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Prepared by : Hardik Choksi Ankita Goyal

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We would like to take this opportunity to express our deep gratitude to all those who have offered their valuable help and time to help us complete the project. We would like to thank Prof. A.B.Raju (Project Guide) for providing us the support and guidance in the project, for providing us the necessary information and motivation to go about the project and sparing his valuable time to share his knowledge about the topic in depth. We would also like to thank IIPM Ahmedabad, who gave us this opportunity to prove our talent and provided a platform for development.

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In the competitive world of manufacturing, companies are often searching for new ways to improve their process, customer satisfaction and stay ahead in the game with their competitors. Logistics has been considered a strategy to bring these things to life for the past decade or so. This project work tries to shed some light on the basics of logistics and how logistics can be used as a management strategy. This paper points out the fundamentals of logistics and looks into what kind of decisions today‘s logistics managers have to take on a daily basis for the improvement of their logistics model. A growing concern has been developing to control rising global pollution, this paper also brings out some of the effects of logistics decisions on the environment and vice versa. The project starts out by compiling the works of researchers and logistics experts in the field of logistics in the theoretical background section. Through a survey conducted in a few logistics firms, a small picture of the extent to which logistics has penetrated the manufacturing world has been drawn.

Keywords: Logistics, , Logistics activities, Returns.

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This project also sheds some light on what activities in the logistics help companies to move towards the Operational Excellencies in the market. Logistics deals with the handling of the goods that are being returned to the manufacturer by the customer. 1. This project tries to understand the basic concepts of logistics. and the manufacturing world is now different. The reader will be able to get a fair idea of what this Project is all about.Introduction This section of the paper will give the reader an idea of the fundamentals of the project. Companies are always looking for newer and newer opportunities and defects in the system so they can be tackled. It also covers some basic logistics activities and how these activities affect the decisions that managers have to make on a regular basis in their company. This exponential growth has resulted in the overuse of the natural resources thus increasing the amount of industrial waste. Logistics is a small part of the company. The ever growing manufacturing world and the advent of automation has resulted in mass production and increased the number of products released into the market. It tries to give an idea of how various researchers and logistics experts have defined logistics and how they have made out of it the ―Operational Excellencies‖. It covers all the activities that determine the fate of these returned goods. In the following subsections one can understand the objectives and obstacles for this project. as it involves the optimal use of man.1 Background Competition can be seen in every field these days.2 Project Specifications 5|P ag e . 1. machine and material. Logistics plays an important role in any manufacturing firm.

This project mainly focuses on the concept of logistics and what role it plays in the manufacturing world today to bring out the excellence in business 1.1 Aim The aim of this project is to understand the concept of Logistics and its potential in the various industries.2 Problem Definition Logistics companies tried to focus on its effects on the managerial decisions but some time it fail in the operational excellence. 6|P ag e .2. Further the questionnaire also has been formulated so as to get clear and well defined answers. The main focus of this thesis would be to answer the following questions: The literature review in this paper gives a clear picture about the concept of logistics. It also gives me the opportunity to show my skills as a Masters student. this thesis tries to understand and analyze the concept of reverse logistics. Researchers have found that logistics can play an important role in improving the operational part.2. and showcase the skills that we have learnt over the past two years. 1. interview and survey conducted with logistics and supply chain personnel at a few companies. Through the literature study.This project gives me the opportunity to put together a study on the concept of Logistics. It also focuses on learning different aspects of the logistics and how these aspects affect the decisions made by various firms and try to get good returns through it.

1. As mentioned in the problem definition this thesis will focus on understanding the knowledge of the participants with respect to logistics. Somehow we managed to get few people from different companies to respond to the questionnaire.2. 7|P ag e . Also some sort of an interview was conducted through telephone calls and chatting over the internet to get a better understanding of the responses given by them. And by the time this decision was made there was very little time for choosing the companies and conducting survey and/or interviews. The focus initially conduct the survey and/interviews in various firms After which a quick decision was made to change the target group to the manufacturing firms in India. product and geographical reach of the firm. regardless of size.3 Problem Delimitation Logistics has been found to play an important role in almost any manufacturing firm. and to what extent they have implemented logistics concepts within their companies and how this affects their decisions.

Further the purpose of this project was explained to the respondents in brief.2. Methodology The methodology followed to achieve the set objectives of this project is in three parts: Secondary research. various articles. periodicals and also the Mckinsey and KPMG reports. 2. 2.1 The survey A thorough literature study on the topic of this paper: Several articles were found on the topic over the internet. 8|P ag e .0 Secondary Research Secondary research was conducted through various means like internet. a preliminary set of questions were formulated for the survey. journals. This led to open up the discussion. interviews were conducted with the respondents to better understand their responses and also to get a better idea of their understanding of the concept of logistics. 2. since some of them had failed to answer the survey completely.2 Interview After receiving the responses to the survey for this project. Companies were contacted by me us over the telephone and through email. Most of the respondents had filled the survey questions completely. After getting somewhat of a fair idea about logistics. These discussions were mainly along the lines of the survey questions. so as to give them an idea of the objectives and goals of the project. survey and interview. The interviews more like discussions were conducted with the respondents over the phone and through online chats.

9|P ag e .and give the respondents an opportunity to throw light on their thoughts on supply chain and logistics. Thus the results and analysis sections are based on both the survey and interviews.

and finished inventories where required at the lowest cost possible Origin and Definition of Logistics: The term "logistics" originates from the ancient Greek "λόγος" ("logos"—"ratio. transportation. The goal of logistics work is to manage the fruition of project life cycles. evolved only in the 1950s. material handling. there were military officers with the title ‗Logistikas‘ who were responsible for financial management and distribution of supplies. This can be defined as having the right item in the right quantity at the right time at the right place for the right price and to the right target customers (consumer). Logistics is concerned with getting (or transmitting) the products and services where they are needed or when they are desired. inventory. Logistics. Calculation. supply chains and resultant efficiencies. It involves the integration of information. and it is the science of process having its presence in all sectors of the industry. Roman and Byzantine empires. calling for experts in the field who are called Supply Chain Logisticians. The operating responsibility of logistics is the geographical repositioning of raw materials. Logistics is considered to have originated in the military's need to supply themselves with arms. In ancient Greek.INTRODUCTION Logistics management is that part of the supply chain which plans. services and information between the point of origin and the point of consumption in order to meet customers' requirements rather to the customers‘ delight. and packaging. A professional working in the field of logistics management is called a logistician. reason. as a business concept. word. implements and controls the efficient.LOGISTICS MANAGEMENT . effective. This was mainly due to the increasing complexity of supplying one's business with materials. warehousing. work in process. and shipping out products in an increasingly globalized supply chain. speech. 10 | P a g e . forward and backward (reverse) flow and storage of goods. oration"). It is difficult to accomplish any marketing or manufacturing without logistical support. ammunition and rations as they moved from their base to a forward position.

