a viable solution to their common predicament: afraid of returning to an insecure Iraq, awaiting the slim possibility of resettlement by the United Nations High Commission for Refugees (UNCHR) and depleting their savings as they cannot integrate locally through work. Before the U.S. military intervention in Iraq and the refugee population created by itfades

from public consciousness, viable alternatives to the standard trinity of durable solutions for refugeesthat is, voluntary repatriation, local integration and resettlementmust be discussed and implemented by all key actors. repatriation: a nonstarter Nonrefoulement is a key principle of the 1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees, which prohibits signatory countries from forcibly expelling refugees to a place they feel threatened or may suffer persecution. Thus, return of refugees their homeland (repatriation) should be voluntary. Despite their patriotism, the vast majority of Iraqi refugees do not plan to return because they fear violence and view services as inadequate. I loved my country, Iraq, dearly. There, I had everything but we had no choice but to leave. They assaulted my teenage son in the head with the butt of a rifle and threatened to kill us all, shares Khawla Elias.

Following the U.S. invasion in 2003, thousands of families fled threats, violence and torture in Iraq. Wealthier Iraqis escaped by plane to Egypt, Lebanon or Gulf states, but the majority fled to Syria, which, together with Jordan, now hosts the largest number of Iraqi refugees. Huge numbers of Iraqi adults and children were traumatized and endure residual stress as refugees; psychosocial programs report immense demand for services and activities Families often lost all of their money in order to pay ransom to rescue their children kidnapped by sectarian militias. The story of Ali* exemplifies how many Iraqi refugee families ended up penniless in neighboring countries: (They) kidnapped my 12-year old girl. I sold my car, my house, everything I owned to get her back safely. We hired a car and drove across the border seeking safety. For nearly five years, he has resided in Syria in a poorly-ventilated room with his four daughters and critically-injured wife. Iraqi refugees cite lack of personal security as the primary reason they will not return to Iraq voluntarily. While the exodus from Iraq included members of all religious and ethnic groups, minorities vehemently resist the idea of voluntary repatriation due to targeted attacks, for instance, on inter-sect married couples and Christians. In addition to fear for personal safety, Iraqi refugees also criticize their homelands unstable government and lack of basic infraJUNE 2011 MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS 15

iraqi reFUGees

structure and services, citing it as further justification to not return. Furthermore, UNHCR analyses indicate that medical conditions represent the largest specific need among Iraqi refugees; access to medical services in host countries often becomes a reason to stay. An Iraqi refugee in Egypt emphasized, Why would I consider going back to a place where there is so little electricity, little water, no doctors? Is that what you call a country? Longing for a livelihood, but no chance for local integration In order to avoid creating a migration incentive (i.e., a pull factor), host country governments have laws prohibiting refugees from working. Consequences of noncitizens caught working in a host country include detention, abuse, or exploitation. For Iraqis and other refugees, integrating into the communities of host countries (local integration) through work is impossible, especially as governments struggle to resolve unemployment of its own citizens. In Syria, UNHCR refugee registration entitles beneficiaries to monthly food rations and a cash supplement for rent payment. This UNHCR assistance is a last resort for the many well-educated, formerly middle-class Iraqi refugees; registering officially as a refugee is a blow to their pride. Although fewer Iraqis are new arrivals, the number of refugee registrations activated has increased steadily since January 2011, pointing to the regional trend of increased desperation among families who have depleted their savings in host countries. It is terrible to be labeled a refugee. In Iraq, through my work

especially, I was somebody. Now, with nothing to do, I feel that I am nothing but merely a desperate housewife, describes Khawla Elias, former Secretary General of Caritas Iraq. Very few Iraqi refugee men can provide for their families. Women or children fortunate enough to find domestic work remain vulnerable to losing their work if the local economy fluctuates. As women and children become breadwinners, traditional family structures invert and cause stresses such as abuse, risk of suicide, prostitution and child trafficking. Another obstacle to integration into host communities is the unwillingness of many Iraqis to enroll their children in the public school systems. Most Iraqis have extremely high standards for education and prefer to enroll their children in private schools. The choice to enroll children in private schools strains the Iraqi families financially. Those who cannot afford private education often suffer depression. For instance, Mohammed*, in tears, confides that sometimes I am miserable because I cannot do the single most important thing every father desires for his childrento send them to a good school. I cannot even afford to buy my children a chocolate bar. What kind of father am I? Diminishing possibilities for resettlement When they register with UNHCR, all refugees receive a booklet informing them of the extremely low likelihood of resettlement in a third country. Registration does not guarantee resettlement. Not everyone is eligible. Nevertheless, Iraqi refugees often tie all their hopes to resettlement, especially in the U.S. European countries have accepted hundreds of thousands of Iraqi refugees for resettlement, but many have reached their limit. Although the U.S. is still accepting Iraqi refugees, its resettlement process is lengthy and cumbersome. Many Iraqi refugees awaiting resettlement expect their life in American to be like what they see on television. What to do? Iraqi refugees will not return to their homeland due to fear of insecurity. As guests in Arab host countries, they can neither work nor integrate locally. Subsequent depletion of their savings not only demoralizes them, but also makes them vulnerable to exploitation. At current rates of resettlement, it would take many decades for all Iraqi refugees to be resettled through the UNHCR process, and some may never qualify for resettlement. The U.S. and the government of Iraq have a special responsibility to ensure that Iraqis impacted by the war are protected and provided a durable solution for their futures. Both must galvanize efforts to increase security within Iraq and to welcome and support returnees. Excellent first steps include the government of Iraqs recently established Commission for Protection and Refugees and UNHCRs Return, Integration and Community Centers. The U.S. must reduce the wait time for the security approval required for refugees allowed to resettle in the U.S. and it must also increase the numbers of refugees it receives annually to at least 25,000. Despite slim prospects for third country resettlement, humanitarian organizations can support Iraqi refugees pursuits to educate themselves and their families. Families who await repatriation would be wise to take advantage of education opportunities (e.g., English as a Second Language, computer skills and high school diploma equivalents programs) to increase their likelihood of successful integration in a third country, locally or back in Iraq. MD *Names have been changed.