Rapid Response: Rapid response is concerned with a firm's ability to satisfy customer service requirements in a timely manner. services and related information from the point of origin to the point of consumption for the purpose of conforming to customer requirements. and storage of goods. logistics management starts with ascertaining customers‘ needs till their fulfilment through product supplies. However. there are some definite objectives to be achieved through a proper logistics system. is to improve the customer service. These can be described as follows: 1. andmaintaining optimum level of inventory. Reduce total distribution costs: The cost of physical distribution consists of various elements such as transportation. Information technology has increased the capability to postpone logistical operations to the latest possible time and then accomplish rapid delivery of required inventory.The Oxford English dictionary defines logistics as: ―The branch of military science having to do with procuring. quick and economic transportation. Objective of Logistics Management: The primary objective of logistics management is to effectively and efficiently move the supply chain so as to extend the desired level of customer service at the least cost. 2.‖ The American Council of Logistics Management defines logistics as―the process of planning. Thus. 11 | P a g e . Improving customer service: An important objective of all marketing efforts.‖ c. including the physical distribution activities. An efficient management of physical distribution can help in improving the level of customer service by developing an effective system of warehousing. personnel and facilities. implementing and controlling the efficient and effective flow. 3. maintaining and transporting material.

Creating time and place utilities: The products are physically moved from the place of their origin to the place where they are required for consumption. Quality improvement: The long-term objective of the logistical system is to seek continuous quality improvement. Thus. by decentralizing its warehousing operations or by using economic and efficient modes of transportation. Price stabilization: It can be achieved by regulating the flow of the products to the market through a judicious use of available transport facilities and compatible warehouse operations. 6. Also by avoiding the out-of stock situation. they do not serve any purpose to the users. once expended. and any reduction in the cost of one element may result in an increase in the cost of the other elements. 7. the products have to be made available at the time they are needed for consumption. 4. if any. Logistical costs. Total quality management (TQM) has become a major commitment throughout all facets of industry. cannot be reversed. 12 | P a g e . For example. By stocking the raw material during the period of excess supply and made available during the periods of short supply. Generating additional sales: A firm can attract additional customers by offering better services at lowest prices. little.warehousing and inventory maintenance. 5. a firm can achieve larger market share. the prices can be stabilized. value is added by the logistics. the objective of the firm should be to reduce the total cost of distribution and not just the cost incurred on any one element. Similarly. the loss of loyal customers can be arrested. If a product becomes defective or if service promises are not kept.

In order to provide quicker customer service. the orders received from customers should be processed within the least possible time. filling the order. payment and delivery terms ➢ Checking the availability in of the material stocks ➢ Production and material scheduling for storage ➢ Acknowledge the order. indicating deviation 13 | P a g e . The error committed at this stage at times can prove to be very costly. Order processing: The starting point of physical distribution activities is the processing of customers‘ orders. recording the order. which have to be properly managed to bring effectiveness efficiency in the supply chain of organization. and assembling all such orders for transportation. and distance. Movement consolidation: Consolidation one of the most significant logistical costs is transportation. This process is consist of various functions. etc. Order processing activity consist of the following ➢ Order checking in any deviations in agreed or negotiation terms ➢ Prices . Premium transportation is typically high-cost. Transportation cost is directly related to the type of product. Many Logistical systems that feature premium service depend on high-speed. It is desirable to achieve movement consolidation. small shipment transportation. Order processing includes receiving the order. 1. d. the company and the customers benefit when these steps are carried out quickly and accurately. size of shipment. Logistics Management Function Logistics is the process of movement of goods across the supply chain of the company. To reduce transportation cost.8.

The basic purpose of the warehousing activity is to arrange placement of goods. steel and automobiles).g.e. No wonder. consolidate them with other similar products.. This is not only helps the firm in terms of the cost of inventory and supply to customers in time but also to maintain production at a consistent level. Thus. The major factors determining the inventory levels are: The firm‘s policy regarding the customer service level. but greater would be the cost of warehousing. Degree of accuracy of the sales forecasts. Major decision in warehousing is as follow: ➢ Location of warehousing facility ➢ Number of warehousing ➢ Size of warehouse ➢ Design of the building ➢ Ownership of the warehouse 3. Warehousing: Warehousing refers to the storing and assorting products in order to create time utility. that the new concept of Just-in-TimeInventory decision is increasingly becoming popular with a number of companies. The cost inventory consists of holding cost 14 | P a g e . ability of the system to transmit inventory needs to the factory and get the products in the market. Generally. The decision regarding level of inventory involves estimate of demand for the product. Responsiveness of the distribution system i.. provide storage facility to store them. A correct estimate of the demand helps to hold proper inventory level and control the inventory costs. larger the number of warehouses a firm has the lesser would be the time taken in serving customers at different locations. the firm has to strike a balance between the cost of warehousing and the level of customer service.2. therefore. Inventory Management: Linked to warehousing decisions are the inventory decisions which hold the key to success of physical distribution especially where the inventory costs may be as high 15 as 30-40 per cent (e. divide them into smaller quantities and build up assortment of products.

15 | P a g e . For example. is required.(such as cost of warehousing. To achieve these goals. dependable and equitable in terms of costs and benefits of the facilities and service provided.. information about the availability of various modes of transport. Of course. 5. regular. information with respect to space utilization. their costs. in respect on inventory. it is difficult to correctly assess the cost of physical distribution operations. etc. services and suitability for a particular product is needed. unit load performance. transportation and warehousing. an efficient management information system would be of immense use in controlling costs. work schedules. But if correct information is available it can be analyzed systematically and a great deal of saving can be ensured. increases their economic value. About warehousing. information about present stock position at each location. Information: The physical distribution managers continuously need up-to-date information about inventory. Transportation: Transportation seeks to move goods from points of production and sale to points of consumption in the quantities required at times needed and at a reasonable cost. improving services and determining the overall effectiveness of distribution. Similarly. future commitment and replenishment capabilities are constantly required. In order to receive all the information stated above. The transportation system adds time and place utilities to the goods handled and thus. 4. before choosing a 16 carrier. transportation facilities must be adequate. tied up capital and obsolescence) and replenishment cost (including the manufacturing cost).