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MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS JUNE 2011

Diversity

Diversity
Creatively tackling the issue of diversity in the international NGO community.
By Nina Segal, Career Counselor, ICAP, and Marquis Brown, Co-Chair, GAP

a Pipeline for

NTIL TRUST IS ESTABLISHED AND a good reputation is earned, as one of the few women of color engaging in advocacy on humanitarian and development policy, sometimes ones contributions may be overlooked or underestimated. This can erode your professional confidence or mistakenly result in you writing the entire industry off all together. Rory Anderson, Director of External Relations at ChildFund International candidly shared this observation, as an African-American working in the field of development. For other minority professionals in the NGO community, similar sentiments and much more have been voiced in Aspen, Colorado, each September when a new class from the International Career Advancement Program comes together to share stories, get

advice from senior mentors and create a global network of support. It is no secret that the NGO community has been grappling with the issue of recruiting more diverse staffs for years. But the issue has come to the forefront of human resources discussions only in the last few, with several NGOs recruiting diversity officers and coming under criticism from boards and funders about not having staff that represent the U.S. population or the communities served. Progress is being made but much more can be done. And the diversity conversation is shifting from just recruitment to focus on retention and leadership development as well. Two programs making positive strides in both recruitment and attention deserve a closer look: the International Career Advance-

ment Program (ICAP) and the Global Access Pipeline (GAP). ICAP (http://www.icapaspen.org), founded and directed by Tom Rowe at the University of Denver, has been working in this area for 15 years. Its mission is to bring greater staffing diversity to senior management and policymaking positions in international public service, both in the government and in international NGOs. ICAP assists highly promising, mid-career professionals from underrepresented groups in advancing to more senior positions. ICAP helped me understand that building relationships at all levels is the best skill you can bring to your work in international development, according to Latanya Mapp Frett, Vice President, International Planned Parenthood Federation of America. ICAP mid-career participants are recruited annually through a competitive application process. Each September, a new cohort of 25 participants meets at the Aspen Institute in Aspen, Colorado, for an intensive week of leadership and career development programs. The groups become quite close and serve as a professional and personal support network once individuals leave Aspen. ICAP really helped my growth. It is a great network and it is helpful to work further towards more diversity in the development community. I also very much appreciate the passion within ICAPers! said Michelle Carter, country director for Burundi at CARE International. Similarly,
JUNE 2011 MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS 17

Photos (l to r): enciktep; Stuart Jenner; Vadym Drobot

Diversity

Ms. Anderson noted: I initially applied to ICAP seeking to tap into a prestigious network that would help me climb the career ladder; and through a vibrant community of support which both mentors and pushes me, I have made lifelong friends who have helped me to expand and diversify both my professional and personal dreams, and encourage me to do the same for others. ICAP has also spearheaded an initiative with other individuals and organizations to launch the Global Access Pipeline. GAP (http://gap.icapaspen.org) is a consortium of organizations that work to increase the diversity and quality of U.S. leadership in the international arena across the government, nonprofit and private sectors. More specifically, GAP links internationally oriented, pre-collegiate programs that target diverse groups with similarly focused college and graduate-level programs. GAP then links these segments with internationally focused, midcareer leadership programs like ICAP and with diversity recruitment efforts at prominent organizations such as InterAction, the

the diversity conversation is shifting from just recruitment to focus on retention and leadership development as well.
Aspen Institute, the Council on Foreign Relations and many others. Despite GAP being in the early stages of development, the group has been collaborating for the past two years to develop a more comprehensive approach to increase diversity in international affairs in the United States. For example, as part of this effort, employers can now access a large, diverse audience to inform them of opportunities for fellowships, study abroad, internships, entry-level employment and even middle- and senior-level positions. This unique consortium represents a collaborative, comprehensive approach to creat-

ing a pipeline of opportunity for organizations that believe leadership and diversity in international affairs, in the broadest sense, is an important thing. Moreover, it reflects the reality that in order to realize these goals, individuals and organizations working together in a concerted effort will yield better results overall. As Kristen Hayden, Executive Director of OneWorld Now!, reports, The youth at OneWorld Now! have already benefited greatly from the GAP collaborative Our students have gone on to become fellows with one college-based initiative, we have collaborative study abroad trips with two others, and some are now pursuing careers in the foreign service. All of these opportunities and exposure would not have happened without GAP. GAP provides an intrinsic, powerful network of opportunities for all of our constituentsand were already feeling the positive impact of the pipeline! MD Questions and comments can be sent to the authors at nswk1@verizon.net and mbrown@ nc4ge.org respectively.

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MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS JUNE 2011

Diversity

Whos at the table?


Americas face is multi-ethnic, but developments is not.
By Tawana Jacobs, Associate Director of Public Relations, InterAction

HIS yEARS NASTy BATTLE TO PROTECT U.S. FOREIGN affairs spending has revealed once again that there is a dearth of diversity within the top ranks of the U.S. international NGO community because the only faces seen consistently during the fight have been white and mainly male. This is despite the fact that U.S. minorities from all walks of lifesome with extraordinary backgroundshave become increasingly interested in development and relief work in recent years. The lack of diversity at the top of U.S.-based NGOs has led most in this group to donate to organizations where people of color are in decision-making positions, because they view them as being more committed to the well-being of the populations being served, or to start their own organizations such as the Black Global Development Corps. Newt Gingrich, a prospective 2012 U.S. presidential candidate and former Speaker of the House of Representatives in Congress, recently stated in an article about diversity in the Republican party, Inclusion is when youre in the room when the decision is made. Outreach is when a group of people make a decision and call you. After many years of discussing diversity and offering various initiatives to improve it, some groups have learned that inclusion is the key to adding some color to the face of development. New World bank initiative The World Bank recently launched a new initiative to help increase the recruitment and retention of U.S. minorities in international development work. The initiative includes an internal action plan that will be implemented by the Banks human resources and management staff, and a partnership action plan to be implemented by a special U.S. Minorities Task Force comprised of representatives from World Bank partner organizations. Expected to begin this year, it will likely include shared internships, educational and mentoring programs, consolidated vacancy postings and ways to increase the number of U.S. minorities working at mid- and senior-levels in development organizations. The launch events keynote speaker, Ted Childs, a former chief diversity officer for IBM, said it all when he stated, Global diversity and inclusion objectives should include attracting and retaining the best talent, creating space in the workplace for that talent to perform