training. funding requirements. environmental impacts. all of which are directed toward ensuring that all required permanent or semi permanent operating and support facilities (for instance. and testing) are available concurrently with system fielding. It also includes studies to define and establish impacts on life cycle cost. 16 | P a g e . Facility construction can take from 5 to 7 years from concept formulation to user occupancy. safety and health standards requirements. space requirements.6. Also included are any utility requirements. facility locations and improvements. storage. duration or frequency of use. Planning must be comprehensive and include the need for new construction as well as modifications to existing facilities. field and depot maintenance. Facilities: The Facilities logistics element is composed of a variety of planning activities. for both fixed and mobile facilities. and security restrictions. operational. with emphasis on limiting requirements of scarce or unique resources.

the logistics industry is valued at US$ 3. Consequently. (CII) Third Party Logistics (3PL) Solutions.3 million People. spends Close to 9% of its GDP on logistic services. o Streamlining of the indirect tax structure: 17 | P a g e . The U. at a CAGR of 25% (CII). It is forecast to grow at a Compound Annual Growth Rate (CAGR) of approximately 8% over the next three to five years.S.5 trillion. from 6% in FY06 to 13% in FY11. is slated to grow at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of over 16% from 2007-10. The primary growth drivers of this industry are as under: o Investments in the infrastructure sector amounting to US$ 350 billion: Increased efficiency and productivity of the transport system would result in lower transit times. which contributes to over 25% of the global industry value.The Logistics Industry – SNAP SHOT Globally. (CII) the industry has generated employment for 45 million people in the country in comparison with the IT and ITeS sector which employs approximately 4. 3PL service providers are expected to corner an increased share of the Indian Logistics pie. The Indian Logistics Industry is presently estimated at US$ 90 billion..

thereby resulting in a substantial increase in demand for integrated logistics solutions. 18 | P a g e . which is the niche of every Third Party Logistics Service (―3PL Services‖) provider. (CII) A snapshot of the FDI regulations governing the industry is as under: i. Consequently. o Robust trade growth Strong economic growth and liberalization have led to considerable increase in domestic and international trade volumes over the past five years. handling and warehousing is growing at a robust pace and is driving the demand for integrated logistics solutions. This is expected to contribute to an increase in the need for integrated logistic solutions. ii. o Globalization of manufacturing systems Globalization of manufacturing systems coupled with advancements in technology are increasingly compelling companies across verticals to concentrate on their core competencies and avail the cost saving potential of outsourcing. 100% FDI under the automatic route is permitted for all logistic services except services mentioned in points ii and iii below. FDI up to 100% subject to FIPB approval is permitted for courier services. The industry has been valued at US$ 125 billion in 2010. the requirement for transportation.The introduction of Value Added Tax (VAT) and the proposed introduction of a singular Goods and Services Tax (GST) are expected to significantly reduce the number of warehouses manufacturers are required to maintain in different states.

that Press Note 1 (2007) that is expected to be imminently notified by the DIPP proposes to increase the limit of FDI on air cargo services in 74%. 19 | P a g e . FDI up to 49% under the automatic route is permitted for air transport services. The industry has been at the receiving end of increasing interest from the private equity sector. including air cargo services. against 3% in the previous year. The year 2007 witnessed just under US$ 1 billion in private equity investments in this industry.iii. It is pertinent to mention in this context. representing approximately 7% of total private equity investments during the year.

logistics has been becoming efficient only since the globalisation wave of the early 1990s and hence. have been pushed for competitive balance-sheets. However. has developed a Logistics Performance Index (LPI) that can serve as a benchmarking tool for measuring performance of businesses along a country‘s logistics supply chain. Although quite an old concept. logistics competence and tracking of shipments. 20 | P a g e . the businesses supported by it. it has traditionally not been accorded the attention it deserves as a separate sector in itself. It also warns that those countries whose links with the global logistics chain are weak are bound to face large and growing costs of exclusion from international trade. Healthy economic growth in India is increasingly supported by robust industrial growth. One of the relatively lesser known but significant sectors that support almost all industrial activity . The report avers that it is not the income of nations but their undergoing trade expansion that determines their logistics efficiency. not withstanding its importance and size (INR 4 trillion).THE INDIAN LOGISTICS SECTOR: Wars have been won or lost on the strength of logistics capability or lack of it. international shipment. but is ahead of the latter on the domestic logistics efficiency front. as the survey shows that nations with increasing trade (imports and exports) to GDP emerged as the out-performers on the LPI scale relative to their income levels. at the right time and place at the lowest cost — be it a product or a service. providing consumers a better product/service and yet adding value to its investors. coupled with liberalisation. forced both private and public firms to commit themselves to making available to their customers the right material of right condition. overall infrastructure quality. globalisation. The Bank study asserts that countries that are able to connect to the global logistics web would not only have access to vast new markets but also remain a part of the global trade also witnessing this growth as a follow through. Triggering intense competition. The World Bank. worldwide. in a recent survey Connecting to Compete: Trade Logistics in the Global Economy. India trails behind China on important indices such as customs procedures.the logistics sector .

The level of inefficiency in logistics activities in the country has been very high across all modes. extensive industry fragmentation and lack of good basic infrastructure.equivalent to 13 percent of its GDP is higher than that of the developed nations. over time. skill development will emerge as a key capability while skill issues exist in varying degrees in all segments of logistics. regulatory environment and the fragmented nature of the industry are being overcome gradually. With the evolving business environment creating a strong demand pull for quality and efficient logistics services. The required pace of efficiency and quality improvement will demand rapid development of capabilities of logistics service providers. At the same time. higher turnaround time at ports and high cost of administrative delays being just a few of the examples. core issues around enabling infrastructure. 21 | P a g e . India's indirect tax regime discouraged large centralized warehouses and led. the absence of a single logistics 'champion' (whether in form of a ministry or otherwise) in the government (or industry) led to a disintegrated approach to development of the sector. those segments where the gaps are not only wide but also widening at a relatively fast pace. The most severe and immediate requirement for skill development is found to be in the road freight and warehousing segments. to fragmentation in the warehousing sector. These inefficiencies have arisen over the years from a combination of a non-conducive policy environment. And with logistics being a service oriented sector. The key reason for this is the relatively higher level of inefficiencies in the system. India‘s spend on logistics activities . with lower average trucking speeds.