at its best, and working to eliminate barriers and disadvantages thereby increasing diversity within the talent pool. Understanding and removing barriers Many minorities working in development in the U.S. believe that people of color are often excluded from employment opportunities because the sector is very insular. Only 19 percent of the people who volunteer for Peace Corps are minorities. you are indirectly excluding many people of color from hiring pools from the start, remarked Crystal Lander, senior policy officer at Management Sciences for Health. Others interviewed for this story said the community remains overwhelmingly white because people tend to hire those who look and sound like themselves. But according to some, this could be changed with a little extra effort. If an organization is looking proactively to recruit and sustain a diverse workforce that will enrich their knowledge of communities overseas, they should be prepared to act as a sponsor or petition a worker. This sounds terrifying, difficult and expensive, but in reality it does not need to be if both sides agree to work together and share the load, commented Luisa Crdoba, resource development coordinator at InterAction. Some believe the lack of diversity stateside is also related to economics. Most internships in the community are unpaid; and regardless of a potential minority hires economic status, many are persuaded to look elsewhere for a career. Stated Steven Rocker, senior research and advocacy associate at InterAction, Growing up in my hometown, if
JUNE 2011 MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS 19

Photo: Yuri Arcurs

Diversity

you were black and gifted academically, your family and community expected (or pressured) you to pursue the more traditional and prestigious professions of law, medicine or finance. People in my hometown just were not aware that one can make a profession out of international development. Others, including Nasserie Carew, a former senior-level NGO professional, believe, Many [just] dont think an NGO career is lucrative. As difficult as it is for U.S. minorities to begin a career in development, it has proven to be even more arduous for many to advance their careers in the field. inclusion brings about change Once my parents got over the shock of me not following in my fathers footsteps to a lucrative career in corporate America, they began to appreciate my commitment to public service and support my career as an NGO communicator. When I began focusing on development issues in the late 1990s, I knew of only about 10 people of color working at U.S. NGOsand only two of them were in leadership positions. Unfortunately, the number of minorities in NGO leadership positions hasnt grown very much in nearly 15 years. The slowness of the U.S. NGO community to become more diverse at the top has led many minorities at NGOs to move to other sectors in order to work on development issues or to leave the field altogether. Othersincluding yours trulyhave developed a thick skin and forge ahead in our careers, determined to succeed despite being faced with double-standards and inconsistencies along the way. According to an

NGO colleague, I have found that many times my credentials were questioned by colleagues in development. I was asked what background and education did I have to get into the policy arena? This experience seems to be shared by others. A former NGO coworker who left her career in development went so far as to say, If you or I were white and working at an NGO with our credentials, wed be two or three steps further along in our careers. Only minorities from developing countries will be accepted in this sector until there is more diversity at the senior management level. Her observation isnt a new one. During a period in which I reconsidered my own career path, I conducted an experiment to determine if my communications advice to senior management was flawed or if there was a problem with mea U.S. minoritybeing the advisor. After talking directly with management about how to respond to a communications issue and being second-guessed, I gave the advice to my supervisorsomeone with a direct connection to the developing worldwho carried the idea forward and received immediate approval. The plan succeeded. When my boss told senior management about my involvement, there was an awkward acknowledgment and the subject was quickly changed. However, as Crdoba interjected, Organizations like ours are not monolithic and different areas within the same organization could have different approaches to managing diversity and minority inclusion. She added, When top management is sincerely committed to it, there

continued on page 28

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MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS JUNE 2011

ParticiPatOry DesiGN

Students in a classroom during a learnercentered session that incorporates the use of locally-developed or adapted educational video content.

Local Development in

communications technology
Why we need participatory design for technology innovation.
By Samuel Suraphel, Program Manager, International Youth Foundation

EVELOPMENT PROJECTS ARE increasingly using information and communication technology (ICT). However, while doing so, they still often miss out on opportunities to use ICT to tap into the full spectrum of stakeholder input that can impact outcomes in areas such as health or education. When designing new projects, NGOs already tend to engage and incorporate the feedback of a wide array of stakeholders to better understand the people they are trying to assist and the challenge the program is meant to address. This then helps NGOs better identify resources needed to make the program a success. In developing ICT-related programs, a broad stakeholder group can be engaged through social media, crowd-sourcing and the open-source software movement. The massive popularity of tools like Facebook, youTube and Twitter, which create platforms for communication and idea sharing, reflect the trend towards collaborative and interactive

among [the] top 10 bad practices are: [d]ump hardware in schools, hope for magic to happen.
ways of creating new content. Open-source software such as Linux and Drupal are built on open communities of developers and endusers working together by freely exchanging source material and documentation. Another practice used in both the online and offline worlds is participatory design. Wikipediaanother interactive and collaborative tooldefines this as [A]n approach to design that attempts to actively involve all stakeholders (e.g. employees, partners, customers, citizens, end users) in the design process to help ensure that the product designed meets their needs and is usable. NGOs working closely with local civil society