Extensive fragmentation meant the incapacity of industry players to develop the industry as a whole and poor support infrastructure, such as roads, ports and telecom, led to a situation where the opportunity to create value is limited. However, much of this is changing with the government now demonstrating a strong commitment towards providing an enabling infrastructure and creating conducive regulations. There is significant current and planned investment in infrastructure to the tune of (INR 15 trillion) over the next few years and an increased emphasis on public-private partnership. At the same time, regulations around rationalization of tax structures and prevention of overloading for example are creating an environment of positive change. Players now ave the opportunity to leverage economies of scale, complemented with better infrastructure, to provide integrated logistics solutions which are cost effective. In addition, the evolving business landscape and increasing competition across industries, is creating the need for more efficient and reliable logistics services than what exist today For example, rapid growth of organized retail and the need to reach out to the large untapped rural markets in India are necessitating development of strong back end and front end supply networks. Fundamentally, a fragmented industry with low average scale - and consequent limited investment and market development capability - is worst placed to serve these needs. It is not surprising therefore that there is a frantic pace of consolidation and organic growth that the industry is witnessing (refer box and figure 4). While logistics service providers are struggling to keep pace with the growth, logistics service users with limited or no outsourcing are finding it
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increasingly difficult and / or undesirable to manage this non-core activity in house. The result is a wide need gap that is seemingly widening much faster than it is being filled. It is in this context that capability development of logistics service providers assumes critical importance. While rapid development across all dimensions of organizational capability will be required to achieve and sustain demand growth, logistics being a service industry, manpower capabilities assume utmost 5 importances. The sector currently employs about 40 million people, a number that will rise rapidly with exponential growth expectations in the sector. 6 A look at the financials of a set of 80 logistics companies in India across sectors reveals that manpower spends comprise 8-10 percent of overall sales of the sector. This roughly translates to about an INR 500 billion spend on logistics manpower in the country annually. Only about 13 -14 percent of the overall manpower costs are spent on non salary, manpower development items (welfare, training etc.). This share for the unorganized companies would expectedly be much less. As against this leading global logistics companies spend around 20 percent of their employee expenditure on non-salary items. This lack of focus on developing manpower and skills for the logistics sector has resulted in a significant gap in the numbers and quality of manpower in the sector. This gap, unless addressed urgently, is likely to be a key impediment in the growth of the logistics sector in India, and in consequence, could impact growth in industry and manufacturing sectors as well. This underscores the need for identifying areas where such manpower and skill gaps are critical, and developing focused action plans to improve the situation. In the next section, we analyze each segment of the Logistics sector in India to identify the skill gaps that exist in each. These gaps are then prioritized to identify key focus areas, and the action that needs to be taken to bridge the gaps.

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Indian Supply Chain and Logistics Industry is more than USD 100 Billion in size and is the backbone of Indian Economy. Our industry is growing at a rate of 8-10% annually and has been a crucial contributor in the growth and development of the Indian economy. In the near future, Traditional Logistics services like Transportation and Warehousing would continue to growth at a good rate. However, the big ticket growth would come from the Value Added Logistics services in the near future. At present, Outsourced Logistics accounts for only one-third of the total Logistics market in India, which is a significantly lower proportion vis-à-vis the developed markets. Growth in this industry is currently being driven in India by over USD 300 billion worth of infrastructure investments, the phased introduction of VAT, the development of organized Retail and Agro-processing industries, along with a strong manufacturing growth. In addition, we expect strong Foreign Direct Investment inflows in the Indian markets, which would lead to increased market opportunities for providers of Third-Party Logistics in India. Therefore, India possesses substantial opportunities for growth in the Supply Chain & Logistics industry in the coming years, notwithstanding the temporary jolt due to the economic slowdown.

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which may delay its reaching on the West Coast for three days. They opt to establish their operations in each country and let them to manage logistics individually. Normally. This result in outbound logistics. it is commonplace also for expert managers of local logistics to get acquainted with the complexity of international trade logistics. The boom in Internet services changed international logistics rapidly. which cover country-specific laws and regulations. which results more pressure on logistics industry. For example. It almost includes longer delivery times. customs agents and so on. Usually. Factually. Global transportation and relevant services includes much complex documentation than for domestic shipments. On the other hand. their search doesn‘t go beyond the initial service providers who cover all the minimum requirements. services and supplies are emerging vertically. vendors can cater massive numbers of global shipments. even the largest multi-national companies avoided logistic services on a worldwide basis. The rest of the plants are gaining the developing rhythm. thus it aspires enhanced build to order model and lot-size-of-one shipments. The business players always look for just-in-time shipments. the trucks at the West Coast would have to wait and sat empty and ideal for the three days. These kind of unpredictable losses are usual in international logistics. which would certainly result in big loss. a ship that started its journey from Asia could meet harsh weather. Lured towards developing countries in south-east Asian region for lower-wages. At present. Major players are focusing overseas markets for outsourcing cheap manufacturing as well as expanding their businesses. Web-based sales. the shipping personals would decide for carriers. thousands of 25 | P a g e . producers are exploring around the globe in search for the lowest cost exporters/suppliers. transportation industry is stretching its reach longer than ever before. Complying with this. it is really hard to assume reaching time. And acceleration in manufacturing capacity is driving many producers to shutter superfluous plants.GLOBAL LOGISTICS SCENARIO: In a move to cut down costs. but must export overseas now to sustain their positions in the market. Logistics industry has usually been old-fashioned traditions. The expanding reach has compelled logistic industry to spur cross-border trade. they create and uphold substantial databases. Regardless-of this outbreak of activity. Boom in the Internet based services made overseas suppliers capable to match foot with local suppliers. Evaluation of the arrival times of international shipments is just a magic than solid fact. Thus. Once the shipment kicks-off its journey towards its destination.