Photo: International Youth Foundation

and public sector institutions have used the participatory design process to increase buy-in and long-term sustainability of offline development projects. For online and broader ICT programs, this has traditionally not been the case. There are a number of case studies of ICT projects that failed because of unsustainable economic models, local capacity issues or cultural barriers to adoption. One result of such projects are the mountains of computers gathering dust in the corners of offices and labs throughout the developing world. These failures reflect the lack of contextualization and the nonparticipatory manner in which the initiatives were designed. These projects also run counter to current thinking around non-ICT program design. Groups such as FAILFaire (http://failfaire. org/about/) bring ICT4D (ICT for development) practitioners together to share just such experiences. Michael Trucano, Senior ICT and education specialist at the World Bank, detailed in his blog post Worst practice in ICT use in education at least 10 common practices that have led to unsuccessful ICT4E (ICT for education) projects in developing countries. Among his top 10 bad practices are: [d]ump hardware in schools, hope for magic to happen and [d]esign forOECD learning environments, implement elsewhere. Facilitating user input from the earliest stages of a project optimizes the likelihood of successful projects (and avoids worst practices) by ensuring user needs inform both the ICT component and the system into which it is incorporated. It allows the project to incorporate into the technology the nuances of the local setting, usage patterns and capabilities of the final beneficiaries (or at least local support organizations). The development sector, with its close connection to its beneficiary communities, is uniquely suited to facilitate this technology creation, transfer or adaptation process, working with civil society to use participatory design principles to help innovative ICT ideas take shape and grow into sustainable, effective initiatives. MD For information on IYFs ICT initiatives please visit www.iyfnet.org.
JUNE 2011 MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS 21

tecHNOLOGys iMPact

N THE SOUTH AFRICAN PROVINCE OF In North Carolina, global health has had an economic impact of roughly $2 billion, supportKwaZulu Natal, the HIV/AIDS epidemic is ing over 7,000 jobs and $508 million in salaries so widespread that more than four out of 10 and wages in 2007 alone. That same year, North women of childbearing age are infected. But a USAID-supported study conducted by the CenCarolinas academic global health community also tre for the AIDS Programme of Research in South generated nearly $51 million in business activity. Africa (CAPRISA) on a microbicide gel designed In California, the global health sector supports to protect against HIV infection has shown that the 350,000 high-quality jobs and $19.7 billion in concept can work, injecting a spark of real hope wages and salaries, generating, for example, an that innovation can save countless womens lives. estimated $50 billion of business activity in 2007. This is just one of dozens of examples littleAnd New Jerseys R&D sector is the thirdknown to Americans about how the work of U.S. largest health-related R&D employer in the U.S., scientists in laboratories and in clinical trials are with health R&D supporting more than 211,000 contributing to astonishing successes around the jobs, many of which are in global health. world. Still, so much more is needed. We need new These global health research and development vaccines, tests, drugs and other health tools to (R&D) projects, like many federally funded proprevent, diagnose and treat disease and address grams, are in danger of being cut in the upcoming existing and emerging health threats. And since budget and deficit-reduction debates in Congress. infectious diseases respect no borders, this In the recent budget cuts for the fiscal year 2011 research on global diseases also helps protect budget, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) lost Americans at home. more than $200 million in funding. yet an investment Given the unquestionable benefits of global in global health R&D may be among the best returns health innovation, it is no surprise that the Ameriof any line item in the budget. can people strongly support U.S. investments in new global health tools. According to a Congress is rightly looking at every dollar in the budget. Is it spent well? November 2008 Research!America Does it create jobs and stimulate our poll, 77 percent of Americans believe economy? Is there value associated that they will be better off if the U.S. with the American tax dollar? government invests in global health Supporters of global health R&D research. welcome these questions and closer In future years, the benefits are only scrutiny of funding for these projects. expected to grow. For instance, there Global health research has led to the are several promising technology candieradication of smallpox and the develdates in the R&D pipeline. The worlds opment and delivery of more than 172 most clinically advanced malaria vacmillion bed nets treated with insecticine candidate recently entered the final cide to prevent malaria. In the U.S. stages of research and early indications Boosting the U.S. economy alone, polio vaccination over the past suggest that it will significantly reduce 50 years has resulted in a net savings episodes of malaria in children. But this while contributing to global of $180 billion, funds that would have and other tools may never be available health successes. otherwise been spent to treat those sufif the support needed to continue R&D fering from polio. In addition, for every is not protected and sustained. By Kaitlin Christenson, Coalition Director, dollar spent on the measles-mumpsAmericans are inventors. They are and Kimberley Lufkin, Senior Communications innovators. They embrace challenges. rubella vaccine, more than $21 is saved Associate, Global Health Technologies Coalition in direct medical costs. Tools like vacFighting disease around the world is cines help limit health care costs by among the greatest, most noble chalkeeping children healthy and out of hospitals. lenges of our time. Investments in global health research also make Global health innovation is also a smart investment for the U.S. economic sense. It is the combination of motivationsthe humanitareconomy, where it drives job creation, spurs business activity and ian and the economicthat make global health innovation a budget benefits academic institutions. Biomedical research in the U.S., includ- item that Congress needs to protect, just as the U.S.-supported researching for global health, is a $100 billion enterprise. And in state after ers in South Africa are trying now to protect women from HIV. MD state, the evidence is growing that public research funding boosts the economy and spurs private investment. For example: For more information about these issues and GHTC (a group of almost In Washington state, global health projects generate $4.1 billion in 40 nonprofits raising awareness of the urgent need for health tools that business activity annually and have created or supported more than save lives in the developing world), please visit the GHTC website at 43,000 jobs. www.ghtcoalition.org or e-mail info@ghtcoalition.org.

Dollars for Lives,

Dollars for jobs

22

MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS JUNE 2011

Illustration: Marynchenko Oleksandr

MObiLe tecHNOLOGy

beyond banks:

cash transfers 2.0


Electronic payments technology in humanitarian assistance in Kenya.
By Glenn Hughson, Kenya Focal Point, and Breanna Ridsdel, Communications and Advocacy Officer, the Cash Learning Partnership

N A REMOTE VILLAGE IN THARAKA in Kenyas Eastern Province, an elderly woman fishes into her purse. Retrieving a small plastic package, she carefully unwraps her valued possessions: a faded photograph, her electoral card and a brand new bank card, complete with her name and photograph. For the past few years, severe drought has caused subsistence crops to fail and elevated food prices in this arid region. Mbaka Kathiga is one of about 250 people in her village who

have been receiving food assistance to be able to survive these difficult periods. This year, however, Mbaka will receive a monthly cash transfer instead, roughly the equivalent of U.S. $20. Nearby, the local market displays all the goods she needs, for sale by traders who will also benefit from the money she has received. cash transfer and payment technology Since Amartya Sen developed his Entitlement theory in the early 1980s, aid agencies

have been aware that shortages of basic goods, especially food, are not always caused by a failure in supply. Sometimes, as in Mbakas village, food is available but the most vulnerable cannot afford it. Beginning in the 2004 response to the Asian tsunami, a growing number of aid agencies have been using cash transfers as a tool to deliver humanitarian assistance. In areas where local markets can supply needed commodiAn extraordinary Master of Public Health (MPH) program to address todays crises and mitigate tomorrows
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JUNE 2011 MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS

23

MObiLe tecHNOLOGy

Mbaka Kathiga and her bank card.

ties, providing people with money or vouchers instead of goods in kind can reduce logistical costs and help stimulate the local economy. More importantly, receiving money empowers beneficiaries and allows them to prioritize their own needs and meet them in a dignified way. In the long run, cash transfers may also help stimulate recovery as beneficiaries frequently reinvest small sums into productive assets. In many situations, the most appropriate way of delivering money is to provide it directly to beneficiaries, but in recent years technological innovations have lead to advancements in electronic payment systems. In Kenya, the rapid advancement and spread of private sector banking and telecommunications technology have already brought innovative financial services to millions of people. Through partnerships with the private sector, these developments have opened up new options for humanitarian agencies to deliver aid to people in need. Portable point of sale Wireless communications technology is changing the face of banking in Kenya. Via portable point-of-sale (PoS) terminals, people in isolated locations can now access the banking system remotely. Portable PoS devices contain a SIM card and transmit data via a mobile phone network. Combined with the advances in mobile coverage in Kenya, this simple technology allows banks such as the Equity Bank to maintain an
24 MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS JUNE 2011

extensive network of banking agents who can act on their behalf in locations far from the nearest bank branch. The agents, who, for example, could be local traders or shopkeepers, use portable PoS systems to set up a facility where bank clients can come to deposit or withdraw funds using bank cards with either a magnetic strip, or a smartcard containing a data chip. All that is required is mobile phone coverage; the hardware is battery powered and can be charged by a solar panel. The spread of private sector banking to remote communities means that aid organizations can deliver money to people more quickly and efficiently than ever before. Organizations including Oxfam GB, Save the Children and the World Food Programme are currently using this delivery mechanism to provide humanitarian aid to thousands of vulnerable people across Kenya. The advantage provided by the remote banking technology is that a single, automated bank transfer can deposit funds into the accounts of hundreds of people, greatly reducing the time and human resources required to distribute money. Electronic delivery is not only more efficient than traditional means of distribution, it also automatically generates a transfer record that can easily be reconciled with the agencys financial systems. Most importantly, transferring money through the banking system gives beneficiaries greater flexibility and control over the aid they receive, since they are able to choose when they withdraw their money and how much they need at one time. Transferring money through banking networks also provides beneficiaries with the long-term advantage of financial inclusion, meaning that they can save money over time or withdraw it from another location. Setting up a bank transfer system takes time (several weeks to several months depending on conditions), as aid agencies have to negotiate terms with the bank, open accounts for beneficiaries, and deliver and activate the cards. Difficulties can arise if beneficiaries do not have formal identification (which may mean they are not eligible for an account) or if there is no banking agent in the target community. However, once the initial setup is complete, transfers can be made quickly to a large number of people, making this delivery mechanism highly efficient when repeated transfers are planned. A faster alternative is to use pre-paid cards, as they do not require the holder to have an accountbut these also offer fewer long-

term advantages and less security, for example if the card is lost, stolen or damaged. Portable point of sale technology is also being used in conjunction with a smart card that stores food credits rather than actual money. The food credits are debited and credited with participating traders, who later receive a money transfer from the aid organization. A pilot humanitarian project using this technology will be rolled out in Kenya in mid-2011. The development of such technology saves time and will also cut down the logistical requirements as the smart card is designed to replace a currently operational voucher scheme. Mobile phone money transfer The mobile telecommunications industry in Kenya has been a rapidly expanding and evolving sector. Four companies are currently vying for a share of the market and each network provider has developed a platform on which clients can transfer money from one mobile user to another. The four platforms are M-pesa (Safaricom), Iko Pesa (Orange), Airtel Money (Airtel) and yuCash (yu). Collectively they have over 15.4 million clients and 39,000 agents across Kenya. According to a 2009 Financial Sector Deepening (FSD) Kenya study, 47.5 percent of Kenyan adults owned a mobile phone. This number jumped to 72.8 percent in urban areas and 80.4 percent in Nairobi. The number has been steadily increasing and with it comes further access to mobile money transfer platforms. Established in 1997, Safaricom (of which 40 precent is owned by the British telecom company Vodafone) has long been a leader in Kenyan mobile phone networks; and it currently controls 76 percent of the market share, with approximately 13.5 million subscribers. Though other networks now have money transfer platforms, Safaricoms M-pesa mobile money transfer, launched in 2007, is the pioneer in the industry. With extensive network coverage and 22,000 agents country-wide, Safaricom has been able to extend services to people in locations well beyond the reach of financial institutions. M-pesa has been used to transfer-cash country-wide, and is favoured by aid agencies (including Oxfam GB, Concern Worldwide and the World Food Programme) when cash transfer recipients live in urban or peri urban areas. Using web-based mobile money transfer software, an organization can instantly transfer funds to a large number of beneficiaries, as
continued on page 30

Photo: Breanna Ridsdel

best Practices
combining Health and Microfinance
Adding health services to microfinance institutions.
By Marcia Metcalfe, Director, Microfinance and Health Protection, Freedom from Hunger
APARNA PAUL LIVES IN West Bengal, India. Every day she sees the challenges that poor health poses to women in her village striving to keep their small income-generating businesses going. Common illnesses frequently rob them of valuable work time, while more serious illnesses can wipe out all their hard-earned gains and plunge them deeper into poverty. Aparna aspired to do something to help, so she seized the opportunity when Bandhan, her microfinance institution (MFI), chose her to serve as a community health volunteer or Swastha Sohayika (SS). She is one of nearly 500 Swastha Sohayikas who are a vital part of Bandhans health program. Each SS visits 200 250 households every month to reinforce health education messages from monthly health education forums about topics including planning ahead to face illness, prenatal care and safe birth, appropriate feeding of infants and young children, and prevention and management of common illnesses. During home visits, the SS encourage women and their families to visit local providers for prenatal and other preventive services, and make referrals when common illnesses become more serious. They also carry simple, important medicines and health products such as oral rehydration salts, oral contraceptives, hand-washing soap and deworming medication. These products complement the health education messages and are sold to local community members at their homes. Sales provide a small, supplemental income for the SS.

Have you gathered lessons learned from your work in the field that could benefit others? Send your summary of less than 1,000 words to cbrobst@interaction.org and share your expertise with the entire NGO community.

MFI client health need and potential MFI responses.

MFi staff and clients frequently cite illnessrelated costs as reasons for difficulties with loan repayment and savings.
Bandhan is an example of how MFIs around the world are breaking new ground by providing life-saving health information, services and products to improve health care access for millions of MFI clients. It also makes business sense. MFI staff

and clients frequently cite illnessrelated costs as reasons for difficulties with loan repayment and savings. Although most MFIs do not have extensive healthcare experience, they are uniquely positioned to play an important role in reaching the very poor with a range of simple but highly effective health interventions.

The Microfinance and Health Protection (MAHP) initiative


To understand the potential for MFIs to play a greater role in client health, Freedom from Hunger, with the support of the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, worked with five MFIs in Africa, Asia and Latin America to add health protection options to MFI financial offerings. In addition

Graphic: Freedom from Hunger

to Bandhan, the MFI partners included CARD (Center for Agriculture and Rural Development) in the Philippines, CRECER (Crdito con Educacin Rural) in Bolivia, PADME (Projet dAppui au Developpement des MicroEntreprises) in Bnin, and RCPB (Rseau des Caisses Populaires du Burkina) in Burkina Faso. The MFI health protection packages reflected the most important requirements and demands of clients based on in-depth market research (see chart). Products tested included health education, health savings, health loans, health insurance, linkages with local private and public healthcare providers, and sale of health products. As of December 2010, these products and services were reaching more
25

JUNE 2011 MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS

Best Practices

than 5 million MFI clients and family members in five countries, and other MFIs are replicating these health programs in India, Southeast Asia and Latin America. Evaluation of the impact of the program on clients detected significant improvements in knowledge, behavior change and client and staff satisfaction: In Bolivia, 24 percent of CRECER clients interviewed said that they had never seen a doctor before participating in the program. In India, the life-saving use of oral rehydration solution to treat children with diarrheaa leading cause of death in local children increased from 60 percent to 88 percent in Bandhans program area. In Burkina Faso, the percentage of RCPB clients seeking preventive health care increased from 9 percent to 24 percent in the

MAHP area. In Bnin, families in PADMEs Credit with Education program area were 23 percent more likely to own an antimalarial bed net. In the Philippines, 100 percent of CARD clients interviewed would recommend the health micro-insurance product to others and 88 percent said it had already helped them significantly. An important aspect of this work was to determine if it was possible to design and offer health-related products and services that could have positive social impact for clients while also being practical, costeffective and even profitable for MFIs. Cost-benefit studies examined the costs of providing the health packages and found that, on average, the annual marginal cost across the MFIs was 29 cents per client family per year. Moreover, providing

health products can give MFIs a competitive market advantage to help attract new clients and strengthen loyalty.

MFIs as a global platform for health service delivery


MFIs reach more than 190 million households around the world. Encouraging results from the MAHP initiative and pioneering work by other large and successful MFIs such as Pro Mujer and BRAC strongly suggest that the microfinance sector is a valuable platform for reaching the poor with simple but essential health services to improve health knowledge, behaviors and geographic access and affordability of health services and products. Inspired by the accomplishments of its MFI partners, Freedom from Hunger is working with its partners and other MFIs and health care providers to build regional communities of practice in Southeast Asia and ticularly in the face of resource constraints and limited travel budgets? We are fortunate to have a multitude of extraordinary DM&E field staff, hungry for more knowledge and anxious to exchange experiences. Stimulating field-to-field peer learning, sharing and reinforcing good practices also helps reduce reliance on headquarters units and fosters an added sense of community for far-flung field staff. The solution was to bring people together online. A DM&E community of practice was formed in 2007. First centered around an online platform to facilitate discussion forums and document sharing and collaboration, it has since expanded to include several complementary efforts: Collaborative webinars: A series of live online sessions with

Latin America to support adding health to microfinance. Through this work we hope to demonstrate, on a large scale, effective, sector-crossing innovations and to build support for combining health and microfinance among MFIs and health providers around the world. The link between poverty and ill health is longstanding; and the heroic, yet typically separate, efforts of the microfinance and public health sectors to address these issues are not new. But results from recent cross-sectoral work between microfinance and health hold the promise of combining the important, incremental contributions of both sectors in an efficient, sustainable and holistic manner for substantial population health impact. MD To learn more and to access technical guides visit www. ffhtechnical.org/resources/ microfinance-health. presentations from field staff and discussions on M&E tools, experiences and best practices. (The sessions use Elluminate software, provided at discount as a benefit of LINGOS membership (http://ngolearning.org/).) In addition to presentation slides and audio and chat-based discussion, participants use application sharing to show actual tools and approaches directly from their own computers from anywhere in the world. Live training sessions: We recently rolled out an agencywide metrics system using live training sessions in webinar format, which reached 34 country programs and trained over 100 staff, in groupings of 10-30 people per session, all within a matter of weeks. Structured e-learning: Selfpaced courses that include lessons, knowledge tests and

bridging a Gap through technology

Building global m&e capacity through online learning and collaboration.