Ryder. Although there is much to be done to achieve this stage. so they had get around by adding more safety stocks. ports. A biggest disadvantage in international logistics is the vagueness in arrival times. which recognizes each container in the yard and its placement. the pieces of the puzzle are gradually coming together. Global logistics in near future should be distant more faultless and reasonably priced than ever. Maintaining the clear vision also needs tracking the containers as soon as they leave the yard. Thus. global logistics should obviously improve. the industry does not provide step-by-step tracking of container. Materials managers have had modest choice. An important trend among logistics services providers would aid the industry. The uncertainty of delivery time is due to not tapping of international shipments closely and step by.combinations of containers. For example. which are operational in dozens of regions. equipment is still required. This tracking is possible by Global Positioning (GPS) systems and satellites. The radio frequency Identification (RFID) tags in containers. However vendors are now offering tracking system. This is easier said than done. Even though vendors are offering a worldwide network. Web-based companies and technically ground-breaking carriers such as UPS Logistics. the costs of inventory management in the overseas parts are naturally higher. tracking completed products needs a yard management system. International logistics vendors also maintains cost and route information on hundreds of hundreds carriers. which is necessary in continuous tracking of both international logistics network. significantly added and dedicated. whose place is detected by antennas located in the yard.step. and so on are likely counted for moving a shipment. Regardless of understandable limitation. Logistics industry veterans unveil that logistics service providers are extending reach worldwide and expanding their services too. As a result. however. and others will carry on showing the way. use of these systems are not usual at present. which offers both lower freight bills and cutting of delivery times. and electronic visibility in each yard and carrier. 26 | P a g e .

the figure for the US being about 9%. Inc. and in 2005. However. considering the fact that the logistics market in the US is about 10% of its annual logistics cost (Foster and Armstrong. there is still immense potential for growth of 3PL in the US in particular. 27 | P a g e . 2004. it was about USD 80 billion. it grew to USD 89 billion. the global logistics market sizes in 1992. in particular. registering high growth rates.Size of the global logistics industry Currently the annual logistics cost of the world is about USD 3. 2006). and in the world in general. the annual logistics cost varies between 9% and 20% of the GDP. According to the firm. In 2003. For any country. In 2004. 2005. the US logistics market is the largest in the world capturing one-third of the world logistics market. respectively. 2006). USD 25 billion and USD 56 billion. the corresponding figures were USD270 billion and USD 333 billion. it registered an impressive growth rate of 16% to cross the USD 100 billion mark for the first time and reach USD 103. in their annual surveys of top 25 global LSPs. tracks the issues and trends in the world logistics market and in the US logistics market. In 2003 and 2004.7 billion (Foster and Armstrong.5 trillion. Though most of the large LSPs are headquartered in Europe. 1996 and 2000 were USD 10 billion. US-based Armstrong & Associates.

2006. acquisitions and alliances. pressure from clients to broaden the range of service offerings and internationalize operations. and Deutsche Post World Net. Pressure from clients to broaden the range of service offerings and internationalize operations. Bax Global was taken over by Deutsche Bahn. has forced service providers to look for suitable alliances. Tibbett & Britten Group of North America was acquired by Exel Logistics in August. However. such as pricing pressures. and TNT Logistics was sold to Apollo Management L. in November. focus on key customer accounts that have the potential to generate high 28 | P a g e . 2005. P. hiring and retaining talent. Carbone and Stone (2005) tracked the evolution of 20 leading European LSPs between 1998 and 2004 in terms of btheir approach to mergers. mergers and acquisitions have their own set of problems in terms of integration of two diverse business units. in November. Recent trends in the logistics industry indicate that to be successful. 2004. P. service providers have to differentiate themselves from their competitors in terms of offering value added services. achieve economies of scale and enhance service providers‘ capability to support international operations. parent company of Schenker. the world logistics market is going through a consolidation phase. demand for customized solutions and more valueadded services. Möller acquired P&O Nedlloyd in February. mergers and acquisitions that help fill the gaps in service offerings. parent company of DHL. and found that although growth led to more coverage. Currently. 2006. and industry verticals and geographic areas served. high costs of operations and low returns on investments. took over Exel in December. integration of two different cultures was one of the most difficult challenges faced by these firms in the consolidation process. Service providers complain that clients expect them to have the latest software. 2005 while A. Clients perceive that these investments are part of the basic service package. besides infrastructural bottlenecks and government regulations.Current status and dynamics of the industry The extant literature on the logistics industry points to a number of issues that service providers have to address. databases and ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning) packages. and invest in new technologies such as RFID and satellite-based real-time tracking systems. and often do not want to match the same with increased payments for these additional services.

29 | P a g e . enter into suitable alliances to complement the range of services offered and geographic areas served. and sell logistics services to clients‘ suppliers and customers. thus leading to complete supply chain integration.profitability for a long term.

Logistics Companies of India The land which opens up wide array of opportunities for the logistics service providers across the world is India. The high demand for the logistics services is due to the significant growth of economy. The logistics companies in India cater to millions of retailers and meet the requirements of about a billion people. A few years back the value of the India logistics market was is $14 billion and will grow at a rate of 7-8 per cent. The list below gives 30 | P a g e .

31 | P a g e .Best logistics companies in India.

350 Aircrafts. The company ranks No. freight and parcels. In 1979.72. The domestic network of the company covers about 21. The biggest logistics and express network in the world has a network in about 220 territories and ountries.36 hubs and 4. The company offers time and day definite delivery in about 200 nations across the world. Through its domain of logistics services. the company has delivered world class service in India. It provides the best 32 | P a g e . air freight and international express. Courier Company and Custom Consultant.the company introduced the first ever courier service by forming an alliance with DHL World Wide Express.340 locations and provides service to 220 countries by the company's sales alliance with DHL. DHL: This company is one among the major logistics companies in India. It is a market leader globally in overland transport.000 vehicles.000 road vehicles and has a network of 2. AFL: One among the acknowledged leaders among the logistics companies in India is AFL. The company ensures safe and on time delivery of your documents. Blue Dart: This logistics company is South Asia's top integrated express package Distribution and Courier Company.1 in the world in contract logistics and ocean freight.TOP LOGISTICS COMPANIES OF INDIA: TNT Express: This company is a key leader in the international market in the sector of global express services. It operates 47 jet freighter aircraft and 26.700 bases.300 companies. The company offers services like Logistics and warehousing.

Express Cargo etc. Logistics Solutions of the company are Warehousing. In 2002 the Limca Book of Records declared the company as the Largest Logistics service Provider in India. Regulatory Clearances. trucks. Free Computerized Proof of Delivery etc. car packing etc. Ashok Leyland: The leading provider of logistic vehicles for the India Army is this company.service like Free Pick up from Your location. The company has a network over 550 locations in 28 states and 7 countries. The company offers the best and integrated logistics solutions. It is a key leader in the tractor-tailers and multi axle trucks. engines and special application vehicles in India.The company provides services like the Ware Housing. It has 3000 weather proof ISO-9002 vehicles. The company manufactures buses. Gati coast to coast and Gati Air Express etc. Gati: The company is a key leader in the arena of express cargo delivery and a significant one in the supply chain management solutions and distribution in India since the year 1989. across India. Supply chain Management. The Distribution Solutions of the company are Gati Surface Express. Real Time Tracking. for exchange of information and integrated services related to logistics in order to tackle the business of freight contractors. The company believes in keeping technology and people and of course 33 | P a g e . Self-express: It is one of the largest express company in India. Agarwal Packers and Movers: This popular Indian logistics company provides logistic services like the home shifting. It is promoting a new company called Ashley Transport Services Ltd.

International. The overseas offices of the company are in Malaysia. The company offers high class delivery service in about 3700 Indian locations and 240 international places. First Wings and many others.heart and soul in the movement of the individuals respective items. 34 | P a g e . Singapore. Quatar. UAE. DTDC: The biggest Domestic Delivery Network Company is DTDC. It also offers low cost for bigger parcels to US. UK. The company dispatches about 10 million parcels in a month. Nepal. US. Dubai and other places across the world. Oman. UK. The company offers quality service in transportation and packing. First Flight: This logistics company in India specializes in courier services worldwide. India. The multi-tracking programs of the company are Domestic. First Wheels.

labelling. etc. order management. customer / financial services) Transportation of full loads Transportation of part loads Parcel distribution Returns management OTHER 2 0 ANALYSIS:AS WE SEEN ABOVE WAREHOUSHING .g.TRANSPORTATION OF FULL LOADS& PART LOADS.PRACEL DISTRIBUTION ISBEEN PROVIDED BY LOGISTIC COMPANY 35 | P a g e .SURVEY Which of the following logistics services do you provide? 20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 6 6 19 16 14 Ocean freight forwarding LCL 15 Ocean freight forwarding FCL AIR FRIGHTENING 10 Warehousing Cross docking 5 5 3 2 5 5 Value adding logistics (e. packaging.g.) Value adding services (e.

ANALYSIS:AS ABOVE DIAGRAM BARCODE IS USD FOR IDENTIFICATION FOR PRODUCTS How much warehousing space do you can provide 20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 Floor storage m² Pallet racking Pallet locations Shelf storage m² Bin Storage m² Other ANALYSIS. SELF STORAGE AND FLOOR STORAGE IS PROVIDED BY WAREHOUSING 36 | P a g e .Do you use bar-code identification on your products? NO 40% YES NO YES 60% .

Do you provide any special storage requirements NO 40% YES NO YES 60% ANALYSIS: AS SHOWN ABOVE DIAGRAM SPECIAL STORAGE RQIREMENT IS PROVIDED V.A. customization any ANALYSIS: V.S INCLUDE OST PICK AND PACK . packing & labelling. ASSEMBLY &PACKAGING AND LABELLING AS IT SHOWN ABOVE DIAGRAM 37 | P a g e .S 20 15 10 5 0 19 6 9 18 14 6 Cross docking Freight Consolidation Series1 Pick and pack assembly.A.

Are there seasonal influences in the order pattern ? NO 23% YES YES 77% NO ANALYSIS:AS SHOWN ABOVE IT SHOW YES THERE IS SEASONAL INFUENCE IN ORDERN PATTERN Do you provide express shipments? NO 40% YES NO YES 60% ANALYSIS: AS SHOWN ABOVE EXPRESS SHIPMENT IS PROVIDED. 38 | P a g e .

Which all certification you have ? 20 15 10 5 0 18 9 3 ISO 9000. What all is included in your business profile? Other 5% Transportation Management 13% Transportation Management Finished Goods Handling Inventory Control 22% Finished Goods Handling 32% Raw Material Handling Inventory Control Other Raw Material Handling 28% ANALYSIS. HAZARADOUS GOODS ANALYSIS:AS SHOWN ABOVE CERTIFACTION MOST REQUIRED IS ISO9000. AS SHOWN PIE DIAGRAM FINISHED GOODS HANDLING INCLUDE IN BUSINESS PROFILE 39 | P a g e . Series1 TAPA.

40 | P a g e .What all are the Product Characteristics for what you provide services 20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 19 15 13 15 Carton Dimensions Carton Weight 8 4 8 Pallet Dimensions Special Handling 2 3 3 Special Storage Stackable Lot Control / Serial Number Security / Temperature Control Considerations FIFO ANALYSIS:AS SHOWN ABOVE PALLET AND CARTOON DIMENSION. SECURITY TEMPERATURE ANF FIFO ARE PRODUCT CHARCTERISTIC BEEN PROVIDED HIGHEST.

Order Processing / Picking Two Days 17% >Two Days 23% One Day 27% >Two Days 1 to 4 Hours 1 to 4 Hours 33% One Day Two Days 41 | P a g e .Storage Information of your firm Shelving Other 12% Carousels 8% Bulk / Floor Stack 15% Shelving 19% Bulk / Floor Stack Pallet Rack Flow Rack ASRS 4% Secure Storage 15% Secure Storage ASRS Carousels Other Flow Rack 9% Pallet Rack 18% AS SHOWN ABOVE PALLET RACK AND SHELVING STORE INFORMATION IS BEEN AT HIGHEST PERCENTAGE THEN SECURE STORAGE AND BULK/ FLOOR STACK.

42 | P a g e .ANALYSIS : ORDER PROCEESING MAXIMUM TAKES 1 TO 4 HOUR THEN ONE DAY Shipment that you provide 8 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 3 6 5 4 Forwarder Rail Ocean Other: LTL Truck Full Truck Integrator Will Call Other 0 ANALYSIS: AS SHOWN ABOVE LTL TRUCK AND FULL TRUCK SHIPMENT FORWARDER SHIPMENT IS PROVIDED THE MOST Shipment Information 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 Domestic: International: Both Domestic: International: Both ANALYSIS: AS SHOWN ABOVE BOTH DOMESTIC AND INTERNATINAL SHIPMENT INFORMATIN IS PROVIDED.