By Joe Dickman, Deputy Director for Design, Monitoring and Evaluation, Mercy Corps
AS A DM&E (DESIGN, monitoring and evaluation) technical support unit, we face a central challenge common to many technical units in large NGOs: With monitoring and evaluation
26

(M&E) staff spread over 35 countries and hundreds of disparate projects, how do we foster the collective learning and sharing that is so critical to improving agency-wide M&E practice, par-

MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS JUNE 2011

Best Practices

Mercy Corps Somalia team shares their new GIS-based M&E system with global field staff on a recent webinar-based learning session.

exercises with individualized feedback, as well as a certification test. Evaluation learning events: Field teams share significant findings and transferrable lessons from evaluations with other interested staff worldwide through interactive webinars. Ongoing communication and exchange: Continued use of the online platform for document sharing and discussion boards is now linked to email for functionality similar to an email listserv. These initiatives have allowed our DM&E technical unit to achieve a scale and diversity of participation that in-person trainings and workshops would not have allowed, and at relatively little overhead cost. One staff member stated after an initial webinar session, which
Graphic: Janell Lee and Joe Dickman

Live webinars are particularly effective and helped raise community learning and sharing to new levels.
included over 60 staff from 18 countries, I believe that yesterdays session will serve as a good example of how to build up the cooperation with other countries and how to exchange experiences. Another staff member said, It was a great opportunity not only to learn the systems of other countries but also to get to know other DM&E folks all over the world. Lessons learned include: To be effective, a commu-

nity of practice needs to be stimulated by a shared project or agenda that immediately adds value. We initially used the online platform to facilitate input into our core DM&E toolkit from over 100 staff worldwide. This not only increased ownership and relevance of the toolkit, but also helped drive people to the site and establish it as a central space for sharing and learning. Later, when we began the webinar sessions, we chose topics that were of high interest yet difficult to implement effectively. These included use of GIS mapping in M&E systems, participatory M&E approaches and randomized impact assessment. An active facilitator is needed to continuously stoke discussion, ensure relevant content and provide an overall rhythm to the community. When

we are distracted by more urgent priorities, online platform traffic tends to stagnate and event frequency decreases. Live webinars are particularly effective and help raise community learning and sharing to new levels. The notion of a live event, where one can socially connect with and learn from fellow field staff, provides a great incentive for participation. For example, over 900 chat messages were sent back and forth during one two-hour webinar session, as relationships were built and knowledge shared. Training on online facilitation skills and use of specific tools, including formal courses, practice sessions and mentoring, was instrumental in ensuring facilitators had an adequate comfort level. This helped generate favorable impressions from the start. Online learning tools are not a panacea for capacity-building needs and should be seen as a complement to, not a replacement for, in-person training and peer sharing opportunities. Demand for in-country technical support visits, conferences and cross-visits have actually increased as the online community has thrived. Both participants and facilitators experience a learning curve with new technologies; and there are always technical issues to address, particularly in areas with poor Internet connections. Adequate planning, training and time for familiarization, as well as technical support for troubleshooting at all levels, help mitigate these challenges. Setting the timing of online
continued on page 29

JUNE 2011 MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS

27

Diversity
continued from page 20

is a very valuable opportunity to open doors. It is not the same as having an organizational mandate, but it certainly is leverage to combat what Joanna Barsh and Lareina yee recently called imbedded institutional mindsets. Moving things in the right direction Panelists at the World Bank event said U.S. NGOs should examine their dynamics before embarking on any new and improved diversity recruiting strategy. Acknowledging that disparities exist would be a good start. InterAction and some of its member organizations have run diversity initiatives with some success, but there is still a long way to go. Stated another NGO colleague, In a former position [I held], the CEO allowed junior staff to talk to her directly, bypassing me, their supervisor. When I told my CEO that she was treating me differently than the white managers, she was stunned and swore she wasnt a racist. The World Bank panelists also mentioned that in addition to securing

skills training for senior management to nullify hidden biases, there should also be a monitoring system developed that catches systemic differences in promotion rates and pay raises. Most of those interviewed agree that increasing the number of minorities in U.S. NGO senior leadership posts is imperative to the future success of American-led work on international development. All agree that it is important for them personally to see minorities in leadership posts and share Rockers opinion that NGOs [should] look beyond the traditional community [and seek] U.S. minorities with expertise in management, finance and other fields, but who have at least a burgeoning interest in international development or humanitarian affairs. To build that pool of candidates, Carew says, educating them about development is important. Go and talk to all of the minoritycentered professional organizations. Begin to engage them as potential members of advisory committees and boards of directors while they are still in their corporate jobs. Most agree that for change to come, senior leadership will need to be held accountable. To

some, this means attaching their participation in diversity and inclusion initiatives to performance appraisals. Others think funders could add a needed incentive by not funding organizations without a diverse senior leadership. According to Childs and other diversity experts, more than 50 percent of the worlds population lives in the developing world. Some organizations within the InterAction alliance have made commendable commitments to diversifying their American staff by taking the necessary steps to change the way they do business, but that number remains very small. I join my colleagues of color throughout the community in wondering how much more time will pass before the face of U.S. development and humanitarian assistance evolves to more closely resemble Americas multi-ethnic face. MD Tawana will continue to examine the issues of diversity and inclusion in both Monday Developments and on InterActions blog in the coming months. If your organization is interested in being featured, please contact her at tjacobs@ interaction.org.