inland transit.07 and secure 39th position in the global logistics industry. The third party logistics (3PL) market in India is still in a relatively nascent stage. As the share of Indian Logistics Industry is more than the Mexico and less than the USA. 3. 4. 6. Also significant cost Reduction and several other benefits provided by these companies. 5. USA and Europe. that show that Indian Logistics sectors perform better among all the low income countries or developing countries. This shows that trend of 3PL providers is increased in India. fast and safe for overseas movement of goods.FINDING’s 1. 2. While multinational companies in all industries have been predominant users of these services but the Indian companies are not. Logistics cost contribution of India in GDP is 13 % which shows the high logistics cost of the Indian Logistics industry and also higher than the developed countries. losses and related administration which shows the high logistics cost in India due to less organized sectors. trade-related infrastructure. In the global logistics sector India at the top position among the all the low income group countries. According to Planning 43 | P a g e . 3PL service providers share is less in overall industry of India as compare to Japan. This is also one of Reason of high cost in India. information systems. customs. logistics services. Among these sectors share of Aviation sector is higher due to increasing international business in India also cost of transportation is higher. Shreyas Shipping and Logistics is investing high as compare to the DHL. UK and Singapore witness that Indian Logistics industry is one of the growth drivers for Indian economy. warehousing. and port efficiency are all critical to whether countries can trade goods and services on time and at low cost. The logistics performance index shows the performance of country in the global logistics industry. Revenue generated from 3PL providers increase the Indian economy and also the percentage growth the revenue increased continuously from 2005 to 2008. But organized sectors are well established in Japan. transportation. Now 3PL service providers are start investment in India to reduce the logistics cost which include both domestic and international companies. TNT and Gati. packaging. Major sectors investment in Indian Logistics industries are Aviation. Here India LPI score is 3. Metal & Mining and consumer durable. 7. 8. Organized sector include the cost of inventory holding. USA and Europe also one of the reasons to low logistics cost. Due to the poor infrastructure and other logistics service is not better than the developed countries like USA and Japan.

Among the different modes of transportation maximum road is used most preferred mode of transportation due maximum area cover by the roads as compare to other modes of transportation. Almost every mode of transportation in India is fraught with 44 | P a g e . 15. Rail freight also increase with the improvement of logistics industry in India due to less cost as compare to the other modes of transportation and also growth of the infrastructure of the railways. Logistics cost contribute to sale indicate importance of logistics in different industries.2007 implies that improvement in the supply chain of the other industries in India 10. 13. 9.Sea freight also shows the improvement due to better movement for the overseas movement of goods and also least cost incur when shipping of goods by sea but it takes more time and less safe than the air modes. 11.Cargo movement also witnesses the choice of the transportation mode in India movement of cargo by road is maximum than other modes. But maximum growth is shown by the rail and sea as compare to the road and air. this shows the continuously improvement in roads freight in India. 17. Logistics industry also improves the performance of other industries in India as these are auto. 14. As logistics cost share in sale of cement industry higher than other industries shows it play an important role in sale. 16. But sea and air mode shows the least percentage for the cargo movement due to less share of India in the International market as compare to the domestic. IT and pharmaceutical industries that shows high growth rate. Logistics grow with 8–10 % rate between 2002. Air mode of transportation is used maximum for the overseas movement as compare to the domestic therefore growth in air mode of transportation higher in international level as compare to the domestic.Logistics cost play an important role for the growth of industry. Road is use maximum for the movements of goods in India due better area coverage of road as compare to the other modes of transportation and also the economic and faster some time due to that road is preferred first and maximum for the movement of goods in India.Growth of container volume represents the increasing share of the Indian logistics industry in International market as it is grow continuously from year to years.Commission India this is growth continuous and it reached to $3556 million till 2012 is estimated.Air mode of transportation is help in both the domestic and international movement of goods as it incur high cost but this is safe and fastest modes of transportation than the others modes. Road transportation is currently the most dominant form of transportation with more than half of the goods in the country being moved by road.Different transportation modes in India also improved with the increase in the international market. 12.

For instance. 45 | P a g e . It is rarely used for bulk transportation 18. ports – that are vital for foreign trade—have very high turnaround times when compared with statistics for other countries. on the other hand. which were a popular mode for freight transportation (especially the movement of bulk goods).inefficiencies. Also upsurge in the retail sector along with the fact that has several industrial clusters of industries. auto. machinery and electronic goods. have lost ground to road transportation due to limited access to smaller towns. Similarly.Industrial cluster in India can be dividing into four economic zones based on the concentration of the key industries like pharmaceutical. is a costly mode and its use is restricted to courier shipments. Air. West zone is show high attractiveness due most prominent destination for the Logistics industry. textiles. the railways.

Also in India organised sector not well established as compare to developed nation this contain cost of inventory holding.CONCLUSION Indian Logistics industry is continuously improving its performance in the global logistics industry by improvement of customs. Indian Logistics industry has low performance than developed countries like USA. Railway freight also increases due low freight as compare to road but cover some of area and better for long distance movement of goods. 46 | P a g e . Road freight in India grows with increase of domestic and international trade also large area coverage. The World Bank's 2007th Global Logistics Report ranks India 39 amongst 150 countries in terms of logistics performance during the year as well as its future potential. rail and sea. higher turnaround time at ports and high cost of administrative delays. UK and Singapore in global logistics sectors due inefficiency in logistics services and highest among the low-income group countries. Also logistics industry in India improves the performance of other industries year to year and share of logistics cost in sale also important which is maximum in cement sector. information systems. Multinational companies in all industries have been predominant users of this service as one of reason for lesser share 3PL in India. Transportation modes grow with of domestic and international market and in India road better mode of transportation because of well infrastructure of roads in India as compare to other mode like water. The key reason is the relatively high level of inefficiency in the system with lower average trucking speeds. In Indian logistics sector major sector investors are Aviation. warehousing. logistics services. trade-related infrastructure. India spend in Logistics activities equivalent to 13 % of its GDP is higher than that of developed countries. packaging. inland transit. Sea freight also increase better for overseas movement of goods at low cost as compare to air but consume more time as compare to air. Metal & Mining and Consumer Durable. Air mode of transportation is also helps in both domestic and international movement of goods but for international movement is more as compare to the domestic due to the higher cost. and port efficiency help to provide trade goods and ervices on time and at low cost. 3PL service provider share is less in logistics sector in India as compare to developed countries and still at the nascent stage. loss and related to administration is higher. safe and faster way as compare to others modes. transportation.

The official are trained as ever in manage development. The laws are infect remnant of British Rule and provision contained therein do not meet the requirements of modern and complex international trade. They never run on time and require national discipline. There is need to increase FDI in logistics sphere and relaxing of norms relating to entry. This service sector has good prospects of equipping top place in services of diverse types. time consuming and not at all business centric. ➢ At present agriculture contribute nearly 25 % to Indian economy (GDP) and also require development of warehouse sector.SUGGESTIONS & RECOMMODATIONS ➢ Scheduling of service time point of arrival and departure of rails. It is response to free trade regime being speedily established under the compulsive auspicious of WTO in the interest of humanity. ➢ It augurs well observing development of national and selected state highways for faster movement of traffic. The laws are out mode and require comprehensive amendments. It is hoped that the implementation of the gargantuan project would be on schedule or at least without much time cost overrun. the MNCs shy away from doing business in India. ➢ The system and procedure obtaining in government department are incontinent. import of material handling and movement of equipment etc. ➢ Legal system is not in keeping with the modern outlook of life and business. 47 | P a g e . taxation. ➢ Logistics development is absolutely necessary. There should be time to bound programme of simplify procedure and format. In the absence of flow less and latest logistics. ships and plane has great scope for improvement.