28

MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS JUNE 2011

Kicker

events
JuNe
5 June World Environment Day www.unac.org/en/news_ events/un_days/international_ days.asp 68 June InsideNGO Annual Member Meeting Washington, D.C. www.insidengo.org/ annualmeeting2011.html 1317 June 2011 Annual International Conference on Global Health Omni Shoreham Hotel Washington, D.C. www.globalhealth.org/ conference_2011/ 2324 June USAID Proposal Development Washington, D.C. Contact: workshops@ InsideNGO.org or visit https://sites.google. com/a/insidengo.org/ dcproposals0611/

Its free and easy to publicize your upcoming events in Monday Developments Magazine. Send your events name, date, location and contact information to publications@ interaction.org

iDPs
continued from page 9

AuGuSt
1012 August InterActions Annual Forum Washington, D.C. www.interaction.org/ forum-2011

need to find new ways of providing assistance and protection, as their know-how focuses on responses in camp situations. Outside-of-camp situations, including urban settings, require a response framework that takes into account the needs of an entire community, while ensuring that the specific protection needs of IDPs and other groups at risk are addressed. The settlement choices of IDPs need to be supported throughout displacement, to progress towards durable solutions, recognizing that these choices may evolve over time, as a result of changes in both context and the personal situations of IDPs. Humanitarian and development actors need to find ways of working together at an early stage in the humanitarian crisis to ensure progress over time towards durable solutions and prevent situations of protracted displacement. Global Overview can be found at www.internal-displacement.org/ publications/global-overview-2010.

best Practices
continued from page 27

events to enable broad participation across several time zones has proven difficult, particularly for an organization whose headquarters staff are largely based on the West Coast of the U.S. Solutions include conducting multiple sessions for different time zones and alternating the timing of regular events to favor the Eastern and Western Hemispheres respectively. We are still evolving our approaches and learning from our experiences. Future plans include more formal training sessions on specific M&E topics to complement the field-to-field learning and sharing. We are also planning regional M&E conferences for face-to-face capac-

ity and relationship building, and hope that this will yield even greater participation in the online forums. Many country offices are hoping to upgrade their systems to allow for more fluid participation in these and other online learning opportunities. While our central challenge is not yet fully solved (will it ever be?), the prospects for advancing joint learning and good M&E practice across the agency are greater now that we have invested in online learning and collaboration technologies to help advance our cause. MD Janell Lee, Gretchen Shanks and Anna Young contributed to this article.

The Center for Rebuilding Sustainable Communities after Disasters


at the University of Massachusetts Boston, U.S.A., in collaboration with University College, proudly offers
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29

jobs
Country Directors*
The Peace Corps is looking for senior-level executives with exceptional leadership skills, international development experience (including working overseas), administrative and financial management expertise, and strong cross-cultural experience to serve as Country Directors. CDs are the senior Peace Corps representative in a country and are responsible for the leadership and direction of all aspects of the Peace Corps program: administration, Volunteer support, representation, programming and training, and safety and security. Candidates should have experience managing a program or business of comparable size to a Peace Corps country program (15 to 50 staff, 50 to 250 Volunteers, and an operating budget of $900,000 to $4 million), as well as experience managing/ supporting staff and/or volunteers. The salary range for these positions is $96,064 to $150,913.

Are you looking to hire experienced development and humanitarian professionals? The candidates youre looking for read Monday Developments! Send your classified position announcements to Zoe Plaugher at publications@interaction.org or visit us online at careers.interaction.org

Director of Program and Training*


The Peace Corps is looking for senior-level managers with exceptional skills to supervise staff and design and manage international development programs in a variety of fields such as health, education, small business development, and agriculture/environment. International cross-cultural and supervisory experience are required (including 1 year working overseas). DPTs manage, advise, and develop professional program and training staff to support Peace Corps Volunteers. DPTs oversee the planning, analysis, implementation, and monitoring of programs and training activities, as well as support staff and Volunteers to meet the expectations of project partners. Candidates should have work experience managing an international development program or business and managing/supporting staff, including one year of performing supervisory functions. The salary range for these positions is $61,759 to $138,137.

Administrative Officers*
The Peace Corps is looking for mid to senior-level managers with extensive administrative and financial experience, international and crosscultural experience, and exceptional management and leadership skills to serve overseas as Administrative Officers. International cross-cultural and supervisory experience are required (including 1 year working overseas). AOs ensure the effective management of country operations in support of 15 to 50 staff and 50 to 250 Volunteers. Critical services which the AO provides include direction of the administrative unit, as well as financial analysis and policy implementation. Candidates should have work experience managing a program or business and managing/ supporting staff, including one year of performing supervisory functions. The salary range for these positions is $61,759 to $138,137.

All CDs, DPTs and AOs must be U.S. citizens and must not have been associated with intelligence activities. Peace Corps seeks candidates that are reflective of the diversity of Peace Corps and its Volunteers. Employees are appointed for a 30-month tour and may be granted a second tour for a maximum of five years (60 months) with the agency. Peace Corps accepts applications for these positions throughout the year. You may apply on-line through the website, http://pcoverseasjobs.avuedigital.us/. You must complete the on-line application in order to be considered for a position; resumes are supplemental. If you have any questions, please e-mail AOandPTOjobs@peacecorps.gov for AO and DPT positions and CDselection@peacecorps.gov for CD positions.

Mobile technology
continued from page 24

well as track the funds and create a record of transactions. When they receive a mobile money transfer, people receive an immediate notification and can then access their funds at any M-pesa agent. Beneficiaries do not need a bank account or even their own mobile phonejust a SIM card and identification. Mobile phone transfers also help mitigate the risks of providing aid in insecure environments, as they provide a discreet, immediate and cost effective mechanism for delivery.
30

summary The wide availability of delivery options in Kenya make cash transfers a viable option for humanitarian assistance in places where local markets can meet peoples needs. The advancements in electronic payment technology made by private sector enterprise also have new implications for humanitarian response and preparedness, as organizations learn how to work with financial and mobile providers to reach those in need. Technology in the world today continues to change and evolve and humanitarian aid will evolve

with it. While still growing and developing today, new technologies and private sector innovations have the potential to enable aid organizations to deliver money to unprecedented numbers of people, with record efficiency and speed. As populations continue to concentrate in urban areas and even rural economies are more and more monetized, cash transfer programming is set to become an increasingly relevant method of disaster relief. With the innovation born from necessity, countries like Kenya are leading the way towards making electronic money transfers

an essential part of humanitarian preparedness and response. MD The Cash Learning Partnership aims to raise awareness and improve the quality of cash transfer programming in humanitarian preparedness and response through capacity building, evidence-based research and knowledge sharing. It is a learning consortium formed by Oxfam GB, Save the Children, the British Red Cross, Action Against Hunger/ ACF International and the Norwegian Refugee Council. For more information or to contact us, please visit www.cashlearning.org.

MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS JUNE 2011

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