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A level-wise look at skill development required 51 | P a g e .

technological advancement will require that the operational manpower interfacing with systems is adequately trained to operate the systems. Skills required for transitioning from one level to another: Given the manpower crunch not just in the logistics industry but across most industries as a manifestation of the healthy growth in them. 52 | P a g e . Skill development at this level would hence be defined by the need to: a. the breadth of skills required at the middle and senior levels will increase. have defined standards for skill levels across workers 2. Skill development at this level would hence be defined by the need to a. Skills required at the Middle and senior levels: As the industry consolidates horizontally and integrates vertically. increasing levels of competition will require sharper business acumen in developing strategies for sustainable differentiation at the senior most management levels. leverage existing core logistics skills in transitioning from operational to management and from management to entrepreneurial levels Thus this were the Suggestions and Recommendations from our side. In addition. This means that effective transition from operations / front line skills to middle management and from middle management to senior management is indispensable. the first step in plugging gaps ought to come from training / up skilling existing manpower well-versed with industry practices before external resource generation is considered. enhance strategic / conceptual skills c. develop new skills for managing a new business line b. develop entrepreneurial and managerial skills b. address increasing requirement of the numbers of specialize workers in the shortest possible time c. these can be broadly classified as follows: 1. the level of specialization and sophistication will inevitably increase. For instance. Skill development at this level would hence be defined by the need to a. Skills required at the Operational level: As the industry matures. middle and senior management in a courier company moving into the full fledged 3PL logistics business would need to be able to develop skills for managing a different type of business. ensure continuous updation of knowledge of industry developments 3. For instance.Taking a level-wise view of skill issues. build deeper skills in specific areas b. truck drivers for trucks carrying liquids / bulk would need to have specialized knowledge different from the current stock of drivers.

LIMITATION OF STUDY The study is based on the survey that are limited upto only 9 respondent and secondary data published in newspapers. Sometimes data which is published by the researchers cannot analyse fresh situation means old data and wrong data is collected by inherent error. 53 | P a g e . books and journals of the researchers.

2. 5. pp 3 to 20 3. Sople (2007) “Logistics Management” Pearson Publication. “ Indian Logistics Industry” (2008) published by Cushman & Wakefield Mckinseys Report 54 | P a g e . Donald J. Closs (2007) “Logistics Management” Tata McGraw-Hill Publication. Vinod V. “ Skill Gap in Indian Logistics Sector” (2007) published by CII and KPMG 4. pp 2 to 13. Bowersox & David J.BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. “Trade Logistics In Global Economy” (2007) report by World Bank.

Thank you for your co-operation. 55 | P a g e . All the information taken here by is only for academic purpose and is not going to be disclosed. conducting the research on ―EMERGENCE OF LOGISTICS BUSINESS IN THE RECENT PAST AND ITS POTENTIAL”.ANNEXURE We the student of IIPM.

customer / financial services) Transportation of full loads Transportation of part loads Parcel distribution Returns management Other... labelling..... How much warehousing space do you can provide (Total warehousing space required m²) o Floor storage m² o Pallet racking Pallet locations o Shelf storage m² o Bin Storage m² o Other 4.... etc....... Full container loads (FCL) Air freight forwarding Warehousing Cross docking Value adding logistics (e. 2..... Do you provide any special storage requirements o o Yes No 5.A. V.. (Please describe)..g....... Consolidation services (LCL) Ocean freight forwarding.. Which of the following logistics services do you provide? o o o o o o o o o o o o o Ocean freight forwarding.. packaging... packing & labelling.) Value adding services (e.... customization any 56 | P a g e .S o o o o o o Cross docking Freight Consolidation Pick and pack assembly.. Do you use bar-code identification on your products? o o Yes no 3.g. order management.1..

Hazardous goods 9. What all are the Product Characteristics for what you provide services o o o o o o o o o o Carton Dimensions Carton Weight Pallet Dimensions Special Handling Special Storage Stackable Lot Control / Serial Number Security / Temperature Control Considerations FIFO 11. Are there seasonal influences in the order pattern o o Yes No 7. TAPA. Do you provide express shipments o o Yes No 8. Storage Information of your firm o o o o Shelving Bulk / Floor Stack Pallet Rack Flow Rack 57 | P a g e .6. Which all certification you have ? o o o ISO 9000. What all is included in your business profile o o o o o Transportation Management Finished Goods Handling Raw Material Handling Inventory Control Other 10.

Order Processing / Picking o >Two Days o 1 to 4 Hours o One Day o Two Days 13. Rank the below mention areas in scale of 1 to 7 where 1 is are most important to Improve? o o o o o o o Reliability Availability Transit On-time Expense Customer service Supply Chain Visibility 16. Please identify area(s) in which you have experienced in? o o o o o Analysis of routing and mode of transportation Space booking with carriers Preparation.o o o o Secure Storage ASRS Carousels Other 12. elaboration and submission of trade documents in compliance with customs Clearing of goods through customs Import/export insurance arrangement 58 | P a g e . Shipment that you provide o o o o o o o o o Forwarder Rail Ocean Other: LTL Truck Full Truck Integrator Will Call Other 14. Shipment Information o o o Domestic: International: Both 15.

What all specialized services you provide o o o o Bulk Tank Hazardous material Refrigerated Goods o Other 21. How often each importing shipment is inspected? o o o o Routinely On a random basis Selectively based on a risk analysis Other 19. o o o o o JIT Overtime Same day Shipment Tracing 22. Time constrained Services in your firm.o Payment arrangement with bank 17. What industry type(s) of goods do you generally handle? o Automotive o Chemical o Computer hardware and software o Construction o Drugs/pharmaceutical o Electronic related products o Energy and utilities o Food stuff o Other 18. On a selective inspection please indicate? o o The percentage in which a shipment is ―electronically scanned‖ The percentage in which a shipment is ―physically inspected‖ 20. Warehousing and distribution o Public warehouse o Regional Warehouse o Contract warehouse 59 | P a g e .

IT support used by your Firm o Yes / no o Logistics information system and other software o Web based solution 60 | P a g e .23. Technology you use in operation o o o o Bar-coding Radio Frequency VMI Other 24.

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